You are on page 1of 66

c

cc
 c
c
c
 
 
c
c c c
 c c
c
c
c
 c
c c c
cc
  cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
! "c
#c
  c
cc
c
c
c
c
cc cc
c c
c
c
c
 cc c! "  "c
 c "c#c! "  "$c %&'c
( &&)% && c
c
  c
c
The a  
    (a ) is an architectural framework for delivering
Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services. It was originally designed by the
wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), as a part of
the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM. Its original formulation
(3GPP R5) represented an approach to delivering "Internet services" over GPRS.
This vision was later updated by 3GPP, 3GPP2 and TISPAN by requiring support
of networks other than GPRS, such as Wireless LAN, CDMA2000 and fixed line.
According to the 3GPP, IMS is not intended to standardize applications but rather
to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline
terminals, i.e. create a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). This is done by
having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service
layer. From a logical architecture perspective, services need not have their own
control functions, as the control layer is a common horizontal layer.
For operators, IMS takes the concept of layered architecture one step
further by defining a horizontal architecture, where service enablers and common
functions can be reused for multiple applications. The horizontal architecture in
IMS also specifies interoperability and roaming, and provides bearer control,
charging and security. What is more, it is well integrated with existing voice and
data networks, while adopting many of the key benefits of the IT domain. This
makes IMS a key enabler for fixed-mobile convergence. For these reasons, IMS
will become preferred solution for fixed and mobile operators¶ multimedia
business.
The IMS terminal must perform three major tasks:access the IMS home or
visited network via the IP connectivity access network (IP-CAN),discover the P-
CSCF address and perform IMS level registration.
IMS network operation includes IMS User Authentication and Security
Associations, MS Level Registration, MS Session Setup, IMS Security, IMS Service
Delivery, IMS Roaming and IMS Charging
IMS advantages include separation of transport layer from session control layer -
Access Agnostic , convergence of Wire line and Wireless Services, session
management across multiple real-time services, compatibility with AIN services
(for PLMN), single Public Identity for user, consistency in Billing, Authentication
across various services, service Delivery Platform for new services. MS find a
variety of applications in every field of data communication.

V 

ác The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the Internet and the


Cellular Worlds" by Gonzalo Camarillo, Miguel-Angel Garcia-Martín.
ác Multimedia over Mobile IP By Chang Wen Chen and JieboLuo
ác http://www.3gpp.org 3GPP home page.
ác http://en.wikipedia.org

c
c $
c
c c
c

a*c   "c " c c c +c c  " "c ,c +c c -c c .c c
 cc+c+c+cc/ccc c0.cc-ccc c
c c -c +1c "/c .c #c c c +c /c c   c c c c
 c c+cc"+ccca  cc/.c

  "cc/ c/+$cc "c cc c- "ccc2cc c


c /$c "c -$c  c c  3c /c  c   c c /c - c
c  "c c /c c "c  c   c c  c c  c c c c c
1$c  c +c  "c c c c -$c  c c -c c  c c
  c"cccc"c c

c "ccc +cc-c-c "ccccë 2c

ác  /" cc "2caccc c +1cc


ác  /" cc +12c+c c+ c +1c "c c
ác  /" cc2c cccc c c +1c
ác  /" cc/2ccc+cccc +1c
ác  /" cc  2cccc  ccc +1c
ác  /" cc/ 2ccc cc/cc4c c-c
ác  /" cc 2cc c/c/c/cc
c

c c c %c#&c c &  cc


c
c
'%c

c -c  $c "c c c   c  c 5c ( $c c  c c
cc ccc cccc+1cccc ccc
 /" cc %cccccccacc0-cca0c
 c ccc cc +c/cccc-c +1cc/c c
 c c c /c a  c  c c +c c c c   c c 0 c
a cc(0a c c6cc0/c(60 c7 cccc4 cca0c
 c c 4% c +1c c +c  c  c  c c  c +1c "c
a07 c a07c (c 8c a  c  /"c 0/c 8c c c 7/ c
+1 c c +c-ccc c c cc c#0cc
 c/c ca%-c+ c +1ca0c "c+c /c"ccc-c
4% cc c+cc

  "c /" ccc cc/+ccc"c $cccc ccc


9 ccc +c "ccccc, c $c+1ccc
c c /c c  c  $c  "c  c c c  %c c c
" 3 $c c"cc/cc c/cccc c4 cc%
"c /c -c  c +1c -c c  c c c  c /c
/c /c  c ac +1:c c c  c c /c - c /c /c c ac
+1c

a0c c  c  " c /c c +c cc /c c c  c
 c   c c -c +c  c + c +1c a0c c /c c $c
 c  c c  c c c /c  - "c "c c  c /c c c
  c7c c-cc$cc-5/cca0c2c

³The IM CN subsystem should enable the convergence of, and access to, voice,
video, messaging, data and web-based technologies for the wireless user, and combine
the growth of the Internet with the growth in mobile communications.´

(c ) c
c  
cc$%c

c
,cc ccc-c "cc/c c -c/-cc c +1c91c
 c c"cccc c;2c

Any user can obtain any information, at any time, over any device, anywhere they are.

a0ccc c  c c c/cc ccc/+cc  c c


  c c c c  "c c c " c c /c c c c c c
/ c c  c c c c $c +/$c  c "c +c  c c
-c-ca0c cc " "c c/cccc/cc /" c

 c c c c  c c  c c -c c c "  c  "c  c c " c c
 c +c c c c +1c c " c c  c c 0c 1c  c
"c +1c  "c  c c  c  c  c  "c -c c c c 4c
 c c c % c c -c 1c  c c 0c c 1 "c c c  c c c
 ccccccc+ c/ ccc"c"cc+c7c
c c c -c  c c +c +c c c /c -c c a0c  c c
+cc ccccccc/+ccc +cc c

0cc+c c+ c +1c" "ccc +1c c c4%c


+1c+cca0c c#cc"c -cc +c/c +1cc+c
 cc 1c +c c +1c c -cc /%c /c "c a0c c
c-ccccc+ccc"+ "cc cc- ccc c
+ccc c cc ccc  c/c

*c +
c
c %c

c
a c c /+$c +c +c c c c  c c c c  c ;c  c c a0c c
 /" c c c c  c - c  $c /c c  c  "c
 cc+c"cc c c"c c cc c+c c c
c+ "cca0c c c c+cc "c/ cc+1cc/c
 c  c /c  c c  c c  c  c c c  c c c   c  c
+ccc c-ccccc cc+cc "c+cc+ccc
c "cc cc-c c c'ccccc

c c  c c c c c c  c %c /c  c c   c
  c -c c c +1c  c c c "c c  /c c  c c c
 cc "cc +c/ c cc cc c-c c cc
/c c  c ccc+cc/ ccc "c  c+c
c c  c c  c c /c +c c /c c "c  c  c
4 c c  c c c c / "c  c  "c 4 c +c 5c c
 / c cc

,c 
c+!cc
  cc%c

 /" c c c c c / c c +c -c c  -c c  "c c /c
"c /c  c /c "c /c  c  /  c +c c - c c c  c c
4%+c +1c  /" c "c +c a0c  c c +c "c c c
/cc "c c-cccccccc/$c c  c/c
/$ccc+c-c/$c  c/c ccc/c c
c  c c " c c c +c -c  c c c c "c  c  c
  c +c a  c  "c  c c  c  c /c +c c  c  "c
  c  c c c +c   c c c - c c c c +c  c
cc  cc+c-c+cca  cc +ccc +cc
+c +c - c c c -c c  c   c c c   c c
+ccc- "c  c cc- "c c+cc+c -c
+c  cc4 ccccc/c c "cc/ ccc-c
c/c

cc +c- ccc-c4c c +c "c+c -c +c  c
cc-cc c  c/cc cc+ccc c c / c-c
/ "c c <c +1c #c (<# c +c - c c -c  c c /c
- c c   c c c +1c  c  "c +c  $c 3c
/c" c c/cc<#c+cc "c cc c cc
c<#c c cc c

