You are on page 1of 20

SEMINAR

ON
ENGINEERING
MECHANICS

SUBMITTED BY:
SIDDHARTH PANWAR
SECTION L
ROLL NO. 38

INDEX

Introduction
Resolving vectors by Accurate
Drawing
Resolving vectors by
trigonometry
Principles of equilibrium
Free body diagram
Equilibrium and its equations
Lamis theorem
Conditions of equilibrium

INTRODUCTION
Forces in equilibrium mean that they are
balanced.
Coplanar forces act in the same
plane.
Two balanced forces are equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction to the other.

We can see easily from the free body diagram that


the resultant force is zero.
If we are considering three coplanar forces in
equilibrium, use the triangle of forces rule:
If 3 forces acting at a point can be
represented in size or direction by the sides
of a closed triangle, then the forces are in
equilibrium, provided their directions can
form a closed triangle.
This means that the forces can follow each other
round a triangle

Notice how:

The forces form into a closed triangle.


The directions of the forces go round the
triangle.

In statics, remember that all forces add up to zero.


That does not mean that there are no forces; the
forces balance each other out.
In statics problems, we need to know how to
resolve forces, which can be done by:

accurate drawing;
use of trigonometry.

Resolving the Vectors by Accurate


Drawing
Consider three forces acting in equilibrium:

We see that the forces (from the weights) form a


closed triangle and the directions form a closed
loop. Therefore the forces are balanced. We can
show this as a triangle of forces.

1. Choose a scale (e.g. 2 cm = 1 N)


2. Use graph paper.
3. Use a sharp pencil.
4. Use a compass.
5. Use a protractor if angles are mentioned.
6. Draw the arrows in the direction specified.

Here is the equilibrium situation above represented


by accurate drawing:

The angles are measured with a protractor to give


the values shown.

Resolving Vectors by Trigonometry


The problem with accurate drawing is that of
accuracy. If you get the answer to the nearest
degree, you're doing well. And accurate drawing is
not easy. If you are challenged by measuring,

resolution of vectors using trigonometry is the


answer.
Any vector in any direction can be resolved into
vertical and horizontal components at 90
degrees to each other.

For three forces in equilibrium we can draw a force


vector diagram:

For this situation we know that weight always acts


vertically downwards. We can resolve the two
other vectors into their horizontal and vertical
components:
1. T1 resolves into T1 cos q1 (horizontal) and T1 sin
q1 (vertical);
2. T2 resolves into T2 cos q2 (horizontal) and T2 sin
q2 (vertical).
We know that the three forces add up to zero, so
we can say:

T1 cos q1 + - T2 cos q2 = 0. This means that


the forces are equal and opposite.

T1 cos q1 = T2 cos q2

T1 sin q1 + T2 sin q2 = W

Be careful that you don't assume that W is split


evenly between T1 sin q1 and T2 sin q2. This is only
true when the weight is half way between the
ends.

PRINCIPLES OF EQUILIBRIUM
There are three main principles of equilibrium.
(1) Two force principle:
According to this principle, if a body is in
equilibrium under the action of two forces, then
they must be equal, opposite and collinear.

(2) Three force principle:

According to this principle, if a body is in


equilibrium under the action of three forces then
the resultant of any two forces must be equal,
opposite and collinear with the third force.

(3) Four force principle:


According to this principle, if a body is in
equilibrium under the action of four forces then the
resultant of any two forces must be equal, opposite
and collinear with the resultant of the other two
forces.

FREE BODY DIAGRAM


The new body diagram is a simple diagrammatic
representation of an isolated body or combination
of bodies (treated as a single body) to show all the
forces imposed on the body from the surrounding.
The forces may be either internal or external to the
body under consideration. All the forces (including
reactions) acting on it are drawn. To draw it the
supports are removed and replaced by reactions
which they exert on the body. The condition of
equilibrium of the body is attained when the active
forces and reactive forces together represent a
system of forces in equilibrium.

Thus it can be concluded that;

A free body diagram represents a force system in


equilibrium.

(2) If a system of bodies is in equilibrium then each


subsystem must also be in equilibrium.

(3) If the body is isolated from earth the


gravitational force should be treated as an external
force on the body.

