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12O

Chapter

j'

Dfferential Motions and Velocities

speedsofeachandeveryjoint'atanyinstant,suchthatthetotalmotioncausedby
frame. In this section, we will first study
rhe robot will f..q*l to ih". d.rir.d sp!"d of the
the difterenrial motions of

mechanism' Finally, we

of
frame. Then, we will study the differential motions

robot

will relate the two together'

3.6 Differential Motions of a Frame


Differentialmotionsofaframecanbedividedintothefollowing:

a.

o Differential
o Differential
. pin-.r."it1

translations

rotations
transformations (combinations of translations and rotations)

3.6. 1 Differential Translations


values' Therefore' it
A differential translation is the translation of a frame at dift-erential
moved a differential
has
frame
the
canU. ,.prJ.ni raiy m*r1dx, dy, dz).'T11is means
amount along the x-, !-, and z-axes'

Example 3.2
0.03) units' Find
A frame B has rranslated a differential amoqnt of Trans(\'01,0.05,
its new location and orientation'

io.zoz

o 1

-0.707 sl
o 4l

I
B:l^-^^
| 0.707 0 0.707

I o o o

Solution:

I
I

1.]

orientation of the
Since the differential motion is only a translation,.the

frameshouldnotbeaft.ected.Thenewlocationoftheframeis:

5l

0 .707 0
0 -0.707
o.o1l
00
f
lo.tot
i1
4l_ 010
10 o.osl I o 10
nl- -707 0
": [: 01 o.o3 lx lo.zoz 0 0.707 1l lo 00,0
1i I o 00
L
lo 00

-0.707

0.707

5.01-l

4.0s
I
e.03

1l
I

3.6.2 Differential Rotations about the Reference Axes


It is gen-erally.represented by
dift-erential rotation is a small rotation of the frame'
A
'irt(iiafil,*nlar
angle of d?,,abo"tr an axis 4'
an
rrr."r, that the frame has rotated
z-ax.es are definedby 6r , .3y, end
Specifically, differential rotations about the x-, y-, and
following approximations:
the
small amounts, we can use
Since the ,or"rlorrr

"..

sin6x: 6x (inradians)
cosdx: 1

62.

3.6 Dffirential Motions of a Frame


Then, the rot:atron matrices
representing differential rotations
about the rwi1 be:

f r n ^., n-r
ft o o ol
t',{*,a*):f!
-,,,,
?'J Sl
u,Il,^,,,,,u,): I

lo; ;;i

121
,

y-,

andz_axes

r- ir -da 0 0l

IlSi?J'*'e'*r:1';

t;il

similarly, we can arso define


dift-erential rotations about
the current axes as:
f,

Q'11)

o
ll
? so ol
o or
-or, Sl
ao4n'an):1f,
-:'iSl
l1
fr -6a
;,
;" Jf,o'1''o,l:l-ou, i I If,^,,r,u,,:/i
looorJ
l;';;il
Lo,oo,l

Q'12)
-,r^,,.^ L
of unit vectors. a.. :.-::otrythe;&:ve!aiestablishedpreviouslyaboutthemagnirude
differentialva".rr"*,.fll]:'l^t1'+ (a)l 1'.However, as you
Notice that

these matrices defi, rha

-., ,.-.;;;;;
l,.i:id.,:g;.-Gr,#:?:'"",:T,;#ri:.T:,5il*.:y*H#1.#trf;
drtterentials
such as (6x)", the magnitude
if ,h.,r..tor;;;#;.:eptabre. ::1*;;
As we have alreadv.seen, if
the"o.a..lr-,rrripri.*i"".i*"rji.r.*r"nges,
change as wen. fir._l.r"..,
rhe resulr

will

ffi l.,.;;i-'#ffi :th',:ff


Rot(x,6x)Rot(y,6y)

Rot(y,6y)Rot(x, tx)

i; -"*" -i*i."ri;"lr.J".i'-ng

**il,;#ffiffi";TffJilf;

the order of mar.


