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LOADFLOW STUDIES OF A GRID INTERFACED

WINDFARM USING PSSE

Submitted by

WAQAS ALI MEMON (Group Leader)

11EL87

NEELESH KUMAR

11EL78

UMAR MEMON

11EL140

JITENDER KUMAR

11EL132

KHAMISO KHAN

11EL147

ALEEM-UL-HAQUE

11-09EL02

Supervised By

ENGR. MOKHI MAAN CHANG

Co-Supervised By

ENGR. MAHESH KUMAR RATHI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,
JAMSHORO
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
the Bachelor of Electrical Engineering
JANUARY 2015

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work presented in this project report/thesis report on
LOADFLOW ANALYSIS OF A GRID INTERFACED WINDFARM USING
PSSE is entirely written by the following

student/s, themselves under the

supervision of Engr. Mokhi Maan Chang,.

Submitted by

WAQAS ALI MEMON (Group Leader)

11EL87

NEELESH KUMAR

11EL78

UMAR MEMON

11EL140

JITENDER KUMAR

11EL132

KHAMISO KHAN

11EL147

ALEEM-UL-HAQUE

11-09EL02

Project / Thesis Supervisor

External / Examiner

________________________________
Chairman
Department of Electrical Engineering
Mehran UET, Jamshoro
Date:___________________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, I pay homage and guidance to ALLAH ALMIGHTY, the most
merciful, compassionate, gracious and beneficial whose help enabled to complete this
thesis.
We extend our profound sense of gratitude to respected supervisor Engr. Mokhi
Maan Chang, Department of Electrical Engineering MUET Jamshoro under whose
abe guidance this thesis has been completed. We are indeed extremely grateful for her
inspiring guidance and kind sympathetic attitude. Without that thesis would not have
been the light of the day.
We are highly thankful to Dr. Abdul Sattar Larik, Chairman Department of
Electrical Engineering MUET Jamshoro, who always encouraged and advised us to
complete the thesis well on the time. He extended all the possible co-operation in this
regard.
We are also thankful to all our teachers of our department who helped us to fulfill this
thesis.
And finally we are thankful to Engr. Mushtaq Ahmed Kerrio, Plant Manager and
Engr. Shahid Ali, Sub-engineer at Zorlu Wind Power Farm.

ABSTRACT
Wind power has evolved as a significant renewable energy source for the generation
of electrical energy due to the growth of environmental concerns. Large wind farms
with several hundred megawatts of rated power have been connected to grid, fulfilling
the energy demands of a region or a country.
The injection of new produced power into the existing power system resulting
challenges regarding voltage levels, thermal limits, stability and constancy of
frequency. In the same way when wind farms are connected to the existing power
system introducing the new power to the system it also offers some challenges like
reactive power compensation, fluctuations in active and reactive power and control
strategies.
It is therefore necessary to go through steady state and dynamic analysis to map the
impacts of newly injected power of wind farms on the existing system.
Thus the objective of this thesis is to carry out the load flow analysis of the wind farm
integrated to the power grid, in order to study their overall impacts on the power
system.
For this purpose, a wind farm of 110MW having two aggregates of 24MW and three
aggregates of 21MW connected offshore to the power grid by means of a power
cable. Initially the steady state load flow analysis is carried out and then dynamic
simulation is carried out to determine the fault ride through capability of the wind
farm. All this simulation and load flow is performed using a software i.e. PSS/E by
Siemens PTI.
The results of the simulation are analyzed to study the Impacts of grid interfaced wind
farm on the power system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title ................................................................................................................................ i
Certificate ...................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................... iii
Abstract ........................................................................................................................ iv
Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................v
List of Figures ............................................................................................................. vii
List of Tables ............................................................................................................. viii
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1

Introduction ........................................................................................................1

1.2

Problem Statement ............................................................................................1

1.3

Objectives ..........................................................................................................2

1.4

Thesis Outline ....................................................................................................2

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Offshore Wind Farms ........................................................................................3

2.2

Transmission Strategies .....................................................................................4

2.3

LVRT .................................................................................................................6

2.4

Grid Integration ..................................................................................................7

2.5

HVAC Transmission ..........................................................................................9

2.6

Reactive Power Compensation ..........................................................................9

2.7

FACTs Devices ................................................................................................10

2.8

Power Flow Analysis .......................................................................................11

CHAPTER 3

INTRODUCTION TO PSSE
3.1

Introduction .....................................................................................................19

3.2

What is PSSE? ..............................................................................................19

3.3

File types used in PSSE ................................................................................21

3.4

Explanation of Tabs .........................................................................................22

3.5

Major system security tools offered in PSSE ...............................................27

CHAPTER 4

PSSE MODEL CONFIGURATION


4.1

Wind Farm Modeling Approach ......................................................................30

4.2

PSSE Modeling .............................................................................................31

4.3

Grid Structure...................................................................................................32

4.4

Wind Farm Model ............................................................................................37

4.5

Wind Turbines .................................................................................................38

4.6

Layout of the Offshore Wind Farm .................................................................40

4.7

HVAC Transmission System ...........................................................................41

4.8

STATCOM for Steady State Simulation .........................................................42

4.9

Diagram of the Grid .........................................................................................44

4.10

Modeling for Dynamic Analysis ......................................................................45

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS & OBSERVATION


5.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................51

5.2

Power Flow Simulation Results .......................................................................51

Case1 Wind Farm without Reactive Power Compensation ........................................54


Case2 Wind Farm with Shunt Reactor .......................................................................60
Case3 Wind Farm with STATCOM ..........................................................................65
5.3

Dynamic Results ..............................................................................................70

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION
6.1

Conclusion .......................................................................................................80

6.2

Recommendations ............................................................................................81

REFERENCES ...............................................................................................82

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig1:Example of the results of a voltage drop test ....................................................................... 7
Fig2: Schematic Diagram of an SVC...........................................................................11
Fig3 (a) Schematic Diagram of a STATCOM; (b) a STATCOM installation .........11
Fig4: Use of PSSE in different fields ........................................................................20
Fig5: PV Analysis Curve .............................................................................................28
Fig6: Layout of wind turbines in Wind Farm .............................................................37
Fig7: PSSE model of the offshore wind farm ...........................................................40
Fig8: HVAC transmission layout in PSSE ...............................................................41
Fig9: Graphic representation of a STATCOM in PSSE ...........................................42
Fig10: Single line diagram of the wind Farm connected to the Grid...........................44
Fig11: DFIG Model .....................................................................................................46
Fig12: Power Flow Data File .......................................................................................47
Fig13: PSSE DFIG Generic Model ..........................................................................48
Fig14: Legend of the values presented in the single-line diagrams .............................51
Fig 15: Power Flow results of Wind Farm without Compensation .............................54
Fig16: color display of voltages at buses .....................................................................57
Fig 17: power Flow results of wind farm with Shunt reactor ......................................60
Fig 18: Color display of Voltages at different buses ...................................................60
Fig 19: Power Flow results of Wind Farm with STATCOM ......................................65
Fig 20: Color display of voltages at different buses ....................................................65
Fig 21: Single line diagram of the grid used for the dynamic simulations. Note: Bus
3005, where the fault occurs is marked in the orange rectangle ......................71

LIST OF TABLES
Table1: 33KV and 220KV Line data ..........................................................................33
Table2: 400KV Line dat .............................................................................................34
Table3: Grid Transformer Data ..................................................................................35
Table4: Load Data........................................................................................................36
Table5: Shunt Compensator Data ................................................................................36
Table6: Wind Turbine Data .........................................................................................39
Table7: Wind Farm Transformer Data ........................................................................39
Table8: 33KV Cable Data ............................................................................................40
Table9: 150KV Cable parameters ................................................................................41
Table10: Onshore and offshore transformer data ........................................................42
Table11: STATCOM Parameters ................................................................................43
Table12: Color Representation of Voltages .................................................................45
Table13: Turbine Model WT3T1.................................................................................49
Table14: Generator Model WT3G1 .............................................................................49
Table15: Pitch Model WT3P1 .....................................................................................49
Table16: Electric Part Model WT3E1 .......................................................................50
Table17: Voltages at different buses............................................................................56
Table18: Data of Active and Reactive power generated .............................................56
Table19: Voltages at different buses including wind farms ........................................62
Table20: Active and Reactive power generated by different generators. ....................62
Table21: Voltages at different buses using STATCOM ..............................................67
Table22: Active and Reactive power generated using STATCOM.............................67

INTRODUCTION
1.1

INTRODUCTION

The utilization of wind turbine to produce electricity is increasing rapidly in different


parts of the world. It has become one of the main alternatives for non pollutant and
environmentally friendly type for power generation all over the world and in Pakistan
also its benefits are being recognized and a large amount of wind power is planned to
be added to the national grid in coming years.
Not until recently, the contribution of wind power generation on the system stability
was considered to be small. However with increasing in the wind farm capacity it is
clear that disconnecting a large wind farm will result in loss of a big part of power
generation in grid, which can aggravate instability problems. Due to increasing
portion of wind power, wind turbines have to contribute in reactive power support
during transient conditions.
The grid connection procedure is changing and adaption to a large scale wind power
expansion is continually made. This adaption will most likely lead to requirements of
information regarding the wind power units electrical behavior and then to determine
the impact of adding wind generation, and establish how the system can be upgraded.
Therefore a simulator tool (PSS/E) is used to perform the load flow and to study the
dynamic behavior of the grid interfaced wind farm.
1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Wind power industry is developing rapidly, more and more wind farms are being
connected into power systems. Integration of large scale wind farms into power
systems presents some challenges that must be addressed, such as

System operation and control

System stability and power quality

This thesis describes modern wind power systems, presents requirements of wind
turbine connection and analyzes the impacts on grid integrated wind-farm.

1.3

OBJECTIVES

The overall objective for this thesis is to illustrate the dynamic impacts from the wind
farms on the existing power system.
The following elements are included in the studies:

Establish a steady-state and dynamic model of wind-farm integrated power


system

Carryout load flow and transient analysis to study the impacts on grid interconnected wind-farm

1.4

Introduction to PSSE and Simulation using PSSE software


THESIS OUTLINE

This thesis consists of six chapters including this chapter. The content of each chapter
are outlined as follows:
Chapter 2 includes Literature Review in which offshore wind farms, LVRT, steadystate and dynamic analysis, grid codes and compensation devices are discussed and it
mainly focuses on the challenges which are faced to integrate the wind farms to power
grid.
Chapter 3 includes the Introduction to PSS/E software introducing to the files,
windows and components used for simulation and explaining different security
analysis functions offered by it.
Chapter 4 includes PSS/E modeling approach, discussing the Grid and wind farm data
for the analysis and establishing a model in order to perform the desired analysis.
Chapter 5 includes the steady-state and dynamic analysis results of a power system
connected with 110MW wind farm. Analysis is performed and results are discussed.
Chapter 6 contains conclusion and recommendations regarding the future work on
PSS/E.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