a cc$cccca0c "c c/c c c/c+ ccc


c +c -c /+c 7 c +c c  "c c c // "c c c c  c c
 "ccc+cc c+ c +1c+c-c1c7cc$c- c
c +c  "c c c c +c c   c /c c c c   c c a0c
c +c /c c c  "c  c c c c /c c  c  c
+1c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
(c c cc- 
c
c
c 1 "c ccc/c cc "c  cc  $c c c  cc c
ca0ccccc-ccc c+ccccc
c
(c c$&
cc c! &c &c &  .c
c
ccc cc +ccc cc-c +1ccc cc
c c   c  c 5c ( c +c +c   c +c c   c c
 c c %"  c +c +1c c c  c " 3 c +c
-c c))=c c"c cc0ccc "c9 c c!c
c c c a0c  c 0a%-c c /c c cc c / c c c
+1ccc +1cc 0ca cc/ $c c c %+1 "c+c c
c,>7c
c
c7 c c7 c "ccccc0ccc ccc
 cc c c"cc 'cc" 3 ccc cc
-c c c c c  c  $c c +c c "  $c -+ c c
 cc-cc"cca0c
c
((c # 
c/ 0   c+ !
"%c
c
c +c  c + c +1c "c c c  c /c  c - c
"c/c "c!c +1c  ccc9c +1c c cc
cc- "c c/cccc +1cc/cc +1c c
+c cc""c+ cc +1cc+$c+cc +1c-c c
5 c""c1c
c
a cc$cc/c "c +1c  cc+ cc +1c c(-c
 $cc $c+c(cc+ " $c"+c cc  c c
 c c (?> c c /c c c c c /  "$c - "c  c /c
c(/c c+ccccc+ c c+c +1c
c
c

c
c(0%c
# 
c$cc$c/ 0   c+ !
"%c
c
c
c
, cc c +1ccc"  c cc +1c c cc
c  c c c  "$c /  "$c  c #00c c ;$c c c
  c  c - c -c c -c c c + c ! c #c +c
-cc cc cc?c> c"c(?>ccc+c +1c
c
c
c(0(%c
  c c
c &c c
c &  %c
c
a0c c c cc    c0/cc" c"cac +1c c/c
c c -$c   $c %+c c ,>7c +1c ac +c " c
  c c  c 1%+c +1c   "c ,>7$c 0$c 0@!!$c
7 &&&$c  c 0>c %+c +1c  c -c c "c c 0+c
+c
c
c  c c c c 0 c a  c c (0a c c c +1c  c a0c +c
/c c -c 4c c  c +1$c / c +1c +c  c c
 "c-ccc-c  "c/c"ccc +1c+cccc
 "cc "c +1c $cc"ccc1ccc cc4 /cc c
+1ccccc+c "cc/c  "c<c/cac cc
c
ca0ccc" 3c cc  c 2c
c
c
c
c (0
*%c
c

&  c%c
c
c "  c  " c c +1c   c c  c  c  c  c  c
 cc+ cc  c ccc+c5c c  ccccc
ca0c c2c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Vc x
cc'cx%c
c ?00c c c  c c c c --%c 3 c  c /c
c  c  c c ?00c  "c /c   $c c c +c 4c c  c
c  ccc?c> c"cc-c +12c
c
ác 0--cc-c
ác 0--c0/c c
ác 0--c c0 "c
ác -c7  c0/c
ác ?c> c"c(?> cc-c "c
ác 0--c c;  c
ác 0--c> c;  c
c
Vc c0 c  c;  c( 0 ; 2c
c 0 ;cccc0ac"  "c  c cc +1cacc1c-c c
 cc c c  c c/cc  c-cc 0 ;c cc/c
cc0ac/c cccc0ac"  "c cc +1cccc c
0ac/c cc 0 ;c2c
ác 4% 0 ;2c;c cc cc/c c c  c
ác a " "% 0 ;2c! c ccc0ac"c
ác 0/ "% 0 ;2c "cc c c  c
c
c
a c  $c c c 7 c 0/c  c #00c  c  "c c /c c c
"""c  c -c  c c 0/c  c c /c c +1c $c +c c c
4ccac c cc+cc cc+1c ccccccc
 c c  "$c /  "$c  c    c c c +c """c  c c
0/c c   "cc "  c cc c c "c"  c4 c
/ "cc/c/c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
(*c 
c   
c


c %c

The Glue binding IMS functions and applications.

c c c  c  c c c #00c  c  "c c  c  c c c
 c  c  c  c c c 0 ;c   c c  c "c c 0 c
a  c c (0a c 0a$c "c +c c """ c c c --c   $c
/c  c  c --c c  c c ?00c c c c c c +c a0c
c
c
0ac +1c  c  5  c +c c 0 c  c c (0 c c  c c
 c 0c -c c  c   c c c  c   c  c  c
   c0acccc-c c "ccc+ "c" c2c
c
ác 0 c a  2c c c c /c " c c c c c  c  c c c c +1c
 cc c cc 9c c c(0ac a cc" c
c
ác 0 c  2c /c c  c c c  c c c c /c c 0c
ccccc  c
c
ác 0 c  " 2c # c c  c c c -c c c /$c c c c
c  cc cc4 "c-+ cc c cccc( c
ccc0 "cc(0 cc cc
c
ác 0 c  2c!cc cc c c9c c  c ccc
cc4 "ccc
c
c
(,c c)"c1c
c &c cc+!%c
The migration to the Model IMS architecture will be gradual.

a c c  %c "c c ;"c % c c +1c c c c c "c  "c c c
c "cc ccc"cc "c  "cccc  c
 c0/c  ca c$ccccc / c c4 "c +1c c
c  c/c "c +1c- c "c "cc c+cccc
   cc  c c +1cc c"ca0cc ccc
+1c - c  c "c  c   c +1c  c  c c +c
 cc c+c
c
7c "  c c / "c  c c / c +c c   c c  "c  c
# c0c0c$ccc cc-cccc/ccc
+1c cc- cc+cc cccc cc cc
--c c +c c -c  c " c "c  "c c c  c +c -c
c
c
(2c )"c &cc
c &c'%c
c
# c c c   c  c  c a0c c c -c c c c c c   c
+1c c 1ccccc/c c+c/c +1cc/ccca c
cc+c/cc-ccc +1$cca0c "c c c
 c +c  1c c c -1c c c +1c  "c c /c +c  "c +/c
+1cccc c cc/cc/c
c
(3c #&c c  c
c c %c
c
c c c  c a0c  c c c c c +c c c +1$c -c (0%
- c c,c>7cc,;c +1c
c
c c " 3c  c c c  c  c c c c  c 0 c (0 c
c  "c cca0cc0c  =ccacc0-c(a0 $c0"c c
c c< c/cc< cA&cc#-cB$c &&'c
c
0ccc/ ca0c cc-c c c-c c c"c0%Cc
 c c c cC0&&%&& =
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
x $cc cc4+ #cc#xcc +/5 +5cc#) cc# c
c
*ccx
!c c4 c &c
'c#
c
c
a   


 

Technology has already led us far from the Bell System.
c
,c c +c c c   "c  c  c c   c  c +c c -c
 " c c+cccc++cac +1cc c/1 cc  cc
cc+c+c;$cc4-cc"cccccc-1+ cc
+1c -c c /c c c  c 1c c c + $c +$c ! c  c
-c +1c ,c +c c +c  c c +c c  /" c -c c a0c c
c "c
c
;"c%ccccc "c/ "c+cc 2c
c
c

c
c
c*0%c
c
,ca0cccc %-$c cc+c ccc c/c
9c /c c +c c c -c  "c c /c c +1c ac /c c
ccc /" c5 cc"c c+cc/ "c
"c c  /" c  "$c c  c /c +c 4 c c +1c
- c c /c /cc<ac c +c-c  c  c+ $c+$c   $c c
-c +1c a  c " "c c c +1c  c c +c c
 ccc +c-"  "cc
0/c /c +c -c  c c c c c c c / "c c /c c
/c " c7cc$cc+c -c 1 "ccc cc/c  cc/c
/c  c c a0c c c +c / c c /c c c c +c c
c-c 3 "cc c/c cc0/c ca cc$cc c
c c 7 c 0/c c 0/c /c c c -c -c c c /c c
c +1c  c c /c /c c -c c c c c +c
c c c c + c c c +1c c  c "c 5 c + c -c
+cc cc-ccc9 c


           
         
  
   a 

      

  
         
  

*c 6cc
 c
 ' 7c
 
cc
8 
%c
IMS offers many new choices.

