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A SEMINAR REPORT

on

ANDROID TECHNOLOGY
Submitted to JNT University-Kakinada in partial fulfilment of
Requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

NAME: P.KEERTHI PRIYA


ROLL NUMBER:13761A0598

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING


LAKIREDDY BALI REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to JNTUK, Kakinada)
(Accredited by NBA, NAAC A ISO 9001-2008 Certified)
L.B.Reddy Nagar, Mylavaram - 521 230

2014-2015

LAKIREDDY BALI REDDY COLLEGE OF


ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to JNTUK, Kakinada)
(Accredited by NBA, NAAC A ISO 9001-2008 Certified)
L.B.REDDY NAGAR, MYLAVARAM 521 230.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that P.KEERTHI PRIYA , student of IIIB.Tech V Semester
(Computer Science & Engineering) have successfully completed his seminar, titled
Android Technology at Lakkireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering during the
Academic year 2015-2016. This seminar report is submitted as partial fulfilment for the
award of degree of B.Tech in Computer Science & Engineering.

INCHARGE
Mr.T.VenkataNagaraju

Assistant Professor

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Dr.N.RaviShankar
Dept. of CSE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be
incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible,
whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success.
I am grateful to our seminar in-charge Mr.T.VenkataNagaraju, Assistant Professor,
Computer Science & Engineering for the guidance, inspiration and constructive suggestions
that helped us in the preparation of this project..
At the outset we thank our Head of the Department Dr.N.RaviShankar and our
Honourable Director and Principal Dr. E.V Prasadand and Dr.N.R.M.Reddy for the moral
support and the excellent facilities provided. I would also like to thank all the teaching and
non-teaching staff members of Computer Science department.
I wish to express my warm and grateful thanks to our class incharge for the guidance
and assistance he provided in completing our seminar successfully.
I thank all my friends who helped me sharing knowledge and by providing material
to complete the task in time.

NAME: P.KEERTHI PRIYA


ROLL NUMBER
13761A0598

INDEX
Contents
Page No
1.Abstract
1
2.Introduction
2-3
3.History
4
4.Motivation
5
5.Features
6
6.Technology
7
7.Hardware
8-9
8.Operating Systems
10
9.Programming
11
10.
Price
11
11.
Applications
12-13
12.
Android Research
14-16
13.
Future Android
17
14.
References
18

15.
Advantages
19
16.
conclusion
20

ABSTRACT
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes
an operating system,middleware and key applications.
Android is a software platform and operating systemfor
mobile devices based on the Linux operating system
and developed by Google andthe Open Handset
Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in
a Java-likelanguage that utilizes Google-developed Java
libraries, but does not support programsdeveloped in
native code.The unveiling of the Android platform on 5
November 2007 was announced withthe founding of the
Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware,
software

andtelecom companies devoted to advancing open


standards for mobile devices. Whenreleased in 2008,
most of the Android platform will be made available under the
Apachefree-software and open-source license

Introduction:
Operating Systems have developed a lot in last 15 years. Starting from
black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers,
mobile OS has come far away. Especially for smart phones, Mobile OS
has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in
2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android.
One of the most widely used mobile OS these days
is ANDROID.Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating
system but also middleware and key applications. Android Inc was
founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick
sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by
Google in 2005. After original release there have been number of
updates in the original version of Android.

What is Android
Android is a computing platform designed for
use in some smart phones and other devices.
This technology, which is owned by Google,
Inc., includes an operating system, software,
and applications. The operating system is
based on Linux, which provides advanced
computer processing. Android technology is
maintained and continually developed by the
Android Open Source Project (AOSP).

History of Android
Google purchased Android Inc., a 22-monthold Palo Alto, California, startup in July 2005.
Android Inc. was co-founded by Andy Rubin,
maker of mobile device Danger Inc. The
purchase was key in Google's move into the

wireless technology market. In 2008, Google


introduced the HTC Dream as the first
marketed phone to use Android technology.
Since that time, this platform use has
expanded to other smart phones, tablet
computers, E-readers, netbooks, and other
devices.

Android Appilcations
Although Android technology is increasingly
being used on a range of devices, the most
common hardware to use this platform is mobile
phones. A large community of developers
regularly write applications (apps), including
games, social networking, and business modules,
for Android smart phones. There are a wide range
of free Android apps, including games and
productivity titles, and paid apps are even more
common. Android products which are used by
thousands of developers because they are freely
available for download has given software

developers the opportunity to sell their creations


to a wide group of consumers.