OFFSHORE WIND FARMS

Among the available types of renewable energy, wind power generation offers the
advantages of mat u re technological systems and a rich track record, as well as
lower generation costs. For these reasons, the introduction and popularization of
wind power is advancing.
The challenges involved in offshore wind power development may be divided into
three key categories.
The first is that of cost. Because offshore wind turbines are installed within ocean
environments, the cost is said to run roughly twice that of onshore facilities. This
includes the wind turbines themselves, the foundations (bases submerged in the
waters), submarine cable installation work and other project aspects. In addition, the
operation and maintenance (O&M; referring to parts replacement and other upkeep)
work also differs from onshore wind turbines insofar as the demand for heavy
expenditures [12,13].
Costs likewise vary by distances from the shore, water depth and other elements.
Because recent offshore wind farms in Europe are steadily moving further away
from continental areas and into deeper waters, installation costs are also on the rise.
The second challenge category is technology. With early offshore wind turbines
suffering frequent breakdowns in their step-up gears, generators, development of
technology was advanced for means of raising reliability involving salt damage
countermeasures and monitoring of wind turbine conditions. In addition, when
moving installation locations from shallow to deeper waters, there is a need to
increase per-turbine power generation in order to lower cost. This makes increased
size and improved reliability a major theme in developing the technology for offshore
wind turbines.
The third challenge concerns social acceptance. Clearly, offshore wind power
generation will never be realized without the understanding of fisheries

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operators and other marine users. To earn their supports, environmental assessments
are a must.
The extension of wind power can have severe impacts on the transmission system
because of the remote sitting and the possible problems for system security.
Due to the fact that electrical energy cannot be stored in a substantial way, the need
for short and long term power balancing can require an adjustment of the operational
strategy of power systems with a high wind power penetration level. Besides, in case
of windstorms or system disturbances (such as voltage drops), there exists the
increased risk of a sudden and uncontrolled shutdown of the wind farms, which can
severely affect the security of the system.
Wind generation also has an influence on the networks Voltage control capability.
On one hand, wind turbine generators (WTG) can demand a large amount of reactive
power (depending on the technology) and on the other hand they replace conventional
thermal power plants that have excellent voltage control capabilities.
In order to reduce the impact of wind generation on the transmission system, the
connection through HVDC based on voltage source converters (VSC) seems a
promising solution. The major benefit of this technology is its ability to vary the
reactive power supplied and, as a consequence, to help in supporting the voltage at the
point of common coupling with the transmission network [12,13].
2.2

TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES

The transmission link to the shore can be HVAC; line- commutated thyristor-based
HVDC or VSC-HVDC.
The AC connection is the solution adopted mostly by existing wind farms and has the
following features:

The submarine AC cable generates a considerable reactive current due


to its high capacitance (typically in the range of 100-150 KVAR/km for 33 kV
XLPE (cross- linked polyethylene) cables, 1000 KVAR/km for 132 kV XLPE
cables, and 68 MVAR/km for 400 kV XLPE cables). This reduces the active
current carrying capacity of the cable and, for large distances, requires
compensation devices;

12

because of the high capacitance of the cable, resonances between the onshore
and the offshore grid can occur, leading to distortion of the shape of the
voltage;

The AC local wind turbine grid and the main grid are synchronously coupled
and all faults in either grid are noticed in the other;

The major advantage is the low costs for substations when compared to
DC solutions. On the other hand, costs for cables are higher than for DC
alternatives.

The main advantages of the DC link with respect to the AC link are the
following:

The losses and the voltage drop in the DC link are very low and there is no
charging current in the DC cable. There is virtually no limitation of the
connection distance, only practical restraints of cable manufacturing and
laying put a maximum to this distance;

There is no resonance between the cables and other AC equipment

Since the collection system and the main grid are not synchronously coupled,
the WTGs do not contribute significantly to short-circuit currents in the main
grid;

The DC link provides faster control of active and reactive power than the AC
link. Voltage source converters are able to control reactive power over the
complete operation range, for classical thyristor-based HVDC this is
somewhat limited. This control capability makes it easier to comply with
connection requirements.

The thyristor-based HVDC solution is a technology that has proven itself on land but
seems not particularly well suited for offshore applications. Converter stations and
auxiliary equipments have demanding space requirements, which will lead to
enormous offshore converter platforms. Moreover this technology is highly
susceptible to AC network disturbances (resulting in commutation failures in the
inverter station), which can cause a temporary shutdown of the HVDC system; for
these reasons this technology has not been considered further in this paper.
On the contrary HVDC technology based on VSCs seems to be very promising for
offshore applications because it requires less auxiliary equipment and the converters
themselves take less space than the thyristor-based version. The VSCs are able to
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independently control both the active and reactive power exchanged with the AC grid
and therefore they can take part in voltage regulation. The major drawback of this
technology is the high converter losses, caused mainly by switching losses that
depend on the switching frequency of the semiconductor devices [9].
2.3

LOW VOLTAGE RIDE THROUGH CAPABILITY (LVRT)

Grid stability and security of supply are two important aspects for energy supply. In
order to avoid power outages it is necessary that power generating plants should have
control capabilities and protection mechanisms. In the past, these requirements were
mainly fulfilled by conventional power plants. In the meantime, however, the share of
re-newable energy sources in the total electricity generation has become so significant
that these sources too must con- tribute to the grid stability. Therefore the transmission
sys- tem operators have established so called grid codes with certain critical values
and control characteristics that the generating plants have to fulfill. An important part
of these requirements is the so-called LVRT capability of generating plants.
LVRT is short for Low Voltage Ride Through and describes the requirement that
generating plants must continue to operate through short periods of low grid voltage
and not disconnect from the grid.
Short term voltage dips may occur, for example, when large loads are connected to the
grid or as a result of grid faults like lightning strikes or short circuits. In the past,
renew- able generating plants such as wind turbines were allowed to disconnect from
the grid during such a fault and try to reconnect after a certain period of time.
Today, because of the significant share of renewable, such a procedure would be
fatal. If too many generating plants disconnect at the same time the complete network
could break down, a scenario which is also called a blackout. For this reason the
LVRT requirement has been established which is meant to guarantee that the
generating plants stay connected to the grid. Additionally many grid codes demand
that the grid should be supported during voltage drops. Generating plants can support
the grid by feeding reactive current into the network and so raise the voltage.
Immediately after fault clearance, the active power output must be increased again to
the value prior to the occurrence of the fault with- in a specified period of time.

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These requirements which at the beginning only applied to wind turbines, now also
have to be fulfilled by photo- voltaic systems (PV) and most recently, by combined
heat and power plants (CHP).

Fig 1: Example of the results of a voltage drop test.


Figure 1 shows the result of a voltage drop test at a PV system. In this diagram the
voltage drops to about 20% of the nominal voltage for a time of approx. 550ms. The
PV inverter recognizes the voltage drop and feeds a reactive current of approx.
100% of the nominal voltage into the system for the duration of the fault in order to
support the grid. After fault clearance the active power output is increased to the
value prior to the occurrence of the fault within 160ms [10].
2.4

GRID INTEGRATION

Integrating a wind farm in an electrical network poses a significant challenge to the


grid. The impact varies with the strength of the grid and the size of the wind farm. As
the wind farm capacity grows, grid integration issues may arise, as increasingly large
amounts of electricity are fed into networks, either in distribution or transmission
systems.

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2.4.1

Grid Connection Requirements

Until some years ago wind farms were allowed to disconnect from the grid during a
disturbance in the grid. This has changed significantly, due to the addition of large
amounts of installed wind power capacity. The disconnection of a large wind farm
would result in a significant loss of generation that could cause some stability
problems to the network. Transmission system operators require nowadays for wind
farms to stay connected under certain disturbances in the grid. These requirements are
known as the fault ride through capability of the wind farm and are generally
regulated in grid codes. As established in most grid codes, only under certain
circumstances shall wind farms be disconnected from the grid following a grid fault,
remaining otherwise connected in order to assist in the stabilization of the grid
frequency or the voltage during fault, providing voltage back-up [7].
Apart from the fault ride through capability, other technical requirements must be
fulfilled by the wind farm, since the increasing size of wind farms means that the
rating of such installations will be comparable to that of traditional generating plants
on the grid. These requirements include:

Control of active and reactive power (operation under a specified range for
power factor);

Frequency range (with time durations for extreme conditions, permissible


reduction at frequency extremes)

Contribution to network stability;

AC voltage control capability.

As the proliferation of wind power increases, wind farms will be bound to meet these
demands, which may prove difficult depending, to greater extent, on the transmission
system used between the wind farm and grid. The charging currents affecting AC
cables represent a limitation for the HVAC cables and so some form of compensation
for the surplus reactive power generated by the cable is necessary to met grid
requirements [7].

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2.5

HVAC TRANSMISSION

2.5.1

General Aspects

Connecting the wind farm to the grid by an AC cable is the most straightforward
technical solution, as both the power generated by the wind farm and the onshore
transmission grid are AC. The HVAC transmission offers some advantages:

Proven and low-cost technology;

Easy to integrate in existing power systems

Low losses over small distances

On the other hand there are some limitations of the HVAC system

There is an excessive amount of reactive power produced in the AC


transmission cables

Increase in the cable length means increase in its capacitance which results in
a reactive power increase, resulting in a transmission distance limit for AC
systems

Necessary use of compensation systems (shunt reactors, STATCOMS, SVC,


etc) at the ends of the cable [7]

2.5.2

Main Components of HVAC Transmission


A transmission system based on HVAC technology includes the following
main components

AC based collector system within the wind farm known as point of common
coupling.

2.6

Three core HVAC transmission cable

Offshore transformer

Reactive power compensation (onshore and/or offshore)

Onshore transformer
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

The solution for the large amounts of reactive power at the cable is to compensate the
reactive power produced by absorbing reactive power, thus reducing the additional
losses and increasing the maximum transmitting distance. The compensation is
usually done by fixed or electronically controlled shunt reactors. The fixed shunt

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reactor is the simplest device but the progress in FACTS (Flexible AC transmission
system) devices, such as SVC (Static VAR compensator) or STATCOM (Static
Synchronous Compensator), considerably extends the reactive power and voltage
control possibilities offered by the switched shunt reactors.
The voltage on a transmission network is determined by the reactive power flows.
DFIG wind turbines have the capability of controlling reactive power flow through
the connection network and supporting the voltage network which they are connected.
However, in a large wind farm controlling individual DFIG wind turbine to regulate
reactive power flow is not feasible. It may not be able to control the voltage in the
grid. On many occasion, the reactive power and voltage control at the grid is achieved
by using reactive power compensation [7].
2.7

FACTS DEVICES

The SVC and the STATCOM are part of the FACTS device family, used for voltage
regulation and power system stabilization, based on power electronics. These devices
are capable of both generating and absorbing reactive power. The flexibility of use is
the main advantage of these equipments, since they allow the continuous variable
reactive power absorption (or supply). The reactive power is not proportional to the
voltage at the bus is another advantage of FACTS devices. The FACTS devices also
contribute in the improvement of the voltage stability and the recovery from network
faults.
The similarity of the SVC and STATCOM devices led to them being sometimes
referred generally as Static VAR Compensators. These are, however, different
equipments. The SVC is based on conventional capacitor banks together with parallel
thyristor controlled inductive branches. These inductive branches can either be TCR
(Thyristor Controlled Reactor), used for linear injection of reactive power or TSC
(Thyristor Switched Capacitor), used for stepwise injection of reactive power. A SVC
device is represented in Figure where a linear diagram and an SVC installation (in an
offshore wind farm) are represented [7].

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Fig 2: Schematic Diagram of an SVC


The STATCOM device uses a power electronic voltage source (VSC). The converter
uses semiconductors with turn-off capability, such as Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistors (IGBTs). The benefits of the STATCOM (commercially known as SVC
Light by ABB or SVC Plus by Siemens), compared with the SVC, are the fact that
the capacitor banks used are smaller and also there is no need for big air-cored
inductors. Further advantages of the STATCOM are also found in the dynamic
behavior (such as faster transient response). A simplified schematic diagram of a
STATCOM is shown in Figure 3(a & b).

