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Marineexplorationinstrumentsreleasecarbonnanotubesandother

nanoparticles
GlonatechAnd,"BestMarineCoatingApplicationsWithAntiacingBehaviour,"NoPublication,http://www.glonatech.com/nanotechnologyapplications/marine
coatings/

2ndgeneration
antifoulingcoatingscurrentlyavailableinthemarket.Thefoulingreleasepropertiesofthecoatingsresultfromthe
needlelikestructureofcarbonnanotubes(CNTs)thatcanfacilitatereleaseof microorganisms
responsibleforbiofouling.
ThemarinecoatingsdevelopedbyGlonatechanditspartnersdonotcontainanyharmfulforthemarineecosystembiocidesasthe

And,Nanotechnologycollapsesmarineecosystemsensuresmassive
toxicologicalpollution
Zhangetal.11(B.Zhang1,H.Misak1,P.S.Dhanasekaran1,D.Kalla2andR.Asmatulu1,1DepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringWichitaStateUniversity,
2DepartmentofEngineeringTechnology,MetropolitanStateCollegeofDenver,EnvironmentalImpactsofNanotechnologyandItsProducts,
MidwestSectionConferenceoftheAmericanSocietyforEngineeringEducation,2011,https://www.asee.org/documents/sections/midwest/2011/ASEE
MIDWEST_0030_c25dbf.pdf)//rh

Nanoparticleshavehighersurfaceareasthanthe
bulkmaterialswhich

cancausemore
damagetothehumanbodyandenvironmentcomparedtothebulkparticles.Therefore,concernforthepotentialrisktothesocietyduetonanoparticles
hasattractednationalandinternationalattentions.Nanoparticlesarenotonlybeneficialtotailorthepropertiesofpolymericcompositematerialsandenvironmentinairpollution
monitoring,butalsotohelpreducematerialconsumptionandremediation(Figure1).Forexample,carbonnanotubeandgraphenebasedcoatingshavebeendevelopedtoreduce
theweatheringeffectsoncompositesusedforwindturbinesandaircraft.GraphenehasbeenchosentobeabetternanoscaleinclusiontoreducethedegradationofUVexposure
andsalt.Byusingnanotechnologytoapplyananoscalecoatingonexistingmaterials,thematerialwilllastlongerandretaintheinitialstrengthlongerinthepresenceofsaltand
UVexposure.Carbonnanotubeshavebeenusedtoincreasetheperformanceofdatainformationsystem.However,therearefewconsiderationsofpotentialrisksneedtobe
consideredusingnanoparticles:Themajorproblemofnanomaterialsisthenanoparticleanalysismethod.Asnanotechnologyimproves,newandnovelnanomaterialsare

graduallydeveloped.However,thematerialsvarybyshapeandsizewhichareimportantfactorsindeterminingthetoxicity. Lackofinformationandmethodsof
characterizingnanomaterialsmakeexistingtechnologyextremelydifficulttodetectthe
nanoparticlesinairforenvironmentalprotection.Also,informationofthechemicalstructureisacriticalfactortodeterminehow

toxicananomaterialis,andminorchangesofchemicalfunctiongroupcoulddrasticallychangeitsproperties.Fullriskassessmentofthesafetyonhumanhealthand
environmentalimpactneedtobeevaluatedatallstagesofnanotechnology.Theriskassessmentshouldincludetheexposureriskanditsprobabilityofexposure,toxicological
analysis,transportrisk,persistencerisk,transformationriskandabilitytorecycle. Lifecycleriskassessmentisanotherfactorthatcanbeusedtopredicttheenvironmental
impacts.Goodexperimentaldesigninadvanceofmanufacturingananotechnologybasedproductcanreducethematerialwaste.Carbonnanotubeshaveapplicationsinmany
materialsformemorystorage,electronic,batteries,etc.However,some scientistshaveconcernsaboutcarbonnanotubesbecauseofunknownharmfulimpactstothehumanbody
byinhalationintolungs,andinitialdatasuggeststhatcarbonnanotubeshavesimilartoxicitytoasbestosfiber11.Lametal.andWarheitetal.studiedonpulmonarytoxicological

evaluationofsinglewallcarbonnanotubes12.FromLamsresearch,

carbonnanotubeshowedtobemoretoxicthancarbonblackandquartz

onceitreacheslung13,andWarheitfoundmultifocalgranulomaswereproducedwhenratswereexposuretosinglewallcarbonnanotubes14.Also,previousdisastersneedtobe

