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BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS

Area: 378 square meter


Floor: Concrete slab on metal deck above a conditioned space
Roof: Concrete slab on metal deck with light-colored surface
Concrete Wall: cement mortar/plaster (13mm) layer, concrete block, 3 oval core-sand and gravel
(200mm)
Windows: Single pane in steel frame.
Door: Wood slab in wood frame
East Exposure:

West Exposure:

Orientation

Window area =

19.25 square meter

Wall area

216 square meter

Orientation

Window area =

52.8 square meter

Wall area

216 square meter

Lighting:
Equipment:
Weather Data: Assuming summer season for peak temperatures
Indoor Design Condition : 24C dry bulb temperature and 55% relative humidity
Outdoor Design Condition: 36C dry bulb temperature and 29C wet bulb temperature
Operation: Space is occupied from 9:00AM to 7:00PM at approximately 200 people doing
moderately active work; 40 Using computers, 130 Seating/reading and 40 standing/reading.

APPLIANCES
Nameplate Versus Measured Energy Use. Nameplate data rarely reflect the actual power
consumption of office equipment. Actual power consumption is assumed to equal total (radiant
plus convective) heat gain, but its ratio to the nameplate value varies widely. ASHRAE research
project RP-1055 (Hosni et al. 1999) found that, for general office equipment with nameplate
power consumption of less than 1000 W, the actual ratio of total heat gain to nameplate ranged
from 25% to 50%, but when all tested equipment is considered, the range is broader. Generally,
if the nameplate value is the only information known and no actual heat gain data are available
for similar equipment, it is conservative to use 50% of nameplate as heat gain and more nearly
correct if 25% of nameplate is used. Much better results can be obtained, however, by
considering heat gain to be predictable based on the type of equipment. However, if the device
has a mainly resistive internal electric load (e.g., a space heater), the nameplate rating may be a
good estimate of its peak energy dissipation.
Computers
Based on tests by Hosni et al. (1999) and Wilkinsand McGaffin (1994), nameplate values on
computers should be ignored when performing cooling load calculations. Table 8 presentstypical
heat gain values for computers with varying degrees of safety factor.
From 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, pg 436, Table 8 Recommended Heat Gain from
Typical Computer Equipment
Qcomputers= ( Average power consumption )( of computers )
( 97 W ) ( 40 )
Qcomputers=3880 W atts
Laptops
From 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, pg 436, Table 8 Recommended Heat Gain from
Typical Computer Equipment
Qlaptops =( Average power consumption )( of laptops )
( 36 W ) (50 )
Qlaptops =1800W atts

Monitors
From 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, pg 436, Table 8 Recommended Heat Gain from
Typical Computer Equipment
Qmonitor =( Average power consumption ) ( of monitors )
( 27 W ) ( 40 )
Qmonitors =1080W atts
Printers
Laser Printers. Hosni et al. (1999) found that power consumption, and therefore the heat gain, of
laser printers depended largely on the level of throughput for which the printer was designed.
Smaller printers tend to be used more intermittently, and larger printers may run continuously
for longer periods. Table 9 presents data on laser printers.These data can be applied by taking
the value for continuous operation and then applying an appropriate diversity factor. This would
likely be most appropriate for larger open office areas. Another approach, which may be
appropriate for a single room or small area, is to take the value that most closely matches the
expected operation of the printer with no diversity.
From 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, pg 436, Table 8 Recommended Heat Gain from
Typical Computer Equipment
Q printers =( Average power consumption )( of printers )
( 88 W ) ( 2 )
Q printers =176 W atts

Televisions
From 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, pg 436, Table 8 Recommended Heat Gain from
Typical Computer Equipment
Qtelevisions =( Average power cons umption )( of televisions )

( 90 ) ( 1 )
Qtelevisions =90 W atts

Total heat gain of the wall:


Qappliances =Qcomputers +Qlaptops + Qmonitors +Q printers + Qtelevisions
1080

176

+ 90

Qappliances =7026 Watt s

3,880

1800 +

WINDOWS
East
Qeastwindow =U window A window T

Qe astwindow= 5.9

W
( 19.25 m2 ) (3624 ) C
2
m K

Qeastwindow =1362.9 Watts

West
Qwestwindow =U window Awindow T

Qwestwindow = 5.9

W
( 52.8 m2 ) ( 3624 ) C
2
m K

Qwestwindow =3738.24 Watts

DOORS
Qdoor =U door A door T

W
-east = (2.61 m2 K
Qsweast

)(9.396)(36-24)C

= 294.283 Watts

WALLS

outdoor air film = 0.044

m K
W
2

cement mortar/plaster(13mm) layer = 0.036

m K
W

concrete block,3 oval core-sand and gravel(200mm) = 0.20


m2 K
W

indoor air film = 0.120

U=

1
Rtotal

Rtotal=R outdoor + R cement + R concrete+ R cement + Rindoor


m2 K
Rtotal=(0.044+ 0.036+0.020+0.036+ 0.120)
W
m2 K
Rtotal=0.256
W
U wall=

1
Rtotal
1
0.256

U wall=3.90625

m K
W
W
2
m K

North
Qnorthwall =U wall A wall T
Qnorthwall = 3.90625

W
( 21600 m2 ) ( 3624 ) C
2
m K

Qnorthwall =10,125

Watts

m K
W

South
Qsouthwall =U wall Awall T

Qsouthwall = 3.90625

W
( 21600 m2 ) ( 3624 ) C
2
m K

Qsouthwall =10, 125 Watts

East
Qeastwall=U wall A wall T

Qeastwall= 3.90625

W
( 187.354 m2 ) ( 3624 ) C
2
m K

Qeastwall=8782.22 Watts

West
Qwestwall =U wall A wall T

Qwestwall = 3.90625

W
( 163.2 m2) ( 3624 ) C
2
m K

Qwestwall =7,649.9 Watts

QEastTotal
QEastTotal = Qwall Qwindow - Qdoor

= 10,125W 1,632.9W - 294.283W

QEastTotal

= 8,197.82 Watts

QWestTotal
QWestTotal = Qwall Qwindow
= 10,125W 3,738.24W

QWestTotal

= 6,386.76 Watts

Total heat gain of the wall:


Qwall=Q westtotal +Qeast total +Q southtotal+Qnorth total
7,649.9

10,125

Qwall=32, 809.48

6,386.76

8,197.82 +

ROOFS
Solar energy passing through a roof equation
Q s=UA (CLTD)
where :
Qseroof = Solar Heat Gain through Roof
U = Coefficient of heat transfer roof
A = Area of roof
CLTD = Cooling Load Temperature Diffrence of roofs
Thermal Resistance of roof(Uroof) = 1.47W/m2.K
At CLTD ( Cooling Load Temperature Diffrence )
Ref.Pg.83,table 4-15,Refrigeration and Air Cond.By Stocker and Jones,2nd Edition
Wall type

: E-200mm concrete block with interior and exteriro finishing

Direction

: Wall Facing At East

Peak Time Considered

: 2 oclock in the afternoon(1400hrs)

CLTD ( Cooling Load Temperature Diffrence ) Equation for roof:


CLTD roof =CLTD roof type + ( 25t 1) +(t ave 29)
where:
t1

= inside design dry bulb temperature

t ave

= average outdoor design dry bulb temperature

CLTD roof

= ( 24 + (25 -24) + (36 29 )C

CLTD roof

= 32 C

Area of Roof (Aroof)


Total area of roof = length of roof x width of roof
Total area of roof = 54 m x 7 m = 378 square meter
Solving for ( Qseroof)
Qseroof =U roof A roo f CLTD roof

W
m2 )( 32C )
2
m K )( 378

Qseroof

= (1.47

Qseroof

= 17781.12 Watts

LIGHTINGS
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
equation of heat gain from electric lightning(Qslight)
Qlight

= ( lamp rating in watts )( ballast factor = 1.2 )( CLF lightning )

Cooling Load Factor for lightning(

Qlight

Ref.Pg.74,Table 4-9,Refrigeration and Air Cond..,by Stocker and Jones,2nd Edition


Amount of lightning in space = (capacity of flourescent)(installation of flourescent lamps)
where :
Capacity of flourescent
Amount of lightning in space

= 40 watts
= ( 40 watts )( 52 lamps )
= 2080 watts

Total amount of lightning in space = 2000 watts CLF for lightning(.87)


From Stocker and Jones ,Table 4-6
Qlight

= 2080watts(1.2)(.87)

Qlight

= 2171.52 Watts

Total Heat Gain for all Loads:


Qtotal

Qappliances

Qsen ventilation
= 70 26
100
Qtotal

Qwall
+

Qlightings

Qlatent ventilation

+
+

Qroof

Qsen infiltration

Q sen occupants
+

Qlatent occupants

Qlatent infiltration

+ 32,809.48 + 2171.52 + 17781.12 + 12,054 + 14,350 + 6809. 96 + 14,


+ 1052.89 + 2616
= 110 , 770. 9 7 Watts