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Cramers Rule

BASIC CONCEPTS

A matrix a rectangular arrangement of numbers in rows and columns. The

numbers in the matrix represent the coefficients of the unknown variables. The

matrix with m rows and n columns is called an m x n matrix. If the matrix has the

same number of rows and columns, it is called a square matrix.

EXAMPLES

6 2 -1

[ 3 -2 0 4] 1x4 matrix (read as 1 by 1)

-2 0 5

matrix

0

22x 3 matrix

9

b

c

Determinant- a real number and uses the symbol

c d

Properties of a Determinant

a b

2x2

The determinant can be a negative number.

It is not associated with absolute value at all except that they both use

vertical lines.

The determinant only exists for square matrices (22, 33, ... nn). The

determinant of a 11 matrix is that single value in the determinant.

EXAMPLES

Write the coefficient matrix of each linear system and find the determinant.

1. 2x +y = 1

x - y= 5

Step 1: Make sure that the equations are written in standard form.

2 matrix.

Step 2: Identify the coefficients, and then write the coefficient

1

Step 3: Solve for the determinant.

1

D= 2

1

= 2(-1) (1)(1)= -2-1 = -3

1 -1

2.

y= 3x 9

10x 5y= 3

Step 1: 3x y= 9

10x 5y= -3

Step 2:

3

-1

Step 3:

10 -5

D= 3

-1

10

-5

1

1

c1

a 2 b2

c2

is

a1 b1 c1

a 2 b2 c 2

a 3 b3 c 3

a1 b1 c1

a 2 b2 c 2

a 3 b3 c 3

= a1 b2 c3 + b1 c2 a3 + c1 a2 b3 a3 b2 c1 b3 c2 a1 c3 a2 b1

EXAMPLE : Write the coefficient matrix of the linear system and find the

determinant.

2x + y + 4z = 12

x + 2y +2z = 9

3x 3y - 2z= 1

Step 1 : Identify the coefficients and then write the coefficient matrix.

2 1 4

1 2 2

Step 2: Solve for the determinant

3 -3

-2

3 -3 -2

3 -3

D= -8 + 6 -12 -24 +12 +2=-24

EXAMPLES

CONSISTENT SYSTEM

1. 2x +y = 1

x - y= 5

D= 2

-1

Dx= 1

10-1 = 9

5 -1

1

x=

Dx

D =

Dy= 2

= 2(5) (1)(1)=

6

3 = 2

y=

Dy

D =

9

3 = -3

2.

y= 3x 9

10x 5y= 3

D= 3

10

-1

3x y= 9

10x 5y= -3

= 3(-5) (10)(-1) = -15 (-10) = -5

-5

Dx= 9 -1

(10)= -9 -90= -99

-3 -5

x=

=

Dy= 3

= 3(-3) (9)

10 -3

Dx

D =

48

5 =

48

5

y=

Dy

D =

99

5

99

5

DEPENDENT SYSTEM

x+ 5 y=3

5x+y=15

D= 1

5

Dx= 3

1

5

= 11=0

1

5

=3 3 =0

Dy= 1

= 15 15= 0

15 1

x=

Dx

D =

15

0

0 = indeterminate

y=

Dy

D =

0

0 =

indeterminate

both of which are indeterminate quantities. Because D=0 and

both Dx=0 and Dy=0 we know this is a dependent system. In fact, we can see that

both equations represent the same line if we solve for y.

x+ 5 y=3

y=5x+15

5x+y=15y =5x+15

Therefore we can represent all solutions (x,5x+15) where x is a real number.

Answer: (x,5x+15)

INCONSISTENT SYSTEM

2x + 3y = 9

-2x 3y = 5

D= 2

= -6 (-6)=0

-2 -3

Dx= 9

5

-3

x=

= 10+18= 28

-2 5

Dx

D =

28

0 = undefined

SS:

D y= 2

42

0 = undefined

y=

Dy

D =

IDEPENDENT SYSTEM

2 x + y +4 z=12

x+2 y +2 z=9

3 x3 y 2 z=1

D=

2 1

4 2 1

1 2

2 1 2 D= 2 (2)(-2) + 1(2)(3) + 4(1)(-3) 4(2)(3) (2)(2)(-3) (1)

3 3 2 3 3

(1)(-2)

D= -8 + 6 -12 -24 +12 +2=-24

Dx=

12 1

4

9

2

2

1 3 2

DY=

2 12 4

1 9

2

3 1 2

DZ=

12 1

9

2

1 3

2 12

1 9

3 1

2 1 12 2 1

1 2

9 1 2

3 3 1 3 3

Dx

D =

x=

z=

Dz

D =

72

24 =3

y=

Dy

D =

48

24 = 2

24

24 = 1

SS: (3,2,1)

INCONSISTENT SYSTEM

4 x y +3 z=5

21 x4 y +18 z=7

9+ y9 z =8

4 1

3|5

21 4 18|7

9 1 9|8

4 1 3 4 1

21

4 18 21 4

D=

9 1 9 9 1

D= 4(-4)(-9)+(-1)(18)(-9)+3(21)(1)-(-9)(-4)(3)-1(18)(4)-(-9)(21)(-1)

D= 144+162+63-108-72-189=0

Since D = 0, the system is either dependent or inconsistent.

Dx=

5 1 3 5 1

7 4 18 7 4

8 1 9 8 1

=96

no simultaneous solution.

Answer:

Assignment: Solve the system of linear equation and determine the kind

of system.

1.

a + b + 2c = 7

a + 2b +c = 8

2a + b + c = 9

D= 1 1 2 1 1 2

= 2 + 2 +2 (8+1+1)= 6 -10= -4

1 2 1 1 2 1

2 1 1 2 1 1

Da= 7 1 2 7 1 2 = 14+ 9 +16- (36 + 7 + 8)= -12

2 = 8+14+18 - (32 +9+7)

D b= 1 7 2 1 7

8 2 1 8 2 1

1 8 1 1 8 1

9 1 1 9 1 1

2 9 1 2 9 1

-8

Dc= 1 1 7 1 1 2

1 2 8 1 2 1

2 1 9 2 1 1

a=

Dc

D =

c=

Da

D =

12

4 =3

b=

Db

D =

4

4 = 1

2.

D=

4 x +3 y2 z=2

2 x +5 y+ 8 z=1

x5 y5 z=3

4 3 2

2 5

8

1 1 5

4 3

2 5

1 1

Dx=

2

3 2

1 5

8

3 1 5

2

3

1 5

3 1

DY=

4 2 2

2 1 8

1 3 5

2

3

1 5

3 1

DZ=

4 3

2

2 5 1

1 1 3

4 3

2 5

1 1

7

7 =1

SS: INCONSISTENT

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