ISBN 9788001054390
February 2014
Frantiek Wald, Jan Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhlmann et al
Printing in Publishing house of CTU in Prague  production
Design
of SteeltoConcrete Joints
Design Manual II
Ulrike Kuhlmann
Frantiek Wald
Jan Hofmann
et al
Design
of SteeltoConcrete Joints
Design Manual I
II
Contents
SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................................. VI
1
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 10
Design method....................................................................................................................... 12
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
Stiffness ......................................................................................................................... 15
2.2.3
Strength ......................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.4
2.3
2.3.1
Available models............................................................................................................ 18
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
COMPONENTS IN CONCRETE................................................................................... 24
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
Friction ........................................................................................................................... 38
III
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1.1
Model ............................................................................................................................. 48
4.1.2
Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 50
4.1.3
Stiffness ......................................................................................................................... 57
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
Column base.......................................................................................................................... 66
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2
5.3
Column base.......................................................................................................................... 77
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
6.3
7.2
IV
7.2.1
7.2.2
Design ............................................................................................................................ 90
7.2.3
Structural model............................................................................................................. 91
7.2.4
7.2.5
8.2
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
10
Symbols
k1
Lower case
k2
kA
ka
kb
kb,re
kC1
kC2
kc,de
length
ccr,N
cw
drag coefficient
diameter
db
dh
ds
ds,re
ds,nom
dw
kc,soft
ex,y
kj
concentration factor
eccentricity
kp
fbd
kp,de
fcd
ks
fck
fck,cube
ks,re
fu
kv
fub
fuk
l1
anchorage length
fy
lep
elongated length
fya
leff
fyb
lv,eff
fyd
fyd,re
mpl
fyk
height
hef
VI
defined as m
nre
internal pressure
scr,N
F d
design load
thickness
Fk
characteristic load
tf
Fmemb
axial force
tw
Ft.Ed
tp1
Ft.Rd
tp2
FT.Rd
wfic
moment of inertia
It
torsion constant
general stiffness
length
Lb
Lcr
buckling length
LD
Upper case
A
Ac0
loaded area
Lh
Ac1
Ip,bp
Ac,N
Mc,Rd
Mj,Rd
MN,Rd
Mpl.Rd
Mt,Rd
torsion capacity
Nact
Nb,Rd
Ncr
NEd
tension/compression load
NETA
Aeff
effective area
Ah
Anet
As
As,nom
As,re
Npl,Rd
design capacity
in tension/compression
NRd
design capacity
Bt.Rd
B,
0.9 f
A /
diameter of column
force or load
Fc.Rd
NRd,c
VII
NRd,cs
NRd,p
NRd,re
NRd,s
characteristic resistance
of a single anchor without edge and
spacing effects
Greek symbols
material coefficient
Mb
Mc
Nu
ultimate resistance
Ny
yielding resistance
prying force
Ms
Rd
design capacity
MV
Rk
characteristic resistance
Si
elastic stiffness
Mw
Sj,ini
initial stiffness
M0
VETA
Vpl,Rd
shear capacity
VRd
VRd,c
VRd,cp
M1
M2
deformation, displacement
act
VRd,p
VRd,s
corresponding displacement
at failure load NRd,sre or NRd,bre
N,ETA
We
external work
Weff
Rd,b,re
Wel
Wi
internal work
Rd,c
Wpl
Rd,p
deformation corresponding
to design resistance for pull out failure
Rd,s
Rd,s
Rd,s,re
VIII
Rd,sy
elongation
V,ETA
bu,re
cr
critical
design
external
eff
effective
ETA
grout
su
head
su,re
internal
characteristic
su,re
lim
limit
ultimate strain
Mc
material concrete
angle
Ms
material steel
slenderness of member
tension
coefficient of friction
nom
nominal
po
pullout
stress
plate
reduction factor
pl
plastic
A,N
Rd
resistance design
Rk
characteristic resistance
re
failure
rec
reinforcement
Sd
internal design
soft
softening
supp
support
tension part
tension
rotation
tot
total
plate
p1
anchor plate
re,N
s,N
supp
Subscripts
A
area
p2
base plate
act
actual
ultimate
bolt, bond
uk
characteristic ultimate
bd
design bond
shear
column, concrete
column web
cb
concrete block
x, y
directions
ck
characteristic concrete
yield
cp
yd
design yield
cs
concrete strut
yk
characteristic yield
IX
1 INTRODUCTION
The mixed building technology allows to utilise the best performance of all structural materials
available such as steel, concrete, timber and glass. Therefore the building are nowadays
seldom designed from only one structural material. Engineers of steel structures in practice
are often faced with the question of economical design of steel to concrete joints, because
some structural elements, such as foundations, stair cases and fire protection walls, are
optimal of concrete. A gap in knowledge between the design of fastenings in concrete and
steel design was abridged by standardized joint solutions developed in the INFASO project,
which profit from the advantage of steel as a very flexible and applicable material and allow an
intelligent connection between steel and concrete building elements. The requirements for
such joint solutions are easy fabrication, quick erection, applicability in existing structures, high
loading capacity and sufficient deformation capacity. One joint solution is the use of anchor
plates with welded headed studs or other fasteners such as postinstalled anchors. Thereby
a steel beam can be connected by butt straps, cams or a beam end plate connected by
threaded bolts on the steel plate encased in concrete. Examples of typical joint solutions for
simple steeltoconcrete joints, column bases and composite joints are shown in Fig. 1.1.
a)
b)
c)
access for the engineers in practice. The references are given to this Design manual I (DM I)
and to Eurocodes (EN199x1x). Chapter 10 summarises the offered opportunity for
innovations.
Chapters 1 and 2 were prepared by U. Kuhlman and J. Ruopp, Chapter 3 by J. Hofmann and
A. Sharma, Chapters 4, 5 and 6 by F. Wald, Bekov . and Schwarz I., Chapter 7 by da Silva
L. Simoes, H. Gervsio and J. Henriques and F. Gentili and Chapter 8 by M. Krimpmann. The
worked examples 9.1 to 9.3 were set by . Bekov and I. Schwarz, 9.4 by . Bekov,
I. Schwarz and M. Krimpmann, 9.5 by J. Ruopp, 9.6 and 9.7 by J. Henriques and F. Gentili,
with help of the headed studs design models by A. Sharma.
11
Design method
In the past decades, the component method has been set as a unified approach for the efficient
analysis of steel and composite joints, see (Da Silva 2008). The basic principle of the
component method consists of determining the complex nonlinear joint response through the
subdivision into basic joint components. The joint can be regarded as a set of individual basic
components that contribute to its structural behaviour by means of resistance, stiffness and
deformation capacity. The component method allows designers to take options more
efficiently because the contribution of each component to the joint behaviour may be optimized
according to the limiting components. Thus, one of the main advantages of the component
method is that the analysis of an individual component can be done independently of the type
of joint. In a second calculation step the single components are assembled by the designers
according to the joint configuration.
Joint components may be divided by the type of loading. Accordingly, three groups
of components are usually identified: components for tension, compression and shear.
Additionally, a second division may be done according to their location: panel zone or
connecting zone. In Fig. 2.1 these two definitions are illustrated based on a double sided
composite joint.
12
Fig. 2.2 Component model for composite joint with separated the panel zone in shear
The component method is given by EN199318:2006 and EN199411:2010 for the analysis
of steel and composite joints. The application of the method requires following steps:
1. Identification of the basic joint components
2. Characterization of the structural properties of the basic joint components
3. Assembly of the component properties
In the referred codes, a list of basic joint components is provided for the most common joint
configurations. Basic joint components are then characterized in terms of strength, stiffness
and deformation capacity allowing to obtain the F curve, see Fig. 2.3, reproducing its
behaviour. Finally, through the assembly procedure the joint properties are determined. The
joint behaviour may be later reproduced by an M curve, see Fig. 2.4, in the structural
analysis.
2.2
2.2.1
Classification of joints
Global analyses
The classification of the joints is prepared to examine the extent to which the stiffness or
strength have to be considered in the calculation according the design accuracy. In total there
are three different calculation methods which require different joint properties. These
calculation methods and the joint properties are compared within Tab. 2.1Tab. 2.1 Relation
between method of global analysis and considered joint behaviour
13
Elastic
Rigid plastic
Elastic plastic
Elastic method
If the elastic calculation method is applied, only the joint stiffness Sj is considered. Sj is
implemented in the structural calculation as spring element or onedimensional beam element
in order to determine the internal forces. If the bending moment does not exceed 2/3 of the
moment resistance of the joint the initial stiffness Sj,ini can be used to describe the elastic
behaviour. For calculations, where the plastic moment capacity is reached, the joint stiffness
can be calculated with the secant stiffness Sj,ini/. The joints are classified for this method by
taking into consideration the rotational stiffness.
Rigid plastic method
In the second calculation method the elastic behaviour of the joint is neglected. Internal forces
of the structural calculation are calculated from 1st order plastic hinge theory only satisfying
equilibrium conditions. Within this method only the plastic moment capacity is considered, but
the joints must have sufficient deformation capacity to allow full plastic redistribution. In this
case the joints are classified by the resistance.
Elastic plastic method
If the third method is applied the overall momentrotationrelationship of the joint has to be
considered. This relationship is used within the joint modelling of the structural calculation.
For simplification a bilinear approach of the moment rotation curve may be used. Typically the
reduced secant stiffness is applied. If the elastic plastic method is used, the joint has to be
classified by stiffness and strength.
The advantages of this method are shown in the following example. In Fig. 2.5 a steel frame
with horizontal and vertical loading is shown. Instead of modelling the column bases as a
pinned joint as it is common in practice, the column bases may be classified as semirigid and
modelled with a rotational spring. Thereby the column bases may stabilise the structure and
reduce the bending moment in the steeltosteel beam to column joints. So a classification of
the column bases as semirigid instead of pinned makes the steel structure more safe and
economical.
14
Stiffness
The first part of this chapter deals with the classification of beam to column/wall and beam to
beam joints, the second part with the classification of column bases. Depending on its initial
rotational stiffness S , a joint may be classified as pinned, rigid or semirigid. Normally pinned
joints can transfer axial and shear force. Rotation of the joint does not cause significant
bending moments. If a joint cannot be classified as normally pinned or rigid it is classified as
semirigid. Rigid joints have a rotational stiffness which legitimise to treat the joint as rigid in
the global analysis.
K E I /L
(2.1)
If a bracing system reduces the horizontal displacement more than 80 %, then Kb 8. For
other frames provided that in every storey the following equation (2.2) is valid, then Kb 25.
K
K
0.1
(2.2)
15
Semirigid joints, in Fig. 2.6 zone 2, are all joints which are not classified as pinned or rigid.
For frames where Eq. 2.3 applies the joints should be classified as semi rigid and not as rigid.
K
K
(2.3)
0.1
Nominally pinned joints, in Fig. 2.6 zone 3, are expecting to have a limited bending stiffness
compared to the bending stiffness of the connected beam.
where
K
K
I
I
L
L
(2.4)
0.5 E I /L
S,
is mean value of I /L for all the beams at the top of that storey
is mean value of I /L for all columns of that storey
is the second moment of area of beam
is the second moment of area of column
is the span of beam
is the storey height of a column
(2.5)
0.5
for
0.5
3.93 is S ,
3.93 and S ,
7 2
1 E I /L
(2.6)
and for
48 E I /L
(2.7)
where
is the relative slenderness of a column in which both ends are assumed as pinned.
For all other constructions, the cases where the storeys sway is not prevented, the column
base might be classified according to cl. 5.2d in EN199318:2006 as rigid if
S,
2.2.3
30 EI /L
(2.8)
Strength
A joint is classified for strength as pinned, fullstrength or partialstrength, see Tab. 2.1 and
Fig. 2.7. The classification by strength may be found in EN199318:2006 cl 5.2.3. Nominally
pinned joint should have a design moment resistance less than 25 % of the design moment
resistance, which would be required for a fullstrength joint. They must have sufficient rotational
capacity. A Partialstrength joint is a joint, which cannot be classified as pinned or fullstrength.
16
The design moment resistance of a fullstrength joint is bigger than the design moment
resistance of the beam or column connected to it.
Deformation capacity
1.2 M
(2.9)
If the moment resistance of the joint is not 1.2 times the plastic moment resistance of the
connected beam and a plastic hinge is assumed in the joint, minimum rotational capacities for
bolted and welded joints have to be checked.
Bolted joints
The rules for bolted joints may be found in EN199318:2006 cl 6.4.2. A bolted joint is assumed
to have a sufficient rotation capacity if following conditions can be applied:
If the failure load M ,
69
panel d/t
is determined by the resistance of the column web panel and for this
where
d
tw
17
If the thickness of the flange of the column or the beam end plate is sufficiently thin to satisfy
the following formula.
t
0.36 d f /f
(2.10)
where
is ultimate strength of the bolts
f
f
is yield strength of the flange or the end plate
Welded joints
The rules for welded joints may also be found in EN199318:2006 cl 6.4. For a welded beam
to column connection the rotation capacity may be calculated with the following equation.
In this case the web has to be stiffened in the compression area but not in the tension are and
the moment resistance is not determined by the resistance of the column web panel.
0.025 h /h
(2.11)
where
h is the depth of the column
h is the depth of the beam
For a welded beam to column connection where the compression and the tension area in the
column are not stiffened, the rotation capacity may be assumed to be at least 0.015 rad.
2.3
2.3.1
Steeltoconcrete joints
Available models
Design models for steeltoconcrete joints are currently available in the three standard
documents:
EN199318:2006 includes values for stiffness and resistance for all steel components and
values for stiffness and resistance for concrete components in compression. There are no
rules for concrete components in tension or shear.
EN199411:2010 enhancement of the rules from EN 199318 on composite joints such as
the connection of composite girder to steel columns.
CEN/TS 199241:2009 summarises values for the design resistance of fasteners in concrete.
But no values for stiffness and ductility are available.
2.3.2
Design rules in the Eurocode are given for different joint configurations. The model for the
column bases is described in the EN199318:2006 and the model for the composite joint in
EN199411:2010.
Column bases with base plates
The analytical prediction model for column base with base plate is described in the EN199318:2006. With these design rules column bases loaded by axial force and bending moments
are calculated. The model is only including concrete components for the compression forces.
18
For the tension force only steel components are considered. The design resistance of column
bases with steel base plates is described in EN199318:2006, cl 6.2.8. First according to the
eccentricity of the axial force and the geometry of the column base one of the four loading
types is chosen, and the lever arm is calculated. For this see Tab. 2.2. Then the loading of
the tension and the compression components are calculated. The failure load is determined
by the weakest activated component. These components are for:
Tension
Base plate in bending under tension
Anchor bolt in tension
Column web in tension
cl 6.2.6.11 in EN199318
cl 6.2.6.12 in EN199318
cl 6.2.6.8 in EN199318
Compression
Base plate in bending under compression
Concrete in compression
Column web and flange in compression
cl 6.2.6.10 in EN199318
cl 6.2.6.9 in EN199318
cl 6.2.6.7 in EN199318
Shear
Anchor bolts in shear
According to procedure in EN199318:2006 cl 6.3.4 one of the four cases of the loading and
geometry is chosen, see Tab.2.2. Then the rotational stiffness is calculated. One complexity
creates change of the loading type depending on the loading cases. From this different
rotational stiffness values for different combinations of bending moment and axial forces are
resulting. The design of the embedded column base according to Eurocodes was developed
by (Pertold et al, 2000) based on set of tests and finite element modelling. This model is
prepared to approve resistance to combine base plate with embedding.
Composite joints
The composite joint is described in the Section 8 in EN199411:2010. The composite joint
may be used for the connection of composite beams to steel columns. The design rules are
an enhancement of the rules according to EN199318:2006 and new components are added.
These additional components are:

19
Tab. 2.2 The loading situations for the definition of the lever arm
Number
Description of loading
Sketch
Explanation
Bending moment
is dominating
Tensile force
is dominating
,
Bending moment
is dominating
,
20
Compression force
is dominating
Failure modes
Steel failure
Tension
Pullout / Pullthrough
Steel failure
Splitting failure
Steel failure
Pullout failure
Shear
2.3.3
Concrete structures
In CEN/TS199241:2009 the design of fastenings in concrete is given. In these rules the failure
modes of the fasteners and the concrete are described in a detailed way. For tension and
shear loading various failure modes exist. Failure modes are given according to CEN/TS 199241:2009, see Tab. 2.3.. All possible failure modes are determined. The smallest resistance
defines the design resistance of the joint. The design rules for the resistance include different
types of geometries. Also edge effects, concrete with and without cracks and different kinds
of fasteners are considered. However for stiffness no design rules are given and the use of
additional stirrups is covered in a very conservative way.
2.3.4
21
a)
b)
c)
Concrete
breakout in
tension
Stirrups in
tension
Pullout
failure of
the headed
stud
Chapter
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
Component
Friction
Concrete in
compression
Component
Figure
22
Concrete panel
in shear
Longitudinal
steel
Slip of the
composite
beam
reinforcement
in tension
Figure
Chapter
Component
3.3.7
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Threaded
studs in
tension/
shear
Punching of the
anchor plate
Anchor plate in
bending and
tension
Colum/beam
flange and web
in compression
Steel contact
plate
4.7
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Figure
Chapter
23
3 COMPONENTS IN CONCRETE
3.1
Components
Components
S
P
S
P
CC
CC
KS/RB
Fig. 3.1 Spring models for the different components of anchorages embedded in concrete
3.1.1
If a headed stud is loaded in tension, the load is first transferred from the loading point at the
base plate to the bearing areas of the headed stud. Therefore the shaft will elongate up to the
f / . For design the behaviour is assumed as linear elastic
design yielding strength f
up to the yielding load of the headed stud. The corresponding elongation due to the introduced
stress is calculated with the equation using the Hookes law. The elongation corresponding to
the yield load is given by
24
where
Lh
NRd,s
Es
As,nom
N
A,
L
E
(3.1)
[mm]
d
,
(3.2)
mm
where
ds,nom is nominal diameter of the shaft [mm]
The design load at steel yielding failure is calculated as given below
N
(3.3)
where
is characteristic ultimate strength of the shaft material of the headed stud [N/mm]
fuk
n
is number of headed studs in tension []
is partial safety factor for steel []
Ms
Exceeding the design steel yielding strength fyd, the elongation will strongly increase without
a significant increase in load up to a design strain limit su. For the design, this increase of
strength is neglected on the safe side and the stiffness is assumed to be zero, ks 0 N/mm.
Depending on the product the failure shall be assumed at the yielding point. In general,
fasteners as headed studs are deemed to have an elongation capacity of at least su 0.8 %.
This limit shall be used to determine the response of the fasteners unless it is proven by means
of tests that they have a higher elongation capacity.
Therefore the stiffness ks is described as given below depending on the displacement or load
k
k
0 for
for N
e
N
and N
(3.4)
N/mm
N
N/mm
(3.5)
where
Rd,sy is displacement at yielding of the shaft, see Eq. (3.1) [mm]
is maximum elongation capacity of the shaft, 0.8 % []
su
3.1.2
The component concrete breakout in tension is described using the design load NRd,c for
concrete cone failure and the displacement in the softening branch after failure. Up to the
design load the component cant be assumed as absolutely rigid without any displacement.
The displacement corresponding to design load is given by
25
N
k
[mm]
(3.6)
[N]
(3.7)
where
N , is characteristic resistance of a single anchor without edge and spacing effects
N
where
k1
hef
fck
,
k h
[N]
(3.8)
is basic factor 8.9 for cracked concrete and 12.7 for noncracked concrete []
is embedment depth given according to the product specifications [mm]
is characteristic concrete strength according to EN2061:2000 [N/mm]
is factor accounting for the geometric effects of spacing and edge distance []
(3.9)
[]
where
is factor accounting for the influence of edges of the concrete member on the
distribution of stresses in the concrete
0.7
0.3
c
c
(3.10)
where
,
is factor accounting for the negative effect of closely spaced reinforcement in the
concrete member on the strength of anchors with an embedment depth hef 100 mm
0.5 hef / 200 for s 150 mm (for any diameter) []
or s 100 mm (for ds 10 mm)
1.0
for s 150 mm (for any diameter) []
is 1.5 for concrete []
Mc
is reference area of the concrete cone of an individual anchor with large spacing and
A,
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm]. The concrete cone is idealized
as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base length equal to scr,N with
s
c
0.5 s
3.0 h [mm]
,
1.5 h [mm]
(3.11)
(3.12)
where
is actual projected area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface,
Ac,N
limited by overlapping concrete cones of adjacent anchors, s scr,N, as well as by edges
of the concrete member, c ccr,N. It may be deduced from the idealized failure cones
of single anchors [mm]
To avoid a local blow out failure the edge distance shall be larger than 0.5 hef. Due to sudden
and brittle failure, the initial stiffness for concrete cone is considered as infinity, i.e. till the actual
load, Nact is less than or equal to the design tension resistance for concrete cone, the
26
displacement c is zero. Once the design load is exceeded, the displacement increases with
decreasing load, descending branch. Thus, the loaddisplacement behaviour in case of
concrete cone breakout is idealized as shown in Fig. 3.2.
Nact
NRd,c
kc,de
1
c
Fig. 3.2 Idealized loaddisplacement relationship for concrete cone breakout in tension
The stiffness of the descending branch kc,de for the design is described with the following
function
k
where
c
hef
fck
Ac,N
A,
f h
[N/mm]
(3.13)
The displacement c as a function of the acting load Nact is described using the design
resistance and the stiffness of the descending branch.
