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VECTOR FUNCTIONS

VECTOR FUNCTIONS

12.4
Motion in Space:
Velocity and Acceleration
In this section, we will learn about:
The motion of an object
using tangent and normal vectors.

MOTION IN SPACE: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

Here, we show how the ideas of tangent


and normal vectors and curvature can be
used in physics to study:
The motion of an object, including its velocity
and acceleration, along a space curve.

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

In particular, we follow in the footsteps of


Newton by using these methods to derive
Keplers First Law of planetary motion.

VELOCITY

Suppose a particle moves through


space so that its position vector at
time t is r(t).

VELOCITY

Vector 1

Notice from the figure that, for small values


of h, the vector

r (t + h) r (t )
h
approximates
the direction of the
particle moving along
the curve r(t).

VELOCITY

Its magnitude measures the size


of the displacement vector per unit
time.

VELOCITY

The vector 1 gives the average


velocity over a time interval of
length h.

VELOCITY VECTOR

Equation 2

Its limit is the velocity vector v(t)


at time t :

r (t + h) r (t )
v (t ) = lim
h 0
h
= r '(t )

VELOCITY VECTOR

Thus, the velocity vector is also


the tangent vector and points in
the direction of the tangent line.

SPEED

The speed of the particle at time t


is the magnitude of the velocity vector,
that is, |v(t)|.

SPEED

This is appropriate because, from Equation 2


and from Equation 7 in Section 12.3,
we have:

ds
| v(t ) |=| r '(t ) |=
dt
= rate of change
of distance with
respect to time

ACCELERATION

As in the case of one-dimensional motion,


the acceleration of the particle is defined as
the derivative of the velocity:
a(t) = v(t) = r(t)

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 1

The position vector of an object moving


in a plane is given by:
r(t) = t3 i + t2 j
Find its velocity, speed, and acceleration
when t = 1 and illustrate geometrically.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 1

The velocity and acceleration at time t


are:
v(t) = r(t) = 3t2 i + 2t j
a(t) = r(t) = 6t I + 2 j

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 1

The speed at t is:

| v (t ) |= (3t ) + (2t )
2 2

= 9t + 4t
4

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 1

When t = 1, we have:
v(1) = 3 i + 2 j
a(1) = 6 i + 2 j
|v(1)| = 13

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 1

These velocity and acceleration vectors


are shown here.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 2

Find the velocity, acceleration, and


speed of a particle with position vector
r(t) = t2, et, tet

Example 2

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

v (t ) = r '(t ) = 2t , e , (1 + t )e
t

a(t ) = v '(t ) = 2, e , (2 + t )e
t

| v (t ) |= 4t + e + (1 + t ) e
2

2t

2t

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

The figure shows the path of the particle in


Example 2 with the velocity and acceleration
vectors when t = 1.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

The vector integrals that were introduced in


Section 12.2 can be used to find position
vectors when velocity or acceleration vectors
are known, as in the next example.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

A moving particle starts at an initial position


r(0) = 1, 0, 0
with initial velocity
v(0) = i j + k
Its acceleration is
a(t) = 4t i + 6t j + k
Find its velocity and position at time t.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

Since a(t) = v(t), we have:


v(t) = a(t) dt
= (4t i + 6t j + k) dt
=2t2 i + 3t2 j + t k + C

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

To determine the value of the constant


vector C, we use the fact that
v(0) = i j + k

The preceding equation gives v(0) = C.


So,
C=ij+ k

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

It follows:
v(t) = 2t2 i + 3t2 j + t k + i j + k
= (2t2 + 1) i + (3t2 1) j + (t + 1) k

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

Since v(t) = r(t), we have:


r(t) = v(t) dt
= [(2t2 + 1) i + (3t2 1) j + (t + 1) k] dt
= (t3 + t) i + (t3 t) j + (t2 + t) k + D

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 3

Putting t = 0, we find that D = r(0) = i.