"c "c ccccc cc- ccc/c/ccc


ccc +cccc--cc3cc/c"$c" c"c c
/ccc  ccc-c "cc /c c/c c-cc
c  c c c+$c  c $ccc  cc"cc/c/ccc
c " "c c c c

"c c /c c + c "  c  c c / c c  c +1c c
 c ,c "c c c % c / $c  c c  c c c c c
 %+ c c ,c c c - c + c c  c c c c + c
% c  c  c  c c c +c 7c +c +1c c 4 c  c "c
,; +1$c c"c+-%-c cc  cc/-cc"c+c
- +$cc cc +c+c  c
c
 /" c c /c  c +c  c +c  c + c +1c ac c c c -c c
4  "c  c c -+ c +1c  c c c +c /c /c c
c c c  c -c <c +1c #c (<# c +c c  "c  "c
 c- c c
c
7 c  c c / "c  /" c c c  c c $c c +c
 "c# cccc  ccc/c$cc"ccc c
ccccc+%c1c c+cccccc /"c +1c
7ccc+cc"+cc  "c+ccccc /" cc
ccc/ccccc-"c
c
  "c % c / $c   "c c c "c 4 c    "c $c c
 c 9 c c c 4  "c c c   c c "+$c c c  c + +c
c  c c 1c c c  c + c c c c /c +c c c
/ c"c +c/c "$c/cc "ccc c cc
/ c / "c +c c  c / "c c c c c +c c c
--cc1ccc/c cc, cc, c cc
 /c +c /c c c   "c c  c c c c c c c  "c
/ c  /" cccc "c cc/cc cccc $c
c  c c , c c -c +c c +c ;"c % c 3c c c c 5c
/c "c+c c, c /" c
c
c
c*0(%c

c'c!cc!cc
c
'%c

c
c
c
c
c
c
*(c 
 ' %c &c c &c
c
'%c
Drive for mobility un-tethers the user.
c/cc-cccccc c cc ccccc  cc
c +1cc ccccc "cccc cc $ccc
cc-ccc ccc cc cccc+c c "c
cc4c ccc4c cac1cc+c cc+ccc/cc
""cc  "cc c cc-c7  cc(7 cc
 c /c c c c /c "c /c D  "Ec 0 %"  c   c
c +c"cc 3cccc/ccc c cc +1c
 c/cccccc- cc cc/  "cc
;"c%c cccc 5cc  cc"c+cc  c c
"cccc4ccc-cacc+ccccc 4cc c
c /" c9 c

c
cc*0*%c
'
 
c
c
c &  
cc 
c !
"%c


**c 9 c
c'cc
c 
 
cc c
IMS requires the carrier to have greater control over their network resources:
c
# "c c /c  c 4% c +1c  c  "c c 4% c 4 c
"c -c +1c 9c /c -c c c  c  c c +1c c
 "c c c c " c c 60c (6c c 0/ c c   c  c "c
+ c cccccc c
c
a c c  4c c 1c +1$c 9 c
c 'c (60 c c c c -c c c
  ccc cc/c c cccc c c
/c9c c60c/cccc  /cc/c  ccc
5c c4 c c1c +1c 2c
c
ác c1cc%%ccccc1c+ c-ccc
ác %%9 c1cc%%c1c/cccc cc-c%9 c
ác  c( c%%c1c cccccc4/c  c
ác 5cc%%c" c/ cc c c "ccc-cc
ác -ccc%%c-c cc cc c"c"c "c
c
c
c9cc c/cccc-cccccc ccc
%c cc/c  c/c1$c  "c<a$c1ccc9c
/c-cc c( ccc cc-ccccc1cc cc
c /$c c c /$c -c +c  c c  "c c c c  c $c c
+1c c  c c  c c c c  c c +1c  c  c c 9c
cc/-cccc c ccc cccc
c
c c60$c +1cc-ccccccc/c-c cccc
 cccc cc cccc c c-c3cc
c +1cc  c c 9c c c /ccc /c c /c c 9c
ca c" $c60ccc3cc+ "c+ccc/2c
c
ác #c 'c'c%%c0/ccc<cc0 "cc+cc/cc
 /c-cc-cccc1cc c ccc/c
ác 
  c 'c'c%%c0/cccc c c /c/c+c
c ccc /c-cc/c /cc-cc c1cc
c
0c c cccccc " cc602c
c
ác 
' 
c%%c<a$c/c
ác  cc%%c<c cc   c
ác   'c%%c,-c-+ "c
ác "
c%%c!c cc c
c
c 5c  " "c c  "c c c c c +c c c % /c c
  % /c  / c  c 0 "c c c %c  c c c  c c
cc /c+ca /c c 1" cc/ccccc-c
 cc  c
c
a c c a  $c /c c c /c - c  c c  c 60c c c c
c+cccc cc 02c
c
ác c
  c c c(  c%%c<a$c/c
ác c/c c c(<  c%%c<c c   "c
ác c c( c%%c7@<c+ $c/c/c
ác c
c c( c%%c  $c-c9c
ác  c
 c( ! c%%c!$ccc
c
ac c /c  cc cc c c c  "c c c c c  c cc -c
( c  c  c /c c -c 6c c 0/c 9 c c  c " c
 "c  "c c c  c c  c  c  c c  c  c c c -c 60c
 "cc ccc c c9cc/c

cc+cc cc/ "c "c +1cccccc60c c


 c cc c cc +1c# c+cc"c"cc/%/  "c+c"c
 ccc(9c3$c- +$c/c cc/cc ccc1c
c 4 c 4c 9c #-/c /c   c  c "c c +1c  c
9c "cc1c c
c
ccccc c9c ccc"cc/ cc-c
+cc  ccc c cc9ccc9cc c-c c
c  c c c  c c 9c  c  c -c c c 5c -c  c
/-cccccc/c9 "ccc c-c"cc
ccc+cc cc-  c'c(0/ ccc  cc/c
cc cc"cc cc60c-c0/cc+c3cc-c
 c60c9 c cc/-c- +ccc +1c7ccc " $c+c
c /c +c -c c  c /c c "c c c c /c 7 c
-  cccc c/ccc 9ccccc" ccc
"+cc9c cc +1c
     
     

 
   

 
   
 
 
  aa  !    

         
 
 

0 c c   c c 60c c c c -+ c 0c -c +1c  c c
  $c c c c c  c 60c c c +1c - c 7 c "c  "c
 " c c c c  c c -c c c c c   c c c c
c c c c -c c 60c 3 c c /c /c  c 9c c
-c +1ca cc+$cc-ccc60cc cc- c-+ c
/ "c +1c , c  c +c +1c c "c c - c c 60c
cc/c/c+c c %% c9c c
c
7cc"  c  c c-c +1ccc   cc/c cccc
/c-+ c c cc c +1cc/cc c +1cc :c/ cc
c -c +1ccc4% c +1cccc   ccc/c c
+c c c  c 9c  c +c 60c   c +c 9c +c  c c  %
+1c c c %c
c
a c c -c  4$cc c c   c +c 1c -c /c c c /$c
 "cc cc c+c c "c-c;$cc  c
c1ccc  "c/$c$c/$cc+c c9 cc60$c
c  c "c ; $c c  c %%%c  c +c  c 4% c +1c
  cc//c1 "cc cc9 c cc/ccc/ "c
"c,/c 9cc cccccc ccc-cc c
 c-ccc/ ccc +1cc+c c c

c
c
*,c 
8 
%c#&c4c c c
 
c
Service customization allows the user to create personalized services.

# ccc"c- cc "cc--cc c c?c0--c0/c(?00 cc


ccc--c-c cccc+c "cc%cc0/c
 ccc--c c-c  cc 3ccc cc"c
/ccccc/ccc--c
c
+c /c  c  c c  c -c c c /"c c c c  /c
 c !4c c c %%c  "$c c /c  c c c + c c
c  c c/ccc"c c/cc- c cc"c"c
c3 c  cc  c
c
!4 "c +1c/cc ccc+ccc"cc
0/c  " c  " c (0  c c c  4c /c +c c  c  c
 "cc+ c /c /c c "cca0c c+c c c4  ccc
 c  c  " c c  "c /c -+ c +1c c +c 7 c 4c c c
ccc c " "cc+c(c c cc $c c, c ccc
+c
c
-  "c 3 c  c  c +c  c  c > c   c 4 c c
 cc  c %-c cc   c " "c c  "ccc
+ cc"c-c cccc% ccc ccc-cc
ccccccc  c+ ccc c cc+c c-c
c/c+ c c cc -1cc"cc,;c +1c
c
c c c c /c c -c c +c c  c  c 4c -c  c
c  c -c "c c  c ?00c -c  c  "c -c c
ccccc c
c
   "
          
   
  
   #


  
 
 
    