Fig 3 (a) Schematic Diagram of a STATCOM; (b) a STATCOM installation


2.8

POWER FLOW ANALYSIS

In power engineering, the power flow analysis (also known as load-flow study) is an
importance tool involving numerical analysis applied to a power system. Unlike
traditional circuit analysis, a power flow study usually uses simplified notation such
as a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on various form of AC power
(ie: reactive, real and apparent) rather than voltage and current. The advantage in
studying power flow analysis is in planning the future expansion of power systems as
well as in determining the best operation of existing systems. Power flow analysis is
being used for solving power flow problem. There are three methods can be used to
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solve power flow analysis. The methods are Newton-Raphson method, FastDecoupled method and Gauss-Seidel method. This sub-chapter will discuss all three
methods generally on formula or mathematical step in order to solve power flow
problem [15].
2.8.1

Newton-Raphson Method

Newton-Raphson method is commonly use and introduce in most text book. This
method widely used for solving simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations. A
Newton-Raphson method is a successive approximation procedure based on an initial
estimate of the one-dimensional equation given by series expansion.
The Newton-Raphson method using the bus admittance matrix in either first or second
order expansion of Taylor series has been evaluate as a best solution for the
reliability and the rapid convergence.
f(x)=c

(1)

If x(0) is an initial estimate of the solution, and x(0) is a small deviation from the
correct solution, we must have
f(x(0)+ x(0))=c

(2)

Expanding the left-hand side of the above equation in Taylors series about x(0) yields
f(x(0)) + (df/dx)(0) x(0) +1/2! (d2f/dx2) (0 ) ( x(0))2+...=c

(3)

Assuming the error x(0) is very small, the higher-order terms can be neglected,
which result in
c(0) (df/dx)(0) x(0)
where
c(0)=c - f(x(0))
Adding x(0)to the initial estimate will result in the second approximation
x(1)= x(0) + c(0)/ (df/dx)(0)

(5)

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Successive use of this procedure yields the Newton-Raphson algorithm


c(k)=c - f(x(k))

(6)

x(k)= c(k)/ (df/dx)(k

(7)

x(k+1)= x(k )+ x(k)

(8)

(7) can be rearranged as


c(k)= j(k) x(k) where j(k) = (df/dx)(k)

(9)

In power system analysis, J(k) is called the Jacobian matrix. Element of this matrix are
the partial derivatives evaluated at X(k). It is assumed that J(k) has an inverse during
each iteration. Newtons method, as applied to a set of nonlinear equations reduces
the problem to solving a set of linear equations in order to determine the values that
improve the accuracy of the estimates [15].
2.8.2

Gauss-Seidel Method

Gauss-Seidel method is also known as the method of successive displacements.


To illustrate the technique, consider the solution of the nonlinear equation given by
F(x)=0

(10)

Above function is rearrange and writes as


x=g(x)

(11)

If x=(k) is an initial estimate of the variable x, the following iterative sequence is


formed
X(k+1)= g(x(k))

(12)

A solution is obtained when the difference between the absolute value of the
successive iteration is less than a specified accuracy, i.e.,
| x(+k1)- x(k)|

(13)

Where is the desire accuracy

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The process is repeated until the change in variable is within the desired accuracy. So
the Gauss-Seidel method needs much iteration to achieve the desired accuracy, and
there is no guarantee for the convergence [15].
2.8.3

Fast Decoupled Method

When solving large scale power transmission systems, an alternative strategy for
improving computational efficiency and reducing computer storage requirements is
the decoupled power flow method, which makes use of an approximate version of the
Newton-Raphson procedure.
The Fast decoupled power flow solution requires more iterations than the NewtonRaphson method, but requires considerably less time per iteration and a power flow
solution is obtained very rapidly. This technique is very useful in contingency
analysis where numerous outages are to be simulated or a power flow solution is
required for on-line control [15].
For large scale power system, usually the transmission lines have a very high X/R
ratio. For such a system, real power changes P are less sensitive to changes in
voltage magnitude and are most sensitive to changes in phase angle . Similarly,
reactive power is less sensitive to changes in angle and most sensitive on changes in
voltage magnitude. Incorporate of these approximations into the Jacobian matrix in
Newton-Raphson power flow solution makes the elements of the sub-matrices J12 and
J21 zero.
We are then left with two separated systems of equations,

22

In well-designed and properly operated power transmission system:


i) Angular differences between typical buses of the system are usually so small.
ij = (i j ) very small that results,
cosij 1
sin ij 0.0
ii) The line susceptances Bij are many times larger than the line conductances Gij
so that Gij sin ij << Bij .
iii) The reactive power Qi injected into any bus i of the system during normal
operation is much less than the reactive power which would flow if all lines
from that bus were short circuited to reference.
That is Qi << Vi

Pi

Bii .

Y V
= V
sin ( + )
i
ij i j
j
j i

(16)

Qi

Y
= V V

V
j

j ij i

Pi
sin(

i
j

+ )=

(17)

ji

V j

In Eq.(16) and Eq.(17), the off diagonal elements of J11 and J22 are given by

Qi
V
j V j

Pi

Y
= V V
j ij i

sin( + )=
Ij

(18)
j

23

Using the identity sin( + )= sin cos + cos sin in Eq.(18) gives us

Pi

Qi
V
= V

B cos( ) + G sin( )
i
i
i j j
j i
j
ji

= V
j

(19)

V
j

The approximation listed above then yield the off diagonal elements

Pi

Qi
= V

= VV B

i
i j j

(20)

Pi
= n

Y VV

ij i j sin( ij + j i )

(21)

i j=1
ji

Qi
V

i V

Pi
=

2
2 V B =Q V 2B

ii

(22)

ii

24

The diagonal elements of J11 and J22


Applying the inequality Qi << Vi

Pi

V2B
i

Bii

Qi
V

i ii
i

are shown in Eq. (8) and Eq. (9) respectively. to those expressions yields

(23)

Substitute Eq. (19) and Eq. (20) into Eq. (14) and Eq. (15), we obtain

We can also modify Eq. (24) and Eq. (25) to two decoupled systems of equations for
n-bus network.

25

And

Bij are the imaginary parts of the corresponding Ybus elements.


These were the basic introduction to all the related literature to understand the further
work of our thesis in chapter 4 and 5.

26

CHAPTER 3

INTRODUCTION TO PSSE
3.1

INTRODUCTION

The software tool PSSE (Power Systems Simulation for Engineering) made by
Siemens is heavily utilized to perform system studies. This software is used by many
power companies. The reason that so many companies rely on PSSE is because of
the many features and abilities that it has to offer. The functionality and performance
of PSSE doesnt come at a cheap price. The software costs roughly $90,000 per
computer. Luckily for our thesis studies we have got university version of this
software limited up to 50 buses.
The hardest part of our thesis was actually learning how to use PSSE. We spent
numerous hours outside of PSSE just reading the help files that in our opinion are
somewhat difficult to apply to create a power-flow study. We learned how to use
PSSE to perform power-flow study. Our study involves adding a wind farm to the
existing power grid. We were able to draw several conclusions about the feasibility of
this addition [6].
3.2

WHAT IS PSSE?

Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSSE) is composed of a comprehensive


set of programs for studies of power system transmission network and generation
performance in both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Currently two primary
simulations are used, one for steady-state analysis and one for dynamic simulations.
PSSE can be utilized to facilitate calculations for a variety of analyses, including:

Power flow and related network functions

Optimal power flow

Balanced and unbalanced faults

Network equivalent construction

Dynamic simulation

In this chapter our focus will primarily be on power flow, steady-state and dynamic
simulations. PSSE uses a graphical user interface that is comprised of all the
functionality of state analysis; including load flow, fault analysis, optimal power flow,
equivalency, and switching studies.

27

In addition, to the steady-state and dynamic analyses, PSSE also provides the user
with a wide range of auxiliary programs for installation, data input, output,
manipulation and preparation [6].

Fig 4: Use of PSSE in different fields.


3.2.1

Power Flow

A power flow study (also known as load-flow study) is a steady-state analysis whose
target is to determine the voltages, currents, and real and reactive power flows in a
system under a given load conditions.
It is an important tool involving numerical analysis applied to a power system. Unlike
traditional circuit analysis, a power flow study usually uses simplified notation such
as a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on various forms of AC power
( i-e: reactive, real, and apparent).
Power flow studies are important because they allow for planning and future
expansion of existing as well as non-existing power systems. A power flow study also
can be used to determine the best and most effective design of power systems [6].
3.2.2

Dynamic Simulation

28

The dynamic simulation program includes all the functionality for transient, dynamic
and long term stability analysis. The purpose of the dynamics is to facilitate operation
of all dynamic stability analytical functions.
The dynamic modeling simulation is used to ensure the reliability of electricity supply
and to predict the performance of the system under a wide range of conditions and to
identify any problems and scope measures needed for reliability [6].
3.3

FILE TYPES USED IN PSSE

PSSE uses many types of files. Here is a brief description of important file types
that may be used by PSSE:
*.sav Saved case file
The saved case file is a binary image of the load flow working case. To conserve disk
space and minimize the time required for storage and retrieval, saved cases (*.sav) are
compressed in the sense that unoccupied parts of the data structure are not stored
when the system model is smaller than the capacity limits of the program.
*.raw Power flow raw data file (input data file)
A raw file is a collection of unprocessed data. This means the file has not been
altered, Compressed, or manipulated in any way by the computer. Raw files are often
used as data files by software programs that load and process the data. These files
contain power flow system specification data for the establishment of an initial
working case.
*.sld Slider file (Single Line Diagram)
This file allows for performing network analysis studies on the grid.
Sliders are visual displays of the grid. It includes buses, branches, lines, loads,
Generators, transformers etc... All components should be color coded based on
voltage flow. The slider file can also show the operational ratings (power flowing
across the component relative to the capacity) of the listed components.
*.txt Text file
A text file (or plain text file) is a computer file which contains only ordinary textual
characters with essentially no formatting.

29

*.dat Input data file


PSSE accepts large volumes of data from external sources time to time. Such large
volumes of data could be typed directly into the PSSE working case using the
Spreadsheet View but this could be an onerous task. Voluminous data is best
assembled in an input data file independent of PSSE before PSSE is started up.
This file may then be used as the input source for PSSE to feed the data through the
appropriate input activity into the PSSE working case [6].
2.4

EXPLANATION OF TABS

After opening the *.sav file, there are 19 tabs to choose from at the bottom of the data
file (shown below). Each tab can be accessed by clicking on it. Few tabs will be
focused over here:

2.4.1

Buses

Followind are few important parameters of Buses used in PSSE:

Displays the number assigned to a specific bus.


Alphanumeric identifier assigned to bus "#". The name may be up
to twelve characters.
Bus base voltage; entered in kV.

Bus type code:


1 - Load bus (no generator boundary condition)

30

2 - Generator or plant bus (either voltage regulating or fixed Mvar)


3 - Swing bus
4 - Disconnected (isolated) bus
5 Same as type 1, but located on the boundary of an area in which an
equivalent is to be constructed.

Bus voltage magnitude; entered in per unit, V = 1.0 by default.

3.4.2

Branches: Following are few important parameters of Branches


Branch "from bus" number outside brackets with bus name
and bus kV enclosed in brackets.
Branch "to bus" number outside brackets with bus name
and bus kV enclosed in brackets.
Line R (pu): Branch resistance; entered in per unit. A value
of R must be entered for each branch.
Line X (pu): Branch reactance; entered in per unit. A
nonzero value of X must be entered for each branch.
Charging (pu): Total branch charging susceptance (imaginary
part of admittance); entered in per unit. B = 0.0 by default.