For ascending part
N
and c
(3.14)
3.1.3
0 mm and
N
k
(3.15)
The component stirrups in tension was developed based on empirical studies. Therefore the
tests results were evaluated to determine the displacement of the stirrups depending on the
load Nact acting on the stirrup. The displacement is determined like given in the following
equation
2N
, ,
, ,
[mm]
(3.16)
where
27
s
NRd,s,re
ds,re
fck
nre
, ,
[N]
(3.17)
Exceeding the design steel yielding strength fyd,re the elongation will increase with no significant
increase of the load up to a strain limit su,re of the stirrups. For the design this increase of
strength is neglected on the safe side. In general reinforcement steel stirrups shall have an
elongation capacity of at least su,re = 2,5 %. So the design strain limit su,re is assumed to be
2.5 %. The displacement as a function of the acting load is determined as
n f
k
for
2
k
3.1.4
0 for
, ,
[N/mm]
, ,
[N/mm]
(3.18)
(3.19)
The displacement of the concrete component stirrups in tension is determined under the
assumption that bond failure of the stirrups will occur. This displacement is calculated with
equation (3.19) as
where
s
NRd,b,re
ds,re
fck
2N
, ,
, ,
(3.20)
[mm]
The design anchorage capacity of the stirrups according CEN/TSmodel [5] is determined the
design tension resistance of the stirrups for bond failure
N
where
ns,re is number of legs []
28
, ,
l d , f
[N]
(3.21)
l1
ds,re
fbd
n f
k
for
2
k
3.1.5
0 for
, ,
[N/mm]
, ,
[N/mm]
(3.22)
(3.23)
The pull out failure of the headed studs will take place if the local stresses at the head are
larger than the local design resistance. Up to this level the displacement of the headed stud
will increase due to the increasing pressure under the head.
2 k
, ,
N
A f
, ,
min N , ; N
A f n
k
n
,
(3.24)
[mm]
, ,
[mm]
k k
k
(3.25)
(3.26)
where
is area on the head of the headed stud [mm]
Ah
d
4
(3.27)
where
ka
is form factor at porous edge sections []
k
5/a
(3.28)
where
is factor considering the shoulder width [mm]
ap
a
0.5 d
(3.29)
where
is factor considering the cross section depending on factor ka []
kA
0.5 d
m d
0.5 d
(3.30)
where
n
is number of the headed studs []
29
p
k2
m
dh
ds
NRd,p
np
(3.31)
A /
where
is characteristic ultimate bearing pressure at the headed of stud [N/mm2]
puk
NRd,c is design load for concrete cone failure without supplementary reinforcement
N
(3.32)
[N]
where
NRd,re design load at failure of the supplementary reinforcement minimum value of
N
, ,
and N
, ,
[N]
(3.33)
k
k
A f
min N
A f n
k
;N
(3.34)
[N/mm]
[N/mm]
, ,
/ [N/mm]
(3.35)
(3.36)
The stiffness kp,de depends on the failure modes. If the supplementary reinforcement fails by
yielding (NRd,s,re NRd,b,re and NRd,s,re NRd,p) the design stiffness kp,de is assumed as 104 N/mm,
negative due to descending branch.
In all other cases (e.g. NRd,s,re NRd,b,re or NRd,s,re NRd,p) kp,de shall be assumed as infinite due to
brittle failure. The stiffness in case of pull out failure is calculated using the minimum value of
the stiffnesss calculated with equation (3.34) to (3.36).
k
3.1.6
min k
;k
;k
[N/mm]
(3.37)
The loaddisplacement behaviour mainly depends on the pressure to the concrete near the
surface of the concrete member. Due to concrete crushing at the surface of the concrete
member, the displacement under shear loading varies very large with a coefficient of variation
about 40 % to 50 %. However a semiempirical calculation shows that the displacement at
failure mainly depends on the acting loading, the diameter of the anchors and the embedment
30
depth. Therefore the displacement under shear loading for a given load level is calculated,
see (Hofmann 2005), using the following equation only as an estimation
V
d
[mm]
(3.38)
where
kv
empirical value depending on the type of anchor [], for headed studs kv 2 to 4
design failure load as the minimum of the design failure loads calculated for the different
VRd
failure modes (VRd,s, VRd,cp, VRd,c , VRd,p) given according to the technical product
specification CEN/TS 199241 or (FIB Bulletin 58, 2011)
The displacement at ultimate load up three times larger than the displacement at the design
load level due to the assumption, that the concrete near the surface is not fully crushed at
design load level.
3.2
Combination of components
To come up with the total stiffness of the connection with headed studs anchored in concrete
with or without supplementary reinforcement, the stiffnesss must be combined. The
combination depends on whether the components are acting in parallel, equal displacements,
or in serial, equal load. Three combinations are given, see (Hofmann, 2005):
Combination C1
Concrete cone failure with or without supplementary reinforcement, ks,re = 0 and kb,re = 0
Combination C2
Displacement due to steel elongation and head pressure, pull out
Combination C3
Total connection of headed studs anchored in concrete with supplementary reinforcement
3.2.1
If both components are summarized, the load is calculated using the sum of the loads at the
same displacement due to the combination of the components using a parallel connection
31
from the rheological view. Two ranges must be considered. The first range is up to the load
level at concrete failure NRd,c the second up to a load level of failure of the stirrups NRd,s,re or
NRd,b,re.
k
for N
for N
(3.39)
[N/mm]
(3.40)
[N/mm]
In the second range the load is transferred to the stirrups and the stiffness decreases. The
stiffness is calculated if Nact is larger than NRd,c with the following equation
k
for N
(3.41)
[N/mm]
for N
, ,
(3.42)
2
[N/mm]
, ,
If the load exceeds the ultimate load given by NRd,s,re or NRd,b,re the stiffness of the stirrups are
negligible. Therefore the following equation applies:
k
3.2.2
0 for N
, ,
, ,
[N/mm]
(3.43)
If both components are summarized the load is calculated using the sum of the displacements
at the same load Nact due to the combination of the components using a serial connection from
the rheological view. This is done by summing up the stiffnesss as given below
k
1
k
1
k
(3.44)
[N/mm]
L
A
1
k
L
A
1
min k ; k ; k
[N/mm]
where
kp is the minimum stiffness in case of pullout failure as the minimum of kp1, kp2 and kp3
32
(3.45)
3.2.3
To model the whole load displacement curve of a headed stud embedded in concrete with a
supplementary reinforcement the following components are combined:
concrete and stirrups in tension, components CC and RB/RS, as combination C1,
shaft of headed stud in tension, component S, and
pullout failure of the headed stud component P as Combination 2.
The combinations C1 and C2 is added by building the sum of displacements. This is due to
the serial function of both components. That means that these components are loaded with
the same load but the response concerning the displacement is different. The combination of
the components using a serial connection leads to the following stiffness of the whole
anchorage in tension:
1/k
1/k
[N/mm]
1/k
(3.46)
where
is the stiffness due to the displacement of the anchorage in case of concrete cone
kC1
failure with supplementary reinforcement, see combination C1 [N/mm], if no
supplementary reinforcement is provided kC1 is equal to kc
is the stiffness due to the displacement of the head, due to the pressure under the head
kC2
on the concrete, and steel elongation, see combination C2 [N/mm]
3.2.4
In principle two failure modes are possible to determine the design failure load NRd,C3 for the
combined model. These modes are failure of
the concrete strut NRd,cs,
the supplementary reinforcement NRd,re.
The design failure load in cases of concrete strut failure is calculated using the design load in
case of concrete cone failure and an increasing factor to consider the support of the
supplementary reinforcement, angle of the concrete strut,
N
(3.47)
where
NRd,c is design failure load in case of concrete cone failure, see Eq. 3.7 [N]
support is support factor considering the confinement of the stirrups
2.5
x
h
(3.48)
where
x
is distance between the anchor and the crack on the concrete surface assuming a crack
propagation from the stirrup of the supplementary reinforcement to the concrete surface
with an angle of 35 [mm]
33
Fig. 3.4 Distance between the anchor and the crack on the concrete surface
The load is transferred to the stirrups and the concrete cone failure load is reached. Depending
on the amount of supplementary reinforcement the failure of the stirrups can decisive
NRd,re NRd,cs. Two failure modes are possible:
steel yielding of stirrups NRd,s,re, see equation (3.16),
anchorage failure of stirrups NRd,b,re, see equation (3.20).
The corresponding failure load is calculated according to equation (3.49) summarizing the
loads of the corresponding components
N
min N
;N
, ,
, ,
[N]
(3.49)
where
NRd,c is design failure load in case of concrete cone failure, see equation (3.7), [N]
NRd,s,re is design failure load in case of yielding of the stirrups of the supplementary
reinforcement, see equation (3.16) [N]
NRd,b,re is design failure load in case of bond failure of the stirrups of the supplementary
reinforcement, see equation (3.20) [N]
is stiffness of the concrete cone in the descending branch, see equation (3.13) [N/mm]
kc,de
is corresponding displacement at failure load NRd,s,re or NRd,b,re [mm]
f
3.2.5
The displacements in tension and shear is calculated by the sum of the displacement vectors.
3.3
3.3.1
For simplification the displacements and the stiffness of headed studs or anchorages is
estimated using technical product specifications. The elongation Rd is estimated up to the
design load NRd using the displacements given in the technical product specification. The
displacement is estimated by the following equation
,
N
(3.50)
where
N,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
NETA is tension load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications
34
NRd
,
N
(3.51)
where
N,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
NETA is tension load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications
3.3.2
For the design the displacement v is estimated up to the design load VRd using the
displacements given in the technical product specification. The displacement is estimated
using the displacements far from the edge v,ETA for short term and long term loading. The
displacement is estimated by the following equation
,
V
(3.52)
where
V,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
VETA is shear load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications
VRd,c is design shear resistance
The stiffness of the anchorage is calculated with the following equation
k
,
V
(3.53)
where
V,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
VETA is shear load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications
3.3.3
The characteristic load corresponding to the concrete cone breakout in tension for a single
headed stud without edge influence is given by equation
N
k h
(3.54)
where
k1
is basic factor for concrete cone breakout, which is equal to 8.9 for cracked concrete
and 12.7 for noncracked concrete, for headed studs, []
is effective embedment depth given according to the product specifications [mm] []
hef
is characteristic concrete strength according to EN2061:2000 [N/mm]
fck
The design load for concrete cone breakout for a single anchor, N
partial safety factor of concrete to the characteristic load as
is obtained by applying
35
(3.55)
= 1.5.
For a group of anchors, the design resistance corresponding to concrete cone breakout is
given by equation (3.56), which is essentially same as equation (3.7)
N
(3.56)
where
N , is characteristic resistance of a single anchor without edge and spacing effects
,
is factor accounting for the geometric effects of spacing and edge distance
given as
,
,
Mc
is reference area of the concrete cone for a single anchor with large spacing and
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm].
The concrete cone is idealized as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base
length equal to scr,N with s ,
3.0 h , thus A ,
9 h .
is reference area of the concrete cone of an individual anchor with large spacing and
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm].
The concrete cone is idealized as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base
length equal to scr,N with s , 3,0 h mm
is actual projected area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface,
limited by overlapping concrete cones of adjacent anchors s scr,N,
as well as by edges of the concrete member c ccr,N.
It may be deduced from the idealized failure cones of single anchors [mm]
is minimum edge distance c 1.5 hef [mm]
is critical edge distance ccr,N 1.5 hef [mm]
is factor accounting for the negative effect of closely spaced reinforcement in the
concrete member on the strength of anchors with an embedment depth hef < 100 mm
for s 150 mm, for any diameter []
0.5 + hef / 200
or s < 100 mm, for ds 10 mm
1.0
for s 150 mm (for any diameter) []
is 1.5 for concrete []
3.3.4
Ac,N
c
ccr,N
re,N
The design load corresponding to the pull out failure of the headed stud, NRd,p is given by
N
A /
(3.57)
where
puk
is characteristic ultimate bearing pressure at the head of stud [N/mm2]
is area on the head of the headed stud [mm]
Ah
A
dh
ds
Mc
36
d
4
(3.57b)
3.3.5
In case of headed stud anchored in concrete with supplementary reinforcement, stirrups, the
stirrups do not carry any load till the concrete breakout initiates, i.e. till Nact is less than or equal
to NRd,c. Once, the concrete breakout occurs, the load shared by concrete decreases with
increasing displacement as depicted in Fig. 3.4. The load shared by concrete Nact,c
corresponding to a given displacement is therefore given by equation
N
(3.57)
where kc,de is the slope of descending branch of Fig. 3.4, negative value, given by Eq. (3.7).
Simultaneously, in case of concrete with supplementary reinforcement, the stirrups start to
carry the load. The load carried by the stirrups corresponding to a given displacement is
given by equation
N
where
s
ds,nom
fck
nre
f
2
(3.58a)
The total load Nact carried by concrete cone and stirrups corresponding to any given
displacement is therefore given as the sum of the two components:
min n
f
; N
2
, ,
; N
, ,
(3.59)
The displacement corresponding to peak load of the system is obtained by differentiating the
right hand side of Eq. (3.60) and equating it to zero. If the bond failure or steel failure of stirrups
is not reached at an earlier displacement then the design peak load carried by the system Nu,c s
is given by
N
where
NRd,c
s
ds,re
fck
nre
kc,de
(3.60)
,
,
In a relatively rare case of all studs loaded in tension, both the legs of the hanger reinforcement
are not uniformly loaded and the distribution of forces is difficult to ascertain. Due to this reason
and also to avoid the problems with serviceability requirements, it is recommended that in such
a case, the contribution of hanger reinforcement is ignored.
37
3.3.6
The failure load Nu is given by the minimum of the failure load corresponding to each
considered failure mode
3.3.7
Friction
For base plates the friction is defined in EN199318 cl 6.2.2. For the resistance the resistance
values of friction and bolts may be added as long as the bolt holes are not oversized. For the
friction between a base plate and the grout underneath the plate the following calculation may
be used.
F,
C, N
(3.61)
where
is coefficient for friction, for sandcement mortar C ,
C,
is axial compressive force of the column
N,
0.2
In this design manual the friction is not only applied to compression forces caused by axial
forces but also for compression forces generated by bending moments. This principle is
applied in EN199318:2006 for beam to the column end joints with end plates in cl 3.9.2(3).
3.4
3.4.1
The components concrete in compression and base plate in bending represent the behaviour
of the compressed part of a steel to concrete connection. The resistance of these components
depends primarily on the bearing resistance of the concrete block under the flexible base plate,
see (Melchers, 1992). The resistance of concrete is influenced by flexibility of base plate. In
case of loading by an axial force, the stresses in concrete are not uniformly distributed, they
are concentrated around the footprint of the column under the plate according to its thickness,
see (Dewolf, Sarisley, 1980). For the design the flexible base plate is replaced by reducing
the effective fully rigid plate. The grout layer between the base plate and concrete block
influences the resistance and stiffness of the component. That is why this layer is also included
into this component, see (Penserini, Colson, 1989). Other important factors which influence
the resistance are the concrete strength, the compression area, the location of the plate on the
concrete foundation, the size of the concrete block and its reinforcement.
The stiffness behaviour of column base connection subjected to bending moment is influenced
mostly by elongation of anchor bolts. The Component concrete in compression is mostly stiffer
in comparison to the component anchor bolts in tension. The deformation of concrete block
and base plate in compression is important in case of dominant axial compressive force.
The strength of the component FRd,u, expecting the constant distribution of the bearing stresses
under the effective area, is given by
F
(3.62)
The design value of the bearing strength fjd in the joint loaded by concentrated compression,
is determined as follows. The concrete resistance is calculated according to cl. 6.7(2) in
EN199211:2004 see Fig. 3.6 is
38
A
A
3.0 A
(3.63)
where
A
and A
b d
(3.64)
b d
where Ac0 is the loaded area and Ac1 the maximum spread area. The influence of height of the
concrete block to its 3D behaviour is introduced by
b1 and h
b2
3 b
d2
b and 3 d
d1
(3.65)
Load axes
F
b l
A f
A
A
A
3A f
A
3.0 f
(3.66)
The factor j represents the fact that the resistance under the plate might be lower due to the
quality of the grout layer after filling. The value 2/3 is used in the case of the characteristic
resistance of the grout layer is at least 0.2 times the characteristic resistance of concrete and
thickness of this layer is smaller than 0.2 times the smallest measurement of the base plate.
In different cases, it is necessary to check the grout separately. The bearing distribution under
45 is expected in these cases, see (Steenhuis et al, 2008) and Fig. 3.5 Concrete compressive
strength for calculation of 3D concentration
Fig. 3. The design area Ac0 is conservatively considered as the full area of the plate Ap.
39
In case of the elastic deformation of the base plate is expected homogenous stress distribution
in concrete block is expected under the flexible base plate based on the best engineering
practice. The formula for the effective width c is derived from the equality of elastic bending
moment resistance of the base plate and the bending moment acting on the base plate, see
(Astaneh et al., 1992). Acting forces are shown in Fig. 3.7.
Column
FSd
FRd
c
tw
t
L
Base plate
fj
Fig. 3.7 Base plate as a cantilever for check of its elastic deformation only
Elastic bending moment of the base plate per unit length is
f
1
t
6
(3.69)
and the bending moment per unit length on the base plate of span c and loaded by distributed
load is
M
1
f c
2
(3.70)
where fj is concrete bearing strength and from Eq. (3.69) and (3.70) is
c
f
3f
(3.71)
The flexible base plate, of the area Ap, is replaced by an equivalent rigid plate with area Aeq,
see Fig. 3.8. Then the resistance of the component, expecting the constant distribution of the
bearing stresses under the effective area is given by
40
(3.72)
F
A
Ap
Aeq
Ap
(3.73)
Ap
Aeq
c
c
Aeq
3.4.3
Component stiffness
The proposed design model for stiffness of the components base plate in bending and concrete
in compression is given also in (Steenhuis et al, 2008). The stiffness of the component is
influenced by factors: the flexibility of the plate, the Youngs modulus of concrete, and the size
of the concrete block. By loading with force, a flexible rectangular plate could be pressed down
into concrete block. This flexible deformation is determined by theory of elastic semispace
where
F
ar
Ec
Ap
F a
E A
(3.74)
is acting load
is shape factor of the plate
is width of equivalent rigid plate
is elastic modulus of concrete
is area of the plate
The factor depends on the material characteristics. The Tab. 3.1 gives values of this factor
dependent on the Poison's ratio, for concrete is 0.15. The table shows also the approximate
value of factor , that is 0.58 L/a .
Tab. 3.1 Factor and its approximation for concrete
l / ar
1
1.5
2
3
5
10
0.90
1.10
1.25
1.47
1.76
2.17
41
0.85 F
(3.75)
la
where
r
is deformation under the rigid plate
l
is length of the plate
The model for the elastic stiffness behaviour of component is based on a similar interaction
between concrete block and steel plate. The flexible plate is expressed as an equivalent rigid
plate based on the same deformation, modelled in Fig. 3.9.
cfl
x
E Ip
sin x / c
The uniform stress on the plate is rewritten by the fourth differentiate and multiplied
by E Ip
E l /c
sin
x
c
12
c
sin x /c
(3.77)
where
E
is elastic modulus of steel
Ip
is moment of inertia per unit length of the steel plate (Ip t3 / 12)
t
is thickness of the plate
h /E
(3.78)
where
is equivalent concrete height of the portion under the steel plate
hef
Assume that
c
(3.79)
c /E
42
(3.80)
/2
12
E
E
(3.81)
c 2/
The factor shows the ratio between heq and cfl. The value ar represents height heq. Factor
t
2c and t
0.5 c . Then it is written
is approximated to 1.4 a
1.4 0.5
2 c
1.4 2.5 c
2.2 c
(3.83)
Hence 2.2.
For practical joints is estimated by Ec 30 000 N / mm2 and E 210 000 N / mm2, what leads
to
/2
12
E
E
/2
12
2.2
210000
30000
1.98 t
(3.84)
or
c
1.98
2
t
1.25 t
(3.85)
2.5 t
(3.86)
3.125 t
(3.87)
0.5 c
or
a
0.5 1.25 t
2.5 t
From the deformation of the component and other necessary values which are described
above, the formula to calculate the stiffness coefficient is derived
k
F
E
E a
1.5 0.85 E
1.275 E
E t L
0.72 E
(3.88)
where
aeq,el is equivalent width of the Tstub
L
is length of the Tstub
3.5
Concrete panel
The resistance and deformation of the reinforced concrete wall in the zone adjacent to the joint
is hereby represented by a joint link component, see (Huber and Cermeneg, 1998). Due to
the nature of this joint, reinforced concrete, the developed model is based on the strutandtie
method, commonly implemented in the analysis of reinforced concrete joints. The problem is
3D, increasing its complexity, as the tension load is introduced with a larger width than the
43
Node 1
T
Strut
Node 2
T
a)
11
Strutandtie model
investigation and depending on the spacing of the reinforcing bars, this assumption may or
may not be correct (Henriques, 2013).
Tab. 3.2 Stresses in strutandtie elements according to EN199211:2004
Element
Node 1
Node 2
Strut
Limiting stresses
0.75 fcd
3 fcd
0.6 fcd with
Ft1
41
1 fck/250
Ft1
Fc
Ft2
Fc
Ft2
2 02 .35 26
3.6
A,
3.6 h
(3.89)
(3.90)
45
3.7
(3.91)
/h
The slip of composite beam does not directly influence the resistance of the joint. However,
the level of interaction between concrete slab and steel beam defines the maximum load the
longitudinal reinforcement can achieve. Therefore in such joint configuration, where
reinforcement is the only tension component, the level of interaction affects the joint resistance.
In the EN199411:2008, the influence of the slip of composite beam is taken into account.