 
   
c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
cc x ##4c
c
,c c &  c
c
,c c#&c*c+ !
"c%c
Reshaping multiple networks into a common architecture:

c  c ccc 4%"  c +1c( c1 cc +1$c+$c, $c
a cc"c ccccc c ccc 2c
c
ác + !
"c2c  c cc +1cc
ác 
 
c2c3 $c c " $c cc  c  c
ác 'c2cc  $c" "c  $c /cc/c
c
c
,(c #&c+ !
"c%c
c
c+1c c  ccc c +1c+ "c c c c  c  c
*c, c c+c +1c/ cc  c cc1c+ "$c
0#!c-c$c7c c c c/ccc+c c cc"c/c
+1$c c c /c / "c c  "c 7c c $c c 4%"  c
+1c+c cc4ccc+c c1c+ccc cc
c
a cca0cccc c ccccc+cccc
 c+c  ca0%-cc  "cc<#ac +1c7c c4$cc
a0c c c c 1c +c  c ;  c (  ; c c c 0ac /c c
/c "c  cc c -c+ c ca0ccccc c cc0c
c >c c +c +1c c  ;c   c c 9 c -c c c c
0@ 0c( c0+ c+c+c c+cc0cc>cc+c
+1c
c
c cccc c cccc  cc%- "c c c
+c c 4c c %c  c %a0c   c c c c c  %c c
 / cc c ccc  cc" c/ c ccc c
+c/c"c"cc +c%ac +1c
c
c
c
,*c #&c
 
c%c
c
c  c  c   c c c c  c  c   c   c c c $c
 $c  c - "c  "c c +c c  c  c  c   c c c ?00c
(?c0--c0/ c cc 0 ;c( c0 c  c;  ccccc c
+1c  c  c   c +c  c  c c c -c  c  "c
/c  c c  $c c - "c c  c /c c %c   c 5c
  c-1cc+ c c;"cB% 2c
c

c
c
c,0(%c
ë   


c
7ccc c cc +1cc%cc c  $cc  c cc
cc cc  c cc- "c c7cc3 c c
 c  c /c c c  c c ?c 0--c 0/c (?00 c +c c c -c
c c c ?c > c "c (?> c c c -c 0c +1c c -c
 cc--cc  cc  c cc cc "c +1c
ca c c +1$cc?00ccc c c  ccc0--c
> c;  c(0>; cc cc1 "c+c +1cc--cc cc
 c7 c-c  c  cc c  c+c c+c
c --c c  c +c  c c +1c 1 c "$c > c  c
 c   c c /-c   c c /c /c c c +c  %
-c /c  c  %/ c   c  "c --c %" c "c c c
  c" "c
c
0 c c ?00c   c c ?>c   c c -c +1$c  "c c +1$c
/ c -+ c + c  c +c +1$c   c c ?00c  "c c 3 c
 c 1 "c c +c c --c  c -c  c ;$c c a0c  c  c c c
?c?00c c ccc cc--c/ cccc cc +1c
c
c c0 c  c;  c( 0 ; cccc0ac"  "c  c cc +1c
acc1c-c c cc c c  c c/c  c-cc
0 ;c cc/ccc0ac/c cccc0ac"  "c cc +1c
ccc c0ac/c cc 0 ;c2c
c
ác 0c(4% 0 ; 2ccccc cc ccc*c/c c cc
c cc?c +1cccc +1ca ccc+cc "c +1cc c
ca0% $cc% 0 ;c  c+c-c ccc +1cc% 0 ;c c
" c c c a0c  c "c c  c  c  c /c 0ac "$c
 c c c  c -c  c ac c  c +c c a0c /c
# c c-cc% 0 ;$cc cccc cc  c
c c9c cc cc% 0 ;cc "cc6cc0/c(60 ccc
 c  c  "c +1c c  c c % 0 ;c c  c c " "c
  cc- "c
c
ác 0c(a " "% 0 ; 2cca% 0 ;c cc c ccc0ac "c  cc
 /c cac/cc--c ccc?00c c ccc
0ac9cccc0/ "% 0 ;c
c
ác 0c(0/ "% 0 ; 2cc0% 0 ;c "cc c ccc  c c7c
$c c  c 0 c a  $c 0 c  $c 0 c  " c  c 0 c
  c  c
c
c
ccc4c /cc +1c "c c$ccc c%c c
 c  c a0c +1c %c c c  c  c  c c 0/c  c +c
  ccc c %cc c-c c
c
,,c 'c

c 0/c  c   c c   c  c  /c c   "c c /c
+c c  $c- "c c c c/cc c -cc 4cc%
/c  c %c c  c c 0/c  c ,c c /c +c c
c c %c c  "c /c /c  "c  $c c +c -c
 c c  c  c  c %c c  c c  %c /c
+c-cc "c- c+c cFc3 c
c
# c c c 5c - c c c a0c c c c c  /c /$c   "c
/  "$c- "$c c   c$cc/cc"c $c c
 c cc cc/cccc c c cccc
cc +1c7c+c+cc+ca0c c" $cc c ccc"c
"c cc+c1c"cccc/cc0 cc- "c c/ c
- "c c  c c -c c -c  /c $c +c +c 1c c c
  cccc"c+c5c  c-1cc+ c c;"cB%
2c
c

c
c
c,0*%c
 




,2c cc
c &  %c
That is to say, it is not a firm blueprint.
c
"ccc c$cc ccc c ccc cc
 cccc  "cc +cc/c c+c +1cc+cc
c +1c- ca0ccc$c  "ccc c c % ccc
 " c c  c % +1c   c  c  c -c c ac c c  c 4c
 c c +1c c  c c a0c   c  c -c $c - $c c c c
+1c  c c-c
c
c c c  c c  / c c c  c c c + c  c +c
+1c  c c  " "c  / c c c +c /$c a<c  c c c + c
/$c c c c c c c  c c c a0c  c c "c  c c  c c
 cc4 "cc c" c/ c c c cc / c
c
a0c c c / "c  c c  c 4 c -c  c  c c  / c c -c c
c c / "c /c c  c $c - "$c  c c c  c
c c c c  / c  c a0c c c /c c c  c
0$c4 c/ "c+cccc-ca0c  cc/ ccac
cccc+ccc-c /c cc%cc4 c/ "c cc "%
ca0c c/cccc +$c+ccc
c
c cc+c ca %+1 "c  c cc-"c "c+c4 c
c c c 4 "c +1c c 0c c c  c c c -c c 0ac  c a0c
 c-cc"c /cc  cccc cca cc $c
c c c  c -c  c c c c  c c /c c / c
c  c a c c  $c c +1c   c c c c c a0c c c
 "c  c "c c cc "cc cccc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c0c -cc/ c
c
c
2c 0c'c

#
! 
!ë

Drive new features more quickly to smaller groups with less risk.
c
a ccc $cca0cc+cccc/cc+cc
c--c cc cc-c/cc7c$cc c1c
"c1cccc/ccc$c +c" ccc1c+c/ "c
c/cccc c c cc +c /cc0 ca0c
 3c c 3cc c cc  c  cc0/c $cc
 c c   c c c - "$c /  "$c  c c c c +c /c c
 3c

#
! 
! ë
 $ a
        a        

  
  ë
 
 
  
 
  

   

  
c
a c  c +1$c  c c c c c  c  c /c "c c
c c  c /  "$c c c  c - "c <c /  "c  c c
/  "cc cc+cc- "c ccccc+cc
""c "c + %c c c c  "c /c  c c - "c  c  c c
cc "c- c cccccc" ccc- "cc
c
a c c  c $c a0c /c  c  c -+ c 7 c 0/$c 0/c
/c c  c c - "c  c  c c c c c c  c
 c c-+ cc- "c c/  "cc cc?c0--c0/c
(?00 c 7c c c c c 4c c / "c c c c /c c
/c
c
c / c c /" c c, ccc+c c c c+c
c, cc/c cc/ ccc"c/cc/c c/c
"c c +c 7c c $c c  c c 3c a0c  c c +c c  -c
-c +c c +1$c c c  1 "c ,;c /"c +c -c  c c  c
 c-c7c( 7 c
c
7c +c /c c c /c / c "+c -"  "c c +c  c c 3 "c
 cccc "cc+ $ccc+cccc  cc/ c c
/c c7/"c/ cc c(7 c c/cc c ccc"2c
, $c ,$c c c ?-c c -c !c a0c /c +c 1c c + c c c
, cc,c"c cc4c-c/ccc +1c- c
c1cc+cc

2c c# cc &c'
 
c
!c %c
New services and new ways to implement existing services.

c c  c c +c /c c c /c /c - c c -c -c  c -c c
c /c  "c a0c  "c  c 0a%-c c c c c  c 4 "c
/c+c c-c  c"cc cc +ccca0c1c-c
ccc4 "c/c+c c-ccc /ccc0a%-ca0c/c
c  "c +c c c c c +1c ac c  c c -c c / c c a0c  c
/ccc c/ c
c
a     