EQUILIBRIUM AND ITS EQUATIONS


The equilibrium state may be defined as the
condition in which the resultant of all the forces
acting on a body is zero, i.e., all the forces and
moments applied to the body are in balance. The
free body diagram which represents a system of
forces and couples acting on the body, can be
replaced by a single force and a single moment.
Now, the equilibrium can exist only if both the
resultant force and the resultant couple vanish.
That is:

F=0
M=0

Equilibrium Equation For concurrent force systems:

These forces may be collinear, coplanar or spatial


and the vector or algebraic method can be
employed. Te condition for equilibrium is

R = Fi

= F1 + F2 + F4 + ...0

This vector equation for equilibrium can be used to


generated three scalar equations for a general
concurrent force system, i.e.,

Rx = Fx = F1x + F2x + F3x + F4x + ... = 0

Ry = Fy = F1y + F2y + F3y + F4y + ... = 0

Rz = Fz = F1z + F2z + F3z + F4z + ... = 0

Note:

If R 0. Then the equivalent force F1 = -R must


pass through the point of concurrency in order to
bring the body in equilibrium

Equilibrium Equation For Coplanar force system:

For a force system which comprises of forces with


their lines of action in the same plane and the
moments due to couples which are directed
perpendicular to the plane, the conditions of
equilibrium can be written as:

Fx = 0

(sum of all horizontal forces)

Fy = 0

(sum of all verfical forces)

and

(sum of all moments)

M=0

the summation of moments may be taken about


any point on the XY plane but it should be about
the Z-axis through the chosen point. The body thus
can only be in equilibrium if the algebraic sum of
all the external forces and their moments about
any point in their plane is zero.

Equilibrium Equation For parallel force system:

For such a system the resultant of the forces may


be a non-zero or a zero force. It may not be
accompanied by a couple moment. Then
equilibrium will occur only if;

F1 = 0

Mj = 0

i.e.,

M1 = 0,
M3 = 0

M2 = 0,

where j represents the point about which the


moment of all the forces in the plane is taken.

In fact there can be only two of these equations


mutually independent. Thus, for a plane parallel
force system, the conditions of equilibrium reduce
to;

M1 = 0

and

M2 = 0

where 1 and 2 represent any two suitably chosen


points.

Lami's theorem
In statics, Lami's theorem is an equation relating
the magnitudes of three coplanar, concurrent and
non-collinear forces, which keeps an object in static
equilibrium, with the angles directly opposite to the
corresponding forces.

where A, B and C are the magnitudes of three


coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear forces,
which keep the object in static equilibrium, and ,
and are the angles directly opposite to the
forces A, B and C respectively.

Lami's theorem is applied in static analysis of


mechanical and structural systems. The theorem is
named after Bernard Lamy.

Proof of Lami's Theorem


Suppose there are three coplanar, concurrent and
non-collinear forces, which keeps the object in
static equilibrium. By the triangle law, we can reconstruct the diagram as follow:

By the law of sines,

CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM
Consider a body acted upon by a number of
coplanar non-concurrent forces. A little
consideration will show the as a result of these

forces, the body may have any one of the following


states:
1. The body may move in any one direction.
2. The body may rotate about itself without
moving.
3. The body may move in any one direction and
at the same time it may also rotate about
itself.
4. The body may be completely at rest.
Now, we shall study the above mentioned four
states one by one.
1. If a body moves in any direction, it means that
there is a resultant force acting on it. A little
consideration will show that if the body is to be
at rest or in equilibrium, the resultant force
causing movement must be zero. Or in other
words, the horizontal component of all the
forces and vertical forces must be zero.
Mathematically,
H=0

and

V=0

2. If the body rotates about itself, without


moving, it means
that there is a single
resultant couple acting on it with no resultant
force. A little consideration will show that if the
body is to be at rest or in equilibrium, the
moment of the couple causing rotation must be
zero. Mathematically,
M=0
3. If the body moves in any direction and at the
same time it rotates about itself, it means that

there is a resultant force and also a resultant


couple acting on it. A little consideration will
show that if the body is to be at rest or in
equilibrium, th e resultant force must be zero. Or
in other words, horizontal component of all the
forces (H), vertical component of all the
forces(V) and resultant moment of all the
forces(M) must be zero. Mathematically,
H=0

V=0

and

M=

0
4. If the body is completely at rest, it necessarily
means that there is neither a resultant force nor
a couple acting on it. A little consideration will
show that in this case the following conditions
are satisfied :
0

H=0

V=0

and

M=

The above mentioned three equations are known


as the conditions of equilibrium.