The stiffness coefficient of the longitudinal reinforcement, see Eq. (3.92) should be multiplied
with the reduction factor kslip determined as follows:
k
1
K
1
E k
k
(3.92)
N k
1 h
1 d
(3.93)
N k
E I
E I
d E A
l d
(3.94)
(3.95)
where
hs is the distance between the longitudinal reinforcing bars and the centre of compression of
the joint, that may be assumed as the midpoint of the compression flange of the steel
beam
ds
46
is the distance between the longitudinal reinforcing bars and the centroid of the steel beam
section, see Fig. 13
Ia
is the length of the beam in hogging bending adjacent to the joint, in the case of the tested
specimens is equal to the beams length
4 STEEL COMPONENTS
4.1
Tstub in tension
The base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension is modelled by the help of Tstub model
based on the beam to column end plate connection model. Though in its behaviour there are
some differences. Thickness of the base plate is bigger to transfer compression into the
concrete block. The anchor bolts are longer due to thick pad, thick base plate, significant layer
of grout and flexible embedding into concrete block. The influence of a pad and a bolt head
may be higher.
Column flange
e m
t
eff
Base plate
Fig. 4.1 The T stub  anchor bolts in tension and base plate in bending
Due to longer free lengths of bolts, bigger deformations could arise. The anchor bolts, compare
to bolts, are expecting to behave ductile. When it is loaded by tension, the base plate is often
separated from the concrete surface. This case is shown in (Wilkinson et al, 2009). By bending
moment loading different behaviour should be expected. The areas of bolt head and pad
change favourably distribution of forces on Tstub. This influence is not so distinctive during
calculation of component stiffness. The all differences from end plate connections are involved
47
in the component method, see EN199318:2006. The design model of this component for
resistance as well for stiffness is given in (Wald et al, 2008).
L bf L
b
L be
d
4.1.1
Model
When the column base is loaded by bending moment as it is shown in Fig. 4.3, anchor bolts
transfer tensile forces. This case of loading leads to elongation of anchor bolts and bending
of the base plate. Deformed bolts can cause failure as well as reaching of the yield strength
of the base plate. Sometimes failure in this tensile zone is caused by both, see (Di Sarno et
al, 2007).
Fig. 4.3 Tensile zone and equivalent Tstub in case of loading by bending moment
Column with connected base plate taken, as it is shown in Fig. 4.4, into model of Tstub.
F
m
Q=0
Q=0
Fig. 4.4 Tstub separated from the concrete block with no prying force
There are two models of deformation of the Tstub of the base plate according to presence of
prying. In the case the base plate separated from the concrete foundation, there is no prying
force Q, see Fig. 4.4. In other case, the edge of the plate is in contact with concrete block, the
bolts are loaded by additional prying force Q. This force is balanced just by the contact force
at the edge of the Tstub, see Fig. 4.5.
When there is contact between the base plate and the concrete block, beam theory is used to
describe deformed shape of the Tstub.
48
F
2
F
+Q
2
2
+x
(4.1)
After writing the above equation for both parts of the beam model 1 and 2, application of
suitable boundary conditions, the equations could be solved. The prying force Q is derived just
from these solved equations as
Q
F
3 m n A 2L I
2 2 n A 3 m n
3L I
(4.2)
When the base plate is in contact with concrete surface, the prying of bolts appears and on the
contrary no prying forces occur in the case of separated base plate from the concrete block
due to the deformation of long bolts. This boundary, between prying and no prying has to be
determined. Providing that n 1.25 m it may be expressed as
L
8.82 m A
l t
(4.3)
where
As
is the area of the bolt
is equivalent length of anchor bolt
Lb
is equivalent length of Tstub determined by the help of Yield line method, presented in
leff
following part of work
For embedded bolts length Lb is determined according to Fig. 4.2 as
L
(4.4)
where
Lbe
is 8 d effective bolt length
L , there is no prying. Previous formulae is expressed for
When the length of bolt L
boundary thickness tlim, see (Wald et al, 2008), of the base plate as
2.066 m
A
l
(4.5)
L
49
If the base plate are loaded by compression force and by bending moment and not by tensile
force it is recommended to neglect these prying forces. In other cases it needs to be checked.
4.1.2 Resistance
The design resistance of a Tstub of flange in tension of effective length eff is determined as
minimum resistance of three possible plastic collapse mechanisms. For each collapse
mechanism there is a failure mode. Following collapse modes, shown in Fig. 4.6, is used for
Tstub in contact with the concrete foundation, see in EN199318:2006.
FRd.3
FRd.1
FRd.2
Bt.Rd
Bt.Rd
Bt.Rd
B
Q
a)
Mode 3
B t.Rd
B
Q
Mode 1
b)
c)
Mode 2
Fig. 4.6 Failure modes of the Tstub in contact with the concrete foundation
Mode 1
According to this kind of failure the Tstub with thin base plate and high strength anchor bolts
is broken. In the base plate plastic hinge mechanism with four hinges is developed.
F
4 l
m
m
(4.6)
Mode 2
This mode is a transition between failure Mode 1 and 3. At the same time two plastic hinges
are developed in the base plate and the limit strength of the anchor bolts is achieved.
F
2 l
B,
n
(4.7)
Mode 3
Failure mode 3 occurs by the Tstub with thick base plate and weak anchor bolts. The collapse
is caused by bolt fracture.
F
(4.8)
B,
The design strength FRd of the Tstub is derived as the smallest of these three possible modes:
F
50
min F
,F
,F
(4.9)
Because of the long anchor bolts and thick base plate different failure mode arises compare
to an end plate connection. When the Tstub is uplifted from the concrete foundation, there is
no prying, new collapse mode is obtained, see Fig. 4.7. This particular failure mode is named
Mode 12.
FRd,12
Fig. 4.7 Tstub without contact with the concrete foundation, Mode 12
Mode 12
The failure results either from bearing of the anchor bolts in tension or from the yielding of the
plate in bending, where a two hinges mechanism develops in the Tstub flange. This failure
does not appear in beam to column connection because of the small deformation of the bolts
in tension, see (Wald et al, 2008).
F
2 l
,
m
m
(4.10)
The relationship between Mode 12 and modes of Tstub in contact with concrete is shown in
Fig. 4.8.
F / B T,Rd
1,0
Mode 2
Mode 3
0,8
Mode1
0,6
Mode 12
0,4
0,2
0,0
0
0,5
1,5
51
min F
,F
(4.11)
where
F
B ,
(4.12)
The equivalent length of Tstub leff, which is very important for the resistance determination, is
calculated by the help of the yield line method, which is explained in the following part of the
work.
tan
F
4l
1
t f
4
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
m
m
where
mpl,Rd is plastic bending moment resistance of the base plate per unit length
is force acting in the bolt position
Fpl
53
The assumptions to determine the yield line of the base plate are following the yield line is a
straight line, this line is perpendicular to a line which pass through the bolt and tangent to the
column, or this line is tangent to the column and parallel to the edge of the base plate. With
these assumptions are determined. Following calculation procedure of the effective length of
the Tstub in plate corner is given in (Wald et al, 2000) and (Heinisuo et al, 2012).
x
y
(4.16)
where
x, y
are coordinates of the bolt, which could vary
For the design of the parameter c, the work method of the yield line theory is used. The internal
work is
W
;m ;1
1
x
y
1
y
x
(4.17)
where represents the deformation of the plate in the bolt position, see Fig. 4.13.
54
(4.18)
d
c
(4.19)
After replacement in the formula of the external work and putting it into equality with the
internal work as
x
y
c
x
y
y
x
(4.20)
(4.21)
cm
(4.22)
xy
x
y
xy
cst
(4.23)
With the yield line assumption the characteristics of the different possible failure models could
be designed.
The effective length of Tstub
Two groups of yield line patterns called circular and noncircular yield lines are distinguished
in EN199318:2006. The major difference between circular and noncircular patterns is
related to contact between the Tstub and rigid foundation. The contact may occur only for
noncircular patterns and prying force will develop only in this case. This is considered in the
failure modes as follows:
Mode 1
The prying force does not have influence on the failure and development of plastic hinges in
the base plate. Therefore, the formula (4.2) applies to both circular and noncircular yield line
patterns.
Mode 2
First plastic hinge forms at the web of the Tstub. Plastic mechanism is developed in the base
plate and its edges come into contact with the concrete foundation. As a result, prying forces
develop in the anchor bolts and bolt fracture is observed. Therefore, Mode 2 occurs only for
noncircular yield line patterns, which allow development of prying forces.
55
e m
e
ex
mx
0 ,8
0 ,8 2 a
2 a
bp
Fig. 4.14a The effective length of Tstub
for bolts inside the flanges
Mode 3
This mode does not involve any yielding of the plate and applies therefore to any Tstub. In the
design procedure, the appropriate effective length of the Tstub should be used for Mode 1
l
min l
;l
(4.24)
min l
(4.25)
The design resistance of the Tstub is given by the formula (4.8). Tab. 4.1 and Tab. 4.2 indicate
the values of leff for typical base plates in cases with and without contact. See Fig. 4.14 for the
used symbols.
Tab. 4.1 The effective length leff of a Tstub with bolts inside the flanges (Wald et al, 2008)
Prying case
No prying case
l1 2 m 4 m 1,25 e
l1 2 m 4 m 1,25 e
l2 2 m
l2 4 m
leff,2 l1
leff,2 l1
Tab. 4.2 Effective length leff for bolts outside the flanges (Wald et al, 2008)
Prying case
No prying case
l1 4 mx 1,25 ex
l1 4 mx 1.25 ex
l2 2 mx
l2 2 mx
l3 0.5bp
l3 0.5 bp
l4 0.5 w 2 mx 0.625 ex
l4 0.5 w 2 mx 0.625 ex
l5 e 2 mx 0.625 ex
l5 e 2 mx 0.625 ex
l6 mx 2 e
l6 2 mx 4 e
l7 mx w
l7 2 mx w
leff,1 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5 ; l6 ; l7
leff,2 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5
56
leff,1 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5 ; l6 ; l7
leff,2 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5
4.1.3 Stiffness
The prediction of the base plate stiffness is based on (Steenhuis et al, 2008). The stiffness of
the component analogous to the resistance of the Tstub is influenced by the contact of the
base plate and the concrete foundation (Wald et al, 2008). The formula for deformation of the
base plate loaded by the force in bolt Fb is
1F m
2 3EI
2F m
El t
2F
Ek
(4.26)
F
E k
(4.27)
(4.28)
A
L
(4.29)
Formulas for stiffness coefficient of the base plate and of the bolt are
l
m
k
1.6
0.85 l t
m
(4.30)
A
L
(4.31)
A
L
(4.32)
F
E
0.425 l
m
2m
F
E
2.0
A
L
(4.33)
(4.34)
The stiffness of the component of base plate in bending and bolts in tension is summarised
from above simplified predictions as
1
k
1
k ,
1
k ,
(4.35)
57
For base plates are used the bolt pads under the bolt nut to help to cover the tolerances. The
impact of an area of the bolt pad/nut changes the geometrical characteristics of Tstub. The
influence is taken into account by the help of equivalent moment of inertia Ip,bp and addition of
stiffness kw to the previous stiffness kp. By practical design this influence is neglected for
simplicity, see (Hofmann, 2005), even if it may be significant for resistance.
4.2
The threaded studs are efficient connectors welded by fabricator or on side with high level of
automation, see (Metric studs 2009,2013 and Pitrakkos and Tizani, 2013) . The tension
resistance of a threaded stud may be limited by
yielding resistance
N
n A f
(4.36)
n A f
(4.37)
EA
l
(4.38)
ultimate resistance
initial stiffness
S,
where
na
As
fyk
fuk
This solution procedure is applied to the headed stud connection the anchor plate to concrete
block.
4.3
The anchor plate under the threaded stud or above the headed stud may reach its load
capacity due to shear resistance
F
A
,
(4.39)
The stress area Ap1,eff is determined from the thickness of the anchor plate tp1 and effective
length lv1,eff of the sheared area
A
58
(4.40)
Due to high bending of the threaded stud under the large deformations of the thin plate is
assumed the effective length of shear area as half of the circumference only
l
d
2
2 a
(4.41)
where
aw
dts
This failure is assumed at all places, where a stud loaded by tension force is welded directly
to a steel plate. The endless stiffness of this component should be assumed in calculations
as no visible significant deformation performs due to punching trough steel plate during
loading.
4.4
The anchor plate is designed as a thin steel plate located at the top of concrete block and
loaded predominantly in compression and shear. By loading the column base by the bending
or tension is the anchor plate exposed to the tensile force from the treaded studs. If the
threaded studs are not located directly under the headed studs, which are embedded in
concrete, the anchor plate is exposed to bending, see Fig. 2.15. After the plastic hinges of the
Tstub are developed, the anchor plate between the plastic hinges is elongates by tensile force.
The deformed shape with the elongated anchored plate between the
threaded and headed studs is caring the additional load and may be taken into account. The
behaviour, till the plastic hinges are developed, is modelled as the based plate in bending with
help of T stub model, see Chapter 3.4. The anchor plate in tension resistance is
59
F,
(4.42)
where
is the thickness of the anchor plate
t
b
n d
2 2 a
aw
n1
d1
As the tensile force is developing in anchor plate the headed and threaded studs are exposed
to horizontal force, see in Fig. 4.16. The elasticplastic deformation at the stage of full
plastification of the T stub is evaluated, see in Fig 4.17, by model of beam with four supports
and three plastic hinges, see Fig. 4.15. The elongation of the anchor plate allows the uplift of
the threaded stud. The model assumes that the supports, i.e. the headed and threaded studs,
dont move in the horizontal direction and the headed stud in the vertical direction. E.g. the
horizontal force depends linearly to the vertical one, see Fig. 4.18 and Fig. 4.19. The resulting
horizontal force from tension in anchor plate is taken into account for evaluation of resistance
of the components in shear and for the interaction of shear and tensile resistances.
FEd bd Med /b
FEd
MEd
Map,pl Map,pl
Map,pl
(
( )
Map,pl
E Ib
Map,pl
b1
b2
) (
E Ic
b
L
Map,pl
Map,pl
Map,pl
Fig. 4.16 Plastic hinges and bending moments in the anchor plate
In case of activation of the membrane action in anchor plate is verified the resistance of the
related components in tension in vertical direction and in shear in horizontal direction. In the
procedure is derived:
 the bending resistance of the anchor plate,
 the tensile resistance of the anchor plate,
 the bending and tensile deformation of the anchor plate.
and further is limited the resistance of the component anchor plate in bending and tension by
 the vertical resistance of the threaded stud (tensile and punching resistance) and the
headed studs (tensile resistance, concrete cone failure, stirrups failure, bond failure).
 the horizontal resistance of the threaded stud (shear and bearing resistance) and the
headed studs (shear and pry out resistance).
60
 the interaction in the threaded stud (tension and shear resistances) and the headed studs
(tension and shear resistances).
The plastic resistance of the anchor plate is
M
(4.43)
where
tp1
leff,1
1.25 e
2 m
5 n d 0.5
0.625 e
0.5 p
min 2 m
2 m 0.625 e
e
m
2e
m
p
(4.44)
where 5 h d is the effective width of the T stub between the headed and threaded studs.
The vertical deformation of the anchor plate under bending may be assumed for a beam with
four supports and three plastic hinges as
1 1
b M
E I 6
1 1
bcM
EI 3
(4.45a)
,
(4.45b)
2.22
(4.45c)
The force at the bending resistance of the anchor plate is evaluated from equilibrium of internal
forces
N
b
b
N b
M
for M
is N b
2M
2M
2M
2M
1
a
1
b
1
a
(4.45)
(4.46)
1
b
(4.47)
61
2M
1
b
e
1
b a
b
(4.48)
The vertical resistance of the component anchor plate in tension is limited by the resistance of
the components: threaded stud in tension, punching of the threaded stud and tensile resistance
of the anchor plate. For the thin anchor plate is decisive the punching of the threaded stud.
The deformed length of the anchor plate between the threaded and headed studs at the
resistance in punching of the anchor plate under the threaded stud is
a
aF
t b
,
,
(4.49)
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
FT,el
T,el
T,pl
p,1
p,tot
Fig. 4.17 Linear relation of acting vertical forces Fv and vertical deformation v
The component of vertical deformation by the elongation of the anchor plate, see Fig. 4.14, is
(4.50)
The component of the horizontal force at the resistance in punching of the anchor plate under
the threaded stud, see Fig. 4.18, is
F
a
,
F,
(4.51)
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
FT,pl
Fp,Rd,H
FH
62
F,
, ,
(4.52)
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
VRd
Fp,Rd,H
FH
F,
1.4 F ,
,
,
(4.53)
The interaction of tensile and shear forces is verified for the headed stud anchoring to concrete,
see Chapter 3.2.5 by
F
F
4.5
F,
F,
,
,
(4.54)
The resistance of the column flange and web in compression may be expected as for the beam
flange, see Chapter 6.2.6.7 in EN199318:2006. In this model the column/beam web has its
full plastic resistance on the lever arm of column/beam flanges
F
,,
M,
h t
(4.55)
tf
If the height of the column/beam including the haunch exceeds 600 mm the contribution of the
beam web to the design compression resistance should be limited to 20%. If a beam is
reinforced with haunches the proposal for design is in cl 6.2.6.7(2). The stiffness of this
component in compression is expected to be negligible.
63
4.6
The resistance of the steel contact plate in joint may be taken as its full plastic resistance
f
(4.56)
where
fy,cp
Acp
A height or breadth of the contact plate exceeds the corresponding dimension of the
compression flange of the steel section, the effective dimension should be determined
assuming dispersion at 45 through the contact plate. It should be assumed that the effective
area of the contact plate in compression may be stressed to its design yield strength fyd, see
EN199411:2010. The stiffness of the component the steel contact plate is negligible
4.7
In most cases the shear force is transmitted via friction between the base plate and the grout.
The friction capacity depends on the compressive normal force between the base plate and
the grout and the friction coefficient, see Chapter 3.3.7. At increasing horizontal displacement
the shear force increases till it reaches the friction capacity. At that point the friction resistance
stays constant with increasing displacements, while the load transfer through the anchor bolts
increases further. Because the grout does not have sufficient strength to resist the bearing
stresses between the bolts and the grout, considerable bending of the anchor bolts may occur,
as is indicated in Fig. 4.20, see (Bouwman et al, 1989). The tests shows the bending
deformation of the anchor bolts, the crumbling of the grout and the final cracking of the
concrete. Based on the work (DeWolf and Sarisley, 1980) and (Nakashima,1998) and of tests
(Bouwman et al, 1989) the analytical model for shear resistance of anchor bolts was derived
in EN199318 cl 6.2.2, see (Gresnight at al, 2008). Also, the preload in the anchor bolts
contributes to the friction resistance. However, because of its uncertainty, e.g. relaxation and
interaction with the column normal force, it was decided to neglect this action in current
standard.
Fig. 4.20 Test specimen loaded by shear force and tensile force
The design shear resistance Fv.Rd may be derived as follows
F
64
F,
nF
(4.57)
where
Ff,Rd
is the design friction resistance between base plate and grout layer
Cf,d Nc,Ed v,Rd
Ff.Rd
(4.58)
Cf,d
is the coefficient of friction between base plate and grout layer. The following values
may be used for sandcement mortar Cf,d = 0.20, see Chapter 3.3.7.
Nc,Sd
is the design value of the normal compressive force in the column. If the normal force
in the column is a tensile force Ff,Rd = 0
Fvb,Rd
As
bc
fyb
0.44
0.0003 f
(4.59)
(4.60)
65
Column base
Column base with base plate
The calculation of the column base resistance, based on the plastic force equilibrium on the
base plate and applied in EN199318:2006, is described in (Wald et al, 2008). Based on the
combination of acting load, see Fig. 5.1, three patterns may be distinguished:
Pattern 1
without tension in anchor bolts occurs due to high normal force loading.
The collapse of concrete appears before developing stresses in the tension part.
with tension in one anchor bolt row arises when the base plate is loaded by small
normal force compared to the ultimate bearing capacity of concrete. During
collapse the concrete bearing stress is not reached. The breaking down occurs
because of yielding of the bolts or because of plastic mechanism in the base plate.
with tension in both rows of anchor bolts occurs when the base plate is loaded by
tensile normal force. The stiffness is guided by yielding of the bolts or because of
plastic mechanism in the base plate. This pattern occurs often in base plates
designed for tensile force only and may lead to contact of baseplate to the concrete
block.
Pattern 2
Pattern 3
The connection is loaded by axial force NEd and bending moment MEd, see Fig. 5.1. The
position of the neutral axis is calculated according to the resistance of the tension part FT,Rd.
Then the bending resistance MRd is determined assuming a plastic distribution of the internal
forces, see (Dewolf, Sarisley, 1980). For simplicity of the model, only the effective area is
taken into account. The effective area Aeff under the base plate, which is taken as an active
part of equivalent rigid plate, is calculated from an equivalent Tstub, with an effective width c,
see Chapter 3.4.2. The compression force is assumed to act at the centre of the compressed
part. The tensile force is located at the anchor bolts or in the middle when there are more rows
or bolts, see (Thambiratnam, Paramasivam, 1986). Like for another cross sections of the
composite structures there should be a closer look at the resistance for the ultimate limit state
ULS and to the elastic behaviour under the serviceability limit state SLS. In the ultimate limit
state the failure load of the system is important. Under service loads is checked the elastic
behaviour and that the concrete cone will not fail. This would lead to cracks and with the time
to a corrosion of the reinforcement of the concrete wall and finally to a failure of the
construction.
a)
b)
c)
Fig. 5.1 The force equilibrium of the base plate a) no tension in anchor bolts,
b) one row of the anchor bolts in tension, c) two rows of the anchor bolts in tension
66
Active part
of the equivalent plate
Active part
of the equivalent plate
Neutral axis
MRd
MRd
NEd
Neutral axis
Ft.Rd
zt
Fc.Rd
Ft.Rd
Fc.Rd
zt
zc
zc
z
Fig. 5.2 Force equilibrium for the column base, one row of the anchor bolts in tension
The equilibrium of forces is calculated according to Fig. 5.2 as follows:
F
N
M
F,
F,
(5.1)
(5.2)
where
F
A
(5.3)
The resistance of the compressed part Fc,Rd and the resistance of the part in tension Ft,Rd are
determined in previous Chapters. If the tensile force in the anchor bolts according to Fig. 5.2
occur for
M
N
(5.4)
NEd zc
MRd
NEd zc1
Fc1,Rd
(5.5)
Fc,Rd
(5.6)
Then, the column base moment resistance MRd under a constant normal force NEd is expressed
as follow:
with tension force in the anchor bolts
MRd
min
Ft,Rd z
Fc,Rd z
NEd zc
NEd zt
(5.7)
67
MRd
min
Fc1,Rd z NEd zc
Fc,Rd z NEd zc1
(5.8)
The procedure is derived for open section of I/H cross section. For rectangular hollow section
RHS may be taken directly taking into account two webs. For circular/elliptical hollow sections
CHS/EHS may be modified, see Fig. 5.2 and (Horov, 2011). Using sector coordinates
depends the effective area Aeff 2 r c on the angle . The lever arm and the resistance of the
component in compression is
zc
Fc,Rd
r cos
Fc1,Rd
(5.9)
(5.10)
rc
The resistance of the base plate connection under different loading is illustrated in MN
interaction diagram. In Fig. 5.3a there is an example of this diagram with its important points.