Programming for Android

Android technology is based on Java software


applications. This technology requires the use of a
special software development kit (SDK) to create
applications for an Android device. The SDK is freely
available for download from the Internet. For this
reason, and because it will work on multiple operating
systems, many software developers prefer Android
products over those used in other smart phones.
Android technology provides specific application
programming interface (API) modules to developers

that take advantage of this. The touch screen enables


the user to select and scroll through information with
the stroke of a finger.
However there are other supporting programming
languages that can be used to develop Android:
C++ - NDK for libraries, not apps
Python, bash, et. al. - Via the Scripting
Environment
Corona- One is to use the Corona SDK . Corona is a
high level SDK built on the LUA programming
language. LUA is much simpler to learn than Java
and the SDK takes away a lot of the pain in
developing Android app.
Phonegap technology / Cardova - which used HTML 5,
JavaScript, CSS
3

How Android is different


One of the key differences between Android
technology and other smart phone systems is
that it is open for modification. This gives
vendors the opportunity to change and enhance
their products based on their own preferences.
This has created many versions of Android
phones, which can vary by vendor, as well as a
range of other devices that use this platform. In
2011, Google introduced a new arena for Android

when it announced plans to launch


Android@Home, a network that could allow users
to automate and control home appliances.

Versions of Android
Released
Version

Version Name

Release D

Android 6

2015

Android 5.0, 5.0.1, 5.0.2,


5.1, 5.1.1

Lollipop

Oct 2014- Apr

KitKat

Oct 2013- Jun

Android 4.4 ,4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3,


4.4.4

Android 4.1, 4.1.1 4.1.2, 4.2, 4.2.1,


4.2.2, 4.3

Jelly Bean

Jul 2012- Jul 2

Android 4.0, 4.0.1, 4.0.2, 4.0.3,


4.0.4

Icecream Sandwich

Oct 2011- Mar

Android 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.2.1, 3.2.2,


3.2.4, 3.2.6,

Feb 2011-Feb
Honeycomb

Android 2.3,2.3.3,2..3.4, 2.3.5,


2.3.6, 2.3.7

Gingerbread

Dec 2010- Sep

Android 2.2

Froyo

May 2010

Android 2.0, Android 2.0.1, 2.1

Eclair

Oct 2009- Jan

Android 1.0 Android 1.1, Android


1.5 , Android 1.6

Apple Pie, Banana Bread, cupcake


Donut

Android 0.9

Sep 2008- Sep

Aug 2008

Companies hiring Android


developers
According to data extracted from Naukri.com
around 6000 jobs have been posted in last 30
days in the website that includes both
developers and testers experience ranging
from 2-8 yrs.
Industry

No of Jobs posted

IT software & services

4407

Internet/Ecommerce

327

Oil gas energy

282

Construction Engineering

124

Recruitment/Staffing

108

BPO/call center

92

Others

589

Android Applications
The mobile application industry is
considered a very competitive industry and
mobile application developer andmobile
application developement firms must do
everything in their authority to ensure they
remain on top of their competition in order
to survive in the mobile application industry.
Today market demand for applications
that can run on iOS, Android and Html-5-

based mobile browsers is surging. The


android developers are getting flooded with
the requests to develop mobile
applications which are currently used in the
development and manufacture of these
apps for the tech markets.

Android Reasearch
The mobile application industry is considered a
very competitive industry and mobile application
developer andmobile application developement
firms must do everything in their authority to
ensure they remain on top of their competition in
order to survive in the mobile application
industry.

Today market demand for applications that


can run on iOS, Android and Html-5-based mobile
browsers is surging. The android developers are
getting flooded with the requests to develop
mobile applications which are currently used in
the development and manufacture of these apps
for the tech markets.

Android References
According to a January 2015 Gartner report,
"Android surpassed a billion shipments of
devices in 2014, and will continue to grow at
a double-digit pace in 2016, with a 26
percent increase year over year." This made
it the first time that any general-purpose
operating system has reached more than
one billion end users within a year: by

reaching close to 1.16 billion end users in


2014, Android shipped over four times more
than iOS and OS X combined, and over three
times more than Microsoft Windows. Gartner
expected the whole mobile phone market to
"reach two billion units in 2016", including
Android.

Future of Android
The mobile application industry is considered
a very competitive industry and mobile
application developer andmobile application
developement firms must do everything in their
authority to ensure they remain on top of their
competition in order to survive in the mobile
application industry.

Today market demand for applications that


can run on iOS, Android and Html-5-based mobile
browsers is surging. The android developers are
getting flooded with the requests to develop
mobile applications which are currently used in
the development and manufacture of these apps
for the tech markets.

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Android Report
According to the survey by BZ Research,
57.1% organizations are currently building mobile
apps using Android and IOS and there would be
an increase of 13.2% more organizations in next
six months. Out of the whole lot of organizations
which develop mobile apps, 88.1% are building
apps for tablet PCs while 82.3% are busy making

apps for smartphones. Android app stores are in


dire need for quality content, and their promotion
opportunities for Android developers are the
most favorable. For instance, its 20 times more
likely for a high-quality app to get featured on an
alternative store than on Google Play. One of the
prospective strategies is to develop applications
that are quite rare and very specialized but are in
high demand.