So, the position at time t is given by:
r(t) = (t3 + t + 1) i + (t3 t) j + (t2 + t) k

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

The expression for r(t) that we obtained


in Example 3 was used to plot the path
of the particle here for 0 t 3.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

In general, vector integrals allow us


to recover:
Velocity, when acceleration is known
t

v (t ) = v (t0 ) + a(u ) du
t0

Position, when velocity is known


t

r (t ) = r (t0 ) + v (u ) du
t0

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

If the force that acts on a particle is known,


then the acceleration can be found from
Newtons Second Law of Motion.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

The vector version of this law states that if,


at any time t, a force F(t) acts on an object
of mass m producing an acceleration a(t),
then
F(t) = ma(t)

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 4

An object with mass m that moves in


a circular path with constant angular speed
has position vector
r(t) = a cos t i + a sin t j

Find the force acting on the object and


show that it is directed toward the origin.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 4

To find the force, we first need to know


the acceleration:

v(t) = r(t) = a sin t i + a cos t j


a(t) = v(t) = a2 cos t i a2 sin t j

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 4

Therefore, Newtons Second Law gives


the force as:
F(t) = ma(t)
= m2 (a cos t i + a sin t j)

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 4

Notice that:
F(t) = m2r(t)
This shows that the force acts in the direction
opposite to the radius vector r(t).

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 4

Therefore, it points toward


the origin.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

Example 4

Such a force is called a centripetal


(center-seeking) force.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

A projectile is fired with:


Angle of elevation
Initial velocity v0

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

Assuming that air resistance is negligible


and the only external force is due to gravity,
find the position function r(t) of the projectile.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

What value of maximizes the range


(the horizontal distance traveled)?

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

We set up the axes so that the projectile


starts at the origin.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

As the force due to gravity acts downward,


we have:
F = ma = mg j
where g = |a| 9.8 m/s2.
Therefore, a = g j

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

Since v(t) = a, we have:


v(t) = gt j + C
where C = v(0) = v0.
Therefore,
r(t) = v(t) = gt j + v0

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

Integrating again, we obtain:


r(t) = gt2 j + t v0 + D
However,
D = r(0) = 0

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

E. g. 5Equation 3

So, the position vector of the projectile


is given by:
r(t) = gt2 j + t v0

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

If we write |v0| = v0 (the initial speed


of the projectile), then
v0 = v0 cos i + v0 sin j
Equation 3 becomes:
r(t) = (v0 cos )t i + [(v0 sin )t gt2] j

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

E. g. 5Equations 4

Therefore, the parametric equations


of the trajectory are:
x = (v0 cos )t
y = (v0 sin )t gt2

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

If you eliminate t from Equations 4,


you will see that y is a quadratic function
of x.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

So, the path of the projectile is part


of a parabola.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

The horizontal distance d is the value


of x when y = 0.

Setting y = 0, we obtain:
t = 0 or t = (2v0 sin )/g

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 5

That second value of t then gives:

2v0 sin
d = x = (v0 cos )
g
v (2sin cos ) v sin 2
=
=
g
g
2
0

2
0

Clearly, d has its maximum value when


sin 2 = 1, that is, = /4.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

A projectile is fired with muzzle speed 150 m/s


and angle of elevation 45 from a position
10 m above ground level.
Where does the projectile hit the ground?
With what speed does it do so?

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

If we place the origin at ground level,


the initial position of the projectile is (0, 10).

So, we need to adjust Equations 4


by adding 10 to the expression for y.

Example 6

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

With v0 = 150 m/s, = 45, and g = 9.8 m/s2,


we have:

x = 150 cos( / 4)t = 75 2 t


y = 10 + 150sin( / 4)t (9.8)t
1
2

= 10 + 75 2 t 4.9t

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

Impact occurs when y = 0, that is,


4.9t2 75 2 t 10 = 0

Solving this quadratic equation (and using


only the positive value of t), we get:

75 2 + 11, 250 + 196


t=
21.74
9.8

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

Then,
x 75 2 (21.74)
2306

So, the projectile hits the ground


about 2,306 m away.