NRd
Normal force, kN
Rd
HE 200 B
M pl.Rd
1 835
1 000
M 24
t=
30
t=
40
30
h = 1 000
Npl.Rd
25
1 600
340 630
20
15
630
340
0
100
Fig. 5.3a An example of MN interaction diagram for the base plate connection
5.1.2
The bending resistance of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the
tensile/compression resistances of its component. The additional components to the column
bases without the anchor plate is the anchor plate in bending and in tension. The procedure
for evaluation of the resistance is the same in all connections loaded by bending moment and
normal force.
First the resistance of the components in tension is evaluated: the base plate, the threaded
studs, the anchor plate and the headed studs. The activated area in contact under the base
and anchor plate is calculated from the equilibrium of internal forces for the tensile part
resistance. From the known size of the contact area is calculated the lever arm and the
68
bending resistance of the column base for particular acting normal force by the same
procedure like for column base with the base plate only without the anchor plate.
During design of the base plate with the anchor plate is the elasticplastic stage at serviceability
limit verified separately, similar to the composite steel and concrete beam design. If the
headed and threaded studs are not over each another the resistance of the base plate is
influenced by the resistance of the component the anchor plate in tension and related
components like punching of treated studs. The elasticplastic resistance at Serviceability limit
state is calculated based on the bending resistance of the anchor plate only. Moment rotational
diagram at Fig. 5.4b sums up the behaviour of column base which is influenced by the elastic
bending of the anchor plate (1), its elasticplastic bending (2) and its tension (3).
M, kNm
Resistance
Initial stiffness
Elastic behaviour
, mrad
Fig. 5.3b Moment rotational diagram of column base with anchor plate
5.2
This joint typically represents a connection of a steel structure to a concrete wall. The anchor
plate is loaded by shear load V and a bending momentM , . The developed model assumes
a stiff anchor plate and deformations due to the anchor plate are neglected. The connection
between the girder and the anchor plate may be regarded as pinned, rigid or semirigid. For
most structures the connection between the beam and the anchor plate may be assumed as
pinned. In this case of a simple connection the anchor plate is only loaded by shear load and
a corresponding bending moment caused by the eccentricity of the shear load. The connection
between the girder and the anchor plate may be realised with butt straps or cams or any other
simple connection, see Fig. 5.4.
69
If the connection between the girder and the anchor plate cannot be assumed as pinned, there
might be larger bending moments in the joint. In this Chapter the system described is a pinned
connection between the beam and the anchor plate with an eccentricity e . However if there
is a bending moment derived in the global analysis, the eccentricity e may be assumed no
longer a purely geometrical value anymore but is calculated by
e
M ,
V
(5.11)
The developed component model describes the structural behaviour of the simple joints. The
joints are consisting of an anchor plate with headed studs with and without additional
reinforcement in cracked as well as noncracked concrete. To prove a sufficient resistance for
the ultimate limit state, the following steps have to be done:

In the following the mechanical joint model for the simple joints is described. Due to the
eccentricity of the applied shear load a moment is acting on the anchor plate. This moment
causes forces, which are shown in Fig. 5.5. The anchor row on the nonloaded side of the
anchor plate is in tension. This anchor row represents the tension component of the joint NEd,2
and forms a vertical equilibrium with the compression force CEd under the anchor plate on the
loaded side. The shear forces are carried by the headed studs, VEd,1 and VEd,2, and the friction
between steel and concrete Vf.
The tension component of the joint, which is represented by the headed studs in tension or
headed studs with stirrups in tension, in the case of using additional reinforcement, is described
in Chapter 3. If no additional reinforcement is used, the following failure modes may occur:
steel failure of the shaft, pullout failure of the headed stud due to the high compression of the
stud head on the concrete and concrete cone failure of the anchorage. When using additional
reinforcement however, the stirrups contribute to the deformation and the resistance of the
tension component. Besides the steel failure and the pullout failure of the headed studs, a
concrete failure due to yielding of the stirrups, an anchorage failure of the stirrups and a smaller
70
concrete cone failure may appear. A detailed description of these components is found in
Chapter 3.
Fig. 5.5 Forces at the anchor plate caused by the shear force VEd and its eccentricity eV
For the compression zone a rectangular stress block is assumed under the loaded side of the
plate. The stresses in the concrete are limited according to EN1993 18 cl 6.2.5. The design
bearing strength of the concrete is fjd . When there is no grout and the anchor plate has a
common geometry, fjd may be assumed as fjd 3fcd . The stress area Ac is given by the width
of the anchor plate b and the length of the compression zone xc perpendicular to the load,
resulting from the equilibrium with the assumed tension force in the studs on the nonloaded
side NEd,2. As the anchor plate is regarded as stiff, the compression zone starts at the edge of
the plate. The stiffness of this component is assumed according to Chapter 3.
Equilibrium
Compression force
N: C
C
(5.12)
f x b
3f
(5.13)
The position of the shear load VEd,1 and VEd,2 has been derived according to the stress
distribution given by the results of numerical calculations. There it is seen that the resulting
shear force is placed with a distance of about d in average from the anchor plate, when d is
the diameter of the headed stud. As a simplification of the mechanical joint model it is assumed
that the shear forces of both anchor rows appear in the same line, see Fig. 5.6. In case of a
high tension in the first row of studs only small additional shear forces VEd,2 is applied the 2nd
stud row. The position of the friction force Vf is assumed between the concrete surface and
the anchor plate.
71
V1
V2
d
d
V
d t
z
(5.12)
V d
V d
(5.13)
If the pinned joint is loaded by diagonal pull, additional normal forces have to be considered in
the moment equation, see Eq. (5.16). This equation requires, that the normal force does not
lead to an uplift of the anchor plate. In this case both anchor rows would be subjected to tension
forces and no shear resistance due to friction forces is carried by the pinned joint.
V
s
2
V d
(5.14)
As already described above, the assumed tension load in the headed studs on the nonloaded
side and the compression component form a vertical equilibrium. This approach requires an
iterative process, as the area of the compression zone is dependent on the assumption for the
tension load in the studs on the nonloaded side. But the shear resistance of the joint is not
only limited by the acting moment. Therefore as a last step the resistance of the shear
components have to be verified. The joint shear resistance is defined by the sum of the shear
resistance of the studs and the friction between the concrete surface and the anchor plate, see
Fig. 5.7 The resistance due to friction Vf is defined by the coefficient for friction between steel
and concrete. In cl 6.2.2 of EN199318:2006 a friction coefficient of = 0.2 is proposed. The
stiffness is assumed as infinite, as the displacement is zero if the shear force is smaller than Vf.
72
Steel failure
n
n
1
1
(5.15)
(5.16)
where
n
,
,
,
,
73
Description
Formula
Evaluation of the
tension force caused by
the shear load
are known.
z is depending on xc
Estimation of xc and
calculation of the tension
component NEd,2 .
2
Verification of
compression height.
tp
Vf d
NEd,2
xc
CEd
b fjd
Evaluation of the
tension resistance
Without Stirrups
d
z
N: CEd
With Stirrups
NRd,u,s
NRd,p
, ,
,
, ,
NRd,u
VRd,s
3 fcd
N
N
N
min
Calculation of NRd,u
VEd ev
NEd,2
VRd,cp
min
NRd,cs
NRd,re,1
NRd,re,2
0.7 NRd,u,s
NEd,2
NRd,u,s
VEd
VRd,s
VEd,2
VRd,s
Concrete failure
Vf
VEd,2
NEd,2
NRd,u
3/2
Vf
VEd
2
VEd,2
3/2
VRd,cp
74
NO
The load carrying capacity
of the joint is not sufficient.
The joint has to be improved.
5.3
A representative spring and rigid link model was idealized for the behaviour of composite beam
to reinforced concrete wall joint, subjected to hogging bending moment, which is illustrated in
Fig. 5.8. The joint components are:
Fig. 5.8: Joint component model for the composite beam to reinforced concrete wall joint
In order to obtain the joint properties, the assembly of the components and of the joint models
is described in the present section. For the joint under hogging bending moment, the assembly
procedure was based on the mechanical model depicted in Fig. 5.8b. The determination of the
joint properties to bending moment may be performed using a direct composition of
deformations. The longitudinal steel reinforcement bar in slab, the slip of the composite beam,
and the anchor plate components consider the models described in section 3. These models
enable a good approximation to the real behaviour of the components, see (Henriques, 2008).
The models may be described and composed also based on its stiffness coefficients as used
in EN199318:2006.
The mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.9 presents only one row of components in tension
and another in compression. This implies that the assembly procedure is much simpler, as no
distribution of load is required amongst rows, as in steel/composite joint with two or more
tension rows. Thus, the first step is the assembly of the components per row. Equivalent
springs are defined per row, as represented in Fig. 5.9. The equivalent component/spring
should perform as the group of components/springs it represents. The determination of its
properties takes into consideration the relative position of the components: acting in series or
in parallel. In the present case, either for the compression row either for the tension row, all
joint components are acting in series. Thus, the determination of the properties of equivalent
components/springs was performed as expressed in (5.17) for resistance Feq,t and Feq,c, see
(Henriques, 2008).
75
Fig. 5.9 Simplified joint model with assembly of components per row
min F toF
(5.17)
where, the indexes i to n represent all components to consider either in tension either in
compression, depending on the row under consideration.
Then, because only one tension row and one compression row was considered, the
determination of the joint properties, Mj, j, becomes relatively easy. In order to determine the
joint rotation, it is important to define the lever arm hr. According to the joint configuration, it
was assumed that the lever arm is the distance between the centroid of the longitudinal steel
reinforcement bar and the mid thickness of bottom flange of the steel beam. The centroid of
steel contact plate is assumed to be aligned with this reference point of the steel beam.
Accordingly, the joint properties are obtained as follows:
F
min F
,F
,F
(5.18)
where, Feq,tand Feq,care the equivalent resistance of the tension and compression rows,
respectively, determined using Eq. (5.17).
76
Column base
Column base with base plate
The calculation of stiffness of the base plate, given in (Wald et al, 2008), is compatible with
beam to column stiffness calculation. The difference between these two procedures is in the
fact that by the base plate joint the normal force has to be introduced, see (Ermopoulos,
Stamatopoulos, 1996). In Fig. 6.1 there is the stiffness model which shows a way of loading,
compression area under the flange, allocating of forces under the base plate, and a position
of the neutral axes.
MEd
NEd
Fc,r,Rd
Ft,l,Rd
zt,l
z c,r
z
Fig. 6.1 The stiffness model of the base plate connection of the column base
By the calculation of the stiffness the effective area is only taken into account. The position of
compression force Fc.Rd is located at the centre of compression area. The tensile force Ft.Rd is
located at the anchor bolts. The rotational bending stiffness of the base plate is usually
determined during proportional loading with constant eccentricity
e
M
N
const.
(6.1)
According to the eccentricity three possible basic collapse modes can arise with activation of
anchor bolts, see (Wald et al, 2008). For large eccentricity with tension in one row of anchor
bolts Pattern 1, see Fig. 6.2a, without tension in row of anchor bolts, small eccentricity, Pattern
2 in Fig. 6.2b, and with tension in both row of anchor bolts Pattern 3.
Pattern 1
Pattern 2
with tension in one bolt row of anchor bolts arises when the base plate is loaded
by small normal force compared to the ultimate bearing capacity of concrete.
During collapse the concrete bearing stress is not reached. The breaking down
occurs because of yielding of the bolts or because of plastic mechanism in the
base plate.
without tension in anchor bolts grows up during high normal force loading. The
collapse of concrete appears before developing stresses in the tension part.
77
Pattern 3
with tension in one bolt row of anchor bolts arises when both bolt row of anchor
bolts may be activated and column base is exposed to tension force in not so
common, and the theorems may be derived similarly.
MEd
MEd
NEd
M Ed
NEd
c,r
t,l
zt,l
c,l
zc,r
zc,l
NEd
zc,r
c,r
t,l
t,r
z t,l
zc,r
z
Fig. 6.2 The mechanical model of the base plate a) one anchor bolt row activated,
b) no anchor bolt activated c) both anchor bolt rows activated
Deformations t and c of components depend on the stiffness of tension part kt and the
stiffness of the compression part kc.
MEd
z
t,l
MEd
z
c,r
NEd zt
z
E kt
MEd
NEd zt
z
E kc
MEd
NEd zt
(6.2)
E z kt
NEd zt
(6.3)
E z kc
The rotation of the base plate could be determined from formulas above
1
M
E z
N
k
N
k
(6.4)
S,
Ez
1
(6.5)
Nonlinear part of the momentrotation curve is given by coefficient , which express the ratio
between the rotational stiffness in respect to the bending moment, see (Weynand et al, 1996)
and EN199318:2006
S,
S
M
M
where
(6.6)
Sj
E z2
1
k
(6.7)
For above described components, the stiffness coefficients, showed in Fig. 6.3, is revised from
bolt in tension kb, base plate in bending kp, and concrete in compression kc.
The bending stiffness of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the deformation
stiffnesss of its components, e.g. in the tensile part the base plate, the threaded studs, the
anchor plate, and the headed studs and in the compressed part the concrete block in
compression and base plate plus anchor plate in bending. The additional components are the
anchor plate and treated studs. The deformation springs representing the individual
components and its lever arms are summarized in Fig. 6.5. The effective stiffness coefficient,
see Chapter 6.3 in EN199318:2005, is applied to transfer all deformational springs into the
position of the threated stud.
79
6.2
The stiffness of the concrete components are not yet considered in the CEN/TS 199242 to
calculate the deformation behaviour of the Simple joint. In the following the stiffness that have
been developed within the INFASO project were applied to the Simple joint and from this the
rotational stiffness of the joint is developed. A detailed description of this components may be
found in Chapter 3. Thereby the rotational behaviour of the joint caused by the shear load VEd
is calculated. It is assumed that in the case of a Simple joint the rotation does not influence
the global analysis or the bending resistance of the joint to a high extend, see Fig. 6.6 and 6.7.
The Simple joint is primarily a shear force connection and the rotation or the rotational stiffness
of the joint is not relevant.
If the connection between the girder and the anchor plate cannot be assumed as pinned, there
might be larger bending moments in the joint. In the following Chapters the system described
is a simple connection between the beam and the anchor plate with an eccentricity ev .
However if there is a real bending moment derived in the global analysis, the eccentricity ev
may be assumed no longer a purely geometrical value anymore but is calculated by
80
ev
My,Ed
VEd
. In this case it is very important to determine the rotational stiffness of the joint
because the rotational stiffness may influence the load distribution in the global analysis and
the size of the bending moment of the joint, see Fig. 6.8. In order to model the rotational
behaviour of the joint, at minimum two components are necessary, a tension component and
a compression component. The tension component is represented by the headed stud in
tension, see Chapter 3, and the compression component by the component concrete in
compression. With these two components and the lever arm z and the rotational behaviour of
the joint may be modelled.
Fig. 6.8 Forces at the anchor plate caused by the shear force VEd and its eccentricity eV
The shear load VEd causes a tension force NEd,2 in the headed stud on the nonloaded side of
the anchor plat. In equilibrium with the tension force there is a compression force CEd . For the
equilibrium of moments and forces also see Chapter 3.
This forces are leading to a deformation T caused by the tension force on the nonloaded side
of the anchor plate and a deformation C caused by the compression force on the loaded side
of the anchor plate, see Fig. 6.. With these two deformation values and the lever arm z the
rotation of the stiff anchor plate may be calculated according to the following formula
(6.8)
81
Fig. 6.9 Rotation of the anchor plate caused by the shear load VEd
In the following an overview over the tension and over the compression component is given.
The tension component
The tension component is described in detail in Chapter 3. For these components two
alternatives exist, one with additional stirrups and one without, see Fig. 6.10. For every
alternative a model including several springs has been developed.
Headed studs in tension
Pullout failure
Pullout failure
Fig. 6.10 Spring model for headed stud in tension, with and without stirrups
Depending on, whether additional reinforcement is used or not, the deformations of the headed
studs are defined as follow:
Headed studs in tension
N
0 to N
to N
and
and
(6.9)
N
N
k
(6.10)
82
0 to N
and
(6.11)
N to N
to N
N
0
and
and
(6.12)
N
N
10 000
(6.13)
In both cases it is necessary to ensure that neither yielding nor pullout failure of the headed
studs is the decisive failure mode. The loaddisplacement behaviour after of these failure
modes are not considered in the equations above.
The compression component
For the compression force the spring stiffness may be calculated as follows:
K
E A
1.275
(6.14)
The formula is taken from EN199318. The influence of the concrete stiffness is not very large
on the rotational behaviour.
Determination of the lever arm z
Due to the equilibrium for each value of the shear load V , a corresponding tension force NEd,2
and the compression force CEd have to be calculated. As every value of VEd corresponds to
a different compression force C , there is also a different height of the compression area xc
and another corresponding lever arm z. For example if a small VEd causes a small NEd,2 and
CEd , the height of the compression zone xc is small and the lever arm z is relatively large. If the
shear load is increased, the size of the compression force rises and the height of the
compression area xc also grows, whereas the lever arm z decreases.
The changing of the lever arm z is easily taken into account in a computer based calculation.
For a calculation without computer a constant lever arm should be assumed. For the most
structures the best solution to determine the lever arm is to calculate the maximum resistance
of the tension load of the headed studs. Based on this value the maximum compression force
and the minimum z may be calculated. Only if the anchor plate is extreme small and the
tension resistance is extremely large the lever arm should be determined in a different way.
The rotational stiffness
Not only the rotation caused by the shear load, but also the rotational stiffness of the joint is
calculated. With the help of the rotational stiffness it is possible to model the joint in the global
analysis assuming his realistic behaviour. The initial rotational stiffness Sj,ini may be calculated
according to EN199318. The following equation may be found in EN199318:2006, cl 6.3.1
S,
z
1
K
1
K
(6.15)
where
KT
Kc
If no ductile behaviour is expected, the initial stiffness Sj,ini is assumed up to the maximum load.
In the case of ductility the stiffness Sj of the joint is changed according to the utilization level of
the joint. Therefore the behaviour of the joint is represented by a momentrotation curve with
a trilinear shape, see equation 6.17. The determination of the associated factor is taken from
83
EN199318. It has to be mentioned that in this case large cracks that are undesirable might
occur.
S
6.3
(6.16)
S , /
For the joint under hogging bending moment, the assembly procedure was based on the
mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.8a. The determination of the joint properties to
bending moment is performed using two different approaches: the direct deformation
superposition and model based on composition of stiffness coefficients by spring procedure.
The mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.8b presents only one row of components in
tension and another in compression. The determination of the properties of equivalent
components/springs was performed as expressed in (6.17), for deformation eq,t and eq,c.
(6.17)
where, the index i to n represent all components to consider either in tension either in
compression, depending on the row under consideration. In order to determine the joint
rotation, it is important to define the lever arm hr. Accordingly, the joint properties are obtained
as follows
(6.18)
where
eq,t and eq,c are the equivalent deformation of the tension and compression rows, respectively,
determined using (6.17).
Structural analysis
The analysis of structures regarding the steel and composite joints modelling has been
conventionally based on the concept of rigid, infinite rotational stiffness, or pinned, no rotational
stiffness. However, it is well recognized that the real behaviour is often intermediate between
these extreme situations, see (Jaspart, 2002). In these cases, the joints are designated as
semirigid. In such joints, partial relative rotation between connected members is assumed,
contrarily to the traditional concept of no or free rotation.
Consequently, the behaviour of the joint has a nonnegligible influence on the structural
analysis, see (Jaspart, 1997); and (Maquoi, Chabrolin, 1998) affecting: distribution of internal
forces and deformations. In terms of resistance, the influence of the joint properties is obvious,
as the structural capacity is limited if the joint is not fully capable of transmitting the internal
forces, namely the bending moments. In such cases, the joint rotation capacity also becomes
critical, defining the type of failure and the possibility to redistribute the internal forces. Thus,
joints are keys parts of the structure, playing an important role in the behaviour of the structure.
In what regards to the reinforced concrete joints, the structural analysis remains in the classical
concept of rigid or pinned joints EN199211:2004. This is understandable due to the nature
of the joints. In what concerns the steeltoconcrete joints, the joint behaviour is similar to steel
84
joints. In this way, the effect of the steeltoconcrete joint on the structural behaviour should be
considered as in steel structures.
