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Basic Mechanics - B.Tech

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ON

ENGINEERING

MECHANICS

SUBMITTED BY:

SIDDHARTH PANWAR

SECTION L

ROLL NO. 38

INDEX

Introduction

Resolving vectors by Accurate

Drawing

Resolving vectors by

trigonometry

Principles of equilibrium

Free body diagram

Equilibrium and its equations

Lamis theorem

Conditions of equilibrium

INTRODUCTION

Forces in equilibrium mean that they are

balanced.

Coplanar forces act in the same

plane.

Two balanced forces are equal in

magnitude but opposite in direction to the other.

the resultant force is zero.

If we are considering three coplanar forces in

equilibrium, use the triangle of forces rule:

If 3 forces acting at a point can be

represented in size or direction by the sides

of a closed triangle, then the forces are in

equilibrium, provided their directions can

form a closed triangle.

This means that the forces can follow each other

round a triangle

Notice how:

The directions of the forces go round the

triangle.

That does not mean that there are no forces; the

forces balance each other out.

In statics problems, we need to know how to

resolve forces, which can be done by:

accurate drawing;

use of trigonometry.

Drawing

Consider three forces acting in equilibrium:

closed triangle and the directions form a closed

loop. Therefore the forces are balanced. We can

show this as a triangle of forces.

2. Use graph paper.

3. Use a sharp pencil.

4. Use a compass.

5. Use a protractor if angles are mentioned.

6. Draw the arrows in the direction specified.

by accurate drawing:

the values shown.

The problem with accurate drawing is that of

accuracy. If you get the answer to the nearest

degree, you're doing well. And accurate drawing is

not easy. If you are challenged by measuring,

answer.

Any vector in any direction can be resolved into

vertical and horizontal components at 90

degrees to each other.

vector diagram:

vertically downwards. We can resolve the two

other vectors into their horizontal and vertical

components:

1. T1 resolves into T1 cos q1 (horizontal) and T1 sin

q1 (vertical);

2. T2 resolves into T2 cos q2 (horizontal) and T2 sin

q2 (vertical).

We know that the three forces add up to zero, so

we can say:

the forces are equal and opposite.

T1 cos q1 = T2 cos q2

T1 sin q1 + T2 sin q2 = W

evenly between T1 sin q1 and T2 sin q2. This is only

true when the weight is half way between the

ends.

PRINCIPLES OF EQUILIBRIUM

There are three main principles of equilibrium.

(1) Two force principle:

According to this principle, if a body is in

equilibrium under the action of two forces, then

they must be equal, opposite and collinear.

equilibrium under the action of three forces then

the resultant of any two forces must be equal,

opposite and collinear with the third force.

According to this principle, if a body is in

equilibrium under the action of four forces then the

resultant of any two forces must be equal, opposite

and collinear with the resultant of the other two

forces.

The new body diagram is a simple diagrammatic

representation of an isolated body or combination

of bodies (treated as a single body) to show all the

forces imposed on the body from the surrounding.

The forces may be either internal or external to the

body under consideration. All the forces (including

reactions) acting on it are drawn. To draw it the

supports are removed and replaced by reactions

which they exert on the body. The condition of

equilibrium of the body is attained when the active

forces and reactive forces together represent a

system of forces in equilibrium.

equilibrium.

subsystem must also be in equilibrium.

gravitational force should be treated as an external

force on the body.

The equilibrium state may be defined as the

condition in which the resultant of all the forces

acting on a body is zero, i.e., all the forces and

moments applied to the body are in balance. The

free body diagram which represents a system of

forces and couples acting on the body, can be

replaced by a single force and a single moment.

Now, the equilibrium can exist only if both the

resultant force and the resultant couple vanish.

That is:

F=0

M=0

and the vector or algebraic method can be

employed. Te condition for equilibrium is

R = Fi

= F1 + F2 + F4 + ...0

generated three scalar equations for a general

concurrent force system, i.e.,

Note:

pass through the point of concurrency in order to

bring the body in equilibrium

their lines of action in the same plane and the

moments due to couples which are directed

perpendicular to the plane, the conditions of

equilibrium can be written as:

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

and

M=0

any point on the XY plane but it should be about

the Z-axis through the chosen point. The body thus

can only be in equilibrium if the algebraic sum of

all the external forces and their moments about

any point in their plane is zero.

be a non-zero or a zero force. It may not be

accompanied by a couple moment. Then

equilibrium will occur only if;

F1 = 0

Mj = 0

i.e.,

M1 = 0,

M3 = 0

M2 = 0,

moment of all the forces in the plane is taken.

mutually independent. Thus, for a plane parallel

force system, the conditions of equilibrium reduce

to;

M1 = 0

and

M2 = 0

points.

Lami's theorem

In statics, Lami's theorem is an equation relating

the magnitudes of three coplanar, concurrent and

non-collinear forces, which keeps an object in static

equilibrium, with the angles directly opposite to the

corresponding forces.

coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear forces,

which keep the object in static equilibrium, and ,

and are the angles directly opposite to the

forces A, B and C respectively.

mechanical and structural systems. The theorem is

named after Bernard Lamy.

Suppose there are three coplanar, concurrent and

non-collinear forces, which keeps the object in

static equilibrium. By the triangle law, we can reconstruct the diagram as follow:

CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM

Consider a body acted upon by a number of

coplanar non-concurrent forces. A little

consideration will show the as a result of these

states:

1. The body may move in any one direction.

2. The body may rotate about itself without

moving.

3. The body may move in any one direction and

at the same time it may also rotate about

itself.

4. The body may be completely at rest.

Now, we shall study the above mentioned four

states one by one.

1. If a body moves in any direction, it means that

there is a resultant force acting on it. A little

consideration will show that if the body is to be

at rest or in equilibrium, the resultant force

causing movement must be zero. Or in other

words, the horizontal component of all the

forces and vertical forces must be zero.

Mathematically,

H=0

and

V=0

moving, it means

that there is a single

resultant couple acting on it with no resultant

force. A little consideration will show that if the

body is to be at rest or in equilibrium, the

moment of the couple causing rotation must be

zero. Mathematically,

M=0

3. If the body moves in any direction and at the

same time it rotates about itself, it means that

couple acting on it. A little consideration will

show that if the body is to be at rest or in

equilibrium, th e resultant force must be zero. Or

in other words, horizontal component of all the

forces (H), vertical component of all the

forces(V) and resultant moment of all the

forces(M) must be zero. Mathematically,

H=0

V=0

and

M=

0

4. If the body is completely at rest, it necessarily

means that there is neither a resultant force nor

a couple acting on it. A little consideration will

show that in this case the following conditions

are satisfied :

0

H=0

V=0

and

M=

as the conditions of equilibrium.

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