Thisisa
classicexampleofhownanotechnologycanharmtheenvironmenteventhoughthereare
severalpositivebenefits..Ascurrentnanoscalematerialsarebecomingsmaller,itismoredifficulttodetecttoxicnanoparticlesfromwastewhichmay
contaminatetheenvironment(Figure2).Nanoparticlesmayinteractwithenvironmentinmanyways:itmaybe
attachedtoacarrierandtransportedinundergroundwaterbybiouptake,contaminants,
ororganiccompounds.Possibleaggregationwillallowforconventionaltransportationtosensitiveenvironmentswherethenanoparticlescanbreakupinto
colloidalnanoparticles.AsDr.Colvinsaysweareconcernednotonlywithwherenanoparticlesmaybetransported,butwhattheytakewiththem16. Therearefourwaysthat
nanoparticlesornanomaterialscanbecometoxicandharmthesurroundingenvironment 17:
Hydrophobicandhydrophilicnanoparticles:Nanocoatingresearchersarecurrentlyworkingon

TiO2powder

asacoating
inclusionthatwillreducetheweatheringeffects,suchassaltraindegradationoncompositematerials.IvanaFenoglio,etal.
reanalyzedtocomparewithcurrentknowledgeaswell.Inthe1980s,asemiconductorplantcontaminatedthegroundwaterinSiliconValley,California.

18expressedtheirconcernthattheeffectofTiO2nanoparticlestobeassessedwhenleakedintotheenvironment.Mobilityofcontaminants:Therearetwogeneralmethodsthat
nanoparticlecanbeemittedintoatmosphere.19Nanoparticlesareemittedintoairdirectlyfromthesourcecalledprimaryemission,andarethemainsourceofthetotalemissions.
However,secondaryparticlesareemittednaturally,suchashomogeneousnucleationwithammoniaandsulfuricacidpresents.AsFigure2demonstratesthat

nanoparticlescaneasilybeattachedtocontaminationsandtransportedtoamoresensitive
environmentsuchasaqueousenvironments.Forexample,nuclearwastetraveledalmost1milefromanucleartestsitein30years20.However,after40yearsofthe
incidentthefirstflowmechanismmodelisbeingdevelopedtodescribethemethodsofnanoparticlebasedwastetravels21. Solubility: Nanoparticlesare
inventedanddevelopedinadvanceofthetoxicassessmentbyscientists.Manyofthe
nanoparticlesaresolubleinwater,andarehardtoseparatefromwasteifinappropriatelyhandled.Disposal:Anywasteproduct,including
nanomaterials,cancauseenvironmentalconcerns/problemsifdisposedinappropriately.

And,USmarineecosystemsarekeytostarfishtheyreakeystonespecies
andonthebrinknowdieoffspillsovertotheCaribbean,ensuresmassive
biodiversitylossandextinction
Brown14
(Desmond,InterPressService,QuotesJohnMussingtonMarineBiologist,CaribbeanFearsLossofKeystoneSpeciestoClimateChange,Apr262014,
http://www.ipsnews.net/2014/04/caribbeanfearslosskeystonespeciesclimatechange/)

massdeathsofstarfishalongtheUnitedStateswestcoastinrecentmonths
couldalsooccurintheCaribbeanregionbecauseofclimatechange,threateningthevitalfishingsector.SinceJune2013,scientistsbegannoticing
Amarinebiologisthascautionedthatthe

thatstarfish,whichtheysayfunctionaskeystonespeciesinthemarineecosystem,havebeenmysteriouslydyingbythemillions.Thecauseofthestarfishdieoffwhichistaking
placeinthePacificOceanisnotknownatthistimebutitcouldturnouttobefromanumberoffactorsincludingclimatechange,JohnMussingtontoldIPS.Ifitturnsoutthat

thesamethingcouldhappen
intheAtlanticandaffectCaribbeanspecies.Wearelivinginanerawhenthepredictedconsequencesofclimatechangearenow
reality.LargescaledieoffofcanthereforehappentousintheCaribbean,Mussingtonadded Starfishplayakeyroleinmarine
ecosystems.Theyeatmussels,barnacles,snails,mollusksandothersmallersealifesotheirhealthisconsideredameasureof
marinelifeonthewholeinagivenarea.Starfishareinturneatenbyshorebirds,gulls,andsometimesseaotters.Mussingtonexplainedthatsomething
climatechangefactorssuchasoceanwarmingareindeedimplicatedinthestarfishdieoff,thenthereisthepossibilitythat