With the component method (Jaspart, 1997), the real behaviour of the steel/composite joints
may be efficiently evaluated and characterized in terms of rotational stiffness, bending moment
resistance and rotation capacity. Subsequently, their behaviour is introduced in the structural
analysis. This allows integrating the joint design with the structural design. Such type of
analysis is recommended by the codes, EN199318:2006 and EN199411:2010, and should
follow the subsequent steps:
The joint classification as already been introduced in section 2.2 and consists in determining
the boundaries for the conventional type of joint modelling regarding the stiffness, see Fig. 2.6,
and the resistance, see Fig. 2.7. The classification of the joint determines the type of joint
modelling that should be adopted for the structural analysis. For stiffness classification, the
stiffness of the connected beam is used to define the boundaries. In terms of resistance, the
classification is set according to the minimum capacity of the connected members. In terms
of rotation capacity, the information available is quite limited. In the code EN199318:2006
only a qualitative classification is given which consists in the following: i) ductile joints (suitable
for plastic analysis) ductile components govern the behaviour of the joint; ii) semiductile
joints components with limited deformation capacity govern the joint response; iii) and brittle
joints (do not allow redistribution of internal forces)  brittle components control the joint
response.
Tab. 7.1 Criteria to define the boundaries
for classification of beamtocolumn steel and composite joints
Rigid/Semirigid
Semirigid/Pinned
Fullstrength/Partialstrength
Partialstrength/Pinned
Stiffness
8 E Ib/Lb
0.5 E Ib/Lb
Resistance
Top of column: min{Mc, pl,Rd; Mb,pl,Rd}
Within column height: min{2Mc,pl,Rd; Mb,pl,Rd}
25% of Fullstrength/Partialstrength
In the structural analysis, according to the stiffness and strength classification, three types of
joint modelling are possible, as listed in Tab. 7.2. In the case of continuous joint, the full rotation
continuity is guaranteed between the connected members. In the case of simple joint, all
rotational continuity is prevented between the connected members.
Otherwise, the joint is semicontinuous. In relation to the physical representation of the joint in
the structural model, different approaches may be used, as illustrated in Tab. 7.2. In Fig. 7.1a
the actual behaviour of the joint is modelled: Lsprings Sr,L representing the connecting zone
and Ssprings Sr,S representing the panel zone. The infinite rigid stubs assure that the flexibility
of the joint will not be taken into consideration more than once. In Fig. 7.1b is presented a
model to be used in the software which does not support flexural springs. Stubs with adequate
bending stiffness E I and resistance M, maintaining the clear separation between bending and
shear influences are used to replace rotational springs. Finally, the concentrated model is
represented in Fig. 7.1c. In this model, Lsprings and Ssprings are assembled into one single
spring and displaced to the column axis Sc. The overall joint behaviour is then represented by
a single rotational spring, two in the case of double sided joints. This simplified modelling
solution is prescribed by EN199318:2006. The simplifications adopted are compensated in
85
the joint transformation. The joint transformation takes into account the shear force acting in
the column, and the combination of the shear panel and connections in the joint spring at the
beamtocolumn axis intersection point, see (Huber et al, 1998).
Tab. 7.2 Criteria to define the boundaries for classification
of beamtocolumn steel and composite joints EN199318:2006
Joint modelling
Continuous
Joint Classification
Fullstrength and Rigid
Fullstrength and Semirigid
Partialstrength and Rigid
Partialstrength and Semirigid
Pinned and Pinned
Semicontinuous
Simple
EIS
Sr,S
Sr,L
Sr,L
EIL
EIL
EI=
EIS
Sr,S
Sc
Sc
Mj
Mj,Rd
Mj,Rd
2/3Mj,Rd
2/3Mj,Rd
Sj,ini
Sj
Sj,ini
Sj
Mj
Mj,Rd
Fig. 7.2c Rigid plastic M curve idealized for the joint behaviour
The stiffness of a joint influences the deformability of the structure, which is reflected in the
check for SLS. The influence of nonlinear behaviour of joints in terms of ULS is more difficult
to assess as it requires a nonlinear analysis. The following example illustrates in a simplified
way, the influence of joints in the behaviour of the structure. Considering the beam
represented in Fig. 7.3, under a linear uniform load q and assuming rigid joints at both ends of
the beam leads to the bending moment Mj, at both supports, and to the bending moment
diagram represented by the dashed line. On the other hand, assuming at both ends of the
beam a rotational stiffness of the joints Sj, then the bending diagram represented by the
continuous line is obtained. This represents a bending moment redistribution of M that varies
from 0 to q L2/12. This redistribution is also reflected in the vertical deflection of the beam,
which may vary from q L4/ 384 EI to 5 q L4/ 384 E I .
87
7.2
7.2.1
In order to illustrate the influence of joint behaviour in the global analysis of structures, an
example is provided in the following paragraphs. For complete details of the analysis see
(Henriques, 2013). The building structures selected for the analysis considered two types of
occupancy: office and car park. For the first type, the building structure erected in Cardington
and subject to fire tests was chosen, see (Bravery 1993) and (Moore 1995). The building was
designed to represent a typical multistorey building for offices. For the car park building, the
structure used in a recent RFCS project regarding Robustness in car park structures subject
to a localized fire, see (Demonceau et al, 2012), was selected. Though the main
characteristics of the reference building structures are used, modifications were performed
whenever required to adapt the structures. Furthermore the performed calculations only
considered the analysis of plane substructures which were extracted from the complete
building structures. As higher variation of the structural system was found in the office building,
two substructures were selected to represent this type of building while for the car park only
one substructure was considered. The main characteristics and the adopted modifications of
the referred building structures are summarized in the following paragraphs, see (Kuhlmann
et al, 2012) and (Maquoi, 1998).
The office building structure
The main geometrical and mechanical properties of the office building are summarized in
Tab. 3, together with the adopted modifications. The floor layout is illustrated in Fig. 7.4..
88
A
9m
Modifications
No modifications
All British steel profiles were replaced by
common European steel profiles with equivalent
mechanical properties.
Bracing systems were replaced by shear walls in
order to introduce in the structural system, steeltoconcrete joints.
The type of joint between horizontal members
and vertical members was one of the key
parameters of the study. The joint modelling was
varied from continuous to simple.
Column bases were assumed as simple joints.
C
9m
D
9m
9m
9m
4
6m
4,5m
3
9m
2m
2
6m
Fig. 7.4 Floor layout of the reference structure representing the office building type
The car park building structure
This type of building represents the standard configuration of a car park structure in Europe.
The main geometrical and mechanical properties of this type of building are summarized in
Tab. 7.4. In this case, only a few modifications were required. Fig. 7.5 illustrates the floor
layout.
89
Tab. 7.4 The main properties and performed modifications for the car park building type
Reference structure
Modifications
No modifications
Dimensions given
to the concrete
core
No modifications
3
16m
2
Reinforced
Concrete core
16m
1
10m
10m
10m
10m
10m
10m
Design
The different cases presented in Tab. 7.5 considered the combination of different values of
joint initial rotational stiffness and resistance capacity. In terms of rotation capacity, it was
assumed that unlimited rotation capacity was available. A total of 10 cases were considered
for each load combination.
Tab. 7.5 Definition of the cases for each load combination and each substructure
Case
3
4
5
6
7
8
SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
10
R
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
P
Col.
bases
Col.
bases
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3(FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
0.5 (FS/PS+PS/P)
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
7.2.3
Structural model
91
Members
Columns:
AL1 and 4
AL2
Beams*
Walls
Columns
II
Beams*
Walls
Columns
III
Beams*
Walls
Geometric
Bottom to 2nd floor: HEB320
2nd floor to Top: HEB260
Material
S355
S355
S355
S355
S355
LC35/38
C30/37
S500
S355
S355
S355
LC35/38
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,34m
6m
4,5m 4,5m
6m
92
C30/37
S500
S460
S460
S460
S460
S355
C25/30
C30/37
S500
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,34m
4,5m
4,5m
9m
9m
9m
4,5m
4,5m
10m
10m
10m
10m
10m
10m
6m
93
Substructure II
Eq CS1
Eq CS2
Eq CS3
Eq CS4
Eq CS5
I=1.14x108mm4
I=2.74x108mm4
I=1.20x108mm4
I=3.38x108mm4
I=1.23x108mm4
A=6012.32mm2
A=11207.20mm2
A=6101.78mm2
A=16431.90mm2
A=6141.54mm2
Equivalent rectangular crosssection dimension
h=476.37mm
h= 541.42mm
h=486.39mm
h=496.74mm
h=490.57mm
b=12.62mm
b= 20.70mm
b= 12.54mm
b= 33.08mm
b= 12.52mm
fy of the equivalent rectangular crosssection to obtain the Mmax of the composite crosssection
Mmax=274.86kN.m Mmax=470kN.m
Mmax=286.85kN.m
Mmax=631kN.m
Mmax=292.05kN.m
fy=575.81N/mm2
fy=464.75N/mm2
fy=579.90N/mm2
fy=463.83N/mm2
fy=581.62N/mm2
Substructure III
EqCS1
EqCS2
EqCS1
3,0m
1,5m
EqCS5
1,125m
1,5m
EqCS4
2,25m
EqCS3
1,5m
EqCS3
EqCS2
3,0m
1,125m
EqCS1
1,5m
Eq CS1
Eq CS2
Eq CS3
I=6.72x108mm4
I=1.42x109mm4
I=7.23x108mm4
2
2
A=13192.32mm
A=27012.63mm
A=13600.91mm2
Equivalent rectangular crosssection dimension
h=781.66mm
h=794.22mm
h=798.44mm
b=16.88mm
b=34.01mm
b=17.00mm
fy of the equivalent rectangular crosssection to obtain the Mmax of the composite crosssection
Mmax=988.86kN.m Mmax=1338.00kN.m Mmax=1057.61kN.m
fy=575.37N/mm2
fy=374.20N/mm2
fy=584.00N/mm2
94
1,125m
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS1
EqCS3
2,25m
1,125m
2,25m
EqCS4
4,5m
EqCS5
EqCS5
2,25m
2,25m
EqCS4
4,5m
EqCS5
2,25m
EqCS5
EqCS4
4,5m
2,25m
EqCS1
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
1,125m
2,25m
1,125m
2,25m
EqCS1
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS3
EqCS3
EqCS2
EqCS1
2,5m
5m
2,5m
2,5m
5m
2,5mv
2,5m
5m
2,5m
2,5m
5m
2,5m
2,5m
5m
2,5m
2,5m
5m
2,5m
Fig. 7.7c Identification of the equivalent crosssections of the beams in each substructure III
Joint properties
The boundaries values for classification of the joint in terms of rotational stiffness and
resistance are listed in Tab. 7.8 for the three substructures. The joints were included in the
structural models using concentrated flexural springs. For the partialstrength joints, a trilinear
behaviour was assigned, Fig. 7.8. The initial joint rotational stiffness is considered up to 2/3
of Mj,Rd, and then the joint rotation at Mj,Rd is determined using the secant joint rotational
stiffness. The latter is determined using a stiffness modification coefficient equal to 2.
Tab. 7.8 The boundary values for classification of the joints in each substructure
Substructure III
Substructure II
Substructure I
Joints
AL1right
AL2left
AL2right
AL3left
AL3right
AL4left
ALAright
ALBleft
ALBright
ALCleft
to
ALDright
ALEleft
ALEright
ALFleft
ALAright
ALBleft
ALBright
to
ALFleft
ALFright
ALGleft
Rotational Stiffness
RSR [kNm/rad] SRP [kNm/rad]
108780.0
2782.5
2782.5
108780.0
205340.0
3710.0
205240.0
3710.0
108780.0
2782.5
108780.0
2782.5
102293.3
2660.0
102293.3
2660.0
94640.0
2100.0
94640.0
2100.0
292.1
73.0
94640.0
102293.3
102293.3
238560.0
238560.0
2100.0
2660.0
2660.0
7056.0
7056.0
238560.0
7591.5
286.9
286.9
274.9
988.9
As below
b6th: 1058.1
6thT:380.4
71.7
71.7
68.7
247.2
As below
b6th: 264.3
6thT: 95.1
238560.0
238560.0
7056.0
7056.0
As above
988.9
As above
247.2
95
Mj
Mj,Rd
2/3Mj,Rd
Sj,ini
j
Fig. 7.8 Partial strength joint mechanical behaviour
Loading conditions
The loading considered in each substructure was determined for each load combination and
varies with the structural conception and building occupancy. The loads and load combinations
were defined according to EN1990:2002 and EN199111:2002. Note that for Substructure I
and II, the wind action was also considered while for Substructure 3 no lateral action was
assumed, this action was not quantified in (Demonceau et al, 2012) and it was considered that
the stiffness of the wall will absorb it. In the office building structure, the slab works in the
transverse direction, therefore the beams in the Substructure II are loaded with uniform
distributed loads. For the other two substructures, the represented beams are the main
beams so the loads are transmitted as concentrated loads, at the intersection of the secondary
beams. In all cases the selfweight is considered.
Substructures finite element models
The structural calculations were performed in the finite element software (Abaqus 6.11, 2011).
In Tab. 7.9 are listed the types of elements used to reproduce each component of the structural
system (members and joints): i) beam elements for beams and columns, ii) shell/plate
elements for the RC walls, and iii) spring elements to connect the structural members, in the
different degrees of freedom.
Tab. 7.9 Types of finite elements attributed to each component, members and joints
Structural Model Component
Beams and Columns
Shear Walls
Shell element
Spring element
Description
2node linear beam element B31
4node shell element S4R
(generalpurpose) with reduce
integration and hourglass control
Nonlinear spring element with
single degree of freedom
The concentrated joint modelling was selected, where a flexural spring was used to represent
the connection at each side of the column. As the parametric study was performed varying
the properties of this flexural spring, it was assumed that this spring was already integrating
the deformation of the column web panel and was already affected by the transformation
parameter , so that an iterative calculation was avoid. As the main goal is to analyse the
influence of the joint and to obtain some structural requirements to the steeltoconcrete joints,
the joint springs are located at the axis of the columns, and the eccentricity associated to the
height of this member is neglected. . In what concerns the other degrees of freedom, namely
axial and shear direction of the beam, translation springs are used to connect the members.
96
In this way, in each connection, between structural members, three springs are used, one for
each relevant degree of freedom.
The use of the above described types of elements was previously validated against academic
problems (Simoes da Silva et al, 2010). Simultaneously, the calibration of the required mesh
refinement was performed. Tab. 7.10 summarizes the mesh refinement to consider in the
different members of the structural models simulated and discussed in the next section.
Tab. 7.10 Summary of the mesh refinement for each member of the structural model
Member
Beams
Columns
Shear walls
The structure under service limit state (SLS) has to guarantee the comfort of the users. If in
terms of loading this limit state is less demanding, in terms of deformation requirements it is
often the most limiting state, and therefore, design guiding. For this load condition, the analysis
of the steeltoconcrete joint properties is performed using the two following parameters:
beams deflection and structure lateral deformation. For the latter, only Substructures I and II
are considered, as no horizontal load (namely wind load) was considered in the analysis of
Substructure III.
Fig. 7.10 illustrates how the beams deflection was considered. The maximum values obtained
for each case are listed in Table 7.11, in a beam connected to a RC member, columns in grey,
and in a beam only supported by steel columns. According to the Portuguese National Annex
to EN199311:2006 the limit value max L/300 was calculated and is included in the table. It
is observed that in Substructures I and II, the values are distant from this limit, even if the
beams deformation achieves 20 mm in the substructure II with simple joints, the value is still
33% below the limit. The beam deformations in substructure III are closer to the limit value
but still, this value is not exceeded for any of the cases. In Fig. 7.11 are represented the beams
deformations for the cases corresponding to the maximum and minimum deflections, for the
beams implementing steeltoconcrete joints. These is seen as the envelope of the beams
deformation, as these cases consider the two extreme situations in what respects the joint
properties: i) continuous (Rigid + Full Strength); and ii) simple (Pinned). Using the beam
deformation mode corresponding to the maximum beam deflection, the deformation
corresponding to the code limit was extrapolated and is also included in the figure. The figure
illustrates the above observations, confirming Substructure III closer to the limit.
97
Substructure I
Beam
Beam
12
34
2.6
3.0
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.2
4.6
6.1
6.1
20
20
Substructure II
Beam
Beam
CD
AB
5.5
0.3
7.8
0.3
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.6
20.5
1.5
30
15
Substructure III
Beam
Beam
CD
FG
21.7
7.7
22.9
12.7
23.4
12.6
23.7
12.6
23.7
14.1
24.1
14.1
24.7
18.8
25.2
18.8
28.1
15.1
31.8
27.1
33.3
33.3
Joint Properties
R
FS
a) Substructure I
b) Substructure II
c) Substructure III
Fig. 7.10 Beam deformations envelop and limit according to PNA to EN199311:2006
supported by a steeltoconcrete joint
98
Besides the beams deformation, the lateral stiffness of the substructures is also affected by
the joint properties. In Tab. 7.12 are listed the maximum top floor displacements obtained for
each case and for Substructures I and II. The design limit dh,top,limit according to Portuguese
National Annex to EN199311:2006 is also included. As for the beams deflections, it is
observed that the observed values are distant from the code limit. Note that as long as the
joints are continuous or semicontinuous, the top floor displacement suffers small variations.
This is due to the dominant contribution of the RC wall to the lateral stiffness of the substructures. In Fig. 7.11 are represented the substructures lateral displacement envelops and
the code limit. In Substructure II, because two RC walls contribute to the lateral stiffness of
the substructure, the variation between minimum and maximum is quite reduced.
Tab. 7.12 Top floor lateral displacement for Substructures I and II [mm]
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
dh.top.limit [mm]
Substructure I
26.7
27,6
28.3
28.6
28.3
28.6
28.3
28.6
31.4
36.0
94.3
Substructure II
13.5
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.8
16.2
94.3
Joint Properties
R
FS
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Floor
Floor
Case 1
Case 10
Limit
0
20
40
60
80
Lateral displacement [mm]
Substructure I
100
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Case 1
Case 10
Limit
0
20
40
60
80
Lateral displacement [mm]
100
Substructure II
99
0.6
Substructure I
Substructure II
0.4
Substructure III
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1
Case
Fig. 7.12 Ratio between acting bending moment and bending moment capacity
of joint/beam under SLS
12
Substructure I
Substructure II
Substructure III
j [mrad]
10
8
6
4
2
0
1
5
6
Case
10
At Ultimate Limit State (ULS), joints should perform so that the structural integrity is not lost.
This requires to the joints either resistance either deformation capacity, allowing the
redistribution of internal forces within the structure. In order to quantify such structural demands
to the steeltoconcrete joints, calculations considering the load combinations of this limit state
are performed. In Fig. 7.14 are summarized the maximum loads obtained on these joints Mj,
Nj, Vj. In all cases, hogging bending moment and the axial compression are reported. Though,
it should be referred that axial tension is observed in bottom floors of the substructures;
however, in average, the maximum value does not exceed 10 kN.
100
Substructure I
ALAL33L
R
Mj
Nj
[kNm]
[kN]
169.0
68.5
170.0
61.7
151.2
62.3
136.2
62.8
151.2
62.3
136.3
62.8
138.0
62.1
121.7
62.4
0
65.9
0
43.3
Substructure II
ALALFL
AR
Nj
Mj
[kNm]
[kN]
64.7
31.8
65.
33.4
54.2
31.5
46.2
30.1
54.2
31.5
46.2
30.1
54.8
33.0
46.6
31.6
0
21.0
0
51.7
AL3L
Vj
[kN]
181.1
183.3
178.3
174.3
178.3
174.3
174.8
170.5
138.9
134.0
ALFL
Vj
[kN]
72.9
73.9
70.8
68.7
70.8
68.7
71.3
69.2
56.5
59.4
Substructure III
ALALGL
AR
Nj
Mj
[kNm]
[kN]
441.1
387.6
539.5
406.4
406.4
392.6
350.4
382.1
432.1
384.0
376.1
372.5
401.9
381.3
344.7
371.9
0
282.4
0
346.7
Joint
Properties
ALAL
Vj
[kN]
345.8
371.4
362.3
355.6
381.6
376.1
394.5
388.9
346.5
370.9
FS
ALAlignment; L Left hand side; R right hand side; R Rigid; P Pinned; FS Full Strength
Fig. 7.14 shows the ratio between acting bending moment and the bending moment capacity
of the steeltoconcrete joints or of the beams, in the case of full strength joints. As expected,
for this limit state the ratio increases in comparison to the service limit state though, in none of
the cases the full capacity of joints is activated. The higher ratios are observed in Substructures I and III, for the cases with lower bending moment resistance.
In Fig. 7.15 are plotted the maximum joint rotations observed in the different calculations. The
maximum required joint rotation is approximately 20 mrad for the case studies where the steeltoconcrete joints are modelled as simple joints.
25
Substructure I
Substructure II
Substructure III
1
0.8
Substructure I
Substructure II
Substructure III
20
j [mrad]
Mj,Ed/[Mj,Rd or Mb,pl,Rd[]
1.2
15
0.6
10
0.4
0.2
0
1
4
5
Case
5 6
Case
10
101
8 TOLERANCES
8.1
Standardized tolerances
The European standard EN10902:2008 describes the geometric tolerances in Chapter 11.
Limits of geometric deviations contained therein are independent from the execution classes
and they are divided into two types.
Essential tolerances called those which are necessary for the mechanical resistance and
stability of the completed structure.
Functional tolerances have decisive influence on other criteria such as fitup and
appearance. The permitted limits of deviations are defined for two tolerance classes in
generally. Stricter limits apply to class 2. Is not a class set, tolerance class 1 applies.
The essential tolerances, as well as the functional tolerances are normative.
With regard to the connections of steel structures in concrete components, essential tolerances
are limited in Chapter 11.2.3.2 for foundation bolts and other supports and in Chapter 11.2.3.3
for column bases. There, with regard to their desired location, permissible deviations of a
group of anchor bolts and instructions for the required hole clearance are specified for base
plates.