   
%   



  a     
  
$
    



     

a c c/ccc1c+c c+c/ "cc cc


a0c  c c  $c c c c c c  c ;4%-c  /" $c #  c
 "$c cccc0 "cc +c cc cc4 "c /c cc
4c" "c c " c+ cccc cc cca0cc
-c c -c /c c c +c c c / $c c -c +c +c c  c 4 "c
/c
c
0c c c /c "c c  c c  c c  c c 4c c  "%c
/c   $c%c/$c c  cc/ca cc$ccc
c c "c/ c"  "c  c0c c4cc/cccc
 c 2c
c
c
c
2(c c 

c cc'%c
0c %c
ác ccD4Ecccc(1$c$c/+$c-+ c
ác  cc0cc-1c
 0c %c
ác a  c" "ccc
ác # % c" "c c "c  c
ác  cc% c-c
&c'%c
ác  3 cc/c
ác  c c> c   c
c
0c 7c 1c /c  c  c 4c c c  "%c c / c
 c+cc-c c" 3cc c  cc$ccc
-1c   c c  c -c c c  $c -c 4c " "c c c "c c
 c  c   c  c   "c  c c 9c  c c  c  c c
"cc c cc+ccc cc/c cc cc+cc
c cccc4c c cc" 3cc

7c c %c " c c +c " 3c c c -1c -c  c +c  %
- c c c c +c c + c c c /$c 4$c c c c c c c
/c  c  c -c a0%  c -c  "c  c   c  c c  c
ccc +1c ccccc cc+ cccc c cc +1c c
+c c c c -c  c #c  4%-c   c  c c c c c
c c+cc c
c
2*c   c! &c#
6c !
":c" c ccc %c
Let the market help drive the path of development

acc ccccc cc  "$c$c 9ccc $cc +c


/cc-c/ ccc1c ccc"ccc "$c/$c "$c
c c1ca cc $cc$c+ca0cc+$cc/c "c/c
cc "c 1c " $c +c "c  c cc "c c  c cc "cc a c
 $cca0c c  c/c +c   c+c9c c  c
 c  " c  c c 4 "c - c c -c c 4c /c  c -c
c c
c
c +c + c c c +c $c c  "%c /c c -c c c c
4 c-cc"ccc4c "ca c/c "c+c c1c-c
c a0c  c c c c c   c c a0c   c +c c  c
"  "c 4c 3 c c 4 "c +1c c  c +c 1c c c 4 "c
/  "c  c - "c c a %+1 "c "+c +c  c 4 "c +1c
c c0acc c /c0ac c4  "c"cc +1c
c
 cc-ccccc "cca0c/ c+c/c cc +1c c
c c  "c - "$c /  "c  c    c c $c c +1c
 "ccc ccc+c+ccc+cccccc-c
-+ c +c c cc+c-cc c-c ccc/ccc +1c
;"c '%c  c c 5c c c c +1c +c c   c c a0c
  c+c"c"c

c
c20%c
 c  
 
c
c c 
 cc &c !
"c
!c /" c/cccccc cc+ cc  ccc +1c
-c 0 "c +1c /c +c  c c +c /c +c +c "c
c ccc cc+c/ "c/ caccc+ c/c
+c+c1ccccc/ "cc% +1c/c "c ccccc
-c-c  c
c
0/c /c c c +c +c c 1c " c  c c c +c
/c# ccc cc$c cc+cccc 1c c/cc
 c c c  c  c -+ c c  c /c  c c
c c  c c c c c c 9c  c +c  $c 0ac
-$c 60c   c  c c   c c /c -+ c c +1c  c c
/c c/c+ccccccccc!ccc5c cc
 c c-c +1cc7cccc ccc c/c- +cc
60c   "$c c  c   c c c  "c  %1c  c / c 4 c c c " c
 cc+ccc c c0$c00c4c" "ccc91c c
cc c1cc-cc"ccc/c
c
c
c
c
c
2,c cc c1 %cx
c !c
cc$%c
Unlicensed Mobile Access refers to WiFi 802.11 access by mobiles

# cccc+ ca0%1c/cc-c/ccc  c-c7c


( 7 c +c "c c -c  c c  c =& c ,;c +1c 0c +c
/ccc c  "cc/ccc+c
$c+c ccc+ cc 5 c+ c -c "c , cc+c
cccc+cc/"cc%+ ccc- ccc
, c c 7c c c $c c /c c +c c "c  /c " "c
" c c c c <ac /c 1 "c /c  c c c +c c -c +1c
"c,;c cc /c+c+c c  c/c  c -+ cc
-c +1c  c c ,;c +1c ac c c /c c   c c  c
-+ cc +1c+cc cc-cc +cc c+ cccc c
+1cccc
c
7cc -$cc/c+c9c c c +1ccc "cc   c
-+ c c +c +1c  c c c  c  " c c c c +c -+ c
+1ccc+c c/c ccc-ccc?>c cccc
00Ac +1ccc+ ccacccc0ac ccc c+cc-c
cc/-c cc c+cc+c-cc/ccccc cacccc
c/ccc/ c c-c c cca0c c+ cc
% +1c  c -c ca0c c  "c cc0/c/cc
+c0acccc?00ccc-cc
c
;"c '% c +c c -c "c c  c 4c c +c c 7c c c  c -c
 c cc%a0c +1c "ccc/cc
c

c
c20(%c
c   
c1 c
c 0 c1c
c
'c
c
c c c /c c c c / "c <ac /c /c  c c ,;c =& c  c
+1c cc c /c    c /c /c  c c +1c +c c  c
-+ c c +1c c c ! $c c +c +c    c c + c  c -c
 $c ccc-c c cc,;c=& c<ac, ccc cc,;c$c
c-c+cc cc+c +1c ccc" $c ccc/ccc
c c  c % c c /c c  "c <ac "c c =& c ,;c +1c
7"c c /c c /c $c c c c /c  "c  / c c
 "c=& c "c  c c ccc  c 3$c+c c -c c
-cc-c ccccc cc/ cc+c /" c
c
c
22c #&c 
c
c &c+1 05c+ !
"c!c&'c#
%c
Lots of trial and error and extra expenses before it settles out.

7c /c c c a0c c c $c  c  c c c c c  c /c
 "c cc$ccc cc"% ccc"cc
0/c /c +c c c c c 9 $c c +c  c  +1 "c
$c  c 1c  c 4c c  c c c c c 0a% c c  c
  c cc +1c
c
0/c/$c4c c / c+c"+c c ccc " cc
a0c c c   c  cc +1c!c $c/c/c c /ccc +$c
   cccca0%1c/c c cc
;c4$c % -c/cc c c "cc+c c cc+ c
 c +c 9c c c  %+1 "c   c  c c c c c  c c -c
+1cc +c  c-c c +cc-4ccc "$c  $c cc+c
+c   c   "c  c c  " c ,c c c +c cc  c c
+cccccc /" c /$c c c c cc+c c c$c
 ccc+ccc c c c c
c
               %
    %      

 
ë
              




c
7c +c c c c +c "c  c c   c c c c c c 9 c /c
/cc ca0%1c/ cccc0cc-cc
a0c c0ac c cc cc cc1 "cccc  ccc
c<cc c" "c/ c+c c c" "c/c-c c
a0c c c-c+cc/c+ccc"c00Ac c" "cc
7c -c c c c  c a0% c  " c -c %a0c  c +c -c c  c
c0 c  c / c+cc c -c cc$ccc +1c c
-cc+c-ccc c"""cc c  ca0cc
c


    
 
   a 

  
  
 

        ë    
   
     
  
    
  