similartowhatshappeninginCaliforniahashappenedintheregionbefore.HetoldIPSthatin1983therewasaCaribbeanwidedieoffoftheblackseaurchin,spreadingfromas
farnorthasTheBahamasrightdownthechainofislandstothesouth.ThelongspinedseaurchinwasakeystonespeciesintheCaribbeanmarineecosystem,similartothe
affectedstarfishinthePacificCaliforniaecosystem.Thedesignationaskeystoneisduetothefactthatifthereisanythingaffectingtheirlargepopulations,thenthiscanbe
interpretedasareliableindicationofproblemsintheentireecosystemthatwilllikelyaffectotherspecies,Mussingtonsaid.SomethingwentverywrongwithourCaribbean
marineecosystemin1983andtheblackseaurchinwaswipedoutthespeciesisconsideredtodaytobefunctionallyextinct.Withthedeclineofthiskeystonespecies,the
Caribbeanhasseensignificantdeclineinitscoralreefsandthemarinecommunitiestheysupport,includingeconomicallyimportantcommercialspecies.Mussingtonsaidthe
spinyurchingrazesonalgaeanditisimportanttocontrolthenumberofalgaeoncoralreefs.Habitatdegradation,specificallyofcoralreefs,hasbeencitedbynumerousstudiesas
theprimarycauseofongoingfishdeclinesofCaribbeanfishpopulationsCaribbeancoralreefshaveexperienceddrasticlossesinthepastseveraldecades.Fishusethestructureof
coralsforshelterandtheyalsocontributetocoastalprotection.Establishedresearchhaspredictedthatthecommunitieslocatedincoastalareas,aswellasnationaleconomiesin
thegeneralCaribbeanregion,arelikelytosustainsubstantialeconomiclossesshouldthecurrenttrendsincoralreefdegradationanddestructioncontinue.Ithasbeenestimated
thatfisheriesassociatedwithcoralreefintheCaribbeanregionareresponsibleforgeneratingnetannualrevenues,whichhavebeenvaluedatoraboveapproximately837million
EasternCaribbeandollars,orabout310millionU.S.dollars.Continueddegradationoftheregionsfewremainingcoralreefswoulddiminishthesenetannualrevenuesbyan
estimated95140millionU.S.dollarsannuallyby2015.ThesubsequentdecreaseindivetourismcouldalsoprofoundlyaffectannualnettourismrevenuesTherehastobesome

onceyouhaveamajorspeciesdyingoff,itsgoingtohaverepercussionsforthe
entiresystem.Wemustnotforgetthatmanisaintegralpartofthissystemandtherepercussionsforuswillbeserious,MussingtontoldIPS.Thefisheriessectorin
balanceand

theCARICOMRegionisanimportantsourceoflivelihoodsandsustenance.Thelocalpopulationishighlydependentonthisresourceforeconomicandsocialdevelopment.This
resourcealsocontributessignificantlytofoodsecurity,povertyalleviation,employment,foreignexchangeearnings,developmentandstabilityofruralandcoastalcommunities,
culture,recreationandtourism.Thesubsectorprovidesdirectemploymentformorethan120,000fishersandindirectemploymentopportunitiesforthousandsofothers
particularlywomeninprocessing,marketing,boatbuilding,netmakingandothersupportservices.ButthecoordinatorfortheUnitedNationsEnvironmentalProgrammes

The
CaribbeanSea,hometoavibrantecosystembenefittingfisherfolk,thetourismindustry
andtheregionspeoplealikeiscurrentlythreatened,hesaid,addingthatoverharvestingoffisheries,climatechangeand
CaribbeanRegionalCoordinatingUnitCaribbeanEnvironmentProgramme,NelsonAndradeColmenares,toldIPSthevitalsectorisbeingthreatenedbyclimatechange.

