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VECTOR FUNCTIONS

12.4

Motion in Space:

Velocity and Acceleration

In this section, we will learn about:

The motion of an object

using tangent and normal vectors.

and normal vectors and curvature can be

used in physics to study:

The motion of an object, including its velocity

and acceleration, along a space curve.

Newton by using these methods to derive

Keplers First Law of planetary motion.

VELOCITY

space so that its position vector at

time t is r(t).

VELOCITY

Vector 1

of h, the vector

r (t + h) r (t )

h

approximates

the direction of the

particle moving along

the curve r(t).

VELOCITY

of the displacement vector per unit

time.

VELOCITY

velocity over a time interval of

length h.

VELOCITY VECTOR

Equation 2

at time t :

r (t + h) r (t )

v (t ) = lim

h 0

h

= r '(t )

VELOCITY VECTOR

the tangent vector and points in

the direction of the tangent line.

SPEED

is the magnitude of the velocity vector,

that is, |v(t)|.

SPEED

and from Equation 7 in Section 12.3,

we have:

ds

| v(t ) |=| r '(t ) |=

dt

= rate of change

of distance with

respect to time

ACCELERATION

the acceleration of the particle is defined as

the derivative of the velocity:

a(t) = v(t) = r(t)

Example 1

in a plane is given by:

r(t) = t3 i + t2 j

Find its velocity, speed, and acceleration

when t = 1 and illustrate geometrically.

Example 1

are:

v(t) = r(t) = 3t2 i + 2t j

a(t) = r(t) = 6t I + 2 j

Example 1

| v (t ) |= (3t ) + (2t )

2 2

= 9t + 4t

4

Example 1

When t = 1, we have:

v(1) = 3 i + 2 j

a(1) = 6 i + 2 j

|v(1)| = 13

Example 1

are shown here.

Example 2

speed of a particle with position vector

r(t) = t2, et, tet

Example 2

v (t ) = r '(t ) = 2t , e , (1 + t )e

t

a(t ) = v '(t ) = 2, e , (2 + t )e

t

| v (t ) |= 4t + e + (1 + t ) e

2

2t

2t

Example 2 with the velocity and acceleration

vectors when t = 1.

Section 12.2 can be used to find position

vectors when velocity or acceleration vectors

are known, as in the next example.

Example 3

r(0) = 1, 0, 0

with initial velocity

v(0) = i j + k

Its acceleration is

a(t) = 4t i + 6t j + k

Find its velocity and position at time t.

Example 3

v(t) = a(t) dt

= (4t i + 6t j + k) dt

=2t2 i + 3t2 j + t k + C

Example 3

vector C, we use the fact that

v(0) = i j + k

So,

C=ij+ k

Example 3

It follows:

v(t) = 2t2 i + 3t2 j + t k + i j + k

= (2t2 + 1) i + (3t2 1) j + (t + 1) k

Example 3

r(t) = v(t) dt

= [(2t2 + 1) i + (3t2 1) j + (t + 1) k] dt

= (t3 + t) i + (t3 t) j + (t2 + t) k + D

Example 3

So, the position at time t is given by:

r(t) = (t3 + t + 1) i + (t3 t) j + (t2 + t) k

in Example 3 was used to plot the path

of the particle here for 0 t 3.

to recover:

Velocity, when acceleration is known

t

v (t ) = v (t0 ) + a(u ) du

t0

t

r (t ) = r (t0 ) + v (u ) du

t0

then the acceleration can be found from

Newtons Second Law of Motion.

at any time t, a force F(t) acts on an object

of mass m producing an acceleration a(t),

then

F(t) = ma(t)

Example 4

a circular path with constant angular speed

has position vector

r(t) = a cos t i + a sin t j

show that it is directed toward the origin.

Example 4

the acceleration:

a(t) = v(t) = a2 cos t i a2 sin t j

Example 4

the force as:

F(t) = ma(t)

= m2 (a cos t i + a sin t j)

Example 4

Notice that:

F(t) = m2r(t)

This shows that the force acts in the direction

opposite to the radius vector r(t).