Length: Length of line entered in user-selected units.


3.4.3

Load

Following are few important parameters of the Load:

31

This displays the Bus Number (where the load resides) outside
of the brackets and displays the bus name as well as the bus
voltage in kV inside the brackets.
This is a alphanumeric load identifier. It is used to distinguish among multiple
loads at the same "Bus Number/Name".

At buses in which there is a single load present, the ID = 1.


A check mark indicates that a certain load at a "Bus Number/Name" is
fully operational. If for any reason a certain load at a "Bus
Number/Name" needs to be taken out of service, simply un-check that
particular one.
Active power component of constant MVA load; entered in MW.
Reactive power component of constant MVA load; entered in MVAR.
3.4.4

Machines

The machines tab can be used to:


1. Add machines at an existing generator bus (i.e., at a plant).
2. Enter the specifications of machines into the working case.
3. To divide and distribute the total plant output power limits proportionally
among the machines at the plant. The important parameters for the machines
tab are described below:

32

This displays the Bus Number (where the machine is located)


outside of the brackets and displays the bus name as well as the
bus voltage in kV inside the brackets.
This is a alphanumeric machine identifier. It is used to
distinguish among multiple machines at a plant (i.e., at a
generator bus). At buses in which there is a single machine
present, ID = 1.
A check mark indicates that a certain machine at a "Bus
Number/Name" is fully operational or out of service.
This shows the active power that the generator is putting out;
entered in MW.
This shows the minimum active power that the generator can
output; entered in MW.
This shows the maximum active power that the generator can
output; entered in MW.
This shows the reactive power that the generator is putting out;
entered in MVAR.
This shows the minimum reactive power that the generator can
output entered in MVAR.
This shows the maximum reactive power that the generator can
output; entered in MVAR.
3.4.5

Two Winding Transformers

Each transformer to be represented in PSSE is introduced by reading a transformer


data record block.

33

The transformer data record block can be accessed by clicking on the two Winding
transformer tab. The important parameters for this tab are explained below:

This states the first bus number outside of the brackets with the
bus name and bus kV enclosed in brackets. It is connected to
winding one of the transformers included in the system. The
transformers magnetizing admittance is modeled on winding
one. No default is allowed.
This states the second bus number outside of the brackets with
the bus name and bus kV enclosed in brackets. It is connected
to winding two of the transformers included in the system. No
default is allowed.
A check mark indicates that a certain two winding transformer
between two buses is fully operational. If for any reason a
transformer needs to be taken out of service, simply un-check
that particular one. The default is in service [6].

34

3.5

MAJOR POWER SYSTEM SECURITY TOOLS OFFERED BY PSSE

This section briefly describes three power system topics that are usually covered at
the undergraduate level which are offered b PSSE. The three topics are: load flow
analysis, transient stability analysis, and short circuit analysis.
3.5.1

Load Flow Analysis

The main purpose of load flow analysis is to calculate bus voltages and transmission
line MW and MVAR flows for a power grid. There are two types of power flow
analysis:

AC power flow and

DC power flow calculation.

AC Power Flow: By solving the AC power flow problem, effectiveness of various


voltage control strategies could be identified.
After performing the load flow concepts, the maximum power transfer capability of
any system could be determined.
DC Power Flow: PSSE offers DC power flow options which could be used to
perform fast contingency analysis to identify potential thermal overloads on the
system. They can also compare the accuracy between the AC and DC load flow
calculations [14].
3.5.2

Voltage Stability Analysis

In addition to solving for bus voltages and line flows, PSSE can also be used to derive
PV and VQ curves for different contingency scenarios, a process commonly used to
assess power grid voltage stability. Through PV and VQ analysis, maximum power
transfer capability of a transmission path could be determined while preserving
voltage stability of the system. PSSE produces PV curves for each monitored bus so
that the weakest node of the system can be identified. Figure presents a typical output
of a PV analysis from PSSE for different contingency scenarios [14].

35

Fig 5: PV Analysis Curve


3.5.3

Transient Stability Analysis

Transient stability, also known as large signal stability, is a measure of the ability of
synchronous generators to remain in synchronism when the power system suffers
from a disturbance. The disturbance could be a fault successfully cleared by
protective relays, tripping of a major generator, or loss of a large load. These types of
disturbances can cause rotors to accelerate, resulting in an increase in internal angle
and the potential loss of transient stability.
For a single-machine-infinite-bus system (SMIB), the electrical power output of the
generator is significantly reduced during the fault-on period, so that the mechanical
input of the generator exceeds its electrical output. As a result, the transient kinetic
energy of the generator increases rapidly as the rotor accelerates. When the fault is
finally cleared, the generator needs to dissipate all the excess transient kinetic energy
into the power system. If proper protection schemes are not in place to isolate the fault
fast enough, the generator can lose synchronization (i.e. falling out of step) and suffer
severe damages. Transient stability is affected by many factors such as the mechanical
inertia of the generator, pre-contingency generator output level, and the excitation
control of the generator.
The Equal Area Criterion can be used to determine the transient stability of a SMIB if
the synchronous machine is represented as a classical generator, i.e., a constant
voltage source behind a transient reactance. The Equal Area Criterion states that for a

36

given contingency, the area corresponding to the destabilizing effect of the fault must
not exceed the area corresponding to the restorative strength of the post-fault system.
The critical clearing time is defined when the fault is cleared so that the generator is
just marginally stable. The generator angle at the critical clearing time is known as the
critical clearing angle.
The Equal Area Criterion is, however, only applicable for a single-machine-infinitebus system. When there are multiple generators, the time domain simulation
technique must be used. This is the method which is used by PSSE.
The interactive structure of PSSE guides through a step-by-step process which
provides a greater understanding of the major factors which influence the transient
stability of a system.
PSSE exposes to analysis that cannot practically be done by hand calculations.
Furthermore, the interactive nature of PSSE is conducive to sensitivity analysis, that
is, different elements or variables of the system can be changed and the observer can
immediately see how these changes affect system stability (e.g. varying the length or
location of a fault) [14].
3.5.4

Short Circuit Calculation

For the purpose of power system protection, it is important to introduce fault


calculation which is also known as short circuit calculation. For the short circuit
calculation, introduction to the concept of symmetrical components and the formation
of positive, negative, and zero sequence networks is necessary. Then interconnection
of the sequence networks depending on the type of fault under consideration is
performed, in order to calculate the fault current levels.
This short circuit calculation facility is offered by PSSE [14].

37

CHAPTER 4

PSSE MODEL CONFIGURATION


4.1

WIND FARM MODELLING APPROACH:

The modeling approach of wind farms is based on Wind Grid Code Requirements.
The aim of Wind Grid Code is to provide a description of the technical and
operational requirements that are to be met by the developers and operators of WindPowered Generating Stations (WPGS) that wish to connect to the national grid. The
Wind Code applies to all WPGSs that are or have applied to be connected to the
transmission grid. Before the interconnection of wind farm to transmission grid the
impact and design study is performed which covers:

Impact of the Wind Farm connection on the power system security and
reliability of supply.

Design of the appropriate direct assets from the commercial boundary.

Design of the necessary Infrastructure Reinforcement of the Transmission


System.

Based on grid code and wind grid code requirements a new connection (a generator or
load) could be connected into the transmission network if the following conditions are
fulfilled:

System operation security after the connection shall not be negatively affected.

The quality and reliability of demand supply shall comply with grid code
requirements

The steady state and transient stability of power system should have sufficient
security margin.

All relevant planning data will be used for detailed modeling of Wind Farms using
PSSE simulation platform. In this case two common calculations are essential for
assessing the impact of Wind Farm on security and reliability of power system:

Power flow calculation

Transient stability

38

4.1.1

Power Flow Calculations

A power flow calculation is to determine the power flows on transmission lines and
transformers and the voltage profile of system bus bars. This calculation is
fundamentally important for the planning and design of the connection of wind farms
to the transmission grid. N-1 Security criterion (system should be able to withstand
the loss of any single components like lines, transformers, cables or generators) is
essential for the proper design of transmission networks to ensure the security and
reliability of power supply. System performance is compared to operating limits and
criteria. Short Circuit calculations also play a very significant role for the proper
selection of high voltage equipment and the setting of protection relays [8].
4.1.2

Transient Stability Studies

The objective of transient stability studies is to examine whether wind farms will have
a negative effect on the transient stability of power system. The power system
response for a defined set of disturbances, typically three phase and single phase
faults cleared by tripping of transmission elements such as lines, transformers,
generators or bus bars. The response of conventional or wind turbine generators is
checked to see that all machines have an adequate stability margin, damping of power
system oscillations is acceptable and that the voltage recovery following fault clearing
is adequate [8].
4.2

PSSE MODELING

In order to simulate the behavior of a wind farm, appropriate models of the wind
farm, the transmission system and the electrical grid have to be constructed. Only then
is it possible to analyze the steady-state and the transient behavior of the power
system.
The software used to model the system and perform the simulations in the work of
this

thesis

is

the

PSSE

software.

PSSE

stands

for

Power

System

Simulator/Engineering and it is a software tool provided by Siemens Power


Technologies International (PTI). It is used by most utilities in the world to perform
power system simulations, as it allows the performance of power flow analysis,
dynamic simulations and stability studies, among other features. PSSE is composed
of a comprehensive set of programs for studies of power system transmission network

39

performance in both steady-state and dynamic conditions, which is an obvious reason


for its widespread use by transmission and distribution systems operators [1].
4.3

GRID STRUCTURE

The electrical grid that will be used for steady-state analysis in which the wind farm
will be integrated is the savnw network, provided by PSSE as an example of a
relatively large grid, as it has 23 buses, 6 generators and 7 loads. In order to properly
use this grid, a few changes were made, namely to the operating frequency and
voltage levels. These changes were made taking into account values used in the Asian
electrical grid [1].
Additional changes to the original savnw network were performed since the wind
farm rated at 110MW will be placed in a bus where the existing generation is of 750
MW.
Therefore, adjustments in active and reactive power of the network are required,
which can be made by adapting the power of the loads and the shunt compensators.
As so, the changes made to the original network can be summarized:

The frequency was changed to 50 Hz (the frequency in use in most parts of


the world, including Pakistan) since the frequency of original example grid is
60 Hz (typical of American grids)

The voltage levels were changed from 500 kV, 230 kV and 22 kV to,
respectively, 400 kV, 220 kV and 33 kV. These voltage levels are common in
most Asian Grids, including Pakistan

The 110 MW offshore wind farm was added, replacing an existing power
plant of 750 MW

Most of the parameters of the grid are presented in detail:


4.3.1

Lines

As a result of changing the grid frequency to 50 Hz, the reactance and the susceptance
of the branches have to be converted, since these parameters depend on the grid
frequency. So new parameters (except those of 400kv lines) are given in table 1 using
following equations [1]

40

X50Hz = X60HZ (50Hz / 60Hz)


B50Hz = B60HZ (50Hz / 60Hz)

Line
From

To

Bus

Bus

X50Hz

B50Hz

[p.u.]

[p.u.]