pollutionfromsewage,agriculturalrunoffandindustrialeffluenthasledto75percentofcoralreefsintheregionbeinglabeledasatrisk.Actingpermanentsecretaryin
Dominicasfisheriesministry,HaroldGuisteagrees,explainingthatthefutureoftheCaribbeansconchandlobsterfisheriesremainsunderthreatdespiteregionaleffortstoprotect
it.GuisteblamestheproblemofoverfishingsquarelyonnationsoutsidetheCaribbeanthattrawltheregionsseasillegally.Globallywehavenoticedarushtofishaccompanied
byalackofresponsiblebehaviourinthefishingsector,hetoldIPS.Thistypeofhooliganbehaviourhasresultedinseveredeclineinsomemajorfisheriesoftheworldand
collapseinsomeothers.TheDominicanofficialcalledforacollaborativeapproachtosafeguardagainstthedepletionoftheregionsalreadychallengedresources.Thespiny
lobstertradebringsinabout456millionUSdollarstoCARICOMnationsbutdemandhasledtooverfishingofaoncehealthystocks.Whileadmittingthatsomefactorsareout
ofourcontrolasitrelatestomitigatingagainstglobalwarming,Mussingtonsaidbothdevelopinganddevelopedcountriesneedtodomore.Weneedtodothingswhichwill
discontinuetheriseinglobaltemperaturesandthosethingsthatneedtohappenhavetodowithlessuseoffossilfuelsandmodificationofcertainthingsthatcountriesdo,hetold
IPS.Infact,thepersonswhoaregoingtobesufferingmostthepeoplelivingintheseSmallIslandDevelopingStateswearenottheonesultimatelyresponsibleinlarge
measurefortheproblemswearehavingnow,thedevelopedcountriesare.Sofarthedevelopedcountrieshavebeenveryresistanttoimplementingthosepoliciesandchanges
thatneedtohappen,Mussingtonadded.Intheend,hesaidtheannualConferenceoftheParties(COP)negotiationsshouldnotbesimplyaboutthesmallercountrieswinning.

Itsafightthattheworldhastowinifitistosurvivebecauseifthesmallstatesdontwin,
itmeansthattheglobeasawholedoesnotwin,whichmeansthatPlanetEarthwillloseoutandthehumanraceonplanetearthmight

verywellfacetotalextinction,warnedMussington.Thatswhatsfacingus.Theglobewillbecomeunlivable,headded.

And, Marine ecosystems are key -- crucial lynchpin to other ecosystems and
key to the US economy
Hourigan 99
(Thomas, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, CONSERVING OCEAN BIODIVERSITY: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES,
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/websites/retiredsites/natdia_pdf/7hourigan.pdf.)

The oceans biological diversitythe living resources that compose it and the ecological processes that
sustain itforms a foundation for the quality of human life as well as the raw materials to enrich it. Biological
diversity, or biodiversity, refers to the variety and variability among living organisms, and among the ecological complexes of which they are a
part

. Marine living resources provide essential economic,

environmental, aesthetic, and cultural benefits to humanity. Sixteen


percent of all animal protein consumed worldwide comes from the ocean. The United
Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates the total value to fishers of the worlds commercial marine catch at $80 billion per
year. The comparable value of fishes landed in the United States is $3.5 billion, and commercial fisheries contribute $21 billion to the U.S.
economy. Besides food, marine living resources provide myriad products including fertilizers, animal feed, medicines, and aquarium fishes.

The value of marine biodiversity extends far beyond fisheries and


other products. Marine ecosystems also provide natural goods and
services such as carbon storage, atmospheric gas regulation,
nutrient cycling, and waste treatment. Coral reefs, mangroves, and
kelp forests protect coastal areas from storm damage. Marine algae contribute nearly 40
percent of global photosynthesis. The values of these marine ecosystem services greatly exceed direct
use values, yet they generally are not incorporated into economic or policy calculations. Globally, the value of
marine ecosystem services has been estimated at $8.4 trillion per
annum for open ocean ecosystems, and $12.6 trillion for coastal
ecosystems (Costanza et al. 1997). These services depend on marine biodiversity, even though the processes that underlie this

dependence are still unclear. As human populations increase, demands have accelerated for food, products, and services from the ocean, as
well as for living and recreational space on its shores. The primary threats to marine biodiversity are fisheries operations (both direct
overfishing and indirect fishing impactse.g., bycatch of non-target and protected species, habitat destruction by trawls and other gear or
techniques, and other ecosystem effects that may accompany fishing activities), chemical pollution and eutrophication, physical alteration of coastal
and marine habitats, invasions of exotic species, and ultraviolet-B radiation damage to phytoplankton and zooplankton resulting from
stratospheric ozone depletion (NRC 1995). Looming on the horizon is the threat of human-caused climate change with potentially major
negative effects on tourism, freshwater supplies, fisheries, and biodiversity. These factors also have been identified by the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity2 as key threats (UNEP/CBD 1995).