'**..,,torders,we

I[;if,f}' ;lilt*;?il
fj,;'!il ff

;j il:l+r{ ?ll

However' ifas before' we set


higher-order differentiars such
as 6xty to zero,the resurts are
exacrly the same. consequendyl
r". aia-...rri"r *"norrr,
oi#ofmurtiplicarion is no
ronger important

,i.

f:k:;)ilQ;i;'i

^oof ro_tarions,
other combinations
1,,,r,;;1;;;(;,;;j: rhe same is true ror
ln.t,rang amrJ,r,rii,-;;il;r;"rt
You may remember r.o- y."ur-;;;"t?ri...."urse
the e_axis.
that-large-angle rorarions
dift'erent axes are not iommutative,
abour
and therefore, cannot b. a-dd.a
For example' as we
in different orders.
r.."].ar"" rorare an object 90" about the
followed by a 90" rota1L1
1?:: abo.rr it . r-orr,
r_axis,
irr. ,o.rrr-.n iu
order. However. velocities are
rr you reverse rhe
.o__or"rirre.and

{:*it

9 : ,"i * arj -f ot.k, regardless of ,t.

drscussion

#.,;e;.,

U.-"aa.Jl, vectors; therefore,


ora.r. ffri, ir' ,;;;""re, as rhe
shows, ifwe neglect trr. rrigi.._ola..
above
aia_.r.rrrd;;;.;;er ofmultiplication
c.an

122

Chapter 3. Dffirenilal
Moilons and Velocities

Figure

3.5 Differe

about a generai
axis 4.

wirr be unimportanr
same is

rrnce velociries
r*. h;;i: ,::::::""-

are

in faadifferential

modons divided
by time, the

3.6.3 Differential
Rotation about
t a^"t"ral Axis q
Based on rhe
above, since
rhe o.o

ji:;1l##i{i#liffi iff**,r,':'dlr:il:.?,::ffi ;q'fr


,;::r:,il"J
..,,.n,.",ir:::;,4ru1*:gfi tl',';'J,o;'if,:l:h.,.".o'ni.,n,i.'"11tiorx,
*'"v gl" :,:i'il:
(q, 0) :
r:?t"t:'#:*t;,
a", (0,
*lit,,o"
ll
A
f,t
!4
-,,._r,_,"r1<,oZ)
I
l'u r o oll 1' s 5v

Ro

G,

-dx ;//
,j
;" :ll -',, j
/:
Lo o e

/o

t]lo e i

Rot(q,d0)

po71*,dx)Rot(y,6y)Rot(2,u.)

-.
!{.
:[ +
3x
l-5l

Example g.g

#"jfijTilffYiJ;l"jlsiT#rT,1

[o

ol
ol
o

/
1J

bv smarl rorations
abour the

Q.14

tocities

j.6

Dffirential Motions of a hame

solution:

t23

Substitucing the given rorarions in Equation (3.,14),,we.get:

6y ol I r _0.02 0.05
I r -62
1
ol 1o'oz
--0.1
Rot(a,dil:l\
-",-l-u, 6x -6x
1. ol:l-o.os G1 ,1

ol

o o 1J I o

lo

il

Note that the lengths of the three directional unit vectors are 1.001, 1.005, and
1.006, respectively. If we assume that 0.1 radians (about 5.7") is small (differential),
these values are acceptably close to 1. Otherwise, we should use smaller values
for

differential angles.
re, the

is not

3.6.4 Differential Transformations of a Frame


The dift-erential transformation of a frame is a combination of differential translations and
rotalions in any order. If we denote the original frame as Tand assume that dT k the
change in the frame 7 as a result of a differential transformation. then:

[f + dT] :

NSUme

tations
s).
,d as:

or

[af1

where

lis

dl)ltTl
dy, dz) Rot(q, d0) _ 4[f]

lTrans(dx, dy, dz) Rot(q,


lTrans(dx,

a unit matrix. Equation (3.15) can be written

Idrl : taltrl

f\l :

where

[Trans(dxo dy, dz)

(3.1s)

as:

Rot(q, de)

-4

(3.15)

[A] (or simply A) is called dfferential operator.It is the product of dift-erential rranslations
and rotations, minus a unit matrix. Multiplying a frame by the difierential operator
[A]
will yield the change in the frame. The differential operator can be found by multiplyinj
the matrices and subtracring the unit matrix,
A,

Trans(dx, dy, dz)