Example 4

the origin.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

Example 4

(center-seeking) force.

Example 5

Angle of elevation

Initial velocity v0

Example 5

and the only external force is due to gravity,

find the position function r(t) of the projectile.

Example 5

(the horizontal distance traveled)?

Example 5

starts at the origin.

Example 5

we have:

F = ma = mg j

where g = |a| 9.8 m/s2.

Therefore, a = g j

Example 5

v(t) = gt j + C

where C = v(0) = v0.

Therefore,

r(t) = v(t) = gt j + v0

Example 5

r(t) = gt2 j + t v0 + D

However,

D = r(0) = 0

E. g. 5Equation 3

is given by:

r(t) = gt2 j + t v0

Example 5

of the projectile), then

v0 = v0 cos i + v0 sin j

Equation 3 becomes:

r(t) = (v0 cos )t i + [(v0 sin )t gt2] j

E. g. 5Equations 4

of the trajectory are:

x = (v0 cos )t

y = (v0 sin )t gt2

Example 5

you will see that y is a quadratic function

of x.

Example 5

of a parabola.

Example 5

of x when y = 0.

Setting y = 0, we obtain:

t = 0 or t = (2v0 sin )/g

Example 5

2v0 sin

d = x = (v0 cos )

g

v (2sin cos ) v sin 2

=

=

g

g

2

0

2

0

sin 2 = 1, that is, = /4.

Example 6

and angle of elevation 45 from a position

10 m above ground level.

Where does the projectile hit the ground?

With what speed does it do so?

Example 6

the initial position of the projectile is (0, 10).

by adding 10 to the expression for y.

Example 6

we have:

y = 10 + 150sin( / 4)t (9.8)t

1

2

= 10 + 75 2 t 4.9t

Example 6

4.9t2 75 2 t 10 = 0

only the positive value of t), we get:

t=

21.74

9.8

Example 6

Then,

x 75 2 (21.74)

2306

about 2,306 m away.

Example 6

v(t ) = r '(t )

= 75 2 i + (75 2 9.8t ) j

Example 6

2

151m/s

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

it is often useful to resolve the acceleration

into two components:

Tangential (in the direction of the tangent)

Normal (in the direction of the normal)

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

then

r '(t )

v (t )

v

T(t ) =

=

=

| r '(t ) | | v (t ) | v

Thus,

v = vT

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 5

equation with respect to t, we get:

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 6

given by Equation 9 in Section 12.3,

we have:

| T'| | T'|

so | T ' |= v

=

=

|r'|

v

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

in Section 12.4 as N = T/ |T|

So, Equation 6 gives:

T ' =| T ' | N = vN

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Formula/Equation 7

a = v 'T + v N

2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equations 8

normal components of acceleration,

we have

a = aTT + aNN

where

aT = v

and

aN = Kv2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

here.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

says.

a = v 'T + v N

2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

the binormal vector B is absent.

No matter how an object moves through space,

its acceleration always lies in the plane of T and N

(the osculating plane).

Recall that T gives the direction of motion and

N points in the direction the curve is turning.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

The tangential component of acceleration is v,

the rate of change of speed.

The normal component of acceleration is v2,

the curvature times the square of the speed.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

a passenger in a car.

A sharp turn in a road means a large value

of the curvature .

So, the component of the acceleration perpendicular

to the motion is large and the passenger is thrown

against a car door.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

the same effect.

In fact, if you double your speed,

aN is increased by a factor of 4.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

and normal components of acceleration in

Equations 8.

However, its desirable to have expressions

that depend only on r, r, and r.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

with a as given by Equation 7:

v a = vT (v T + v2N)

= vv T T + v3T N

= vv

(Since T T = 1 and T N = 0)

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 9

Therefore,

v a

aT = v ' =

v

r '(t ) r "(t )

=

| r '(t ) |

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Equation 10

Theorem 10 in Section 12.3, we have:

| r '(t ) r "(t ) |

2

aN = v =

| r '(t ) |

3

| r '(t ) |

| r '(t ) r "(t ) |

=

| r '(t ) |

2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

Example 7

r(t) = t2, t2, t3

components of acceleration.