More interesting for connections with embedded anchor plates in concrete structures are the
functional tolerances given in Annex D Tab. 2.20, see Fig. 8.1.
The European standard EN13670:2011 Execution of concrete structures contains in Chapter
10 also information to geometrical tolerances, which are for buildings of importance, such as
structural safety. Two tolerance classes are defined, in which in generally the tolerance class
1 (reduced requirements) applies. The application of the tolerance class 2 is intended mainly
in connection with structural design according to EN199211:2004 Appendix A. Fig. 8.2 (Fig. 2
in EN13670:2011) provides limits of permissible deviations from the vertical of walls and pillars.
Deviations of these components have decisive influence on the steel structures to be
connected there (if required).
102
No
Criterion
Parameter
Permitted deviation
Foundation level
Deviation
from specified level
15 mm +5 mm
Vertical wall
Kay
1 Specified
position
2 Steel component
3 Supporting wall
Preset foundation bolt where prepared
for adjustment
Deviation
from specified position
at support point
for steel component
= 25 mm
y, z = 10 mm
5 mm p 25 mm
y, z = 3 mm
5 mm p 45 mm
5 mm x 45 mm
Deviations x, y, z
from the specified location
and level
x, y, z = 10 mm
103
No
Type of deviation
Description
Inclination of a
column or wall at
any lever in a
single or a multistorey building
10
10
Permitted deviation
Tolerance class 1
The larger of
15
/400
25
/800
h= free height
Deviation between
centres
The larger of
t/300 or
15 mm
But not more than
30 mm
Curvature of a
column or wall
between adjacent
storey levels
The larger of
/30 or
15 mm
But not more than
30 mm
Location of a
column or a wall at
any storey level,
from a vertical line
through its
intended centre at
base level in a
multistorey
structure
n is the number of
storeys where
1
The smaller of
50
or
200
1
2
Fig. 8.2 Permissible deviations from the vertical of walls and pillars,
abridged Fig. 2 in EN13670:2011
Geometric tolerances, which are in terms of suitability for use and the accuracy of fit for the
building of importance, are regulated in the informative Annex G, unless regulated otherwise,
the tolerances of Annex G apply, see Fig. 8.3. It is assumed that tolerances contained therein
relate to geometrical sizes, which have only a limited influence on the bearing capacity.
Fig. 8.1 shows the permissible deviations of built in components in all directions, compare
EN10902:2008 D. 2.20 line 5.
104
No
Type of deviation
Description
Permitted deviation
Anchoring plates
and similar inserts
Deviation in plane
x, y = 20 mm
Deviation in depth
z = 10 mm
8.2
Recommended tolerances
For deviations from fixtures (anchoring) of the target location, relatively low values are allowed
in the previously mentioned standards, 10 mm in each direction, see EN10902:2008, or 20
mm in the plains and 10 mm perpendicular to the surface, see EN13670:2011. Tolerances
for angular misalignments of the anchor plates to their installation levels are not available.
However, in EN 13670 Fig. 2d for multistory buildings clearly greater deviations of the upper
floors to the vertical are allowed. For example, the permissible horizontal displacement of the
toplevel of a floor from the target location is for a sevenstory building with a floor height of
3.50 m.
h / 200 n
= 46 mm
(8.1)
If the building is made of prefabricated concrete elements, the concrete anchor plate  even
with exact location within the individual component  may exhibit the same displacement from
the target location as the above shown deviations.
Therefore, the deviations defined directly for anchor plates by 10 mm seem to be hardly
feasible. Much larger deviations have to be expected. If necessary, special tolerances for the
location of the built in components have to be defined. EN13670:2011 describes another
principle of tolerance definition, in which the allowable deviation of any point of construction
compared to a theoretical target location over a fixed value is defined in Chapter 10.1 cl 5.
A recommendation for the maximum permissible deviation is 20 mm.
Definitely, connecting elements between steel and concrete structures must be able to
compensate tolerances. Considering the previous explanations, a development of joints for
taking deviations of the anchor plate from the theoretical target location of 20 to 25 mm is
recommended. Fig. 8.4 and 8.5 show exemplary a connections with and without the possibility
to compensate geometrical derivations.
105
106
9 WORKED EXAMPLES
9.1
Check the resistance of the column base. The column of HE 200 B section, a concrete
foundation size 850 x 850 x 900 mm, a base plate thickness 18 mm, steel S 235 and
concrete C 12/15, Mc = 1.50, M0 = 1.00.
FRd
HE 200 B
4xP3040x40
t = 18
30
a1 = 850
a = 340
ar = 255
b r = 255
h = 900
b = 340
b = 850
1
min
The condition a
a b
ab
2 a
340 2 255 850
3 a 3 340 1 020
a h 340 900 1 240
850
850 850
340 340
EN199318
cl. 6.2.5
850 mm
2.5
A f
A
A
f k
12.0
0.67
2.5
1.5
EN199318
13.4 MPa
cl 6.2.5
f
3f
235
18
3 13.4 1.00
EN199318
43.5 mm
cl 6.2.5
107
bc = 200 c
t f = 15
c
c
h c = 200
tw = 9
2c min a; h
max min b; b
A
200
200
2c
2c; 0 max h
2 43.5 200
2 43.5
82 369
2c
2c; 0
2 43.5
2 43.5 200
15 853
2t
2 15
2 43.5
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
66 516 mm
66 516 13.4
891 10 N
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
Comments
The design resistance of the column footing is higher than the resistance of the column
base
N
A f
7808 235
1.00
1 835 10 N
EN199311
cl 6.2.4
where Ac is area of the column. The column base is usually designed for column
resistance, which is determined by column buckling resistance.
It is expected, that the grout will not affect the column base resistance. The grout has
to be of better quality or the thickness has to be smaller than
0.2 min a; b
0.2 340
68 mm
The steel packing or the levelling nuts is placed under the base plate during the erection.
It is recommended to include the packing/nuts in the documentation
108
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
9.2
In the following example the calculation of the moment resistance and the bending
stiffness of the column base at Fig. 9.3 is shown. The Column HE 200 B is loaded by
a normal force FSd = 500 kN. The concrete block C25/30 of size 1 600 x 1 600x 1000 mm
is designed for particular soil conditions. The base plate is of 30 mm thickness and the
steel strength is S235. Safety factors are considered as Mc = 1.50; Ms = 1.15, M0 = 1.00;
and M2 = 1.25. The connection between the base plate and the concrete is carried out
through four headed studs of 22 mm diameter and an effective embedment depth of
150 mm, see Fig. 9.3. The diameter of the head of the stud is 40 mm. The
supplementary reinforcement for each headed stud consists of two legged 12 mm
diameter stirrups on each side of the stud. Consider fuk = 470 MPa for studs and design
yield strength of the supplementary reinforcement
as f
435 MPa.
a 1 = 1600
MSd
FSd
a r = 590
a = 420
HE 200 B
M22
t = 30
30
e a = 50
br = 590
eb = 90
p = 240
h = 1000
e c = 60
b = 420
b1 = 1600
r b = 160
6 mm is
0.8 6 2
60
0.8 a
60
53.2 mm
The minimum Tstub length in base plates where the prying forces not taken into
DM I
account, is
Fig. 4.4
4 m
1.25 e
4 53.2 1.25 50
2 m 2 53.2 334.3
b 0.5 420 0.5 210
0.5 p 2 53,2 0.625 50
min 2 m 0.625 e
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 53.2 0.625 50
2 53.2 4 90
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 p 2 53.2 2 240
210 mm
275.3
EN199318
cl 6.2.6.4
(Wald et al, 2008)
DM I
Tab. 4.2
109
min h ; 8 d
t
2
150
30
30
19
2
219.5 mm
DM I
Fig. 4.1
2 L , t f
4 m
2 210 30 235
4 53.2 1.00
417.4 kN
EN199318
cl 6.2.4.1
The resistance is limited by tension resistance of two headed studs M 22, the area in
tension A
F
303 mm.
2B,
, ,
0.9 f
205.1 kN
EN199318
cl 6.2.4.1
min
and a
1 260
1 260 mm
420 mm
EN199318
1 260 1 260
420 420
cl 6.2.5
3.00
DM I
84 mm
30 mm
Eq. 3.65
2 k f
2 3.00 25
3
1.5
cl 6.2.5
33.3 MPa
F , , the area of
concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part is calculated
F
500 10
205.1 10
33.3
EN199318
21 174 mm
cl 6.2.5
The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of
the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.4, is calculated from
c
110
f
3f
30
235
3 33.3 1.00
46.0 mm
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
c bc= 200 c
c t w= 9 c
c
c
tf =15
rt
hc=200
b eff
tf=15 c
c
rc
2 c
21 174
200 2 46.0
72.5 mm
2 c
15
2 46.0
107.0 mm
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
b
2
200
2
46.0
72.5
2
EN199311
109.8 mm
cl 6.2.5
205.1 10 160
, ,
f r
EN199311
cl 6.2.4
110.2 kNm
110.2kNm.
Af
7808 235
1.00
1 835 10 N
EN199311
500kN
cl 6.2.5
W f
642.5 10 235
1.00
EN199311
151.0 kNm
cl 6.2.9
1
M
500
1 835
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1
151.0
1
124.2 kNm
EN199318
cl 6.3
The column base is designed on acting force only (not for column resistance).
111
2.0
0.425 L
m
303
219.5
2.0
EN199318
2.8 mm
cl 6.3
0.425 210 30
53.2
EN199318
16.0 mm
cl 6.3
tf =15
t
b c =200
aeq
2.5 t
15
2.5 30
E
a
1.275 E
90 mm
31 000
90 200
1.275 210 000
EN199318
15.5 mm
cl 6.3
h
2
h
2
t
2
200
2
60
200
2
15
2
160 mm
EN199318
cl 6.3
92.5 mm
The stiffness coefficient of tension part, headed studs and T stub, is calculated as
k
1
1
k
1
1
k
1
2.8
1
16.0
2.4 mm
EN199311
cl 6.2.9
For the calculation of the initial stiffness of the column base the lever arm is evaluated
z
160
k z
k
k z
k
112
92.5
252.5 mm
15.5 92.5
15.5
2.4 160
2.4
and
58.6 mm
EN199318
cl 6.3
M
F
110.2 10
500 10
EN199311
220.4 mm
cl 6.2.9
as
S,
e
e
E z
a 1
k
220.4
210 000 252.5
1
220.4 58.6 1 1
2.4 15.5
21.981 10 Nmm/rad
EN199318
cl 6.3
21 981 kNm/rad
320
1600
640
150
320
100
1600
1000
500
240
113
nd ,
4
2 22 470
4 1.5
2 22 210 000
E
L
L
4 150
N
kN
1 064 371
1 064.4
, for N
238.2 kN
mm
mm
0; N
238.2 kN
k
k
nd
4
238 216 N
238.2 kN
DM I
Eq. (3.3)
DM I
Eq. (3.4)
DM I
Eq. (3.5)
Hence, the loaddisplacement curve for the spring is obtained as shown in Fig. 9.7.
Nact kN
238.2
1064.4
1
c mm
N
N
k h
A
A
12.7 150
1.5 150
240
DM I
Eq. (3.7)
25
.
.
1.5 150
Eq. (3.8)
116,7 kN
690 450
9 150
Eq. (3.9)
1.53
1.0
1.0
119.0 kN
The stiffness of the descending branch kc,de for the design is described with the following
function
k
f h
114
.
,
2.37 mm
50.31
kN
mm
Eq. (3.13)
1600
450
1600
Ac,N
690
DM I
Eq. (3.13)
50.31
1
c mm
, ,
/4 f
For each stud, two stirrups with two legs on either side of the headed stud are provided.
Therefore, for two headed studs in tension, the total number of the legs of the stirrups
in tension is 8. Hence,
N ,,
8
12 435 393.6 kN
4
DM I
Eq. (3.17)
2N , ,
2 393 578
,,
0.77 mm
12 100 25 12 8
f d , n
Stiffness as a function of displacement is given as Eq. (3.18)
115
n
k
DM
,
8 12 100 25 12
448 023
for
k
, ,
0 for
Eq. (3.16)
N/mm
DM I
eq. (3.18)
, ,
DM I
eq. (3.19)
450000
400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
0
0.5
1.5
150
25
0.7 50
90 mm
, ,
l d
8 90 12
1.0 1.0
2.7
0.49
2.7 N/mm2,
149 565 N
149.6 kN
DM I
Eq. (3.21)
The corresponding displacement is obtained using Eq. (3.20) as
2N
, ,
, ,
,
2 149 565
12100 25 12 8
DM I
Eq. (3.20)
0.11 mm
It may be noted that since NRd,b,re NRd,s,re, bond failure of stirrups is the governing
failure mode for the stirrups.
Stiffness as a function of displacement is given as
n
k
for
116
f
2
, ,
8 12100 25 12
448 023
N/mm
DM I
Eq. (3.22)
DM I
Eq. (3.23)
0 for
, ,
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
Displacement, (mm)
k k
k
0.5 d
5
a
0.5 40
22
9 mm
DM I
Eq. (3.26)
1.0; hence, ka
0.5 d
m d
1.0
d
0.5 d
0.5 22
9 40
22
0.5 40
31.30
DM I
Eq. (3.28)
k k
k
0.25
1.0 31.30
600
0.0130
DM I
Eq. (3.30)
, ,
N
A f
119.0 10
0.0130
40
22 25 2
4
0.096 mm
, ,
min N , ; N
A f n
2k
DM I
Eq. (3.29)
DM I
Eq. (3.24)
, ,
np
A /
min N
, ,
;N
DM I
Eq. (3.25)
, ,
149.6 kN
117
, ,
2 300
40
22
4
1.5
2 0.0130
40
4
350.6 kN
149 565
25 2
22
0.096
0.21 mm
40
22 25 2
4
0.0130
40
22 25 2
4
2 0.0130
DM I
Eq. (3.34)
384 373
DM I
Eq. (3.35)
271 792
0.096
0.096
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1.25
1.5
1.7
Displacement, (mm)
min n d
f
; N
2
, ,
; N
, ,
DM I
Eq. (3.59)
Hence, for a given displacement [mm] the load [kN] carried by combined concrete and
stirrups is given as
N
118
119.0
50.31
DM I
Eq. (3.59)
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
0.5
1.5
2.5
Displacement, (mm)
Nultduetosteelfailure
200
Range2:NRd,c<N <Nult
150
100
Range1:N <NRd,c
50
0
0
0.5
1.5
2.5
Displacement, (mm)
119
NSd
Normal force, kN
Sd
HE 200 B
Mpl.Rd
1 835
1 000
M 22
t=
30
t=
40
h = 1 000
Npl.Rd
30
25
1 600
340 630
20
15
Column resistance
630
340
0
100
Fig. 9.155a The column base resistance is compared to the column resistance
for different base plate thickness
 The column base resistance is compared to the column resistance for different base
plate thickness, see Fig. 9.15a. For plate P 30 are shown the major points of the
diagram, e.g. the pure compression, the highest bending resistance, in case of
coincidence of the neutral axis and the axis of symmetry of crosssection, the pure
bending and the pure tension.
 A conservative simplification may be applied by placing the concrete reaction on the
axes of the compressed flange only see Fig. 9.15b. This model is uneconomical and
not often used for prediction of resistance, but applied for stiffness prediction.
Normal force, kN
Lever arm is changing by activation of one bolt row
Lever arm is changing by activation of both bolt rows
Base plate thickness, t
40
mm
Simplified prediction
M pl.Rd
Simplified prediction
Npl.Rd
30
25
Full model
20
15
Column resistance
0
Full model
Moment, kNm
Fig. 9.16b The column base resistance calculated by the simplified prediction,
the contact force under the compressed flange only,
is compared to the application of the of the full contact area
 The stiffness of the anchoring by the headed studs corresponds to the expected
stiffness calculated by a simplified conservative method based on the embedded
effective length. The component stiffness coefficients for headed studs is estimated
120
as
k
2.0
2.0
4.04 mm
2.0
0.35 mm.
For headed stud is predicted, see Fig. 9.13, more precise value reached 0.22 mm.
 The classification of the column base according to its bending stiffness is evaluated in
4 m and its crosscomparison to column bending stiffness. For column length L
section HE 200 B is relative bending stiffness
S,
S,
L
E I
21.981 10
4000
210 000 56.96 10
7.53
EN199318
cl 6.3
The designed column base is sway for braced as well as nonsway frames because
S,
7.53
12
S,
; S,
7.53
30
S,
 The influence of tolerances and size of welds, see EN 10902 and Chapter 8, is not
covered in above calculation.
121
9.3
Calculate the moment resistance of the column base shown in Fig. 9.17. Column
HE 200 B is loaded by normal force FSd = 1 100 kN. Concrete block C16/20 of size
1 600 x 1 600 x 1000 mm is design for particular soil conditions. Base plate of thickness
30 mm, steel S235, Mc = 1.50; M0 = 1.00; and M2 = 1.25.
6 mm is
70
0.8 a
70
0.8 6 2
63.2 mm
DM I
Fig. 4.4
The Tstub length, in base plates are the prying forces not taken into account, is:
4 m
1.25 e
4 63.2 1.25 110 390.3
2 m 2 63.2 397.1
b 0.5 320 0.5 160
min 2 m 0.625 e
0.5 w 2 63.2 0.625 110 0,5 132 261.2
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 63.2 0.625 110 94 289.2
2 63.2 4 94 773.1
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 w 2 63.2 2 132 661.1
160 mm
EN199318
6.2.6.4
8d
t
2
8 24
30
30
19
2
261.5 mm
122
Fig. 4.1
2 L , t f
4 m
2 160 30 235
4 63.2 1.00
EN199318
267.7 kN
6.2.4.1
The resistance is limited by tension resistance of two headed studs M 24 with the area
in tension
F
353 mm
0.9 f
2
2B,
, ,
EN199318
6.2.4.1
183.0 kN
min
min
and a
2 a
3 a
a
h
2b
320 2 640 1 600
3 b
3 320 960
b
h 320 1 000 1 320
1560
560 mm b
960
EN199318
1 560 mm
6.2.5
960 mm
b
320 a
1 560 960
560 320
DM I
2.89
Eq. 3.65
64 mm
30 mm
2 2.89 16
3
1.5
EN199318
6.2.5
20.6 MPa
F , , is calculated the
area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part.
F
F
f
1 100 10
183 10
20.6
62 282 mm
EN199318
The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of 6.2.5
the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.18, is calculated from
f
3f
30
235
3 20.6 1.00
58.5 mm
EN199318
6.2.5
123
l 2c
120 2 58.5
12
EN199318
15 480 mm
6.2.5
2c
200 2c
t
,
2 58.5
200 2 58.5
62 282
15 480
41 844
15
41 844 mm
4 958 mm
4 958
2 58.5 9
EN199318
39.3 mm
6.2.5
A
15 480
l
2
15 480 60
b
t
2c t
4 958 l
2
2
62 282
2 58.5 15
41 844 120
4 958 120 2 58.5
2
62 282
41 844 l
2c
15
39.3
2
161.5 mm
The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as
r
124
h
2
120
53
2
200
2
120
58.5
39.3
26.5
161.5
129.8 mm
The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as
h
2
53
2
70
170
26.5
39.3
157.2 mm
EN199311
cl 6.2.5
, ,
f r
195.3 kNm
195.3 kNm
Af
2l t
1.00
EN199311
7 808
235
cl 6.23
2 120 12 235
1.00
2 511.7 kN
1 100 kN
W f
2l t z
642.5 10
2 12 120 160
642.5 10
1 103.3 10 mm3
M
W f
1 103.3 10 235
1.00
259.3 kNm
N
1
N ,
A 2 b t
0.5
A
1 100
2 511.7
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1
259.3
1
EN199311
cl 6.29
164.8 kNm
The column base is designed on acting force even for column resistance.
Note
The resistance of the base plate is limited by the tension resistance of two headed studs
M 24; 183.0 kN. The elastic behaviour is expected till the 2/3 of the bending resistance
of the base plate; 2/3 267.7 = 178.5 kN, which comply for the bending moment at SLS
about 195.3 178.5/183.0 kNm.
125
9.4
Evaluate the resistance of the column base shown in Fig. 9.19 using component method.
The Column HE 200 B is loaded by the normal force FEd = 45 kN and by the bending
moment MEd = 20 kNm. The concrete block designed for the particular soil conditions is
made out of concrete strength C30/37 and has dimensions of 1600 x 1600 x 1000 mm.