153

154

0.0375

0.08333

153

154

0.045

0.125

153

3006

0.01

0.025

154

203

0.0333

0.08333

154

205

0.00278

0.075

154

3008

0.01833

0.25

203

205

0.0375

0.006667

203

3003

0.0375

0.06667

3001

3004

0.00667

3002

3005

0.045

0.075

3003

3005

0.045

0.075

3003

3005

0.045

0.075

3005

3006

0.025

0.05833

3005

3007

0.02083

0.05

3005

3008

0.04167

0.1

3007

3008

0.02083

0.05

Table1: 33KV and 220KV Line data

41

4.3.2

400KV Line Parameters

The values for the 400 kV line parameters calculated are shown in Table 2

Line
From
bus

R [p.u]

X [p.u]

B [p.u]

To bus

151

152

0.00183

0.0201

0.5623

151

152

0.00183

0.0201

0.5623

151

201

0.00091

0.01005

0.2811

152

202

0.00146

0.01608

0.4498

152

3004

0.00128

0.01407

0.39361

201

202

0.00091

0.01005

0.28115

201

204

0.00091

0.01005

0.28115

Table2: 400KV Line data

42

4.3.3

Transformers

For the two-winding transformers in the savnw grid, the transformer reactance is
frequency dependent, so their values also have to be adapted to the 50 Hz frequency,
according to Equation
X50Hz = X60HZ (50Hz / 60Hz)
B50Hz = B60HZ (50Hz / 60Hz)
The values of the results of the calculations for the transformers in the grid are shown
in Table 3

Buses

X50Hz
[p.u.]

From

To

Bus

Bus

101

151

0.01133

152

153

0.00417

201

211

0.01771

202

203

0.01354

204

205

0.0125

205

206

0.01111

3001

3002

0.0125

3001

3011

0.00833

3004

3005

0.01354

3008

3018

0.07083

Table3: Grid Transformer Data

43

4.3.4

Loads and Shunt Compensators

Addition of the wind farm rated at 110 MW to bus 102 of the grid in the place of the
existing 750 MW conventional power plant leads to an imbalance of active and
reactive powers. This imbalance can be compensated by reducing the consumed
power in the loads.
As so, the values of the load powers of the grid are presented in Table 4.
The shunt compensators are also regulated in order to maintain the voltage in the
buses at values within reasonable values (between 0.95p.u and 1.05p.u). Table 5
outlines the values of the shunt compensators of the grid [1].
Pload
[MW]

Bus

Qload
[Mvar]

153

200

100

154

500

450

154

400

350

203

200

100

205

1000

700

3005

100

50

3007

200

75

3008

100

50

Table 4: Load Data

Bus

Bshunt
[Mvar]

151

153

150

154

300

201

300

203

100

205

300

Table 5: Shunt Compensator Data

44

4.4

WIND FARM MODEL

The model for the offshore wind farm is based in an existing installation: the
Lillgrund Wind Farm.
This wind farm is located off the coast of Sweden, at a distance of 9 km from the
Point of Connection in the onshore grid and the transmission is achieved by a
combination of an AC sea cable (7 km long) and an AC land cable (2 km long). With
48 wind turbines, rated at 2, 3 MW each, the total capacity of the wind farm is 110
MW. Figure 6 depicts the layout of the wind turbines in the Lillgrund wind farm, used
as a reference here.

Fig 6: Layout of wind turbines in Wind Farm


As can be seen in Figure 6, the internal grid of the Lillgrund wind farm consists of 33
kV sea cables divided in five feeders and each of these feeders connects 9 or 10 wind
turbines to the offshore substation. The total is 48 wind turbines rated at 2, 3 MW.
The modeled wind farm is based on this layout. The turbines are joined in aggregates
and then connected to the offshore substation bus via 33 kV AC cables [1].

45

4.5

WIND TURBINES

The wind turbines used are the GE 1.5 MW model, available in the PSSE Wind
package. This model is of a DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) wind turbine
developed by General Electric and released for PSSE simulation and testing.

In order to match the 110 MW of the reference wind farm, a total of 74 1.5 MW wind
turbines were used in the model. These are joined in five aggregates: two aggregates
of 24 MW (16 wind turbines for each aggregate) and three of 21 MW (14 wind
turbines per aggregate). This actually adds up to 111 MW, which is the value assumed
hereby for the wind farm power.
For PSSE simulation of the wind farm, two distinct models are designed for the
wind turbines: the
Steady-state model (which allows the power flow simulations) and the transient
model (used for Dynamic simulations) [1].
4.6

STEADY-STATE MODEL

The load flow provides initial conditions for dynamic simulations. In the Load Flow
parameters of the PSSE, the wind turbines were modeled as five conventional
generators, rated at 24 MW and 21 MW. The values specified on the existing
generator record are outlined in Table 6.
Note that the values in Table were calculated considering the values in the Individual
WTG Power
Flow Data of the PSSE Wind User Guide and multiplying by the number of lumped
elements, as recommended by the PSSE guide.
Since the model used is of a DFIG wind turbine, both the active and reactive power
can be controlled. As so, for the wind turbine aggregates, for the HVAC transmission
system, the wind turbines were regulated for a unit power factor, which means no
reactive power is generated by the wind turbines. The reason is that the AC cable
already produces a significant amount of reactive power, so an additional quantity of
reactive power generated by wind farm would deteriorate the system behavior [1].

46

24MW

21MW

Aggregates

Aggregates

Pgen{MW}

24

21

Pmax{MW}

24

21

Pmin{MW}

1.1

Qgen{Mvar}

Qmax{Mvar}

Qmin{Mvar}

Mbase{MVA}

26

23

Xsource{p.u}

08

08

Table 6: Wind Turbine Data


4.6.1

Step-Up Transformers

The 0.69/33 kV transformers that adapt the voltage at the generation buses (690 V) to
the voltage of the internal grid of the wind farm (33 kV) have the parameters
presented in Table 7.
As each aggregate contains 14 or 16 wind turbines, the rated power of the
transformers is respectively, 24.5 MVA and 28 MVA [1].
Transformer Parameters

Value

Unit Rating {MVA}

175

Unit Rated Voltage {kV/kv}

0.69/33

Unit Impedance{%}

5.75

Unit X/R

7.5

Table 7: Wind Farm Transformer Data

47

4.6.2

33 kV Cables

The cables used to link the five buses where the wind turbines are connected to the
offshore bus are 33 kV AC cables. The cable parameters are presented in Table 8
Cable

Length

Rp.u

Xp.u

Bp.u

0.003857

0.010101

0.000957

102

0.8

0.003085

0.008081

0.000766

102

0.6

0.002314

0.006061

0.000574

102

0.4

0.001543

0.00404

0.000383

102

0.2

0.000771

0.00202

0.000191

From
Bus

To
Bus

[km]

102

Table 8: 33KV Cable Data


4.7

LAYOUT OF THE OFFSHORE WIND FARM

Figure illustrates the wind farm designed in PSSE, where the wind turbines, the
step-up transformers and the 33 kV cables mentioned above are represented [1].

Fig 7: PSSE model of the offshore wind farm

48

4.8

HVAC TRANSMISSION

The HVAC transmission is the simplest alternative for the transmission of the
electrical power of the offshore wind farm to the onshore grid. The main components
are the AC transmission cable and the two transformers: onshore and offshore. Figure
8 illustrates the HVAC transmission scheme, with the AC cable and both
transformers. For proper compensation of the reactive power generated in the cable,
shunt reactors (or a STATCOM device) were applied to one or both ends of the cable.
They are not however represented here [1].

Fig 8: HVAC transmission layout in PSSE


4.8.1

150KV Power Cable

The power cable chosen is a 100Km, 150 kV XLPE cable. 150 kV is a typical option
for offshore wind farms, used in, for example, the Horns Rev wind farm, in Denmark.
Hence using the parameters of the power cable in Horns Rev
Cable
From
Bus
20

To
Bus
21

Rkm

Xkm

Ckm

[/km]

[/km] [F/km]

0.039

0.12

0.19

Length
[km]
100

Rp.u

Xp.u

Bp.u

0.0173

0.053

1.34235

Table 9: 150KV Cable parameters

49

4.8.2

Onshore and Offshore Transformers

The offshore transformer adapts the voltage from the 33 kV of the internal grid to the
150 kV of the power cable. As for the onshore transformer, it is used to increase the
voltage from the 150 kV of the cable to the 400 kV of the onshore grid. Table10
shows the offshore and onshore transformers data [1].
Buses

Rated
Voltage
Impedance
{%}

Rating
{MVA}

X{p.u.}
100MVA
Based

From
Bus

To Bus

Location

Rated
Voltage
{KV}

20

102

Offshore

33/150

13.8

160

0.08625

21

151

Onshore

150/400

15

200

0.075

Table 10: Onshore and offshore transformer data


4.9

STATCOM FOR STEADY-STATE SIMULATION

For power flow analysis, the STATCOM is modeled as a FACTS device with the
parameters adjusted as to simulate the behavior of this device. In both cases of the use
of the STATCOM (in HVAC transmission) it was modeled with the same parameters.

Fig 9: Graphic representation of a Statcom in PSSE


The parameters presented in Table 11 are the most important values used in power
flow analysis of the STATCOM and they are obtained using PSSE Manual for
FACTS devices

50

Parameter

Rectifier

Device Number

Terminal Bus

Control Mode

Normal

P Setpoint {MW}

0.00

Q Setpoint {MVAR}

0.00

V Send Setpoint

1.02

Shunt Max {MVA}

64

RMPCT {%}

100

Bridge Max

V term max {pu}

1.1

V term min {pu}

0.9

V Series Max {pu}

I Series Max {MVA}

64

Dummy Series X{pu}

0.05

V Series Reference

Sending end voltage

Table 11: STATCOM Parameters

51

4.10

DIAGRAM OF THE GRID

The resulting grid, after the changes performed, is presented in the single-line diagram
shown in Figure, in which the offshore wind farm is already included. Bus 102
referred above, is marked in the figure 10. The legend of the colors used in the figure
for each voltage value is presented in Table 12

Fig 10: Single line diagram of the wind Farm connected to the Grid

52

Color

Rated
Voltage {KV}

RED

440

BLACK

220

PURPLE

150

DARK GREEN

33

BLUE

20

ORANGE

13.8

BORDEAUX RED

0.7

Table 12: Color Representation of Voltages


4.11

MODELING FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

The dynamic data file so called (.dyr) file in PSSE consist of dynamic parameter
data for all conventional synchronous generators, turbines, exciters governors and
other devices. The first step in dynamic simulation using initial dynamic file is to
enter the detailed dynamic model data for Wind Farm, which is saved in a file. This
file contains a group of records, each of which defines the location of a dynamic
WTG model in the grid along with the constant parameters of the model. The PSSE
university version 33 provides a dynamic model for a DFIG wind turbine. The model
includes generator, electrical control, wind turbine and pitch control. Dynamic
simulation is performed based on the load flow data that provide the transmission
grid, load, and generator data. In this study, dynamic analysis is performed to
investigate the WTGs model response subjected to grid disturbances. The most
relevant disturbance for the study case is a three-phase symmetrical short-circuit fault
on an onshore bus. Additional fault events can be simulated on the different buses of
the Wind Turbine Generation Station (WTGS) to see the behavior of the wind farm
but here our focus will only be on the simulation of fault on the 400KV onshore bus
named as 3005 [8].