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

2

r (t ) = t i + t j + t k

2

r '( t ) = 2 t i + 2 t j + 3 t k

r "( t ) = 2 i + 2 j + 6 t k

| r'( t ) | =

8t + 9t

2

Example 7

Example 7

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

component as:

r '(t ) r "(t )

aT =

| r '(t ) |

=

8t + 18t

8t + 9t

2

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

i

r '(t ) r "(t ) = 2t

2

2t 3t

2

6t

= 6t i 6t j

2

Example 7

Example 7

ACCELERATIONCOMPONENTS

component as:

r '(t ) r "(t )

aN =

| r '(t ) |

=

6 2t

8t + 9t

2

accomplishments of calculus by showing how

the material of this chapter can be used to

prove Keplers laws of planetary motion.

observations of the Danish astronomer

Tycho Brahe, the German mathematician and

astronomer Johannes Kepler (15711630)

formulated the following three laws.

in an elliptical orbit with the sun at

one focus.

a planet sweeps out equal areas

in equal times.

of a planet is proportional to the cube

of the length of the major axis of its orbit.

KEPLERS LAWS

Sir Isaac Newton was able to show that

these three laws are consequences of

two of his own laws:

Second Law of Motion

Law of Universal Gravitation

First Law.

The remaining laws are proved

as exercises (with hints).

is so much larger than the forces exerted by

other celestial bodies.

the universe except the sun and one planet

revolving about it.

at the origin.

We let r = r(t) be the position vector

of the planet.

vector of any of:

The moon

A satellite moving around the earth

A comet moving around a star

v = r

The acceleration vector is:

a = r

Second Law of Motion:

F = ma

Law of Gravitation:

GMm

F= 3 r

r

GMm

= 2 u

r

F is the gravitational force on the planet

m and M are the masses of the planet and the sun

G is the gravitational constant

r = |r|

u = (1/r)r is the unit vector in the direction of r

the planet moves in

one plane.

Newtons two laws, we find that:

GM

a= 3 r

r

So, a is parallel to r.

It follows that r x a = 0.

Section 12.2 to write:

d

(r v ) = r ' v + r v '

dt

= v v + ra

= 0+0

=0

Therefore,

rxv=h

where h is a constant vector.

We may assume that h 0;

that is, r and v are not parallel.

perpendicular to h for all values of t.

the origin perpendicular to h.

a plane curve.

the vector h as follows:

h = r v = rr '

= r u (r u) '

= r u (ru '+ r ' u)

= r (u u ') + rr '(u u)

2

= r (u u ')

2

Then,

GM

2

a h = 2 u (r u u ')

r

= GM u (u u ')

= GM [ (u u ')u (u u)u ']

(Property 6,

Th. 8, Sec. 11.4)

However, u u = |u|2 = 1

Also, |u(t)| = 1

that:

u u = 0

Therefore,

a h = GM u '

Thus,

Equation 11

we get:

v h = GM u + c

where c is a constant vector.

coordinate axes so that the standard basis

vector k points in the direction of the vector h.

to h, Equation 11 shows that c lies in

the xy-plane.

the x- and y-axes so that the vector i

lies in the direction of c.

then (r, ) are polar coordinates of

the planet.

r ( v h) = r (GM u + c)

= GM r u + r c

= GMr u u + | r || c | cos

= GMr + rc cos

where c = |c|.

Then,

r ( v h)

r=

GM + c cos

1 r ( v h)

=

GM 1 + e cos

where e = c/(GM).

However,

r ( v h) = (r v ) h

= h h

=| h |

=h

where h = |h|.

Thus,

2

h /(GM )

r=

1 + e cos

2

eh / c

=

1 + e cos

Equation 12

ed

r=

1 + e cos

we see that Equation 12 is the polar equation

of a conic section with:

Focus at the origin

Eccentricity e

a closed curve.

of Keplers First Law.

KEPLERS LAWS

the methods of this chapter provide

a powerful tool for describing some

of the laws of nature.

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