The base plate thickness is 30 mm and the anchor plate 10 mm. The steel grade is S355
and the safety factors are considered as Mc = 1.50; M0 = 1.00 and M2 = 1.25.
coefficient k2 = 0.9, is
F,
nk A f
349.1 kN
EN199318
Tab. 3.41
127
nt
nA f
,
nt
2 a
22
510
2
3 1.25
2 10 2 1
d
2
DMI
Ch. 4.3
355.2 kN
DM I
40
0.8 a
40
0.8 6 2
33.2 mm
Ch. 4.1.1
The Tstub length, in base plate are the prying forces not taken into account, is
4 m
1.25 e
4 33.2 1.25 40
2 m 2 33.2 208.7
b 0.5 250 0.5 125.0
0.5 p
2 33.2 0.625 40
2 m
0.625 e
min
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 33,2 0.625 40
2 33.2 4 75
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 p 2 33.2 2 100
125 mm
182.9
EN199318
cl 6.2.6.5
Resistance of rigid plate Tstub in bending is verified for three possible failure modes
Mode 1
4l
, ,
m
m
, ,
4l
EN199318
t , f
4
m
30 355
4 125
4 1.0
33.2
cl 6.2.4.1
1 202.5 kN
Mode 2
2l
, ,
, ,
F ,
. n
2l
30 355
349 10 40
2 125
4 1.0
33.2 40
Mode 3
128
t , f
F ,
4
m n
n
EN199318
cl 6.2.4.1
463.5 kN
F,
min F , ; F
349.1 kN
EN199318
Tab. 3.41
, ,
F,
349.1 kN
Decisive is Mode 3 with failure in threaded studs in tension Ft,3,Rd = 349.1 kN.
n f
2 0.6 800
22
2
1.25
Tab. 3.41
291.9 kN
nk f dt
EN199318
754.0 kN
Tab. 3.41
min 2.8
min
e
d
1.7; 2.5
f
e
; 1.0;
f
3d
min 2.8
min
75
24
1.7; 2.5
800
40
; 1.0;
510
3 24
2.5
0.56
nk A f
22
2
1.25
2 0.9
800
EN199318
437.9 kN
Tab. 3.41
129
Step 1.6 Punching of the anchor plate above the headed studs
The resistance in punching of the anchor plate, for fu = 510 N/mm2 and the effective
DM I
Ch. 4.3
nt
nA f
,
2 a
nt
22
510
2
3 1.25
2 10 2 1
d
2
355.2 kN
k h
A
A
DM I
2 c
30
Eq. (3.8)
Eq. (3.9)
2 1.5 h
p
100
2 1.5 200
360 000 mm
1.5 h
1.5 200
c
420 000 mm
1.5 h
Eq. (3.7)
196.8 kN
1.17
2 1.5 h
1.5 h
Chap. 3.1.2
12.7 200
420 000
360 000
300 mm and
,
1.0
1.0
230.3 kN
153.5 kN
130
2.5
x
h
22
2
8
5
2
2.5
d
2
2.5
d,
tan 35
8
10
2
tan 35
22
2
200
d
2
2.5
d
5
2
d
2
h
d
10
2
tan 35
DM I
Eq. (3.47)
2.3 230.2
1.5
353.0 kN
DM I
with
k
Eq. (3.48)
2.3
and resistance
N
DM I
Eq. (3.13)
48.7 kN/mm
where
c = 537 is factor of component concrete break out in tension
DM I
, ,
Eq. (3.16)
DM I
nn
8
500
24
1.15
4
174.8
153.5
where
s = 12 100
nre = 4
NRd,s,re
ds,re = 8 mm
dp = 25 mm
fyk,s = 500 N/mm2
Ms = 1.15
l1
2N
f d ,
, ,
nn
Eq. (3.16)
,
500
8
4
1.15
12100 30 8 2 4
2 24
153.5
0.642
48.7
48.7
297.0 kN
131
nn
, ,
l d
nn
l d
8
2
25
2 2 4 200
10
153.5
0.765
DM I
Eq. (3.21)
; ,
; ,
; ,
8 22
2 2
1.5
5
10
48.7
DM I
8 22
2 2
1.5
153.5
12100 30 8 2 4
190.8
k
5
8
2
25
Eq. (3.20)
, ,
10
2 4 200
d,
2.25 f
d
1.5
2 nn
nn
2N
48.7
307.0 kN
where
l1
ds
EN199211
132
;N
;N
297.0 kN
12 f
N/mm2,
is
DM I
Eq. (3.20)
DM I
np
n 12 f
500.5
1.5
d
4
2 12 30 37
4
22
500.5 kN
Eq. (3.21)
333.7 kN
10 mm, yield strength fyk = 355 N/mm2, distance of threaded and headed stud
m1 80 mm, ea1
Due to small thickness of the anchor plate are the prying forces for evaluation of the
effective length of T stub taken into account as
Resistance of anchor plate Tstub in tension is verified for three failure modes, see in
Fig. 9.19. For effective length of the T stub
4 m
1.25 e
4 80 1.25 50 382.5
2 80 502.7
2 m
5 n d 0.5 220 0.5 110.0
0.625 e
0.5 p
2 80 0.625 50 0.5 100 241.3
min 2 m
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 80 0.625 50 93.8 285.0
2 e
80 2 93.8 721.4
m
m
p
80 100 351.3
110.0 mm
DM I
3.1.5.
Eq. 3.31
Fig. 9.19 Tstub in tension and forces in the individual failure modes
133
Mode 1
EN199318
4l
, ,
m
m
4l
t , f
4
m
cl 6.2.4.1
10 355
4 1.0
80
4 110.0
48.8 kN
Mode 2
2l
, ,
, ,
2 110.0
F ,
2l
. n
10 355
297.0 10 50
4 1.0
80 50
t , f
F ,
4
m n
EN199318
cl 6.2.4.1
129.1 kN
Mode 3
F,
min F ,
; F
, ,
; N
; N
297.0 kN
F
, ,
F,
cl 6.2.4.13
297.0 kN
Mode 1 is decisive for the thin plate, 48.8 kN, see in Fig. 9.20.
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
FT,el
T,el
T,pl
T
p,1
p,tot
where
b
n d
2 2 a
10 2 22
2 2 1
355
1.0
DM I
176.3 kN
Chap. 4.4
n f
2 0.6 800
22
2
1.25
EN199318
291.9 kN
Tab. 3.41
2N
2 153.5
DM I
307.0 kN
Ch. 3.2
FEd bd Med /b
FEd
MEd
Map,pl Map,pl
Map,pl
(
( )
Map,pl
E Ib
Map,pl
b1
b2
) (
E Ic
b
L
Map,pl
Map,pl
Map,pl
min F
, ,
; F
, ,
; F
, ,
48.8 kN
DM I
Ch. 4.4
135
Q
N
m
n
A
2
48.8
t , f
4
n
39.1
110.0
10 355
4 1.0 2
50
39.1 kN
87.9 kN
t
4
1
b
12
350 10 355
1
4
1
350 10
12
1 1
b M
E I 6
3.1 kNm
29.2 10 mm4 ; I
1 1
bcM
E I 3
1
1
232.5 3106
210 000 6
1
1
232.5 127.5 3106
210 000 29.2 3
5.2
5.2 mm
with distance between threaded stud and headed stud a = 80 mm as
1.48
7.8 mm
a
DM I
7.8
80
,
,
355
1.0
210 10
80 8.88
80
,
,
13.9 mm
For the plastic deformation at resistance of the anchor plate punching under the threaded
studs Fp,Rd = 176.28 kN and Fp,Rd,V = A
136
79.0 kN
Eq. (4.43)
F, , a
,
79.0 80
13.9
454.3 kN
For the resistance of headed studs in shear VRd = 291.9 kN is assumed the linear proportion
between the axial and horizontal forces, see in Fig. 9.22. The resistance in tension is
calculated as
F
, ,
F,
,
F ,
F,
F
F
,
,
48.8
79.0 48.8
291.9
454.3
68.2 kN
7.8
68.2
79.0
48.8
13.9
48.8
16.7 mm
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
VRd
Fp,Rd,H
FH
Fig. 9.22 Acting vertical Fv and horizontal FH forces to the anchor plate
The acting force in headed studs in case of the membrane action in the anchor plate
N
68.2
39.1
DMI
Eq. (4.53)
107.3 kN
Step 1.15 Interaction in shear and tension for treaded and headed studs
For the threaded studs is the interaction in shear and tension
F
F
,
,
F,
1.4 F ,
DMI
Eq. (4.54)
291.9
291.9
107.3
1.15 is not
220
48.8
140
1.4 349.1
165.9
165.9
EN199318
1.00
Tab.3.4
137
F,
1.4 F ,
,
,
291.9
291.9
Eq. (4.54)
EN199318
Tab.3.4
107.3 48.8
1.4 437.9
1.10 is not
DMI
For anchoring of headed stud in concrete is the interaction in shear and tension
DMI
F
F
F,
F,
,
,
Eq. (4.54)
107.3 48.8
296.7
291.9
306.1
1.02 is not
The full capacity in shear is not achieve due to headed stud resistance. By reducing the
acting forces to 80 % it is for interaction of the threaded stud
107.3
233.5
291.9
0.95
220
140
1.4 349.1
165.9
165.9
48.8
107.3 48.8
1.4 437.9
138
107.3 48.8
296.7
1
DM I
Ch. 3.4.1
EN199211 cl.
a
a
min
min
and a
2 a
250 2 675 1 600
3 a
3 250 750
a
h 250 1 000 1 250
750 mm
2b
360 2 620 1 600
3 b
3 360 1080
b
h 360 1 000 1 360
1 080 mm
750
250 mm b
1080
6.7(2)
360 mm
a b
ab
1 080 750
250 360
3.00
Eq. (3.65)
2 k f
2 3.00 30
3
1.5
40.0 N/mm
F , , is calculated the
area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part
F
45 10
107.3 10
40.0
DM I
1 557 mm
Eq. (3.71)
The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of the
strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.23a, is calculated from
f
3f
30
10
355
3 40.0 1.00
68.8 mm
EN199318
cl 6.5.2
139
c bc= 200 c
c t w= 9 c
c
c
tf =15
rt
hc=200
b eff
tf=15 c
c
rc
1 557
270
2 t
5.8 mm
DM I
2 c
15
2 68.8
152.6 mm
The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry, see Fig. 9.23b, is calculated
as
h
2
b
2
200
2
5.8
2
68.8
165.9 mm
107.3
220
140
165.9
165.9
135.3 10 140
f r
135.3 kN
1 557 40 165.9
29.3 kNm
29.3 kNm.
MRd
FEd
FT,3,Rd
rt
Fc
rc
Fig. 9.23b The lever arm of concrete and threaded stud to the column axes
140
Ch. 5.1
Af
7808 355
1.00
2 772 10 N
EN199311
cl 6.2.5
45 kN
W f
642.5 10 355
1.00
cl 6.2.9
228.1 kNm
The interaction of normal force reduces moment resistance (this interaction is valid for
compression load only)
N
N ,
A 2 b t
0.5
A
1
M
1
M
0
2772
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1
228.1
1
EN199318
258.0 kNm
cl 6.3
228.1 kNm
The column base is designed on acting force only not for column resistance.
Step 3.3 Elastic resistance for Serviceability limit state
The resistance of the base plate is limited by the T stub resistance, 48.8 kN. The elastic
DM I
Ch. 5.1
plastic behaviour is expected by reaching the bending resistance of the anchor plate T
stub; 87.9 kN, which comply for the bending moment at SLS as 22.7 kNm.
A
2.0
L
303
2.0
49.5
EN199318
12.2 mm
cl. 6.3
0.425 L
m
0.425 125 30
33.2
39.2 mm
EN199318
cl. 6.3
141
tf =15
t
b c =200
aeq
2.5 t
15
2.5 40
115 mm
where thickness t t1 t2 = 10 + 30 = 40 mm
k
E
a
1.275 E
33 000
115 200
1.275 210 000
EN199318
18.7 mm
Tab. 6.11
0.85 L
m
0.85 110.0 10
22
80 2
2
EN199318
0.5 mm
Tab. 6.11
nA ,
L
22
4
8 22
EN199318
4.3 mm
Tab. 6.11
Ft2,1
zt
MRd
zc
Ftc2
142
The lever arm of components, see Fig. 9.23d, in tension zt and in compression zc to the
column base neutral axes are
z
h
2
200
2
40
140 mm
h
2
t
2
200
2
15
2
92.5 mm
EN199318
cl. 6.3.3.1
DMI 6.1.2
The stiffness of tension part, studs, T stubs and concrete parts, is calculated from the
stiffness coefficient for base plate and threaded studs
1
1
k
1
1
12.2
1
k
9.33 mm
1
39.2
EN199318
cl. 6.3.3.1
from the stiffness coefficient for anchor plate and headed studs
1
1
k
1
0.5
1
k
0.43 mm
1
4.3
based on eccentricity
k
z
,
80
EN199318
232.5
0.43
312.5
cl. 6.3.3.1
0.32 mm
where
z
EN199318
140
92.5
cl. 6.3.3.1
232.5 mm
1
k
1
1
k
1
0.32
1
9.33
0.31 mm
For the calculation of the initial stiffness of the column base the lever arm is evaluated
z
a
232.5 mm
k z
k
k z
k
and
18.7 92.5
18.7
0.31 140
0.31
88.7 mm
M
F
20 10
45 10
EN199318
Tab. 6.11
444 mm
EN199318
cl. 6.3.3.1
143
S,
e
e
E z
a 1
k
444
210 000 232.5
1
444 88.7 1 1
0.31 18.7
2 888 10 Nmm/rad
EN199318
cl. 6.3.4
2 888 kNm/rad
Summary
Moment rotational diagram at Fig. 9.23e sums up the behaviour of column base with
anchor plate for loading with constant eccentricity.
M, kNm
EN199318
29.3
22.7
cl. 6.3.3.1
15.1
2 888 kNm/rad
1
5.2
11.6
50.0
, mrad
Fig. 9.23e Moment rotational diagram of column base with anchor plate
for loading with constant eccentricity
144
9.5
HE400A; S235
2.0 kN/m
4.0 m 1.0
Dead load
6.0 kN/m
4.0 kN/m
145
Live load
4.0 m 5.0
20.0 kN/m
Design forces
Load comb.
according to
EN 1990
9.4 m
1.35 6.0
kN
m
1.5 20.0
kN
m
179 kN
180 kN
9.4 m
1.35 6.0
kN
m
1.5 20.0
kN
m
420 kNm
V,
180 kN
,
420 kNm
777.8 kN
, ,
, ,
602.1 kNm
The girder is stabilized against lateral torsional buckling by the secondary girders, which
have a distance of 1.0 m. Lateral torsional buckling is not examined in this example.
The example only includes the design calculation of the joint. The verification of the
concrete wall is not included.
Overview of the joint
EN199311
146
HE400A, S235
Concrete
Stirrups
Butt straps:
Anchor plate
Headed Studs
d = 22 mm
h = 150 mm / S235J2 + C470
Bolt connection
2 x M24 10.9
VEd =180 kN
0.1 18 kNm
V
180
1.5
1.5
54.0 135.6 N/mm
5000
A
18
M
86.4 235.0 N/mm
250 20
W
6
EN 318
65 mm
1.2 d
1.2 26
31.2 mm
50 mm
1.2 d
1.2 26
31.2 mm
120 mm
2.2 d
2.2 26
57.2 mm
Table 3.3
147
n F
1000
169.4 kN
1.25
338.8 kN
EN 318
0.6 353
2 169.4
Table 3.4
286.8 kN
k f d t 2.5 0.83 360 24 20
286.8 kN
1.25
e
p
min 2.8
1.7; 1.4
1.7; 2.5
min 3.68; ; 2.5
d
d
e
f
min
;
; 1.0
min 0.83; 2.78; 1.0
3d f
,
,
EN 318
Table 3.4
EN 318
190.1 kN
k f d t 2.5 1.0 360 24 11
190.1 kN
1.25
e
p
min 2.8
1.7; 1.4
1.7; 2.5
min 3.68; ; 2.5
d
d
e
f
min
;
; 1.0
min ; 2.78; 1.0
3d f
,
,
min V
;V
;V
190.1 kN
Table 3.4
EN 318
4.5.3.2
180 kN
2 7 14 mm
250 mm
a l ,
14 250
6
6
f
360
0.8 1.25
,
,
145.8 10 mm
360 N/mm
2a l ,
M
1 8
145.8
W
180
2 7 250
51.4 N/mm
123.5 N/mm
sin 45
123.5 sin 45
87.3
0.9 f
259.2 N/ mm
148
87.3
3 87.3
51.4
195.0
360 N/mm
Additional
Headed studs
22 mm
EN 318
4 8 mm B 500 A
The verification of the design resistance of the joint is described in a stepwise manner.
The eccentricity e and the shear force V are known.
Step 1 Evaluation of the tension force caused by the shear load
If the joint is loaded in shear the anchor row on the nonloaded side of the anchor plate
is subjected to tension. In a first step the tension load has to be calculated. Therefore
the height of the compression area has to be assumed.
Shear load of the connection
Thickness plate
25 mm
Diameter anchor
Eccentricity
Calculation of N
N
180 kN
0.2
0.2
100 mm
d t
z
22 mm
V d
V e
d t
0.2 d
z
z
The height of the compression zone is estimated to x
20 mm
40
220
x
2
40
220
20
2
250 mm
DM I
and
N
Eq. (5.12)
0.2 22
250
100 22
250
25
,
104.0 kN
104.0 kN
149
17 N/mm
where 0.85
The compression forces are causing a bending moment
in the anchor plate. To make sure that the anchor plate
is still elastic, only the part of the anchor plate is
activated which is activated with elastic bending only.
t
2t
20
C
b3f
f
3f
235
2 25
3 17 1.0
104.0
127 3 17
127 mm
EN 318
6.2.5
16 mm
Instead of the regular width b of the anchor plate the effective width beff is used. The
16 mm is smaller than the predicted value of x
20 mm. That means
calculated x
that the lever arm was estimated slightly too small. This is on the safe side, so the
calculation may be continued.
Step 3 Evaluation of the tension resistance
3.1 Steel failure of the fasteners
Calculation of the characteristic failure load of the headed studs on the nonloaded side:
N
n A
2 380
470
10
1.5
238.1 kN
DM I
where
Characteristic ultimate strength
Characteristic yield strength
Number of headed studs in tension
f
f
n
470 N/mm
350 N/mm
2
Eq. (3.3)
380 mm
1.2
1.5
p f
d2h
4
12 30
35
1.5
4
22
279.4 kN
DM I
where
Factor considering the head pressing
Partial safety factor
3.3 Concrete cone failure
150
12 fck
1.5
Eq. (3.31)
A pure concrete cone failure should not occur because of the reinforcement, but this
failure load has to be calculated so that the resistance may be combined with the
resistance of the stirrups.
N
k h
A
N
N
A
A
2 c
30
147.4 kN
DM I
Ch. 3.1.2
2 1.5 h
1.3
12.7 165
319 275
245 025
2 1.5 165
191.6 kN
DM I
127.7 kN
where
Effective anchorage depth
Factor for close edge
Factor for small reinforcement spacing
Actual projected area
A,
Partial safety factor
Eq. (3.7)
Eq. (3.8)
h
h
t
k 165 mm
1.0
,
1.0
,
2 1.5 h 2 1.5 h
s
2 1.5 165 2 1.5 165 150
1.5
Eq. (3.9)
319 275 mm2
Eq. (3.11)
Eq. (3.12)
N
,
, ,
2.26 191.6
433.0
1.5
288.7 kN
where
Factor for support of reinforcement
433.0 kN
DM I
2.5
Distance between the anchor axis and the crack on the surface
d,
d
d ,
40 mm
x
2
tan35
Distance of hanger reinforcement to the face of the anchor shaft
d
d
d,
5
9 mm
2 2
Distance axis of the reinforcement to the concrete surface
d
d,
10 14 mm
2
1.5
Partial safety factor
2.26
Ch. 3.2.4
DM I
Eq. (3.47)
N ,,
174.8
N ,
127.7
, , k ,
0.642 49.1 271.0 kN
DM I
Ch. 3.2.4
where
Normal force of hanger reinforcement
151
, ,
f,
8
4
500
1.15
DM I
174.8 kN
Eq. (3.17)
2 174.8 10
12100 30 8 2 4
nn
0.642 mm
DM I
Eq. (3.16)
49.1 kN/mm
DM I
1.15
Eq. (3.13)
147.7
, ,
127.7
, ,
0.459 49.1
252.8 kN
where
Anchorage force of all hanger legs
DM I
N
N
nn
, ,
l d
Eq. (3.49)
2 4 120 8
.
147.7 kN
,
h d
d,
165
10
, ,
25
14
120 mm
Dist. hanger reinforcement to the face
of the anchor shaft:
d
Dist. axis of the reinforcement to the
concrete surface
d
Bond strength
9 mm
5
10
2.25
DM I
Eq.(3.21)
14 mm
2.25 1 1
3.0 N/mm
where 1 is coefficient of bond conditions, 1 1.0 for vertical stirrups and 0.7 for
horizontal stirrups, 2 1.0 for dimension 32 mm and (132  dimension)/100 for
dimension 32 mm
Hook
0.49
0.459 mm
The decisive component of the three failure modes of the concrete cone failure with
reinforcement is the anchorage failure of the reinforcement. The anchors have a
N , ,
252.8 kN
tension resistance of N ,
Step 4 Evaluation of the shear resistance
4.1 Steel failure of the fasteners
152
EN199211
0.6 f
DM I
22
2 0.6 470
2
1.25
171.5 kN
Eq.(3.20)
k N
2 184.9
, ,
where
Min. component concrete failure
369.9 kN
N
min N , ; N , , ; N , , ; N , , ,
min 288.7 kN; 271.0 kN; 252.8 kN, 184.9 kN
1.5
According to the Technical Specifications the factor k3 is taken as 2.0. There are not
yet made examinations how the resistance V , may be calculated taking account of
the reinforcement. Therefore N , ,
is determined as the minimum value of the
concrete cone failure with reinforcement (N , ,
, N , , , N , ) and the concrete
cone failure of the whole anchor group without considering additional reinforcement
(N , , ). N , , is calculated in the following.
N
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
A
A
,
,
461175
147.4
1.0 1.0 1.0 277.4 kN
245025
N , ,
277.4 kN
184.9 kN
1.5
N199318
Cl 3.6.1
where
N ,
k f . h .
Effective anchorage depth
Factor for close edge
Factor for small reinforcement spacing
Factor for eccentricity of loading
Reference projected area
Actual projected area
12.7 30 . 165 . 10
147.4 kN
h
h
t
150 10 25 165mm
1.0
,
,
1.0
,
1.0
s
495
245025 mm
A ,
A,
s
s s
s
495 220 495 150
461175 mm
180
190.1
20.8
31.0 kN
All loads is taken by the front anchor. No load for the back anchor and
N
N
,
,
104.0
238.1
V
V
DM I
,
0
171.5
Eq.(3.54)
1
0.19
DM I
(5.16)
153
V
/
,
/
20
2
104.0
252.8
180
V
V
V
80
184.9
80 kN
DM I
(5.15)
0.57
Note
Without the additional reinforcement there would be a brittle failure of the anchor in
tension in concrete. The resistance of pure concrete cone failure with reinforcement is
nearly two times the size of the resistance without reinforcement. With the additional
reinforcement there is a ductile failure mode with reserve capacity.