53

4.11.1 PSSE Dynamic model of DFIG


The variable speed wind turbine using DFIG are more popular technology which is
used word-wide due to advantages such as high energy efficiency and controllability.
DFIG is basically a standard, wound rotor induction generator with a voltage source
converter connected to the slip-rings of the rotor. The stator winding are coupled
directly to the grid and the rotor winding is connected to power converter as shown in
figure 11.
The steady-state and dynamic characteristics of DFIG are dominated by the power
converter. The converters allow the machine to operate over a wider range of speed,
and control active and reactive power independently. This means that DFIG have the
capability to participate in steady-state and dynamic VOLT/VAR control. In some
DFIG designs, a crow-bar or DC chopper circuit may be used to short the rotor-side
converter during a close-in transmission fault to avoid excessively high DC link
voltage and keep the machine running. If the rotor-side converter is shorted, the
dynamic behavior is similar to an induction generator. During a low voltage event, the
converter tries to retain full in control of active and reactive currents. DFIG can be
designed to meet low voltage ride-through requirements without external reactive
power support. Converters are current-limited devices, and this plays a major role in
the dynamic response of DFIGs to grid disturbances. DFIGs also have a pitch control
to optimize energy capture [8].

Fig 11: DFIG Model


The PSSE wind turbine model WT3 was used for the dynamic simulation study with
the objective of simulating the dynamic performance of a wind Farm employing
DFIG technology. The generic WT3 model is included as a standard model in the
Dynamic Model Library of PSSE version 33. The WT3 model can only be used
54

when the generator is specified as a wind generator and not as conventional generator
in the power flow data file. As shown in the fig 12

Fig 12: Power Flow Data File

0 if this is not a wind machine (this is the default value).

1 if this is a wind machine which participates in voltage control, with the


values of QT and QB on the data record specifying the machines reactive
power limits.

2 if this is a wind machine which participates in voltage control, with the


specified power factor and the machines active power setting (PG on the data
record) used to set the machines reactive power limits.

3 if this is a wind machine which operates at a fixed power, with the


machines reactive power output and reactive power upper and lower limits all
equal, and set based on the specified power factor and the machines active
power setting [8].

4.11.2 Power Factor

ignored if the wind control mode is 0

is used in setting the machines reactive power limits when the wind control
mode is 2 or 3

Negative value may be specified when the wind control mode is 3, and is
interpreted as a leading power factor (i.e., the wind machine produces active
power and absorbs reactive power).

The WT3 generic wind turbine model consists of the following main modules:

WT3G generator/converter module

WT3E electrical control module

WT3T turbine module and

WT3P pitch control module.

55

Figure 13 shows the interaction between these modules.

Fig 13: PSSE DFIG Generic Model


The DFIG includes 4 modules which are responsible for:

WT3G1, doubly-fed induction generator which is mostly an algebraic model


to calculate the current injection to the grid based on commands from controls,
with or without the PLL control.

WT3E1, electrical control including the torque control and a voltage control.

WT3T1, the turbine model including a two-mass shaft mechanical system and
a simplified method of aerodynamic conversion, namely P=Kaero**
where P is mechanical power, is a pitch angle; this method was validated
against results obtained when using the Cp matrix

WT3P1, the pitch control.

Tables 13, 14, 15, 16, show the dynamic data for Double Fed Inductive Generator
based on WT3 Generic Wind Model. Values for the parameters of these models were
based on typical values given in the PSSE Wind manual. The number of aggregated
wind turbines was changed in the models to 14 for the 21 MW aggregates and 16 for
the 24 MW aggregates [8].

56

Symbol

Value

Unit

Vw

1.25

p.u

4.95

MW*sec/MVA

DAMP

p.u P/pu

Kaero

0.007

Const.

Theta 2

21.98

Deg.

Htfac

0.875

Hturb.h

Freq

1.8

HZ

DSHAFT

1.5

P.U P/pu

Table 13: Turbine Model WT3T1

Symbol

Value

Unit

Xeq

0.8

p.u

Pll gain

30

Con

Pll integrator gain

Con

Pll maximum

0.1

Cons

Turbine MW rating

0.5

MW

No.of lumped WT-s

number of turbines
for each feeder

Integer

Table 14: Generator Model WT3G1

Symbol

Value

Unit

Tp

0.3

Sec

Kpp

150

p.u

Kip

25

p.u

Kpc

p.u

Kik

30

p.u

Tetamin

Deg

Tetamax

27

Deg

RTetamax

10

Deg/sec

PMX

p.u on Mbase

Table 15: Pitch Model WT3P1

57

Symbol

Value

Unit

Symbol

Value

Unit

Tfv

0.15

Sec

T_Power

sec

Kpv

18

p.u

Koi

0.05

Con

Kiv

p.u

VMNCL

0.9

Con

Xc

p.u

VMAXCL

1.2

Con

Tfp

0.05

Sec

Kqv

40

Con

Kpp

p.u

X1Qmin

-0.5

Con

Kip

0.6

p.u

X1QMax

0.4

Con

PMX

1.12

p.u

Tv

0.05

Con

PMN

0.1

p.u

Fn

con

QMX

0.309

p.u

Wpmin

0.69

p.u

QMN

-0.309

p.u

Wp20

0.78

p.u

IPMAX

1.1

p.u

Wp40

0.98

p.u

TRV

0.05

Sec

Wp60

1.12

p.u

RPMX

0.45

p.u

pwp

0.74

p.u

RPMN

-0.45

p.u

Wp100

1.2

p.u

Table16: Electric Part Model WT3E1

58

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS & OBSERVATIONS


This chapter presents the results of the steady-state simulations performed on the grid
with the offshore wind farm, as described in Chapter 4. Results are analyzed and
discussion of the results is also performed.
5.1

INTRODUCTION

The power flow analysis carried out comprehends numerical calculations of active
and reactive power flows and node voltages. PSS/E software is used, in the scope of
this thesis, for the power flow analysis of power grid with an offshore wind farm.
Special attention is given to the Point of Common Coupling (hereby designated as
PCC), i.e., the point of connection of the wind farm with the remaining grid. The
voltage at the PCC, the active power injected and the reactive power
injected/absorbed in the PCC is analyzed as a part of the power flow study. Power
losses for each transmission system are also assessed.
The power flow results are presented by the single-line diagrams of the network (from
the PSS/E load flow software). The active and reactive flows at each end of the
branches and the voltage magnitude and angle at each bus are depicted in each figure
of this chapter. Figure depicts how each of the values from the power flow
calculations are represented in the power flow result figures [1].

Fig 14: Legend of the values presented in the single-line diagrams.


5.2

POWER FLOW SIMULATION RESULTS

For the HVAC transmission system, the power flow analysis focuses on the voltage
level and reactive power flow in the wind farm and the power cable connecting the
wind farm to the grid. Therefore, some reactive power compensation options are

59

studied with the objective to compensate the reactive power flow at different buses of
Wind farm so as to keep the voltage in to the desires range of 0.95pu to 1.05pu.
The main criteria for the choice of the value of the compensation device is the power
factor at the PCC, which is chosen to be approximately of 0.9, a typical value in grid
integration of wind farms. As so, the shunt reactor chosen for offshore compensation
only absorbs certain amount of reactive power, as the 0.9 power factor at the PCC is
guaranteed with this value.
An estimate of the reactive power produced by the 150 kV AC cable can be made
taking into account Equation. The approximate amount of reactive power produced by
the 100 km cable is given by equation below

Note that, for HVAC power flow, the wind turbine generators supply no reactive
power, since there is already an excess of reactive power, as a consequence of the
shunt capacitance of the AC cable. Therefore, the capability of the DFIG machines of
providing voltage support to the grid, by supplying reactive power, is not considered
for the present study.
Different strategies are made in order to compensate the reactive power produced due
to the power cable that is interconnecting the wind farm to the grid. This reactive
power needs to be compensated in order to keep the voltage profile of all the buses
and generators at the wind farm into desired range of 0.95pu to 1.05pu. It must be
noted that in this study of wind farm, doubly fed induction generators are used which
have the capability to control the reactive power flow but for the wind farms of larger
capacity like 110MW wind farm this approach of compensating the reactive power
seems less effective. Due to which different compensation devices are connected to
keep the control of reactive power flow in order to keep the voltages at all the buses
of the power system into desired limits.
Here in this study three cases are discussed which are as follows:

Wind farm without compensation devices

Wind farm with shunt reactor

Wind farm with STATCOM

60

These cases are created to analyze the importance of the external compensation
devices into the wind farms.
Each case simulation describes the reactive, active power flows at different buses and
voltages at different branches and buses. It also uses Enable contour facility of
PSSE to show the voltage level of different buses.

61

CASE1
WIND FARM WITHOUT REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION
After developing the steady-state model of the power system having wind farm
connected to it, the load flow analysis is performed in order to carry out the impact
studies. Full Newton-Raphson method is used to perform the power flow studies. In
Case 1 the wind farm can be seen connected to the power system. In this case no
compensation device is connected to the wind farm and the results are obtained as
shown in fig15.

Fig 15: Power Flow results of Wind Farm without Compensation


In table given 17 the result of voltages at different buses can be observed. It can be
seen that at all the buses of the wind farm the voltages are extremely high as
compared to the desired value of the voltages. The voltage is as high as 1.19pu
whereas the desired voltage limit is 1.05pu. The voltage reaches to the extreme value
due to high capacitive reactive power produced by the power cable, which needs to be
compensated in order to bring the voltage under normal ranges.

62

Bus
Number

Bus Name

Base KV

Code

Voltage(p.u)

Angle
(deg)

PARK 1

33.0

1.1952

8.35

PARK 2

33.0

1.1950

8.34

PARK 3

33.0

1.1948

8.31

PARK 4

33.0

1.1947

8.29

PARK 5

33.0

1.1945

8.27

20

BUS
OFFSHORE

150.0

1.1973

4.42

21

BUS ONSHORE

150.0

1.1426

2.60

101

NUC-A

33.0

1.0221

3.28

102

NUC-B

33.0

1.1944

8.26

151

NUCPANT

400.0

1.0343

-1.35

152

MD500

400.0

1.0172

-4.46

153

MD230

220.0

0.9992

-5.68

154

DOWNTN

220.0

0.9705

-9.23

201

HYDRO

400.0

1.0400

-2.87

202

EAST500

400.0

1.0208

-4.74

203

SUB500

220.0

0.9981

-7.65

204

SUB230

400.0

1.0142

-4.98

205

URBGEN

220.0

0.9800

-8.61

206

HYDRO_G

18.0

1.0807

-3.61

211

MINE

20.0

1.0307

2.47

3001

E-MINE

220.0

1.0279

-1.62

3002

S-MNE

400.0

1.0257

-2.31

3003

WEST

220.0

1.0121

-2.58

3004

WEST

400.0

1.0015

-4.74

3005

UPTOWN

220.0

1.0001

-5.78

63

3006

RURAL

220.0

0.9816

-5.71

3007

CATDOG

220.0

0.9835

-8.13

3008

MINE_G

220.0

1.0400

-8.17

3011

CATDOG_G

220.0

1.0360

0.00

3018

GEN BUS1

0.7

1.1952

-4.19

90001

GEN BUS2

0.7

1.1950

8.64

90002

GEN BUS3

0.7

1.1948

8.62

90003

GEN BUS4

0.7

1.1947

8.56

90004

GEN BUS5

0.7

1.1945

8.54

Table 17: Voltages at different buses


Table 18 shows the active and reactive power generated by different generating units.
It can be seen that power factor of the wind farm is 1, due to which no reactive power
is supplied by the WTGs to the Grid.
Bus
Number

Bus Name

Code

PGen(MW)

QGen(MW)

Voltage
(p.u)

101

NUC-A

750.0

100.0

1.0221

206

URBGEN

800.0

458.8

0.9800

211

HYDRO_GEN

600.0

252.2

1.0400

3011

MINE_G

367.4

112..3

1.0400

3018

CATDOG_G

100.0

80.0

0.9835

90001

GEN BUS1

24.0

0.0

1.1952

90002

GEN BUS2

24.0

0.0

1.1950

90003

GEN BUS3

21.0

0.0

1.1948

90004

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

1.1947

90005

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

1.1945

Table 18: Data of Active and Reactive power generated

64

Figure 16 color display of the voltages at the different parts of the power system. Here
it can be seen that color at all the buses of the wind farm is red which indicates that
voltages at these buses are very high as compared to the normal voltage range.

