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SOCIOLOGY CH.

4 TEST, NOV 19

Student:__________________________

TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS


1.

Hunting and gathering societies generate a material surplus. ___________________

2.

Hunting and gathering societies are nomadic. _______________________

3.

Hunting and gathering societies have elected leaders. __________________

4.

The subordination of women by men is clearly evident in hunting and gathering societies. _____

5.

Pastoral and horticultural societies are not capable of a material surplus. _______________

6. Agrarian societies typically have dramatic social inequality. ________________


7. Agriculture differs from horticulture because it makes use of animal-drawn plows that can cultivate much more
land.___________________
8. The industrial era was underway in parts of Europe by the time the explorer Christopher Columbus reached the
Americas in 1492. _________________
9. Industrial technology tends to weaken the family, reducing its importance as the center of social life.
______________________
10. In general, industrialization results in more schooling and a sharp increase in the share of the population that is
illiterate. _____________________
11. According to Karl Marx, the foundation of society is the family. ____________________
12. Karl Marx argued that societys infrastructure and superstructure are always in conflict. _______
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
13. According to Lenski's approach, change in society would be brought about by
a. the telephone.
b. conflict between workers and factory owners.
c. new religious movements.
d. the extent to which people share moral values.
14. A great danger to hunting and gathering societies is
a. global warfare.
b. growing more food than people can store.
c. the forces of nature, including storms and droughts.
d. the forces of social inequality.

SOCIOLOGY CH. 4 TEST, NOV 19

Student:__________________________

15. The first type of society to generate a material surplus was


a. hunting and gathering.
b. horticultural and pastoral.
c. agrarian.
d. industrial.
16. Where in the world did large-scale cultivation or farming first develop?
a. Southeast Asia
b. the Middle East
c. North America
d. Africa
17. Agrarian technology developed based on the use of
a. the plow, animal power, and the development of metals.
b. the ability to travel, the rise of industry, and elevated living standards.
c. cultural diffusion, the use of hand tools to grow crops, and social diversity.
d. computers, the Information Revolution, and a global culture.
18. Gerhard Lenski claims that the development of more complex technology
a. is entirely positive.
b. has both positive and negative effects.
c. is entirely negative.
d. has no effect on the quality of human life.
19. Assume you are studying a society that has just invented cities, has increasing specialization, and has just started
using money to buy and sell goods and services. It is likely that the society is at which stage of socio-cultural
evolution?
a. hunting and gathering
b. horticultural and pastoral
c. agrarian

SOCIOLOGY CH. 4 TEST, NOV 19

Student:__________________________

d. industrial
20. The birth of sociology took place during the early development of which type of society?
a. pastoral
b. horticultural
c. industrial
d. agrarian
21. Industrialization changes society because
a. fewer people live in cities.
b. there are fewer types of jobs and fewer people work for income.
c. the rate of social change increases.
d. there are fewer advances in communication and transportation.
22. Karl Marx believed that the industrial-capitalist system was
a. unproductive.
b. diffusing wealth into the hands of many.
c. giving rise to the concepts of capitalists and proletarians.
d. promoting a classless society.
23. The driving force of social change, according to Marx, is
a. advancing technology.
b. social conflict between classes.
c. dominant ideas.
d. the way in which society is held together.
24. Karl Marx argued that the dominant social institution is
a. the family.
b. religion.
c. politics.
d. the economy.

SOCIOLOGY CH. 4 TEST, NOV 19

Student:__________________________

25. Marx described the widespread beliefs that supported the capitalist economic system as
a. false consciousness.
b. class consciousness.
c. cultural awareness.
d. revolutionary politics.
26. As the suffering of workers became worse, Marx predicted that they would
a. eventually starve to death.
b. rise up against the capitalist system.
c. go into business for themselves.
d. demand that women as well as men join the labor force.
27. In the socialist society Marx hoped to see, which of the following would be true?
a. Capitalists would pay fair wages to workers.
b. Class conflict would no longer exist.
c. All people would do the same work.
d. Factory technology would be abolished.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
28. What does Gerhard Lenski mean by socio-cultural evolution? Why does he argue that technology shapes every
aspect of society?
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29. What importance did Karl Marx attach to social conflict between classes?
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30. Briefly describe societies based on industry.
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