Rot(q, d0)

as

foltws:

| -62 6y ol [r
[t o o a*11 3z
1,
ol

0" o ol
1 o ol
o I ol

-6x
lo
6x
1
l; o; o? '/.ll
ol.-lo
-6y
1JL o o 0 1l
o 0 ]j

lo

(3.1,4)

f o -62
0

A- |6=

Lo

6y

-dr
6x
l-rr
L0 0
o

(3.17j

d*1

dyl

,;)

As you can see, the differential operator is not a transformation matrix, or a frame. It
follow the required format lither; it rs only an operator, and it yields the changes
in a frame.
does not

Chapter

124

j'

Dffirential Motions and Velocities

ExamPle 3.4
Writethedifferentialoperatormatrixforthefollowingdifferentialtransformations:
:
6I: 0'04' 6z: 0'06radians'
dx: 0.05, dy:0'03,"il:_.o'otunitsanddx O'02'
Equatio n (3'77)'we get:
Substituting the given values into

Solution:

I o -0.06 o'04 o'os


l
o'03
o
I
o.oo
-o'02
a:
I -0.04 o.o2 o o'ot
L o o o ol
I

ExamPle 3.5
Findtheeffectofadift.erentialrotationof0.lradaboutthey-axisfollowedbya
on the given frame B.
differential translation of [0.1, 0, 0.2]

o 1 tol
[o
u:loIt o1oo s3l
[o o o 1l
l

Solution:Aswesawbefore,thechangeintheframecanbefoundbypre--"1tipl-v'1q
and
Substituting the given information
the frame with the d;tr;;;rtrl op.ri'ror.
multiplying the matrices, we will get:
For dx

ldBl:

0.1'

[Al[n1

u)",-A
I

- "t

dz

:0.2,

6x

: 0,

6Y

: 0'1, 6z:0

fo o o.r o.1l[o o I lol

: l0

| -0.1

L0

3.7 Interpretati"tt "f th"

s s +lli
Diff"t"ttti"l

l-9

;l il:Ls

o:t

-0.1
s

0.4

0lI
=0.s
0l

ThematrixdTinEquations(3.15)and(3-16)representsthechangesinaframeasaresult
are:
oiAf.r.n lal motions' The elements of this matrix

dT:

I dnI On,
I on,

do* da,

OO"f

do, do, dP, I


do, da, dP, I

Lo o o ol

(3.18)

d Velocities

1-'8 Dffirential Changes between Frames

formations:
06radians.

r25

The dBrnatrix inExample 3.5 represents the change in the frame B, as shown
in Equation
(3'18)' Therefore, each element ofth. matrix represents the change
in the coresp;"di";
element of the frame. As an example, this
-.im that the frarrie moved a differential
amount of 0.4 units along the x-axis, zero along the y-axis, and a differential
amount of
-0'8 along the e-axis. It also rotated such that tiere was no change in its n-vector, there
was a change ofo.1 in the o, component ofthe o-vector, and,
ot".rg. of -0.1 inthe a=
component of the a-vector.
The new location and orientation of the frame after the dift-erential motions
can be
found by adding the change ro the frame:

Tn*:
llowed by

dT

Tal

(3,1e)

Exarnple 3.6
Find the location and the orientation of frame B ofExample 3.5 after
the move.

Solution: The new location and orientation ofthe frame can be found by adding the
changes to the original values- The result is:

Br*:
-multiplying
cmation and

o.4J

l'-l'l
I

Borisinat

ilB

01
00
= lo 10
lo 00

-fl

ll.ll

0.1 0
00
0 -0.1
00

'))

-0.1

-;)

I
Differential Changes between Frames
The difterential operator A in Equation (3.16).represents a diSerenrial operator
relacive to
the fixed reference frame and is technically uA. ilowever, it'is possible
to d.fi";

-;;;;
diffe':ntial operator, this time relative to the currenr frame itsil4 that will enable
us ro
calculate the same changes in the frame. Since the differenrial operaror
t.il;.;;
ri;
frame (7A) is relative to^-"..rr..rrt
to
find
the
changes
in
th!
frame
we
posrmusr
multipiy the frame by TA 1as we did!ame,
in chapter 2).Ther.r",rlt *iil b.;;#;,il;il;;
operations represent the same changes in the frame. Then:

[dr]:

[a][7]

'--+ ir-1] [a][r]


(3.1s)

+l l;

0.1

: [rl'a]

lr-'l lrll'al

-+ ['a] : lr-1l1n1Jr1

The^refore,Eg11t-ron (3.20) canbe used to calculate tn.


the frame, I A. 'We can multiply the matrices in Equation

(3.20)

ar"..rrtaal operator relative to


Q.2,0) andsimplify the resul

as

126

Chapter

3. Diferential Motions and Velocities

tbllows. Assuming that the frame T is represented by

t"

ny nz -p
"l
oy oz

L0

oo

t-

T-': lo'

[T-1][A]tTl

n, o, a, p matrix, we get:

fo -32 6y
u:
0

d*f
dvl

o o

drl

t^

-p.ol I ano
lo, ay az -p'al

-dx
A: I
6x
0
-aY
|

1j

I o

an

L0

-26. ,6y

:7A: |'9: rl,x


o
l-'sy

Io o o

o_l

r dxf

(3.21)

rdzl

oJ

As you can see, the rA is made to look exactly


like the A marix, but all elements are
relative to the current frame, where these elements
are found from the above multiplication of matrices, and are summarized as follorvs:

'dx: 6.n
167-6.o
rdz: b.a

rdx:n.[6xp+d]
'dy:o.[6xprd]
rd.:a.[6xp+d]
See

(z'>ct

Paull for the derivation ofthe above equattons.

Example g.Z
Find 8A for Example 3.5.
SolFtion: 'we have the following vectors from the given
information. -we will
substitute these values into Equatii n (3.22)
and will calculare ,r..,o.r"bd ;;; ;6.

n:[0,1,0] o:[0,0,1]
6: [0,0.1,0] 6: [0.1,0,0.2]

6xp-

a:[1,0,0J p:[10,5,3]

[0.3,0,

-1]

[0.1,0,

0.2]:

10

6xp
thus

* d:

:n'
udy :o.
Bdz :a.
Bdx

[0.3,0,

-1J+

[0.4,0, _0.8]

+ d] : 0(0.4) + 1(0) + 0(_0.8) : 0


[6 x p +d] : 0(0.a) +0(0) + 1(-0.s) : _0.8
[6 x p+d] : 1(0.4) +0(0) *g(_o.s) : 6.4
[6 x p

Bdx: b.n

: o(o) + 0.1(1) * o(o) : g.1


u6y :6'
o : 0(0)+ 0.1(0) +0(1) : 0 .:Gi,
86z :6.
a : o(1) +0.1(o) * o(o) : 9

3.9 Dffirential Motions of a Robot and

its

Hand Frame

127

Substituting into Equarion (3.21) yields:


Bd

Q,2I)

: [0,-0.8,0.4] and
"a

n5

[0.1,0,0]

[o o o1 ol
-0

I3 ol,
L0 o o

;"'I
o_l

As you see, these values for BA are not the same as A. However,

matrix by uA will yield rhe same result dB as before.

post-multiplying the B.

Example 3.8
calculate BA of Example 3.7 directly from the differential operator.

Solution: Using Equation

lual

[B-1][a][B]

fo

lo

Ir

Lo

f0

l0
lo
Lo

(3.20), we can calculate the BA directly

10 -5
01-3
00-10
00
00
0 -0.1
0.1 0
00

which, of coune, is the same result

as

ll,

I l ;l

as:

l;

01
00
10
00

10.l

sl
3l
1J

-0.8
0.4
0

it

in Example 3.7.

3.9 Differential Motions of a Robot and its Hand Frame


In the previous section, we saw the changes made to a frame as a result of dift-erential
motions. This only relates to the frame changes, but not how they were accomplished. In
this section, we will relate the changes to the mechanism, in ihis case the robot, that

accomplishes the differential motions. We will leam how the robot's movements are
translated into the frame changes at the hand.
The frame we discussed previously may be any frame, including the hand frame of a
robot. dTdescribes the changes in the compon.nir of the n, o, u, lr..rors. If the frame

were the hand frame of the robot, we would need to find oui how the differential
motions of the joints of the robot relate to dift-erenrial morions of the hand frame, and
specifically, to dT. Of course, this relationship is a funcfion of the robot's configuration
and design, but also a function ofits instantaneous location and orientation. For elxample,
the simple revolute robot and the Stanford Arm of Chapter 2 would .equire -rlery
differentjoint velocities for similar hand velocities since their configurations are different.