   
     a 
 
c
c "ccc/ "cc/ c" c"c +c/c "c c
" c+  "cc+cccca0% c c+cccc- cc
 c 1c 7c  c  c c -$c 5 c %a0c  c  c -c  -c
c c c "c "%/ c /c  c -c c c  c " c c
  "cc ca0cc cc ccccca0% c cc
c 7""/c c c c %a0c c +c c c c 0ac -c c
/c c  "%c "c c //c c  / c c c  c  %c c c c
+1cc/cc  c+ccc
c
# cc/  cc +cc"c +$cc+c-c$cc% /c
c  c c c c -c  "%c c %c c -c c +c  //c
-c/c cccc  c0c4c 2c
c
23c c cc &c5
! &cc c
c %c
0c %c
ác <c+c7c0 "c
ác <c cc c
 0c %c
ác   c0 "c "cc"c
ác !   c  c c "c
ác %c/c   "c
ác  c7 cc "c c
&c'%c
ác c "c c " c
ác 0  3 "cc-1c+c +1c
c
 c c c c  c   c c c  "c +1c % +1c c +c
"c/c cc"ca $cc c cc"cc/ ccc4cc
%c c +c c -c "%"c /c c ac c   "c c c c
"  c/c cc ccc-c+cca0ccc4c
 c c c+c0ac-c %cc c+c9c4  "c0acc
 cc+cccc cc+ca c$c"  "cc/ ccc
  %c c/c cc/c c c c c "cc
+ c 0/c /c c c 7 c 0/c c 1c c c c c +c
 c c c c +1cc
c
ã& '(
The IMS future is a moving target.
7cc/c $cc c+c//ccc1%-c/ cc+ca0c+cc1c
1c 0/c  "c +c c c c +c c 1c c  c +c /c
/ c+c+c caccc ccc1 +c+cc"c1c1cc
c c " c 4 c c c c c c /c c +c 1c /c  c c
a0c c0a% ccc+cc-ccc/c c  c- c
+c -c c -c c 1c ?c c c c c c c % +1c  c %/c
c cc/ 2c
c
c
c
2;c )
0#c cc &c c
c c %c
0c %c
ác <c+c c1 ccc  c
ác 4%c/c cc c
ác <c cc/c" "c
 0c %c
ác a /c" "c
ác %c+1c- c
ác %c/c   "c
ác 0 "cc c "cc
&c'%c
ác  4%/ c c
ác 4cc%/c  c
c
cc c/ cc+cca0cc+ccc cc "c c
 c/ c+cc c  ccca0ccc
 cc+c4c0a% c c c/c c c- c
c+cc/c c cc-c%a0ccc+ccccc
/c c  c c  "c c  "c c $c 1 "c +c /c c "c
  c cc cca0c/c  c/c+c1cc c c c
c c  c+c+ccccc- ccc c+ccc
c cc+c  c/cccc c   c c c- cc
 cccccc
c
! c/c+ccc c "c+cc  cca0c/c
0c/c c c-cc3c cc"c "cc c c
+cac+1c+c! ccc0a%-c c cc+cc
 c  c c a0c +1c "c c 0/c  c  c c c + c  c c
cc+cc  c c " c c/cc cc/c0ccc
 c   c c  c  c 4 c /c +c  c a0c "/c c
 cc c/ccc %% c cc c ccccc
+ c9 c? c c7c/c/cc//ccc c+cc/c
 "c "c+ccc4c  c cc c c c
c;$c c/ cc/ "cc "ccc/-ccc
 c  c +c c  c /-c c c c c / c
 c c -c c  c   c   c c  c c /-c
c c +c +c c c c -c c  c  c c -c  c c c
c0accc c0c/cc
c
c c  "c /+c c c "c c +c 4c + c  c +c +1c +c
 "c  c c c  c   c -c +c + c  c c c c /c  c 5c c
cc +c<c+1c#c cc%c/cccc
1c$c+/$ccc+c+c /c9cccc/ ccca0cc
ccc  c / "cc  cc "$c  cc  $c  cc 1 + c
1c ccc+c  cc//cccc c,c c /ccc
c cc "$cccc cc$cccc " cc%
+1c cc/c c4c+c/c- c$c+/$cccc
 c- "cc+c "cccccc+c/cc/c
c
c "c cac "c/c  c /ccc cc+c+c
ccc0acc+ca0cccc cc/c/c c- "c
+c  c c c /c c  c   c /c a c c  $c c c c -c
- "c c  c c  c  c ,/c c /c c c c c -$c c
c   c cc c  c+c+ c ccccc/$cc cc
+c/c+cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
x +5 +5cc#xcc/ cc-) /<cc  - 5c
c
c
3c&c &c'c-'cc
c
a0c  c  c c  -c c 4-c   c c c  c /c c
c/c c +1c "c cc c c 7c 5c c  cc
c c c 0/c /c c (0 $c c 1 + c c 7 c 0/c  c
c0/$c+cccccc+c "cc/ccc +1c
c
c"c" cca0ccccc" ccccc$c %
-$c ccc   "c 7 c0/c c?c0--c0/c
(?00 c !c   c c c a0c c c c  c  c c c -c
 c cccccc-c "ccc +1c c-+ c +1ccc
c c " 3 c c c +1c 1c  c /c c c c /c  "c
c /c "c  c c c  "c c -c   "c +c c  c c c
c  ccc - "c c/  "c0/c c -c c"c  c c
- cc c/%"  "ccacc cc c/ "c/cc
  c +c c - c -c  c +1c c  c + "c c c  c c c
c c +1c  cc/c cc cc- "cc
cc +1c c
c
 "c c cc$c0/c/cccc+ "2c
c
ác /c c "c/ccc+c/cc cc/c
ác 0c0a%-c c c/ccc +1c
ác 0c/c cccc c c +1c c
ác /c "c ccc c c ccc/c
ác /c c cc- "$c/  "c ccc
ác /cc c cc "c"+ "c -cc/c
c
3c $&c &c'c-'c 
ccc &c+ !
"%c
Two new layers of functionality are created above the Transport Plane.
c
ca0cccc +1c-c "c +ccc  ccc
c  c  c c  c  c   c c c c 0 c  c ;  c
( 0 ; c  c c ?c 0--c 0/c (?00 c   c ( "c  c c 0/c  c
  c c 0/c /c c (0 c  c c 7 c 0/c (70 c c +c
/c c  "cccc +1ccc-cc0c c 70c  cc
0/c c
c
c

c
c30%c

c
3(c x
!c &c+!c
c
c'c-'cc- %c
Feature Silos in the good ole days.
c
a c /c +1$c  c $c c   c c   c /c  c c  c
c -c  c  c c -c c   c "c c +1c c
!4c  c c + "$c   c  "$c  c /c c /c +c c -c
 c cc c
c
c
c
c
 7c0+
c %c
c
 c c c $c c c c + "c  c %+c   c  "c +c /c
c  c c +c  c c  cc +1c + "c c c c c
%'c /c c c "c c c 0c /c +1c c /c c c "c "c c
 c c" c+1c cc$cc c c cc cc
c $c+/$cccc+c  c +c +1cc  c + c +1c,c
c c "  "c  c c c  1c  c c %1c $c +c +1c 9c c
 c  c c c  c c c c c c   c c c
+ c c
c
0 c-9c/-cccc+c$cc9ccc / c-c
cc/c +1c ccc +1cacc9ccc%/-cc
$ccc  c "c -"c cc  " c  c cc
c "  c c -/c c c c  c +c c c  c
c/-c cc""cc c c / cc-cc c
c""c-c c c c c c-c
c

 17c 0c %c
c
#c c 4c $c c c /c c  c "c %c    "c $c
9cc "c c"cc c+c ccc  c
c"c3cc/ c cccc c%/ c
 ccccc c+cc-c3c-cc/c/ccc
+cc+1cc/ c cc-c c c  c cc
+c c c-+ c/ c cc/ c-+ c+c  ccc
c / c c 0c /c /c c /c c c c c
 /c +1c c +c c """c /c c c  c c  c
/ "ccc+cccc""c" c "$ccc   cc
cc"  $ccc-ccccc c
c
7c+c %c$c""c c+c-c cc""c cc
c +1c c+c- cccc cc" c c9c
$c  c c   c+c cc -c cc / c c cc
" c  c c c c c c  c / c /c +c  c
cccc/c/cccc"ccc +1c cc   c
a c  $c  %-c ac 0/c /c c c c  c -/c c
 /c +1c c  c c c  c c c c c c c +1c
c -c/ cc +1c- c  "cc%$c%c c$c
/c c  c  c c c +1c " c  c +c c  c c c c
-ccc/ccc-cccc c/ccc-c
/c   c/c0c-c ccacc+c c-c
+1c   c  c  c "c c c  c - c  c c c
c c 7  c 0/c  c ?c 0/c 0c  c c  c  c c
0c+1c c 5  c+ccc +c c  cccccc c
+ccc% +1c c c 
c

3*c  c
cc+!c'c-'c
%c
New Service Delivery models make the playing field more level.
c
# c  $c "%/c c c 0c c  c 7 c 0/c c c c c
-c c cc  c   c  cccc"cc
+1c c c  c  c c "c /c  c c c +1c $cc /c
"c c c +1c  c  c -c c  "c c  c c c +c c
c
c
7c " 3c c c   c c  c/ "c /c c cc -c
/c  $c  "2c
ác -9ccc/-c
ác   cc c c   c
ác ! c   c c  "c
ác %c- cc /c/c"cc c
ác >+c%cc c%c "c4 c
ác 7%c c- %c%c/cc +c/cc
ác 7-ccc9/ c/ccc +1c
ác c cc+c "cc"cc1c" c
ác cccc c c/cc
ác 0/cccc/c c c +1%c
ác c cc-1%c/  "c c- "cc
ác /cc c ca cccc /c
ác  c-cccccc c/c
ác ! c cc c  c
c
acccccc/ccccc +1c c c"""ccc"c
  c /c  cc ccc +c/c c-c c +c  c
 c cc cc c
c
  
       
  
   $
  
 
 
  $
  
   


  

 "    
 
  
 
   
 
   

 
   

   