Fig 16: Color display of voltages at buses


This is the power flow program which shows the convergence of the solution. The
method used was full Newton-Raphson power flow method.

65

SIEMENS POWER TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL


50 BUS POWER SYSTEM SIMULATOR--PSS(R)E University-33.4.0
INITIATED ON THU, JAN 08 2015 2:26
PSS(R)E PROGRAM APPLICATION GUIDE EXAMPLE
BASE CASE INCLUDING SEQUENCE DATA
Diagonals = 34 Off-diagonals = 52 Maximum size = 82
ITER
DELTA/V/

DELTAP
BUS

BUS
DELTAANG

BUS

23.1846(

151

11.6593(

0.33741(

0.28003(

2.6871(

0.14515(
2
0.02800(
3
0.00815(
4
0.15212(
5
0.02969(
6
0.00332(
7
0.00032(
8

90001

151

3018

0.2356(

0.11360(

0.0015(

0.01425(

3018

0.0001(

0.00050(

0.0281(

0.01307(

3018

0.0028(

0.00413(

0.0001(
206
0.0000(

0.00043(
)

0.00004(
205

0.2126(

3.5016(

206

3018

3018

206

206

206

206

1.5351(
)

0.3256(
)

0.0317(
206

211

206

205

3018

205

206

1.0717(

3018

3018

211

3018

3008

3018

13.6337(

90001

20

BUS

90001

201

3018

DELTAQ

0.0025(

66

0.00003(
9

206
0.0000(

0.00000(
205

206
)

0.0002(

206

Reached tolerance in 9 iterations

Largest mismatch:
-0.00 MW
MVA at bus 206 [URBGEN
18.000]

-0.02 Mvar

System total absolute mismatch:


MVA

0.02
0.04

SWING BUS SUMMARY:


BUS# X-- NAME --X BASKV
QGEN
QMAX
QMIN
3011 MINE_G
112.3
600.0

13.800
-100.0

PGEN

PMAX

PMIN

367.4

900.0

0.0

67

CASE 2
WIND FARM WITH SHUNT REACTOR
In case a shunt reactor is connected to the offshore bus to compensate the reactive
power. As discussed earlier the value of the shunt reactor is chosen so to obtain the
power factor of 0.9 lag at Bus 102 (point of common coupling, PCC). Same Full
Newton-Raphson method is used to perform the load flow and the results are
obtained. The Active and reactive power flows and voltage at all the buses can be
observed.

Fig 17: power Flow results of wind farm with Shunt reactor
Figure 18 shows the color display of the voltages at the different parts of the power
system. Here it can be seen that color at all the buses of the wind farm changed from
dark red to sky blue by the use of the static VAR compensator of proper rating at the
offshore bus, which indicates that the voltages are under the normal ranges.

Fig 18: Color display of Voltages at different buses

68

The table 19 shows the voltages at different buses of the power system including that
of the wind farm buses. It can be observed that by the use of the shunt reactor at the
offshore bus, the voltages are brought below the max voltage limit of 1.05pu.
Bus
Number

Bus Name

Base KV

Code

Voltage(p.u)

Angle
(deg)

PARK 1

33.0

0.9864

12.99

PARK 2

33.0

0.9862

12.97

PARK 3

33.0

0.9860

12.93

PARK 4

33.0

0.9850

12.90

PARK 5

33.0

0.9856

12.88

20

BUS
OFFSHORE

150.0

0.9908

7.23

21

BUS ONSHORE

150.0

1.0132

3.14

101

NUC-A

33.0

1.0200

3.35

102

NUC-B

33.0

0.9855

12.85

151

NUCPANT

400.0

1.0267

1.31

152

MD500

400.0

1.0134

4.47

153

MD230

220.0

0.9961

5.69

154

DOWNTN

220.0

0.9700

9.26

201

HYDRO

400.0

1.0400

2.89

202

EAST500

400.0

1.0196

4.76

203

SUB500

220.0

0.9974

7.68

204

SUB230

400.0

1.0142

5.01

205

URBGEN

220.0

0.9800

8.64

206

HYDRO_G

18.0

1.0303

3.66

211

MINE

20.0

1.0597

2.60

3001

E-MINE

220.0

1.0301

1.63

3002

S-MNE

400.0

1.0268

2.31

3003

WEST

220.0

1.0248

1.63

69

3004

WEST

400.0

1.0095

2.31

3005

UPTOWN

220.0

0.9995

2.59

3006

RURAL

220.0

0.9973

4.75

3007

CATDOG

220.0

0.9799

5.80

3008

MINE_G

220.0

0.9522

5.72

3011

CATDOG_G

220.0

1.0420

8.15

3018

GEN BUS1

0.7

1.0340

8.20

90001

GEN BUS2

0.7

0.0040

0.00

90002

GEN BUS3

0.7

0.0070

4.21

90003

GEN BUS4

0.7

0.0056

13.42

90004

GEN BUS5

0.7

0.0040

13.39

Table19: Voltages at different buses including wind farms


The table 20 gives details of the active and reactive power generated by different
generators. It is observed that no reactive power is generated by the WTGs and none
of the generator is overloaded.
Bus
Number

Bus Name

Code

PGen(MW)

QGen(MW)

Voltage
(p.u)

101

NUC-A

750.0

49.3

1.0200

206

URBGEN

800.0

481.7

0.9800

211

HYDRO_GEN

600.0

122.9

1.0400

3011

MINE_G

368

120.6

0.9822

3018

CATDOG_G

100.0

80.0

0.9864

90001

GEN BUS1

24.0

0.0

0.9864

90002

GEN BUS2

24.0

0.0

0.9862

90003

GEN BUS3

21.0

0.0

0.9852

90004

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

0.9859

90005

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

0.9858

Table 20: Active and Reactive power generated by different generators.

70

This is the power flow program which shows the convergence of the solution. The
method used was full Newton-Raphson power flow method.
SIEMENS POWER TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL
50 BUS POWER SYSTEM SIMULATOR--PSS(R)E University-33.4.0
INITIATED ON THU, JAN 08 2015

2:26

PSS(R)E PROGRAM APPLICATION GUIDE EXAMPLE


BASE CASE INCLUDING SEQUENCE DATA

Diagonals = 34

ITER
DELTA/V/
0
0.15868(
1
0.15219(
2
0.02687(
3
0.00775(
4
0.15558(
5
0.03122(
6
0.00347(
7

Off-diagonals = 52

DELTAP
BUS
23.1846(
211

1.5258(

BUS
DELTAANG
151

BUS
)

0.27989(

0.2099(
3018

0.0011(

0.0001(
)

0.0295(

1.0471(

0.00490(
)

0.00047(

0.01331(

0.0030(

0.00434(

0.0001(

0.00045(
205

3.6260(

206

3018

3018

206

206

206

1.6009(
)

0.3419(
206

211

3018

205

206

0.2050(

3018
)

3018
)

211

21

3018

3018

12.4269(

201

BUS

20

3008

3018

9.4961(

0.04278(

205

3018

DELTAQ

90001

151

3018

Maximum size = 82

0.0349(

71

0.00035(
8
0.00003(
9

206

0.0000(

0.00004(

206

205
)

0.0000(

206

0.0029(

0.00000(
205

206
)

206

206

0.0002(

Reached tolerance in 9 iterations

Largest mismatch:
MVA at bus 205 [SUB230

0.00 MW
220.00]

0.02 Mvar

System total absolute mismatch:


MVA

0.02
0.05

SWING BUS SUMMARY:


BUS# X-- NAME --X BASKV
QGEN
QMAX
QMIN
3011 MINE_G
120.6
600.0

13.800
-100.0

PGEN

PMAX

PMIN

368.0

900.0

0.0

72

CASE3
WIND FARM WITH STATCOM
In the third case the strategy which is used is the replacement of the shunt reactor with
the STATCOM at the offshore bus for the compensation of the reactive power to keep
the voltages closer to the nominal values. The power flows and voltages can be seen
in the figure 19.

Fig 19: Power Flow results of Wind Farm with STATCOM


Figure 20 shows the color display of the voltages at the different parts of the power
system. Here it can be seen that color at all the buses of the wind farm changed from
dark red to light green by the use of the static synchronous compensator (STSTCOM)
of proper rating at the offshore bus, which indicates that the voltages are under the
normal ranges.

Fig 20: Color display of voltages at different buses

73

Table 21 shows the voltages at all the buses of the power system after the use of the
STATCOM at the offshore bus for the purpose of reactive power compensation. It can
be observed that voltage at all the buses of the wind farm is in the desired range of
0.95pu to 1.05pu.
Bus
Number

Bus Name

Base KV

Code

Voltage(p.u)

Angle
(deg)

PARK 1

33.0

1.0160

12.25

PARK 2

33.0

1.0159

12.22

PARK 3

33.0

0.0156

12..18

PARK 4

33.0

1.0155

12.16

PARK 5

33.0

1.0153

12.13

20

BUS OFFSHORE

150.0

1.0200

6.81

21

BUS ONSHORE

150.0

1.0315

3.09

101

NUC-A

33.0

1.0200

3.35

102

NUC-B

33.0

1.0151

12.11

151

NUCPANT

400.0

1.0276

1.31

152

MD500

400.0

1.0139

4.46

153

MD230

220.0

0.9964

5.68

154

DOWNTN

220.0

0.9701

9.24

201

HYDRO

400.0

1.0400

2.87

202

EAST500

400.0

1.0197

4.74

203

SUB500

220.0

0.9975

7.76

204

SUB230

400.0

1.0142

4.99

205

URBGEN

220.0

0.9800

8.63

206

HYDRO_G

18.0

1.0300

3.64

211

MINE

20.0

1.0395

2.77

3001

E-MINE

220.0

1.0301

1.62

3002

S-MNE

400.0

1.0269

2.31

3003

WEST

220.0

1.0249

2.59

3004

WEST

400.0

1.0098

4.74

3005

UPTOWN

220.0

0.9998

5.76

74

3006

RURAL

220.0

0.9977

5.71

3007

CATDOG

220.0

0.9801

8.14

3008

MINE_G

220.0

0.9824

8.18

3011

CATDOG_G

220.0

-2

1.0400

0.00

3018

GEN BUS1

0.7

-2

1.0350

4.20

90001

GEN BUS2

0.7

-2

1.0160

12.65

90002

GEN BUS3

0.7

-2

1.0158

12.62

90003

GEN BUS4

0.7

-2

1.0156

12.53

90004

GEN BUS5

0.7

-2

1.0153

12.48

Table 21: Voltages at different buses using STATCOM


The table 22 gives details of the active and reactive power generated by different
generators. It is observed that no reactive power is generated by the WTGs and none
of the generator is overloaded.
Bus
Number

Bus Name

Code

PGen(MW)

Voltage
(p.u)

QGen(MW)

101

NUC-A

750.0

58.1

1.0200

206

URBGEN

800.0

478.8

0.9800

211

HYDRO_GEN

600.0

2.9

1.0400

3011

MINE_G

368

119.5

1.0200

3018

CATDOG_G

100.0

80.0

1.0000

90001

GEN BUS1

24.0

0.0

1.0000

90002

GEN BUS2

24.0

0.0

1.0000

90003

GEN BUS3

21.0

0.0

1.0000

90004

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

1.0000

90005

GEN BUS4

21.0

0.0

1.0000

Table22: Active and Reactive power generated using STATCOM.

