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meaning Job rotation refers to a management tool in which an individual, usually a

trainee, is taken from one department to another over a period of years. This allows the
individual to train on different aspects of the job.
Introduction Job rotation involves an employee changing positions within the same
organization and eventually returning to the original position Job rotation is the best way
to keep the employees away from boredom Job rotation helps trainees to apply their: knowledge - abilities - Interests
Definition : A job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more
jobs in a planned manner Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees
to various jobs and departments over a period of few years
Task rotation It takes place in jobs that involve a high degree of physical demands on the
body or extremely tedious job Employees are periodically removed from these mentally
stressful or physically demanding tasks to a less demanding task for a while to give
them a break. Eg; A spot welder on a production line working 10 hrs. shift for 4days a
week is shifted to the maintenance or tool shop
Process rotation It is the process of laterally moving an employee to different
geographical location The purpose behind this type of rotation is to personally
professionally developing the employee by exposing her to new knowledge, skills and
perspectives. Eg; a junior executive at a multinational consulting firm sent as the
company's advance executive training program to different geographical location
Job rotation in constructing agency
Objectives :Reducing Monotony of the job Succession Planning Creating right-Employee
Job Fit Exposing Workers to All Verticals of the Company Testing Employee Skills and
Competencies Developing a Wider Range of Work Experience
15. Process of job rotation 1) Plan everything in advance. 2) The employees going in for
job rotation should be mentally and physically prepared or otherwise they will not work
in newer condition. 3) Check the performance as well as qualification of worker so that
the new environment suits him.
16. Continue 1) Non performers or poor and constant performers should be given
extensive training before considered for job rotation. 2) Employees should be given
training from time to time so that they can give good performance and the real purpose
is fulfilled. 3) Employees should possess knowledge, skills and right attitude
17. Conclusion 1. Job rotation is not just another transfer in the industry today 2. Job
rotation strategy required focus on the outcome 3. It can be used to settle scores which
arises from organizational politics 4. It can also be used as a good tool to bring fresh
ideas and infuse new energy into the existing roles and functions
Now-a-days committees are widely used in all areas of administration and management on
account of the following reasons:
Advantages
1. Pooling of knowledge and experience:
The personal skills and Hence of several persons are pooled together. Group deliberations and
combined judgment of all the members can be brought to bear on important problems.
There can be a more realistic and objective appraisal of the problem from all angles. This
helps to improve the quality of decisions. Business problems are multifaceted and require
breadth of decision. Subjective and unbalanced decisions can be minimized. "When several
people study and deliberate on each critical problem, there is more assurance that every
facet will be thoroughly explored and weighed in terms of the interests of the company as a
whole."1 A group of people can bring to bear a wider range of experience and a more
thorough probing of facts than a single person.
2. Improved communication:
Committees serve as important means of communication between the members of an
organisation. Information and ideas can be easily transmitted both upward and downward.
Unwritten policies and objectives can be explained effectively through deliberations of a

committee. Creative ideas emerge from interactions among the members. Doubts and
ambiguity can be removed on the spot.
3. Facility of coordination:
Participation in committee meetings promotes mutual understanding, team-work and
cooperation among employees. Committees serve as an important technique of
coordination by bringing together managers from different departments. Members of a
committee come to appreciate each other's point of view and they can pursue a common
course of action. A committee is a useful means of integrating and unifying various points
of view.
4. Better motivation:
Committees help to improve the motivation and morale of employees by providing them an
opportunity to express them selves. Participation in the decision making process not only
improves quality of decisions, it creates a sense of belonging. Employees are keen on the
execution of decisions in the making of which they have taken an active part.
5. Executive development:
A committee is an useful device for educating and training subordinate managers.
Participation in committee meetings provides opportunity for learning through experience.
A manager learns to take an integrative view of organizational problems by serving on
various committees. Executive development ensures continuity of management in the
organisation.
6. Democratic management:
As a plural executive, a committee helps to avoid the risk of concentration of too much
authority in the individual and the danger of abuse of power. There is no fear of delegating
too much authority to one individual. The tyranny of a powerful head can be reduced. Group
authority makes for diffusion of power and democratic leadership.
7. Representation of interests:
Various interest groups can be given representation on a committee. Such representation may
be necessary to secure the commitment and cooperation of people. Members can be
enlightened on policy matters and ideas beyond the capacity of one individual can be
generated.
8. Consolidation of authority:
The manager of every department or section may have a portion of the total authority
required to take a decision. Such authority is known as splintered authority. In such a case, a
committee of different managers may be constituted to consolidate the authority. In this way
the decision can be taken without reference to the higher level. However, frequent need for
consolidation of splintered authority is the sign of a poor organisation structure.
9. Avoidance of action:
Sometimes, committees are constituted to postpone or avoid action. In order to cool off
agitation and temper on the part of employees, the matter may be referred to a committee.
Delaying of action through a committee is a strategy for overcoming resistance, pressure or
opposition from affected people.
Disadvantages:
The committee form of organisation suffers from the following weaknesses:
1. Indecisiveness:
In general, it takes longer to get decision or action from a committee than from an individual.
Members of a committee tend to indulge in lengthy, discussions. Every member has the
right to speak and be heard. Matters are unnecessarily dragged. Opinion is divided and
decisions get delayed. Group decision processes are not appropriate where prompt action is
required. Due to conflicting viewpoints, a committee fails to reach a decision in time.
2. High costs:
A lot of expenditure and time is incurred in convening meetings and giving travelling or other
allowance to members. Therefore, committees are an expensive form of administration. As
such a committee should be appointed only when the gains of committee work justify the s
costs. Committee work is very time-consuming.

. Compromised decisions:
Committee decisions are often mediocre compromises between conflicting viewpoints. The
ultimate decisions may reflect the opinion of none so that there is little enthusiasm for
them. Individual thinking is expected to conform to the average or group thinking. Such
leveling effect or log-rolling reduces the quality of decision. The compromise is often
arrived at the least common denominator. Therefore, committee decisions are not
necessarily the best decisions but merely acceptable ones.
4. Diffused responsibility:
No member can be individually held responsible for a wrong decision taken by a committee. As
no one feels accountable for results, members shirk their responsibilities. The committee
becomes an organized means of passing the buck. According to committees do not
necessarily increase the democratic process administration.
5. Domination by few:
A few aggressive or vocal members often dominate committee's deliberations. A minority
group exercises an unwarranted tyranny ignoring the interest of other members. Members
frequently seek to protect their narrow sectional interests. There is a tendency to cloud the
real issues and bring in extraneous matters for discussion often a committee becomes a
battle-ground for warring camps to settle personal scores.
6 Perpetuation:
Committees have a tendency to perpetuate them selves even after the purpose is served.
There exist too many committees even for routine problems. Sometimes committees are
appointed to just avoid actions. Such committees serve no useful purpose and the aggrieved people remain aggrieved. It is often difficult to dissolve a committee even when it has
outlived its utility.
7. Lack of secrecy:
It is difficult to maintain secrecy regarding the decisions and actions taken by a committee. A
large number of persons participate in committee meetings.
Due to its weaknesses and misuse, a committee has been described as "a group of unfits
engaged by the unwilling to do the unnecessary." Some people remark that a committee is
a group of people who individually can do nothing but who can meet together and decide
that nothing can be done. Such remark reflects wide-spread frustration and disillusionment
with committees.