r28

Chapter

3. Dffirential

Motions and Velocities

However, for either robot, whether the arm is completely extended or not, and
is pointed upward or downward, we would rr..d rr.ry di{l-erentjoint
velocities
in order to achieve the same hand velocity. Of course, as we discuss"ed before, the
Jacobian of the robot will create this link berr,veen the joint movements and the hand
movement as:
whether it

dx

d0t

dy

doz

dz
6x

Robot
Jacobian

doz
do+

6y

dos

6z

doo

or

Since the elements of matrix [D] are the same informatron as


motions of the frame and the fobot are related to each other.

3. 10

(3.10)

IDI -- ullDrl

in [A], the differential

Calculation of the Jacobian


Each element in the Jacobian is the derivative of a corresponding kinematic
equation
with respect to one ofthe variables. Referring to Equatio"
1a.lo;, tf,e first ele-erriln Jo1
is /x. This means that the first kinematic equarion L.rrt ,.pr.r.rrt
-orr.-.rrt, "lo.rg ih.
x-axis, which, of course, would b, pr. In other words, px expresses
the motion of
the hand frame along the r-axis; consequently, its derivativ.
U.
dx.
Thesame
will be
-itt
true for dy and dz. considering the n, o, u, p matrix, we may pick the corresponding
elements of p*,.yt, and p. and differentiate them to get dx, dy,'and, dz.
. A1 an example, consider the simple revolute ar- ofE*"mple Z.ZS. The last column of
the forward kinematic equation of the robot is:

(3.23)

lr,]:l?'triiiil:ii,f7r]
Taking the derivative of p* will yield:

P*: Ct(Cr.ooo * C4a3 * C2a2)


0p- .^ 0p- .^
,
0o.,
. .. +ffide6
apr:
+
*
ffide, ffid?z
dp,: -St[Cruooo I C2a3 + C2e2]dq * C{-Syaa4
* C 1[- Syaaa - Sya3]d?s I C 1[- Syaaa]d0 a

Sl;.a3

S2a2]d02

r43

hoblems

ocities

ru can

,il"tly,
:

1.

three

'd9y as

Paul, Richard P', "Robot Manipulators' Mathematics, Programming, and Control," The MiT

Press,1981.

IIr. Koren. Yoram, "Robotics for Engineers"'


McGraw-Hill, 1985.
IV. Fu, K. S., R' C. GonzaTez,

C' S' G' Lee'


Vision, and
Sensing,
Control'
"Robotics:

V.

Intelligence," McGraw-Hill, 1987'


Asada, Haruhiko, J J' E Slotine, "Robot
'Wiley and Sons'
Analysis and Control," John

NY,

VI.

1986.

Siciliano, "Modeling

Sciavicco, Lorenzo,

B'

McGraw-Hill, NY.

1996'

and Control of Robot Manipulators"'

ions, if
conffol

rol

the

ry have
lare any
ints?

3.1.

frame is expressed by the following matrix'


Suppose the location and orientation of a hand

what

is

the

effectofadifferentialrotationof0.15radiansaboutthez-axis,followedbyadifferentialtranslarionof
location of the hand'
[0.1, 0.1, 0.3]? Find the new

t-00121
p;

..

rH-

pu may
ie, these

lrotions

3.2.

to frame Tshown' it has changed an amount dTas


As a result of applying a set of differential motions
and the

shown. Find the

lr?Bil
o o 1l
lo

Posluon

*;g"ir"a. of the differential

changes made (dx, .dy, dz, 6x, 6y, 6z)

di{ferential operator with respect to frame T'

o o sl
ft
lo o 1 3l

of
the
are
Gr.

joint
a

robot.
ove.1n

uauons

0 -0.1
0
0.1
).rdt:
T:1" -1 n sl
"l
-0.1 0
,0 0
rl
o
o
lo

0
0
0

.0.5

-0.s1

0l

-33.Supposethefollowingframewassubjectedtoadifferentialtranslationofd':|700.5]unitsanda
differential rotation of 3 : [0 0'1 0]'
'What the differential operator relative to the reference frame?
is
(a)
(b) What is the differential operator relativ to the &ame '4?

