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MATH REPORT

Cramers Rule

BASIC CONCEPTS
A matrix a rectangular arrangement of numbers in rows and columns. The
numbers in the matrix represent the coefficients of the unknown variables. The
matrix with m rows and n columns is called an m x n matrix. If the matrix has the
same number of rows and columns, it is called a square matrix.
EXAMPLES
6 2 -1
[ 3 -2 0 4] 1x4 matrix (read as 1 by 1)
-2 0 5
matrix

0
22x 3 matrix
9

Matrix- arrangement of numbers and uses aasymbol


b
c
Determinant- a real number and uses the symbol
c d
Properties of a Determinant

a b

2x2

The determinant is a real number, it is not a matrix.


The determinant can be a negative number.
It is not associated with absolute value at all except that they both use
vertical lines.
The determinant only exists for square matrices (22, 33, ... nn). The
determinant of a 11 matrix is that single value in the determinant.

EXAMPLES
Write the coefficient matrix of each linear system and find the determinant.
1. 2x +y = 1
x - y= 5
Step 1: Make sure that the equations are written in standard form.
2 matrix.
Step 2: Identify the coefficients, and then write the coefficient
1
Step 3: Solve for the determinant.
1
D= 2
1
= 2(-1) (1)(1)= -2-1 = -3
1 -1
2.

y= 3x 9
10x 5y= 3

Step 1: 3x y= 9
10x 5y= -3
Step 2:
3

-1

Step 3:

10 -5
D= 3
-1
10

= 3(-5) (10)(-1) = -15 (-10) = -5

-5

The determinant of a 3 bya 3 b


1
1
c1
a 2 b2
c2

is

a1 b1 c1

a 2 b2 c 2
a 3 b3 c 3

a1 b1 c1
a 2 b2 c 2
a 3 b3 c 3

= a1 b2 c3 + b1 c2 a3 + c1 a2 b3 a3 b2 c1 b3 c2 a1 c3 a2 b1

EXAMPLE : Write the coefficient matrix of the linear system and find the
determinant.
2x + y + 4z = 12
x + 2y +2z = 9
3x 3y - 2z= 1
Step 1 : Identify the coefficients and then write the coefficient matrix.
2 1 4
1 2 2
Step 2: Solve for the determinant

3 -3
-2

3 -3 -2

3 -3

D= 2 (2)(-2) + 1(2)(3) + 4(1)(-3) 4(2)(3) (2)(2)(-3) (1)(1)(-2)


D= -8 + 6 -12 -24 +12 +2=-24

EXAMPLES
CONSISTENT SYSTEM
1. 2x +y = 1
x - y= 5
D= 2

-1

= 2(-1) (1)(1)= -2-1 = -3

Dx= 1
10-1 = 9

= 1(-1) (1)(5)= -1-5 = -6

5 -1

1
x=

Dx
D =

Dy= 2

= 2(5) (1)(1)=

6
3 = 2

y=

Dy
D =

9
3 = -3
2.

y= 3x 9
10x 5y= 3
D= 3
10

-1

3x y= 9
10x 5y= -3
= 3(-5) (10)(-1) = -15 (-10) = -5

-5

Dx= 9 -1
(10)= -9 -90= -99

= 9(-5) (-1)(-3)= -45-3=-48

-3 -5

x=
=

Dy= 3

= 3(-3) (9)

10 -3

Dx
D =

48
5 =

48
5

y=

Dy
D =

99
5

99
5

DEPENDENT SYSTEM

x+ 5 y=3
5x+y=15
D= 1
5

Dx= 3

1
5

= 11=0

1
5

=3 3 =0

Dy= 1

= 15 15= 0

15 1

x=

Dx
D =

15

0
0 = indeterminate

y=

Dy
D =

0
0 =

indeterminate
both of which are indeterminate quantities. Because D=0 and
both Dx=0 and Dy=0 we know this is a dependent system. In fact, we can see that
both equations represent the same line if we solve for y.