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

The velocity of the projectile is:

v(t ) = r '(t )
= 75 2 i + (75 2 9.8t ) j

VELOCITY & ACCELERATION

Example 6

So, its speed at impact is:

| v (21.74) |= (75 2) + (75 2 9.8 21.74)


2

151m/s

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

When we study the motion of a particle,


it is often useful to resolve the acceleration
into two components:
Tangential (in the direction of the tangent)
Normal (in the direction of the normal)

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

If we write v = |v| for the speed of the particle,


then

r '(t )
v (t )
v
T(t ) =
=
=
| r '(t ) | | v (t ) | v
Thus,
v = vT

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 5

If we differentiate both sides of that


equation with respect to t, we get:

a = v ' = v ' T + vT '

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 6

If we use the expression for the curvature


given by Equation 9 in Section 12.3,
we have:

| T'| | T'|
so | T ' |= v
=
=
|r'|
v

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

The unit normal vector was defined


in Section 12.4 as N = T/ |T|
So, Equation 6 gives:

T ' =| T ' | N = vN

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Formula/Equation 7

Then, Equation 5 becomes:

a = v 'T + v N
2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equations 8

Writing aT and aN for the tangential and


normal components of acceleration,
we have
a = aTT + aNN
where
aT = v

and

aN = Kv2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

This resolution is illustrated


here.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Lets look at what Formula 7


says.

a = v 'T + v N
2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

The first thing to notice is that


the binormal vector B is absent.
No matter how an object moves through space,
its acceleration always lies in the plane of T and N
(the osculating plane).
Recall that T gives the direction of motion and
N points in the direction the curve is turning.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Next, we notice that:


The tangential component of acceleration is v,
the rate of change of speed.
The normal component of acceleration is v2,
the curvature times the square of the speed.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

This makes sense if we think of


a passenger in a car.
A sharp turn in a road means a large value
of the curvature .
So, the component of the acceleration perpendicular
to the motion is large and the passenger is thrown
against a car door.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

High speed around the turn has


the same effect.
In fact, if you double your speed,
aN is increased by a factor of 4.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

We have expressions for the tangential


and normal components of acceleration in
Equations 8.
However, its desirable to have expressions
that depend only on r, r, and r.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Thus, we take the dot product of v = vT


with a as given by Equation 7:
v a = vT (v T + v2N)
= vv T T + v3T N
= vv

(Since T T = 1 and T N = 0)

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 9

Therefore,

v a
aT = v ' =
v
r '(t ) r "(t )
=
| r '(t ) |

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 10

Using the formula for curvature given by


Theorem 10 in Section 12.3, we have:

| r '(t ) r "(t ) |
2
aN = v =
| r '(t ) |
3
| r '(t ) |
| r '(t ) r "(t ) |
=
| r '(t ) |
2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Example 7

A particle moves with position function


r(t) = t2, t2, t3

Find the tangential and normal


components of acceleration.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS
2

r (t ) = t i + t j + t k
2

r '( t ) = 2 t i + 2 t j + 3 t k
r "( t ) = 2 i + 2 j + 6 t k
| r'( t ) | =

8t + 9t
2

Example 7

Example 7

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Therefore, Equation 9 gives the tangential


component as:

r '(t ) r "(t )
aT =
| r '(t ) |
=

8t + 18t

8t + 9t
2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

i
r '(t ) r "(t ) = 2t
2

2t 3t
2

6t

= 6t i 6t j
2

Example 7

Example 7

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Hence, Equation 10 gives the normal


component as:

r '(t ) r "(t )
aN =
| r '(t ) |
=

6 2t

8t + 9t
2

KEPLERS LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

We now describe one of the great


accomplishments of calculus by showing how
the material of this chapter can be used to
prove Keplers laws of planetary motion.

KEPLERS LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

After 20 years of studying the astronomical


observations of the Danish astronomer
Tycho Brahe, the German mathematician and
astronomer Johannes Kepler (15711630)
formulated the following three laws.

KEPLERS FIRST LAW

A planet revolves around the sun


in an elliptical orbit with the sun at
one focus.

KEPLERS SECOND LAW

The line joining the sun to


a planet sweeps out equal areas
in equal times.

KEPLERS THIRD LAW

The square of the period of revolution


of a planet is proportional to the cube
of the length of the major axis of its orbit.