[o o 1 lol

robot in

of
le of

-o."i[ 0.6 I

A-

I'rsll

144

3. Dffirential

Motions and Velocities

3.4. The inicial location and orientation of a robot's hand are given by T1,
orientarion after a change are given by 72.

and its new location and

Chapter

(a) Find a transformation matrix Q that will accomplish this transform (in the (Jniverse frame).
@) Assuming the change is small, find a differential operator A that will do rhe same.
(c) By inspection, find a di{ferential translation and a differential rotation that constitute this operator.

lr o o 5l
I t o 0.1 4.81
o
3l
o
,rl
--r
r:19
't-lo r o 6l r,:lor
'2-lo I -r
o 6.21
L0 0

0 1J

L0 0 0

1J

3.5. The hand frame of a robot and the corresponding Jacobian are given. For the given differenc:
changes of the joints, compute the change in the hand frame, its new locat ion, and corresponding

1ot fj. 3 ? 3 3
t, r^r:l9

[o 1 o

t:119
:l
'"-lo o -t ol
lo o

o 1l

S]

lo 'li 9o 9o 9l 9lol
lj, 3 3 ; 3 ?l

0
0.1

De: -0.1
0.2
0.2
0

3.6. Two consecutive

frames describe the old (71) and new (72) positions and orientations of the end.-j:
!, relatingto rtdz, Tr6x, Tr3z, is also gir-;-_
Find values ofjoint differential motions ds1, d02, dfu of the robot that caused the qiven frame char+

3-DOF robot. The correspondingJacobian relative to

''

:
f

-";''
-t,, ?'] ": l: ? il
'':
; : l i] 14,

3.7. Two consecutive

frames describe the old (71) and new (72) positions and orientations of the end

r:

3-DOF robot. The correspondingJacobian, relating to dz, 3x,62, is also given. Find values of-ierlr
dilferential motions ds1, d02, dfu of the robot that caused the given frame change.

'':[; :ll]

':ll;,' :"1"t,1':i: ? ll

3.8. A

camera is attached to the hand frarne T of a robot as given. The corresponding inverseJacob:'- rthe robot at this location is also given. The robot makes a differential motion, as a result ofwhic': :
change in rhe frame dT is recorded as given.
(a)

Find the new location of the camera after the di{ferential motion.

(b) Find the differential .operator.


(c)

Find the joint differential motion values associated with this move.

Problems

745

(d) Find how much


the dift^erential

motic
measuredrerative,.{i.";-i;;;;"""il13..iilif.ffi

:i?f i;1TijT;T;i:;*r,"

l;3_iiiil
,:f;
oTsj
iq:i
':13s;'J "-':/i -';'3 3?s/ dr:lt-o^*q-01
oo3
;
e

'

3'9' A

l?

Stistl

camera is attachedto
the hand ftame T
the robot relative to
the

a"-.

of

arobot

as

o^o?r

13-01 31-J

given.

The co:
inverseJacbbian of
,rrtrl".*;; * also given. rrr".ouor
",
llsponding
a differen'lia'1

rir;;;;;'

;H', ;:'""-'Ti::::Jili:".,Tffi*H*:;":-"

(b) Find the differential


operator.
(c) Find the joint differential
motion values D6 associated
with this move.

fqlo:r ., ,:l:,
l: I oooor
': ro
/i oi -io tl
-',' r' s i ;/
rJ
l? ; s ; I l/
l-10.
7,, o.^r-^. :The hand fiame

ro cati

on

frame described

of

*r".,3niJ,l#l

o _0.1

o.t l
o.o2 o o.osl
ar:l o _0.1
o _o.s
I o
9 o o
L
oJ
I

,:

:: ;, f

as;

rHD

{")

| -o.oz

fiig

Jacobian of the robot at this


[:_TH:ffir":HH, mv:rse
a differential modon

relative to this

10.05

0 -0.1 0 0.1 0.1J..

which joints must make


a differential rnofion'
and by how much, in
indicated differential
order to create the
motions.
(b)
4r,s the
urL lrrarrge
\_/ rFind
change in
tn the frame.
{iame.