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Devices
According to a January 2015 Gartner report,
"Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices
in 2014, and will continue to grow at a doubledigit pace in 2016, with a 26 percent increase
year over year." This made it the first time that
any general-purpose operating system has

reached more than one billion end users within a


year: by reaching close to 1.16 billion end users
in 2014, Android shipped over four times more
than iOS and OS X combined, and over three
times more than Microsoft Windows. Gartner
expected the whole mobile phone market to
"reach two billion units in 2016", including
Android

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Ways Of Android Performance


1. 10 ways to improve your app's performance Boris
Farber Developer Advocate Google
2. Data Intensive apps Long launch time Janky
scrolling Unresponsive app

3. IF YOU HAVE A SMALL APP FORGET THESE


SLIDES
4. 1 - Activity leaks
5. Activity
6. Why memory leaks are dangerous Holding
references to unused Activity Activity holds its layout
==> holds all views
7. Listeners leak public class LeakActivity extends
Activity { // ... @Override protected void
onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
{ super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
NastyManager.getInstance().addListener(this); // ...
8. Listener's leak + fix @Override public void
onDestroy() { super.onDestroy();
NastyManager.getInstance().removeListener(this); }
remove listener
9. Static References Activities/fragments etc - they
have a life cycle Activity will not be GC-ed Static
references become dangling "pointers"
m_staticActivity = staticFragment.getActivity()
10. Activity.

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Interface
Android's default user interface is based on direct
manipulation,[49] using touch inputs, that loosely
correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping,
pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen
objects, and a virtual keyboard.[49] The response to user
input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid
touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of
the device to provide haptic feedback to the user.
Internal hardware such
as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity
sensors[50] are used by some applications to respond to
additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen
from portrait to landscape depending on how the device
is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a
racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of
a steering wheel.

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Memory Management
Since Android devices are usually battery-powered,
Android is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep
power consumption at a minimum, in contrast to desktop
operating systems which generally assume they are
connected to unlimited mains electricity. When an
Android application is no longer in use, the system will
automatically suspend it in memory; while the
application is still technically "open", suspended
applications consume no resources (for example,
battery power or processing power) and sit idly in the
background until needed again. This brings a dual
benefit by increasing the general responsiveness of
Android devices, since applications do not need to be
closed and reopened from scratch each time, and by
ensuring that background applications do not consume
power needlessly.

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Other Uses
The open and customizable nature of Android allows it
to be used on other electronics aside from smartphones
and tablets, including laptops
and netbooks, smartbooks,[300] smart TVs (Android
TV, Google TV) and cameras (E.g. Galaxy Camera).
[301]
In addition, the Android operating system has seen
applications on smart glasses (Google
Glass),smartwatches,[302] headphones,[303] car CD and
DVD players,[304] mirrors,[305] portable media players,
[306]
landline[307] andVoice over IP phones.[308] Ouya, a
video game console running Android, became one of the
most
successful Kickstartercampaigns, crowdfunding US$8.5
m for its development,[309][310] and was later followed by
other Android-based consoles, such as Nvidia's Shield
Portable an Android device in a video game
controller form factor.

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References
1. "Android Code Analysis". Retrieved June 6, 2012.
2.Jump up^ "The Android Source Code: Governance
Philosophy". source.android.com. December 17,
2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
3.^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k "Googles iron grip on
Android: Controlling open source by any means
necessary". Ars Technica. Retrieved December
8, 2013.
4.Jump up^ "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK,
release 1". September 9, 2008.
RetrievedSeptember 21, 2012.
5.^ Jump up to:a b c Shah, Agam (December 1,
2011). "Google's Android 4.0 ported to x86
processors". Computerworld. International Data
Group. Retrieved February 20,2012.

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Advantages
Cost Effective:
The first thing about Android is its cost.People who used to be with base
level mobiles would be fed up with the boringoptions.But with the low
price now they can go for Android phones with good design and lot of
applications which is not possible with the Apple,Blackberry and some.

Multitasking:

Android has a multitasking option so you can run many


applicationssimultaneously.As this is not a new stuff nowadays but it
comes under Advantage room.

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Conclusion
Atthemomentwedonothaveaworkingversionofthe
application.Wehavecompletedallthechangesrequiredfor
Bluetoothtoworkattheroutinglayer,ourgrouplayerhas
skeletonclassesthatdefinethebasicactionsthattheseclasses
shouldperform.Finally,ourapplicationlayerhasbeen
modeledfromtheBedNETframework(makinguseof
AppMessageandAppMessageObserverclasses).
Attheroutinglayerwehaveanalyzedandreviewedallthe
classesandtheirfunctionality;partoftheprocessingetting
theroutinglayertoworkwasthetranslationofcallsto
methodsfromtheJSR82APItoonesintheAndroid
API.MappingaclassfromJSR82withoneinAndroidwasa
semitrivialcasegiventhatwehadaccesstodocumentationof
bothAPI,andIwasoftenthecasethatmethodswithsame
functionalitywouldbegroupedunderthesameclass.

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