KEPLERS LAWS

In his book Principia Mathematica of 1687,


Sir Isaac Newton was able to show that
these three laws are consequences of
two of his own laws:
Second Law of Motion
Law of Universal Gravitation

KEPLERS FIRST LAW

In what follows, we prove Keplers


First Law.
The remaining laws are proved
as exercises (with hints).

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

The gravitational force of the sun on a planet


is so much larger than the forces exerted by
other celestial bodies.

Thus, we can safely ignore all bodies in


the universe except the sun and one planet
revolving about it.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

We use a coordinate system with the sun


at the origin.
We let r = r(t) be the position vector
of the planet.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Equally well, r could be the position


vector of any of:
The moon
A satellite moving around the earth
A comet moving around a star

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

The velocity vector is:


v = r
The acceleration vector is:
a = r

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

We use the following laws of Newton.


Second Law of Motion:

F = ma

Law of Gravitation:

GMm
F= 3 r
r
GMm
= 2 u
r

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

In the two laws,


F is the gravitational force on the planet
m and M are the masses of the planet and the sun
G is the gravitational constant
r = |r|
u = (1/r)r is the unit vector in the direction of r

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

First, we show that


the planet moves in
one plane.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

By equating the expressions for F in


Newtons two laws, we find that:

GM
a= 3 r
r
So, a is parallel to r.
It follows that r x a = 0.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

We use Formula 5 in Theorem 3 in


Section 12.2 to write:

d
(r v ) = r ' v + r v '
dt
= v v + ra
= 0+0
=0

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Therefore,
rxv=h
where h is a constant vector.
We may assume that h 0;
that is, r and v are not parallel.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

This means that the vector r = r(t) is


perpendicular to h for all values of t.

So, the planet always lies in the plane through


the origin perpendicular to h.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Thus, the orbit of the planet is


a plane curve.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

To prove Keplers First Law, we rewrite


the vector h as follows:

h = r v = rr '
= r u (r u) '
= r u (ru '+ r ' u)
= r (u u ') + rr '(u u)
2

= r (u u ')
2

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Then,
GM
2
a h = 2 u (r u u ')
r
= GM u (u u ')
= GM [ (u u ')u (u u)u ']

(Property 6,
Th. 8, Sec. 11.4)

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

However, u u = |u|2 = 1
Also, |u(t)| = 1

It follows from Example 4 in Section 12.2


that:
u u = 0

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Therefore,

a h = GM u '
Thus,

( v h) ' = v ' h = a h = GM u '

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Equation 11

Integrating both sides of that equation,


we get:

v h = GM u + c
where c is a constant vector.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

At this point, it is convenient to choose the


coordinate axes so that the standard basis
vector k points in the direction of the vector h.

Then, the planet moves in the xy-plane.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

As both v x h and u are perpendicular


to h, Equation 11 shows that c lies in
the xy-plane.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

This means that we can choose


the x- and y-axes so that the vector i
lies in the direction of c.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

If is the angle between c and r,


then (r, ) are polar coordinates of
the planet.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

From Equation 11 we have:

r ( v h) = r (GM u + c)
= GM r u + r c
= GMr u u + | r || c | cos
= GMr + rc cos
where c = |c|.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Then,

r ( v h)
r=
GM + c cos
1 r ( v h)
=
GM 1 + e cos
where e = c/(GM).

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

However,

r ( v h) = (r v ) h
= h h
=| h |

=h
where h = |h|.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Thus,
2

h /(GM )
r=
1 + e cos
2
eh / c
=
1 + e cos

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Equation 12

Writing d = h2/c, we obtain:

ed
r=
1 + e cos

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

Comparing with Theorem 6 in Section 10.6,


we see that Equation 12 is the polar equation
of a conic section with:
Focus at the origin
Eccentricity e

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

We know that the orbit of a planet is


a closed curve.

Hence, the conic must be an ellipse.

KEPLERS FIRST LAWPROOF

This completes the derivation


of Keplers First Law.

KEPLERS LAWS

The proofs of the three laws show that


the methods of this chapter provide
a powerful tool for describing some
of the laws of nature.