(c) Find the new locarion


of the frame after the differentiar
motion.
(d) Find how much the

differential rnodons (given


above) should have been,
the lJniverse, to move
ifmeasured relative to
the robot ,. ifr" ,._.
new location as in pan
(c).

3_"33s1
li
*:l;fele3t
."r-,:19
-'02
o o o ol
_',
3
:l
[o o

l-

o ;]

The hand frame Zofa


robot is given. The correr
alsoshown. Tt

;,
3 ?J
l;
L1 o o o o il

Sl

ofthe robot at this ]ocation


"rouot*"t .sadifferentialmodo.tlordl]rginveneJacobian

,,**T.j#il,ff# ;,,,ffi .:::T ::: ;'::: j..,,1


(b) Find the change in
the frame.

l_: J:

is

j,]:

146

J'

u'tupter

Difr
(c) Find the new
locrti^- ^r,L- frame
.
,
-.
afre*
drrer the dtflerential
(d) Find n"*
modon.
how much th^ A:rr.^,:-""
Fram.

ntK

,',.loiillTij.:

::::-"t

(given
a r" Tli3:*,ff::::TJons
"uo,..),r'ouia have.b.een, irmeasured
same

new location

3 -i ;/ ,-':l:
l;
ro 0 0 ;l

-3:

/i ;'

Iro u
Lr

3.l2.Ca1culatethe\J

(c).

ierative

;' 3 s sl
3 J si
o o o ll

of theJacobian
for the revolute
ror
revolure rob
rohot nrn_.^..,_
el._^_. of
:*"":'"u
element
^".:theJacobian
for

J'lJ.
3,13. Calculate
6"1.ur"te the
rrrzr ;lement
the ToJ..
3.14. Using.nrrrrrorr'tu

in part

f: o e oool

'fo 1 o 3l

.:

as

Motions and

the..r.orurJ;;;::;:ffffir:;r?

:nff

.q ua on s ro,
.^.il.T *,: *
;;;
r.,J,rol*.*,ffi
cvlindrical .*"rl"ffijit1"::f:":l,l
,.tt. t,.,, rn*""',r.6)
".
.r;r+;*^--,
-'f ."fffl
",r,. ..,ir,p "il ":J
#
T.:
;?i.$fj**|*ii
fi
,Y;;,?"::ff
I
r.tu-.o.".r'"in.ri.uoot,thethreejor.,rr,.,o.,1,lfhericat;;;;#J;J:t:Tf"ffi::":tJ'#i;
d

"

components of
the velociry

r:0.'l.in/se"

"ffiT:

* ;;;ilrff:.are

given for a corresponding

i,-nnF

"' *;:*;ffi;#;u,'^:#.1* o' ^'n:, :

location. Find the

r
15in, a
30.,,
given for a corresponding
location. Find the

: velocity of the hand

r:2in/sec,.f :

tr'

:,Q'p

thre

0.05 rad./sec,
0.1nd/sec,
i, = o'1'
rad/sec, vr:: 20
)1 in, f : 60o,
robot, the il;;r;
)/ : 30o.
veloc''
componenb
glven
""::-,:,_=
for
#:i,Tihreejoint
a corresponding
re velociry .drh;;;;Hare
location. Find the
"u
three

3'18' For

a sphericai

i: I unirl"op
tnitlsec' l):
- l, rad'/sec' i'
3.19. For a cyrindricar

l'radlsec.

r:

5 uni

jj*{#.-.11",,".".."
;H:'T#;?..1,,0.11;it'H:'ff:."r"n':.',*f
vLruLraes $rat
"--^! :i"..,H
will
generate

3-20. For

y:3in/sec'i:5inlsec' q:45o'
"

,0n"r..1..:1inlsec'

,fr. !""r, frrrrJ

' =*'otn,l:25inL.

,*]',,*'l;:T: ::fi',.:Til:.::ii"",l"f:iy.nll"
nree joint velociries
verociry
li:o riame are siven ror
rhat w'r
*."..rr. *. ilJ* n*o
i : 5 in,/sec. y : 9 in/sec, :6inlsec,

iilsnolain,
rrame

f :60o, y:20in,)/:30o.