75

This is the power flow program which shows the convergence of the solution. The
method used was full Newton-Raphson power flow method.
SIEMENS POWER TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL

50 BUS
33.4.0

POWER

SYSTEM

SIMULATOR--PSS(R)E

INITIATED ON THU, JAN 08 2015

University-

2:21

PSS(R)E PROGRAM APPLICATION GUIDE EXAMPLE


BASE CASE INCLUDING SEQUENCE DATA

Diagonals = 34

ITER
DELTA/V/

Off-diagonals = 52

DELTAP
BUS

BUS
DELTAANG

23.1846(

151

0.14079(

211

0.27984(

BUS

1
0.15348(
2
0.02622(
3
0.02811(
4
0.15556(
5
0.03124(
6

1.3339(

0.2089(
3018

0.0010(

0.0030(
)

0.0294(

1.0247(

0.00786(
)

0.01292(

0.01327(

0.0029(

0.00436(
205

0.1963(

3.6299(

206

3018

3018

206

206

1.5914(
3018

211

3018
)

90001
)

211

90001

3018

3018

12.1903(

201

BUS

20

21

3018

8.4145(

0.04093(

205

102

DELTAQ

90001

151

3018

Maximum size = 82

0.3405(

76

0.00346(
7
0.00035(
8
0.00003(
9

206

0.0001(
206

0.0000(

0.00045(
205

206
)

0.0000(

0.0346(

0.00004(

206

205

206

206
)

206

206

206

0.0029(

0.00000(
205

0.0002(

Reached tolerance in 9 iterations

Largest mismatch:
-0.00 MW
MVA at bus 206 [URBGEN
18.000]

-0.02 Mvar

System total absolute mismatch:


MVA

0.02
0.05

SWING BUS SUMMARY:


BUS# X-- NAME --X BASKV
QGEN
QMAX
QMIN
3011 MINE_G
119.5
600.0

13.800
-100.0

PGEN

PMAX

PMIN

367.4

900.0

0.0

77

5.3

DYNAMIC RESULTS

After undergoing the Steady-state simulation and observing the results of that study,
dynamic simulations are performed on the grid under analysis. The response of the
wind farm and that of the grid to a symmetrical short circuit fault on a grid is analyzed
and results are discussed.
5.3.1

Introduction

The analysis of the dynamic behavior of the offshore wind farm comprehends the
response of the wind farm to voltage and frequency disturbances in the grid.
The study of this work is focused on the response of both the offshore wind farm and
the onshore grid to a three-phase fault in an onshore bus, bus 3005, as marked in
Figure 21

78

Fig 21: Single line diagram of the grid used for the dynamic simulations. Note: Bus
3005, where the fault occurs is marked in the orange rectangle
Nature of Disturbance and clearance time:
For all simulations, the following conditions were applied:

The fault applied is a bolted symmetrical three-phase applied one second after
the start of the simulation.

The fault clearing time is 1 second (45 cycles) and the simulation time is 20
seconds.

79

Behavior of the following parameters of the grid and wind farm is analyzed here
during and immediately following the disturbance:

Voltage response at different buses and WTGs.

WTG speed response

WTG active power response

WTG reactive power response

Pitch angle response

The analysis is carried out with the objective of assessing the fault ride through
capability of the offshore wind farm, i.e. the requirement for the wind farm to stay
connected to the grid during the disturbance, thus contributing to the reestablishment
of the normal operation. The fault ride through capability of the wind turbines in the
offshore wind farm is guaranteed by the under/over voltage disconnection relays of
the wind turbine generators. These devices allow the operation of the wind turbines
even when the terminal voltage decreases. This capacity of riding through a fault is
limited to defined voltage dips and fault durations. So, and according to the
implemented fault ride through characteristic (as defined in Figure), the wind turbine
will only trip if the fault that occurs across the terminals of the machine are outside
the defined limits.
Following are the results of different parameters during and after the occurrence of
fault:
5.3.2

Response of voltage during the fault at the faulty bus, Bus 9005

After the occurrence of the three-phase short circuit at the Bus 9005, the voltage drop
occurs almost in the entire transmission system. More precisely, the closer the
location of the fault, the greater will the voltage drop be. This transient voltage drop
lasts as long as the time of activity of protective relays in order to isolate the fault. In
graph 1, is shown the impact of short circuit fault at the faulted bus. Response of
voltage could be see during and after the occurrence of Fault. After 1 sec when the
fault occurs, the voltage of bus 9005 drops down to (0 p.u) and after the clearance of
fault the voltage restores to its normal value.

80

Graph1: Response of voltage during the fault at the faulty bus, Bus 9005
5.3.3

Response of voltage at offshore bus, Bus 20

Graph 2 shows that during the fault on bus 3005, the 150Kv offshore bus voltage
drops to 0.45pu. After fault clearance, the voltage gradually recovers to around
0.98pu.

Graph2: Response of voltage at offshore bus, Bus 20

81

5.3.4

Response of voltage at 400 KV onshore bus, Bus 21:

Graph 3 shows that during the fault on bus 3005, the 150KV offshore bus voltage
drops to 0.63pu. After fault clearance, the voltage gradually recovers to around 0.98pu

Graph 3: Response of voltage at 400 KV onshore bus, Bus 21

82

5.3.5

Response of voltage at terminals of WTG1 during the fault:

Graph 4 shows that during the fault at bus 3005, the WTG terminal voltage shows a
similar pattern, except that during the fault the minimum terminal voltage is 0.18pu
approximated to 0.2pu. The range of terminal voltage drop to other WTGs is from
0.2pu to 0.23pu, depending on location of the installed units. The simulation results
indicate that all DFIGs have the ability to ride through the fault, which is in
compliance with Wind Grid Code requirements.

Graph4: Response of voltage at terminals of WTG1 during the fault

83

5.3.6

WTG1 active power response during the fault:

Graph 5 shows that during the fault the WTG electrical power output suddenly
decreases to a very low value (0.001pu). The difference between the mechanical input
power and electrical output power causes an increase in the rotor speed and therefore
the rotor starts to accelerate. The torsion oscillation in the drive-train model is
reflected in the output power of the wind turbine. Oscillation of power output after the
fault is cleared will cause mechanical stress in the drive train system. Approximately
ten seconds after the fault is cleared, the power output recovers to the pre-fault value
of 16MW.

Graph 5: WTG1 active power response during the fault

84

5.3.7

WTG1 reactive power response during the fault:

During the fault, the rotor speed increases, giving a larger negative slip. This is
because the electric power has decreased to almost zero whereas the mechanical
power is assumed to be the same. As a result, WT3P module responds by altering the
blade pitch to decrease mechanical power. The reactive power output from selected
wind turbine generator WTG1 is shown in graph 6. Before the fault occurs, the
generated reactive power is near zero and the wind farm operates at unity power
factor. It can be seen that each WTG units during the fault provide reactive power
support to the grid, as is required by the Wind Grid Code.

Graph 6: WTG1 reactive power response during the fault

85

5.3.8

WTG1 speed response during the fault

Graph 7 shows the generator rotor speed response after the fault occurs. The generator
speed is oscillating for about 5 seconds after the fault. 16 seconds after fault is
cleared, the rotor speed recovers to the pre-fault value after some 16 seconds.

Graph 7: WTG1 speed response during the fault

86

5.3.9

Pitch angle response after fault event

As can be seen in graph 8, the turbine blade pitch angle is increased during the fault in
order to reduce the power input from the wind turbine. The pitch angle oscillates in
response to the oscillation of the speed of the turbine. For a few seconds after fault
clearance, the turbine shaft speed decreases while the pitch angle increases due to the
effect of pitch compensation controller trying to reduce the input power to the turbine
by increasing the pitch angle.

Graph 8: Pitch angle response after fault event

87

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS


6.1

CONCLUSION

Wind power has evolved as a significant renewable energy source for the generation
of electrical energy due to the growth of environmental concerns. Large wind farms
with several hundred megawatts of rated power have been connected to grid.
When wind farms are connected to the existing power system introducing the new
power to the system, it offers some challenges like reactive power compensation,
fluctuations in active and reactive power and Voltage control strategies.
It is therefore necessary to go through steady state and dynamic analysis to map the
impacts of newly injected power of wind farms on the existing system.
Thus the objective of this thesis is to carry out the load flow analysis of the wind farm
integrated to the power grid, in order to study their overall impacts on the power
system.
For this purpose, a wind farm of 110MW having two aggregates of 24MW and three
aggregates of 21MW connected offshore to the power grid by means of a power
cable. Initially the steady state load flow analysis is carried out considering three
cases which are

Wind Farm without compensation

Wind farm with Shunt Reactor

Wind Farm with STATCOM

On the basis of these three Cases the voltages and power Flows at different buses
were determined and it was ensured that Reactive power and voltages are in the
normal ranges.
Then dynamic simulation is carried out by creating a fault at a grid bus for a second in
order to determine the fault ride through capability of the wind farm. For all this
Steady-State and Dynamic simulation Siemens PTI software Known as PSSE is
used.

88

The results of the simulation are analyzed to study the Impacts of grid interfaced wind
farm on the power system.
6.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

In our thesis HVAC transmission system was used to interconnect the offshore wind
farm to the power grid and results were studied. For the future work we would
recommend that DC link converter could be taken in PSS/E and HVDC transmission
model could be developed to interconnect the offshore wind farm to the Grid, and
then the results of both HVAC and HVDC transmission systems could be compared
to see the impacts of each on the power system.

89

REFERENCES
1. Steady State Analysis of the Interconnection of Offshore Energy Parks
By: Miguel Jorge da Rocha Barros Marques.
https://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/downloadFile/.../dissertacao.pdf
2. PSS/E Wind Modeling Package for 1.5/3.6/2.5 MW Wind Turbines - User
Guide. 2009.
3. PSS/E 33 Users Manual. 2010
4. PSS/E 33 Program Operation Manual Volume II. 2010
5. PSS/E 33 Program Application Guide Volume II. 2010
6. Creation of a Power Flow Study. BY: Ben Pilato & Bryan Lake (Department
of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University)
7. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Full Power Converter Wind Turbine
with Permanent Synchronous Generator. By: Skender Kabashi, Gazmend
Kabashi
8. Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis. By: G. Kabashi
K. Kadriu
http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/60799391/wind-farm-modelingsteady-state-dynamic-analysis
9. Case Studies of Wind Park Modeling. By: Yuriy Kazachkov, Siemens PTI
10. Power System Analysis. By: Haadi Saadat
11. Low Voltage Ride-Through. By: J. Dirksen; DEWI GmbH; Wilhelmshaven
12. Transmission System for offshore wind farms in the Netherlands. By: Wil
Kling
13. NEDO offshore wind energy progress Edition II
14. Teaching Undergraduate Power System Courses with the help of Siemens PTI
PSS/E-University simulator software. By: Chi Tang, Adam Freeman, Jerome
Spence, Matthew Bradica, and Donge Ren (McMaster School of Engineering
Technology)
15. Power flow analysis using MATLAB. By: Mohammad Shahimi Bin
Mohammad Isa (University Malaysia Pahang)

90