0/c +c1c ccc cccc1 "cc +1cc c
ccccc/c/c c"ccc/ccc/cc
a - c/c/c c1c/-cc-ccc  "c/cc
/c  c c  " "c  cc c  "c c c - "c -c c  c
ccc-cc cc4/c  "c+c 9c/cc c  c
/c
c
c
3,c #&c-

c c
c   'c'c
'c
The Emergence of the Virtual Network Operator.
c
cc- c cc cc0/c/cccc"c c  c
c +1c c  c c c c  c   "c c c  c /c /c
c c c  c /c c c c  c c c  c +c c
c +1c c<c+1c#c(<# cc- c /c cc
ccc cc/c c cccc cc - c -c c
c"cc- ccc+c c+ c +1c c/c
c
,c /c  c  c /c   c -c c c  %c ac
$c c 4c c - c -+ c c 4 c -c c +c c  c c  c
 $c  c c   c  c  c c   c c c  c  c c c  c
7"ccc"ccc +c/c/cc cc1$c - cc
+c cc-cc c/ccc"c /c4/c
  c cc "cc/ccc  cc cc c c
 cc  c c
c
c
c
c
c
c
32c #&c   c
c$cc$c
c
# cc c %-c/cc ccc - c+c
 c+ ccc+c7cc/ "ccac +1c-" cccc c
c cc+c +1$c - cc+c"cc cc ca%
-c c c / c +c /c  c c  "c  c 7  $c c
7  $c"c"c " $c  "c c/  "cc $ccc
+cc ccc"c c
c
c  "c a0%-c c  c 0a%-c  $c c c  c /c c
- ccc+cc$ccc" ccc4-ccc "c/c
 c "c /c  "c  c   c c c c "c 1c " c "c
7 c0/c 1c+cc0/c c?c0--c0/$cc cc
3c /c 1"c c  c c   c  c 1c  c / c c +c
c+cccc/c c
c
cc" cc ccccc c cc/cc c
"c c cc c c  c   c  c ?00c   c 7c %c
/c  c  c  //c /c  c c c  /  c "c c /c c
 c+cc "cc7c c ccccc c c/c+c
c c  c c /c  c +c c c  c /c  1c +c
 c+c cc cc cc c1 c
c
7c c c "c -c c /c +c /c  c  c  c  c c 1 "c
" c+ccc ccc- c c c cccc7cc-cc
c /c +c c  c c  "c " c +c c $c " "c c c c
?00$c 7 c 0/$c  c c c /c  "c  c c > % c
  cc/c cc1ccc   cccc7c
c c c 4c  c c  c $c -c a0c  "c /c c  $c  c
 c  c c c c  c + "c c c -c  "c c c -c
 cccc/c c  c/cc cc"c
c
c+ "cc"cc "cc c c+c+ca0c "c/c
4  c cc cc ""c+ccc c/
c
c

c
c30*%c
c
c/c c+c- "c c#00cc "c+c0a%-c c+c
 "c c /c /c 1c + "c "c  c c +c    c /c
% +1c/c/c c<#c+c/c +c- c ccc  c
 c/c
c
a $
 

     %
   "   
 
  
            
  )*     $ 


 %
  
  

33c  cc 
 c!c"c'
'c & c
Carriers and Developers cannot move forward alone yet.
c
7"cc +c "c/c +cc c/cccc +1cc
c c /$c +c +c  c c %/c  c c c   c
cc  "c +c/cc "ccc-cccc cc
+cc-cc- " "cc/cc1c cc %c+c  ccc
c c-+ cc cc c+cc/c!   "cc
cc-cc91c- "c +c/cc1c+c-cc1c"cc/cc
cc c
c
c +c 91c 3c c c c c +c  c c % / c c  c
/ cc %ccc //c +c/cc+c/c ccc
%/ "c- ccc +ccc- "c +c/cc1cc91c cc
c +c c c --c c c +c c -c c 4 /$c -c c c c  c
ccc- "c+c" $cc3cc4 /c c/ cc
ccc c
c
;c c $c %c  c /c c "c  / c c c +c /c c
 "cc c/c-cc$c1cc1ccc/cc c
;c c %$c c - c -+ c  c   c  c c - c c -c
1c"c %/c  c ;c +$cc c  c c +c c
 "c %c /c  c a0%-c c +c 1c "c c c c %
1 "c ccc;c cc c;"c
%c
c
a c$c +c- ccc/c "ccc+-% "c+c1c"c+c
%c /c  c c c  c  c c +1c +c c    c
 c
c

  
  ë $
  
   
$ $ 


  
  $ 
 
 




3=c  c&c
ccc'c
 
c %c
c
7cc1c +c c+c/cc c  cc+c -c  "c
c cc  " ccc +c/c  cc c /  ccc- "c
c c/  "cc 7"ca0c c  c ccc +c
c $c c c 1c c  c c c   c c +c "c c c c
91c  c +c / c "  "c /c "c "%/c   "c " c c
ccc c- "c c /cc+c/c/cc "%c/+cc
c c
c
c-1%c cc/c/c $c " $c   c c- "c
 c/ccc+cc"cc1c1cc cccccc "c +c
/c c 4c +/c c c c $c - "c c $c /  "c  c
/c c  c c  c "  c  /c $c ac / c c  c
 c 4 c a c c  "c $c c  c / c c   "c c "c
 c c c "c c " c +c  c c /c   c c
+c+ c-1%ccccc c"c c ccc
c +c "cc cc/cccccc
c
c  "c c ccc$cca0ccc1ccc
c c cc / "c +c /c c c   c c /c -c /" "c
4 "c c c+c- "c ccc+ccc +c" "c
/c+c   "c-c "c" c
c
¬

     
       a  
 
 

   
   
   
 




 
c
c
x $cc #cc ))cc #cc# 5#xc
c
c
=cx
!c cc c
 &c
c
c c  c c - c   c %c  c c 78c /c c )=Bc
 c c c  "c /c - c "c  c / c 7c +c /c - c / c c
/c c /c c 5c ca0c "c+c -c ccc "c "cc
c  c c 4 "c /c /$c +c  c c +c /c /$c  c c
 "cc- c ccc +1c9 c/ c
c
c c c c  "$c +/$c +c /c /c c 4c c c Bc c  c +c c
 "ccccc/ "ccc- cccc /cc c c c
 c c c c   c c c c " c  c c 4 "c
 c +c c c  %c +c c "c   c c +c c c
3cc cc +c/ ccc4c /  c+c  ccc
4c/cc
c
c "c cc ccc c-c" c-c cc, c c+c
c c c +c   c c c c / c  $c -c /c c
+ c /c  / "c c /c - c 1c  /" c - "c c -c
  cc4c +1c ccc +c-c-c +1c   c
+ c c-cc +c "c+c +cccccc ccc
  "ccccc<#cc
c
=cc &c c &c$c%c
ác > "c/c/ cc+c +1c
ác 0"  c1cc c ccc/c
ác a  c c 0>c  "c  c c c -- c   c c
/c
ác  "c c -c  c ! c +1c c c c  c /c  c
 c
ác 0 "c /" c ca0ccc/c-c c,;c +1c
ác - c c! cc c+c<c c/c c
ác a0ccc-ccc% +1c/c+c+cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
&c c &c$c%c
c
ác +c c/c/c/ cc+ "c
ác cc c/c/ c+c +$c //cc c
ác c 4  c c +1c "c "c c  "c (!<%#$c
0$c?07 c
ác 6 "$c c 4-c  c c  c c 91c c a0c
 "c
ác 0 "c /" ccc+cc /c cc  c
ác +c/ cc"cc "c c+ c  c
ác a0ccc-ccc% +1c/c+c+ cc
ác +c  c +c /%- c <c +1c #c  c /c
c
c
c /  c  c c  "c  c c c  c c +c c / c  "c /c
/c+c/c/c/cc4 c- cc c +1c- c c
c ccc "c cc+ cccc cc+c