x+ 5 y=3

y=5x+15

5x+y=15y =5x+15
Therefore we can represent all solutions (x,5x+15) where x is a real number.
Answer: (x,5x+15)

INCONSISTENT SYSTEM
2x + 3y = 9
-2x 3y = 5
D= 2

= -6 (-6)=0

-2 -3
Dx= 9
5

=-27- 15= -42

-3

x=

= 10+18= 28

-2 5

Dx
D =

28
0 = undefined
SS:

D y= 2

42
0 = undefined

y=

Dy
D =

IDEPENDENT SYSTEM

2 x + y +4 z=12
x+2 y +2 z=9
3 x3 y 2 z=1

D=

2 1
4 2 1
1 2
2 1 2 D= 2 (2)(-2) + 1(2)(3) + 4(1)(-3) 4(2)(3) (2)(2)(-3) (1)
3 3 2 3 3

(1)(-2)
D= -8 + 6 -12 -24 +12 +2=-24
Dx=

12 1
4
9
2
2
1 3 2

DY=

2 12 4
1 9
2
3 1 2

DZ=

12 1
9
2
1 3
2 12
1 9
3 1

2 1 12 2 1
1 2
9 1 2
3 3 1 3 3

= -48 + 2 108 (-8 72 -18)=-154- (-82)= -72

= -36 + 72 +4 (108 +4 -24)= 40-88= -48

=4 +27 -36 (72-54 +1)= -5-19= -24

Dx
D =

x=
z=

Dz
D =

72
24 =3

y=

Dy
D =

48
24 = 2

24
24 = 1

SS: (3,2,1)

INCONSISTENT SYSTEM

4 x y +3 z=5
21 x4 y +18 z=7
9+ y9 z =8

4 1
3|5
21 4 18|7
9 1 9|8

4 1 3 4 1
21
4 18 21 4
D=
9 1 9 9 1
D= 4(-4)(-9)+(-1)(18)(-9)+3(21)(1)-(-9)(-4)(3)-1(18)(4)-(-9)(21)(-1)
D= 144+162+63-108-72-189=0
Since D = 0, the system is either dependent or inconsistent.

Dx=

5 1 3 5 1
7 4 18 7 4
8 1 9 8 1

=96

However, because Dx is nonzero we conclude the system is inconsistent. There is


no simultaneous solution.
Answer:

Assignment: Solve the system of linear equation and determine the kind
of system.
1.

a + b + 2c = 7
a + 2b +c = 8
2a + b + c = 9
D= 1 1 2 1 1 2

= 2 + 2 +2 (8+1+1)= 6 -10= -4

1 2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1 2 1 1
Da= 7 1 2 7 1 2 = 14+ 9 +16- (36 + 7 + 8)= -12
2 = 8+14+18 - (32 +9+7)

D b= 1 7 2 1 7

8 2 1 8 2 1

1 8 1 1 8 1

9 1 1 9 1 1

2 9 1 2 9 1

-8

Dc= 1 1 7 1 1 2

= 18+6+7 (28 +8+9)= -4

1 2 8 1 2 1
2 1 9 2 1 1

a=

Dc
D =

c=

Da
D =

12
4 =3

b=

Db
D =

4
4 = 1

SS: ( 3,1,1) INDEPENDENT

2.

D=

4 x +3 y2 z=2
2 x +5 y+ 8 z=1
x5 y5 z=3
4 3 2
2 5
8
1 1 5

4 3
2 5
1 1

= -100 + 24 +4 (-10 -32 -30) = -72 +72=0

Dx=

2
3 2
1 5
8
3 1 5

2
3
1 5
3 1

DY=

4 2 2
2 1 8
1 3 5

2
3
1 5
3 1

DZ=

4 3
2
2 5 1
1 1 3

4 3
2 5
1 1

= -50 +72 -2 (30 -16 +15) = 51

= 20 +16 -12 (2+96 -20) = -54

= 60-3-4- (10+4 +18)= 53-32=21

7
7 =1

SS: INCONSISTENT