=(c #&cc'cc)
!c
 cc+!c'c
%c
c
c "c  "c c  c c /c /c c c c c +1c c c
+c  c c c -c  c  c +c c c --c / c a0c c
cc ccc-c cc "cca ccc$ccc4cc /c
cc c1cc +1cccc4c-cc"ccccc
+c c c / c +c c c c  c c   c  c  //c +c
/c/c +1cc/cc/c"ccc+c5ccc'c
c "c a0c  "c +c c c 4 c +c +c /c  c - "c c c
1c c 91c  c c c +c c $c c 1c +c  c c
c 4c c c  c c +c   c  /c c +c +c c 1c
cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
=*c ccc
!c
 c  c
c%c
c
#/ "c +1c cc-c "c +1cc- ccc+ccc
"c c a0c c c /c /c /c c  "c c c c +c
+ c +1cc/c/cc+cca0ccc+cccc-cc
!4 c "c cc c "c
c
 
c1 c'%c
c
0 ca0cc "c c- "$cc c   c c"c c
 $ccc ccc c cc4 cca0ccc
 c  c c c +c /c  c  c /c +c / "c c c
/  "c  c - "c c c c  $c c c c 1c  c cc  c
+ccccca0ccc c c/-ccc"cccc
c4 "c
/c  c c +c c c c c  "c a0%-c c c c /c  c
 c +c /%c /c c   c / c c c +c c c --c
>/" "c c  c c c - "c  c c c "c a0c  c  c c c
c  c c  "c  "c cc  c +c /c c 91c  c   c
 "c" 'c
c
  c c'%c
c
c c a0c +1$c c 5c +1c   c c +c  c  c  c
;$cc/c+c/$c$cc$ccac1%-c cc/cc
 cc c# ccc "ccccc  cc
c (+c $c ,;$c ! $c  c  "c c c +1c c  c %ac  "c
c c c  c 3c  c c  c c c c  "c c
 "c c +c 9 c c c  c  3c  c -+ c c +c
c c c c +1c 9 c c c / c  "c /c +c
cc
c
!/ c"cca0c+1cc+c$cc +1cc cc-cc
4c  c c 4 /c -c c "c c  c c c c c c c c
+1cccc+c c+c "c cccc  "cc
 c cc" c / c!/ c+c +1$c+c/cc+c/"c"cc
 $cc/c"c/cc-c / c+cc c"c / ccc
c/ccc/ccc cccccc+c+ cc  ccc
4 "c  c c /c +c /c a c c %$c c +c  c +c
%c  c c c c c c %a0c c  "c c
-c  c 7$c c +c  c c c  %+1 "c c
c 1c4 "c%a0c +1c"c
c
c c  / c c -c c  c c   c c a0c c c c +c 91c
c c c c +c c +1c c  "c c  c -c  c c
c+c+c / cccc" ccc" ca0c /  c c
cc-c c  "ccc c-cc-ccccc
c
c
=,c #&c c
c&  cc+!c'c
  %c
c
ccca0%-c/c+c -c Faster, Smaller, and Cheaper. c c/c
+c / c c 91c  c /c  "c " c a0c c c " c c
 "cc9cc  cc c +cccccc/  "cc
+c/$c- "ccc +c/$c c  "cc/c c/" "ccc
cc#78c  ccc/cc c/ "cc#78cccc
/$c c c  c  c c  c c +c c  "c c  "c a0%
-c0/c/c$cc c c/cc91c-c c/ "cc
-c c c #78c c  c c c c c +c /c 7c +c
c  c -c c 91c c  c c +c c   c c c +c c
+cc4 "cccc" cccc1c/ "c
c
+!c'c &
&c
c# c'c %c
c
0$c+cc-cc c +c/cc91c+ccc cc +c
c$ccc cc1cc c c  "cc" "c c/c
!c "cc c/cc-cc-1-$c-c +c/ c"+c c-c c "c
 c4 /ccc c "ccc+cc c ccc5cc
c  c / cc"cc +ccc+cc$ccc  %
 c1c"c
c
+!c'c &
&cc'c %c
c
0c c c c "  c - c c c a0c c c c c c +c
 "cc +c/cc c-cc$c/$c "c $c+ $c
 c /c  c c  c c c   c "c c /-c c "c
- +c  c  c  c c /c +c 9c 6c c 0/c (60 c
" c  c c  c c +1c c  c - +c a c c a0c $c c
c /c c  c c c /c /c c   c c /c
 c "c c / c c c +c c "c  c  c /c c /c
9c c""c/c+cc9cc cccc/c9cc
cc
c
0/c3 c"c--c cc c+c "cc +c/ c
 c ;c  c  c -c + c c c "c c  c -c
   "c c   c  "c c -c c c ?c 0--c 0/c  c c
 c c> c0/$cc c/c //c +c ccc c
+1c c c + c  c c c c - c - c c "c   c  c c
 ccc/ c/c
c
=2c 'c 
cc-'c c!c'c & %c
c
ca0ccc c c ccc0/c/cc cc
0/c  c c c +1c +c c +c  c c 1c c c +c /c
+c cc c/cc +c c"c c c  ccc  c
 c+1c cc-ccc cc ccc c c/cc
/c +c +c   c  c c /c  c c  c  c c cc +1c
c c /c  /  c c c 0/c  c c c /c c  "c c  "c
+1%-c c  c c  % c /c c 0 "c  c
 3 "cc c c/cc/cc+ccc/ccc+c" cc
ccc c -ccc +c  c+c/cc cc c
+ ccc  c1 "cc +ccc- ccc  c+ccc
 c /c /c  c -c  c -c  c +c c 1c c c c c c c
 cc +c/c
c
0a%-c  c / c 4 c c 3c c c c 1c c / c c
 c c    c /c  c <#c  "c " "c / "c  " c
4 c c  c c c c /c 5cc c +c /c c  c 1c  c
+c2c
c
=3c  
c-'
cc'c
c
%c
c

  c-'
%c
c
ác c/%-c/c c-cccccc c
ác 7ccccc/c c /  c c " c "c
ác cc1c- c cc c
ác ;c/ c "cc c c3 ccc
c

0" c-'
%c
c
ác c/cc"c5 c1ccc c+cc
ác c +c/c c  ccc9 cccc +1c
ác %1 "c c- c+c5 c  "ccc c/c
ác /c"c- c c4c c  c cc1c
c
  c-'
%c
c
ác  cc+ c/ cc-c cc+ c1cc
ác cc-c cc+ c1c c c
ác 7ccc cc0ac ca0c-c c c c
ác ;cc-c% +1c-c
ác cc+ ccc "c " c+ccc
ác ccc1c1c4c
c
 c  c %1 "c  " c +c c +c  c  c c %c
0/% "c " ccc+-% "c+c"ccc ccc
c cc c+c /c c c cc 1 "c " c+c
/c c c c  "c    c c / $c c  c
9cc"  cc c0c  c  ca -c "c  cc
 c /c  "c c +c c  c c c +c  "c +1c
c "c c+c c+c   c/cc c c/c
c  c c c  c  c +c "c c c c c  c  %c
c
c
==c #&c
c
c &c+ !
"c'c
'cc  c&%c
c
+cccc c/c/cc " "ccccc +1c/c/c
 c "cc- c cc-ccc+ ca   ccc/c
 c  c +c  c c  c / c - "c +c c  c c
1c0/cc cc+c+ ccc +c/c+c +1cc
(<#c c+c- cccc/ccc c
c
c- cc "c+ccc-c +1c- "ccccc- c ccc
c +c -c +1c c 5c  c  c c c -c c - c "$c
+c c 1c c  c c c +1c c c -$c   c  c /c c c c c
 "$c% c/+ccc+ "cc /-c 1"ccc  ccc
c c c5cccc
c
a c  c  c +c c c c c c c c  c c  /-c c c c
1$c c /c  c c   c "c  c /c  c c c
+1c -c c /c c c c /c c "c c  c c /c  $c c c
/c c c c  c c c c c  c  c  c c  c +c
  c c c/c


=;c 
 
c
c &c
cc&
!c  c& %c
c
c cc c1c" "c-ccc;"c c c $cc-c
c cc" c c c"cc+cc4 "cc" c +c<#c  c
+c cc+ cc +c" c+c<#c  c/cc-c" c ccc
%-c /c c   c " c c +c /c - c   c +c  c
- c c c +c/cccc+ cc ccccc %
+1c c c a0c /c c c -c c " c c   %-c c
 cc4 cc+ c c+c +1c
c
c c c "/  c " $c ac  "$c  c  c  c  c c c c
c  c+cc   c+cc c  ca c$cc-cc c
cc+c-c cc/cc+1 "cc/cc/c-+ c  c+ c
 ccccc-cc  c
c
c
c
=>c c &cc cc c
 c
 cc'%c
c
cc c/ cccccca0c ccc cc "c c
cc "c "cc+cc/+cccccccc5c/c
c3 cccc+c ccc cc/ c-ccccccc
 c /c c c c +c -c c c c "c c c c c  c  c
/ c cc cc/ "cc+c+cccc +c"c &&=c+c
cc cc/c +c c //c/c cccccca0c
/ c+c+ccc cc +c/c+ c1cc cc ccc
c/ "c c c/ c3c,cc /cccca0c/ c-cc
ccc cccc+% cccccc ccc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c


c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c


"c
ccccccc? Gonzalo Camarillo, Miguel-Angel Garcia-Martín. ³The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the
Internet and the Cellular Worlds´
?( Chang Wen Chen and JieboLuo, Multimedia over Mobile IP
$ c
cccccc ’2@@+++""@c
cccccc 2@@+++" "@c
cccccc 2@@+++""@@0@% @  =c
2@@+++" "@-G@@"4c
c ++++1"c
c