154
9.6
300
1450
1600
12
15
150
12
21
150
20
200
150
22
100
9
140
270
90
Geometry
RC Slab
t [mm]
160
b [mm]
700
l [mm]
1550
Reinforcement
l [mm]
16
nl
6
sl [mm]
120
t [mm]
10
nt
14
st [mm]
100
ctens,bars [mm]
30
rhook [mm]
160
Console 2
t [mm]
10
b [mm]
170
h [mm]
140
Steel beam
IPE 300
h [mm]
300
b [mm]
150
tf [mm]
10.7
tw [mm]
7.1
As [mm2]
5381
Anchors
d [mm]
dh [mm]
la [mm]
hef [mm]
nv
e1 [mm]
p1 [mm]
nh
e2 [mm]
p2 [mm]
22
35
200
215
2
50
200
2
50
200
Anchor plate
tap [mm]
15
bap [mm]
300
lap [mm]
300
Contact Plate
t [mm]
10
bcp [mm]
200
lcp [mm]
30
e1,cp [mm]
35
eb,cp [mm]
235
bap [mm]
300
155
The part of the semicontinuous joint configuration, within the reinforced concrete wall,
adjacent to the connection, is analyzed in this example. This has been denominated as Joint
Link. The main objective is to introduce the behaviour of this component in the global analysis
of the joint which is commonly disregarded.
Tab. 9.2 Material of the steeltoconcrete joint
Concrete wall
fck,cube [Mpa]
fck,cyl [Mpa]
E [GPa]
fctm [Mpa]
Rebars Slab
fsyk [Mpa]
fu [Mpa]
sry []
sru
Concrete slab
Rebars wall
fck,cube [Mpa]
37
fsyk [MPa]
fck,cyl [Mpa]
30
fu [Mpa]
E [GPa]
33
fctm [Mpa]
2.87
Steel Plates
Anchors
400
fsyk [Mpa]
440
fsyk [Mpa]
540
fu [Mpa]
550
fu [Mpa]
Steel Profile
Shear Studs
2
75
fsyk [Mpa]
355
fsyk [Mpa]
fu [Mpa]
540
fu [Mpa]
The design value of the modulus of elasticity of steel Es may be assumed to be 200 GPa.
50
40
36
3.51
500
650
440
550
440
550
A , f
Since concrete grades of wall and slab are different it is possible to evaluate separately the
stressstrain curve of the two elements. While the concrete is uncracked, the stiffness of
the longitudinal reinforcement is considerably higher when compared with bare steel.
Cracks form in the concrete when mean tensile strength of the concrete fctm is achieved.
The stress in the reinforcement at the beginning of cracking (sr1) is determined as follows.
, ,
, ,
97.1 Nmm2
f
k
1
118.7 Nmm2
E
E
2.87 0.39
1
1.15 0.010
E
E
3.51 0.39
1
1.15 0.010
ECCS
(1999)
0.010 6.06
0.010 6.06
where: fctm is the tensile strength of the concrete; Es and Ec are the elastic modulus of the
steel reinforcement bar and concrete, kc is a factor which allows using the properties of the
steel beam section and is the ratio between the area of steel reinforcement and the area
of concrete flange expressed as follows:
1
t
2z
k
1
A
A,
1
0.39
160
1
2 51.8
n 4
1 206.4
700 160
t
b ,
ECCS
(1999)
0.010
where: Ac,slab is the area of the effective concrete slab; As,r is the area of the longitudinal
reinforcement within the effective slab width (in this example the width of the slab is fully
effective); tslab is the thickness of the concrete flange and z0 is the vertical distance between
the centroid of the uncracked concrete flange and uncracked unreinforced composite
section, calculated using the modular ration for shortterm effects, Es/Ec.
z
t
,
E
t
E
t
t
E
E
2
A
t
2
51.8 mm
CEBFIB
Model
Code
(1990)
157
where
x , is the dimension of the component concrete block in compression.
According to CEBFIB Model Code (1990), the stress srn,d and the increment of the
reinforcement strain sr are given by
f , k
0.00045
E
, ,
,
3.0 10
E
, ,
1.3
126.2Nmm2
, ,
4.9 10
k
0.00056
E
, ,
,
3.6 10
E
, ,
1.3
154.3Nmm2
, ,
ECCS
(1999)
5.9 10
The yield stress and strain, fsyk and smy are given by
f
347.8Nmm2
, ,
, ,
1.6 10
,
,
1.6 10
ECCS
(1999)
, ,
, ,
4.4 10
4.0 10
where: sy and f , are the yield strain and stress of the bare steel reinforcement bars,
respectively; su is the ultimate strain of the bare steel reinforcement bars.
Assuming the area of reinforcement constant, the forcedeformation curve is derived from
the stressstrain curve, where the reinforcement deformation should be evaluated as
described above.
The elongation length (l) to consider is equal to sum of the Lt (related to the slab) with hc
(related to the wall). Only in the determination of the ultimate deformation capacity, the
length of the reinforcement bar is considered higher than this value, as expressed in the
following:
0.8 %
2L
0.8 % and a L
h
L
h
L
a L
0.8 % and a L
where is
L
k f
4
0.39 2.87 16
4 5.16 0.01
81 mm
In the above expression, Lt is defined as the transmission length and represents the length
of the reinforcement from the wall face up to the first crack zone which should form close
to the joint. The parameter a is the distance of the first shear connector to the joint and hc
158
CEBFIB
Model
Code
(1990)
is the length of the reinforcement up to the beginning of the bend. sm is the average bond
stress, given by
1.8 f
Forces can be evaluated considering minimum values of tensions found for slab and wall.
Table 9.3 summarizes the results for the stressstrain and forcedisplacement curves.
Tab. 9.3 Forcedisplacement relation for longitudinal reinforcement in tension
SL
[]
3.0 105
4.9 104
1.6 103
4.4 102
SL
[N/mm2]
97.1
126.2
347.8
469.5
WA
[]
3.6 105
5.9 104
1.6 103
4.0 102
WA
[N/mm2]
118.7
154.3
347.8
469.5
F
[kN]
117.1
152.3
419.6
566.5
[mm]
0.0
0.1
0.3
5.7
NP
Where: N is the real number of shear connectors; and PRK is characteristic resistance of the EN199411:2010
shear connectors that can be determined according to EN199411:2010 as follows
P
min
0.8 f d 0.29 d
;
4
with
3
4
4
0.2
where fu is the ultimate strength of the steel shear stud; d is the diameter of the shear stud;
fck is the characteristic concrete cylinder resistance; Ecm is the secant modulus of elasticity
of the concrete; hsc is the height of the shear connector including the head; is the partial
factor for design shear resistance of a headed stud.
P
F
min
9 111.0
111.0 kN
999.0 kN
Concerning the deformation of the component, assuming an uniform shear load distribution
along the beam, an equal distribution of the load amongst the shear studs is expected.
159
The stiffness of the component is obtained as a function of the number of shear studs and
of the stiffness of a single row of shear studs, as follows
k
Nk
900 kN/mm
where the stiffness of one shear connector ksc may be considered equal to 100 kN/mm,
see cl A.3(4) in EN 199411:2010.
Step 3 Component beam web and flange in compression
According to EN199318:2006, the resistance can be evaluated as follows
M
, ,
W f
223 000
300 10.7
223.0 kN
771.1 kN
440 200 30
2 640 kN
F
b l
3f
f
A
A
A
f k
f b
where b
A
and f
and l
min 2c
are the effective width and length of the Tstub flange, given by
b ;b
min c; e
69.4 239.4
16625.9 mm2
Thus, c = 19.7 mm; fjd = 84.9 MPa; leff = 69.4mm; beff = 239.4 mm; Fc = 1411.0 kN
The initial stiffness Sini,j may be evaluated as follows
E A
S ,
1.275
c is given by c 1.25 t
and b and l are given by
min 2.5 t
A
16 031 mm2
160
b ;b
1.25 t
min 1.25 t , e
= 67.5 237.5
3 575.0 kN/mm
This value of the initial stiffness could be used for the calculation of the component of
displacement related to the Tstub in compression.
Step 6 Joint Link
In the proposed model based on the STM principles, the properties of this diagonal spring
are determined as follows:

The resistance is obtained based on the strut and nodes dimension and admissible
stresses within these elements, given in Tab. 3.2.
The deformation of the diagonal spring is obtained by assuming a nonlinear stressstrain relation for the concrete under compression, as defined in (Henriques, 2013).
In terms of resistance, the model is characterized by the resistance of the nodes at the
edge of the diagonal strut. Accordingly, the maximum admissible stresses, see Tab. 3.2,
and the geometry of these nodes define the joint link load capacity. It is recalled that failure
is governed by the nodal regions and disregarded within the strut. Hence, the resistance
of the nodes is obtained as follows.
6a)
Node N1
The geometry of the node is defined in one direction by the bend radius of the longitudinal
reinforcement and by the strut angle with the dimension a Fig. 9.30. In the other direction
(along the width of the wall), assuming the distance between the outer longitudinal
overestimates the resistance of this node, since the analytical approach assumes that the
stresses are constant within the dimension brb and the stress field under the hook and
along this dimension is nonuniform.
80 mm
80 mm
b
b
n 2.62 d
n 2.62 d
cos
cos
s
80
161
z
b
arctan
2r
arctan
300
Cos
1.06 rad
30 2
6 2.62 d
406.65
16 10
2
2
cos
155.97 mm
478.054 mm
2 r cos
where A is the crosssection area of the diagonal concrete strut at node N1. Finally, the
resistance of the node is given by
f ,
A 0.75 f
1 252.7kN
F,
0.84
1
250
6b)
Node N2
The geometry of the node, on the concrete strut edge, is defined by the projection of the
dimensions of the equivalent rigid plate, representing the anchor plate subjected to
compression, in the direction of the concrete strut, see Fig. 9.31.
The node dimensions are determined from
l
b
cos
35 041.3 mm
where: AN2 is the crosssection area of the diagonal concrete strut at node N2 where the
admissible stresses have to be verified; leff and beff are the dimensions of the equivalent
rigid plate determined according to the effective Tstub in compression. Considering the
admissible stresses and the node dimensions, the resistance of the node is obtained
F
3f
2 354 kN
cos
610.6 kN
162
6.48 10
7.47 10
cos
Thus, considering 10 load steps, Tab. 9.4 summarizes the forcedisplacement curve.
Tab. 9.4 Forcedisplacement for the Joint Link component
Fh [kN]
0.0
61.1
122.1
183.2
244.2
305.3
366.3
427.4
488.5
549.5
610.6
h [mm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
Fig. 9.32: Simplified joint model with assembly of components per row
The properties of the equivalent components/springs are calculated, for resistance, Feq,t
and Feq,c, and deformation, eq,t and eq,c, as follows
F
min F to F
min F
;F
;F
Thus
Ft,max =
Fc,max =
566.5 kN
610.6 kN
Longitudinal rebar
Joint link
163
Feq =
hr =
Mj =
566.5 kN
406.65 mm
230.36 KNm
Table 9.5 summarizes the main results in order to calculate the moment rotation curve,
where r is the displacement of the longitudinal steel reinforcement, slip is related to the
slip of composite beam through to the coefficient kslip, Tstub is the displacement of the Tstub in compression and JL is the displacement of the joint link.
Tab. 9.5 Synthesis of results
F
[kN]
r
[mm]
slip
[mm]
0.0
117.1
152.3
419.6
566.5
0.00
0.01
0.09
0.27
5.68
0.00
0.13
0.17
0.47
0.63
Tstub
[mm]
JL
[mm]
t
[mm]
[mrad]
Mj
[kNm]
0.00
0.03
0.04
0.12
0.16
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.00
0.17
0.30
0.88
6.36
0.00
0.40
0.73
2.06
15.53
0.00
47.64
61.93
170.63
230.36
Note
The resulting momentrotation behaviour is shown in Fig. 9.33. The system is able to resist
the applied load.
164
9.7
Portal frame
This example illustrates the design of a portal frame designed of columns with cross section
HEB 180 and of a rafter with cross section IPE 270, as illustrated in Fig. 9.33. The stiffness of
the connections and column bases is considered under design. The steel grade is S235JR,
fy = 235 N/mm and the profiles are class 1 sections. Safety factors are considered as M0 = 1.0
and M1 = 1.1.
Fig. 9.34 highlights position of loads and Tab. 9.2 synthetizes the loads values, while load case
combinations are summarized in Tab. 9.3.
165
Wind
hw.D = 0.80.655.3 = 2.7 kN/m
Hw.D = 0.40.80.655.3 = 1.1 kN
hw.S = 0.50.655.3 = 1.7 kN/m
Impact load (EN199117:2006)
Fd.x = 100 kN (h=1.45m)
max QStab (48+58) 0.85/200 < 0.5 kN
(added in the wind load case)
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
1.35
1.35 + s 1.5
1.35 + s1.5 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.5+ (w+wD) 1.50.6 + q1 1.50.7
1.35 + s1.50.5+ (w+wD) 1.5 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.5  (w+wD) 1.50.6 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.50.5 (w+wD) 1.5 + q1 1.50.7
1.0+ (w wS) 1.5
1.0 + q1 1.0 + truck + s0.2 (exceptional combination impact load)
The main steps in order to verify a steel portal frame are the following:
Step 1
Global analysis of the steel structure, with fully restrained column bases.
Provide internal forces and moments and the corresponding displacements
under several loading condition.
Step 2
Verification of single elements
Step 3
Verification of the columnbeam joint, in terms of stiffness and resistance.
Step 4
Verification of column base joint, taking into account an impact load
Step 5
Updating of internal forces and moments of the system considering the effective
stiffness of the restraints
Step 1 Global analysis
From a 1st order elastic analysis the internal force diagrams envelope due to vertical and
horizontal loads, Fig. 9.35 to 9.36 are obtained. Fig. 9.37 illustrates the structural
displacement in case di wind load, in direction x. For each combination is necessary to
check whether 2nd order effects should be taken into account in the structural analysis by
the following simplified expression for beamandcolumn type plane frames
H
h
EN 199311
cl 5.2.1
V
,
where:
is the total horizontal reaction at the of the storey
H
is the total vertical reaction at the bottom of the storey
V
is
the relative horizontal displacement of the top storey
,
is the height of the storey
h
In this case, is always greater than 10 and thus the first order analysis is enough.
166
Buckling
resistance
Nmin,d = 80 kN
Nc,Rd = 1533 kN
Nb,y,Rd = 1394 kN
MAy,d = 51 kNm
MBy,d = 45 kNm
Nb,z,Rd = 581 kN
Mb,Rd = 102.8 kNm
Nc,Rd = 1079.7 kN
MEy,d = 61 kNm
MBy,d = 51 kNm
Verification
N My V 1
0.477
Mb Nby (6.61)) 1
0.265
Buckling
resistance
Verification
N My V 1
0.536
Mb Nby (6,61)) 1
0.265
167
168
Fig. 9.41 represents the designed column base. In the verification procedure, the
following step are accomplished:
a) calculation of the resistance of component base plate in bending and anchor bolts in
tension;
b) evaluation of the area of concrete in compression,
c) calculation of the strip c around the column cross section,
d) calculation of moment resistant of column base,
e) check of the end of column,
f) evaluation of the bending stiffness component stiffness;,
g) evaluation of the stiffness of tension part, bolts and T stub,
h) evaluation of the bending stiffness.
4b)To evaluate the compressed part resistance is calculated the connection concentration
factor as
DM I
Fig. 4.4
EN199318
6.4.6.5
DM I
Fig. 4.1
EN199318
cl 6.2.4.1
169
a
a
min
2a
3a
a h
EN199211
Fig. 3.6
600 mm
and
a
b
600 mm max a, b
The above condition is fulfilled and
EN199318
Eq. (3.65)
a b
600 600
1.67
360 360
ab
The grout is not influencing the concrete bearing resistance because
0.2 min a; b
0.2 min 360; 360
72 mm 30 mm t
EN199118
cl 6.2.5
The concrete bearing resistance is calculated as
2 k f
2 1.67 30
22.3 MPa
f,
3
3
1.5
A f F , ,
for each load case, from the force equilibrium in the vertical direction F
is calculated the area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension
part.
F
80 10
F ,
365.4 10
19 973.1 mm
A
f
22.3
F
31.6 10
F ,
365.4 10
A
17 802.7 mm
f
22.3
4c)
The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area.
The width of the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.40, is calculated from
k
f
3f
30
235
3 22.3 1
EN199118
cl 6.2.5
56.2 mm
180
c bc=200
c tw=9 c
tf =15
14
c
c
hc=200
180
14 c
tf =15
c
rt
b eff r
c
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
, ,
100.8 kNm
f r
4e)The end of column needs to be checked. The design resistance in pure compression is
Af
6 525 235
N ,
1 533.4 kN
1.0
1.0
The interaction of normal force changes moment resistance
80
N
1
1
N ,
1 533.4
M ,
M ,
113.0
120.9 kNm
A 2bt
6 525 2 180 14
1 0.5
1 0.5
A
6 525
4f) To evaluate the bending stiffness the particular component stiffness is calculated
A
314
k
2.0
2.0
3.3 mm
190
L
0.425 L
0.425 180 30
t
14.6 mm
k
m
52.1
EN199318
cl 6.2.4
EN199318
cl 6.2.5
EN199318
cl 6.2.9
EN199318
cl 6.3
tf =15
14
t
aeq
180
b c =200
EN199318
6.3
4g) The lever arm of component in tension zt and in compression zc to the column base
neutral axes is
h
180
r
e
60 150 mm
2
2
h
t
180 14
z
83 mm
2
2
2 2
The stiffness of tension part, bolts and T stub, is calculated as
1
1
2.7 mm
k
EN199318
1
1
1
1
6.3
k
3.3 14.6
k
4h) For the calculation of the initial stiffness of column base is evaluated the lever arm
r r
z
150 83 233 mm
and
15.6 83 2.7 150
k r
k r
43.26 mm
a
15.6 2.7
k
k
The bending stiffness is calculated for particular constant eccentricity
M
104.7 10
1 308.8 mm
e
F
80.0 10
EN199318
cl 6.2.9
171
M
F
100.8 10
31.6 10
3 189.9 mm
as
e
E r
1 308.8
210 000 233
25 301 kNm/rad
1
a 1 1 308.8 3 189.9 1 1
2.7 15.6
k
e
E r
3 189.9
210 000 233
25 846 kNm/rad
S,
1
1
e
a
3 189.9 3 189.9 1 1
2.7 15.6
k
These values of stiffness do not satisfy the condition about the rigid base
45 538 kNm/rad
S , 30 E I /L
S,
Column base
stiffness
Rigid
Semirigid
Rigid
Semirigid
Point A
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
57.0
1.6
Point B
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
54.0
27.7
Point C
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
56.0
49.3
Point D
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
80.0
51.0
56.9
31.6
30.5
53.3
29
27.9
57.1
29.0
30.9
80.8
47.0
48.4
3.1
95.6
87.3
24.3
18.7
17.7
40.7
36.0
40.6
48.4
32.6
34.7
For the LC6 has been implemented a structural model with two rotational springs equal to
25 301 kNm/rad. For the LC9 the adopted rotational stiffness was equal to 25 846 kNm/rad.
Due to the proximity of the stiffness value calculated in Step 4. it was reasonable to
assumed in a simplified manner. The lower value of the stiffness in order to update the
internal forces of the system.
As shown in the above table, the differences in terms of internal forces are negligible and
therefore the single elements and the beam to column joint is considered verified. Tab. 9.4
synthetizes the updated properties of the column base joint.
172
EN199318
cl 6.3
EN199318
cl 5.2
Column base
stiffness
Rigid
Semirigid
Rigid
Semirigid
Aeff
[mm2]
19 973.1
20 008.0
17 802.7
17 757.0
beff
[mm]
68.3
68.4
60.9
60.7
rc
[mm]
112.1
112.0
115.8
115.8
Mrd
[kNm]
104.7
104.8
100.8
100.7
S.
[kNm/rad
25 301
25 268
25 846
25 344
The designed column base fulfils the asked requirements as shown in the Tab. 9.4.
173
10 SUMMARY
This design manual summarises the reached knowledge in the RFCS Project RFSRCT200700051 New Market Chances for Steel Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between
Steel and Concrete (INFASO). The material was prepared in cooperation of two teams of
researchers one targeting on fastening technique modelling and others focusing to steel joint
design from Institute of Structural Design and Institute of Construction Materials, Universitt
Stuttgart, Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Czech Technical University in Prague,
and practitioners Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda., Coimbra,
Goldbeck West GmbH, Bielefeld, stahl+verbundbau GmbH, Dreieich and European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Bruxelles.
The model of three types of steel to concrete connections with the headed studs on anchor
plate are introduced. There are based on component method and enable the design of steel
to concrete joints in vertical position, e.g. beam to column or to wall connections, and horizontal
ones, base plates. The behaviour of components in terms of resistance, stiffness, and
deformation capacity is summed up for components in concrete and steel parts: header studs,
stirrups, concrete in compression, concrete panel in shear, steel reinforcement, steel plate in
bending, threaded studs, anchor plate in tension, beam web and flange in compression and
steel contact plate.
In the Chapters 5 and 6 are described the possibility of assembly of components behaviour
into the whole joint behaviour for resistance and stiffness separately. The presented assembly
enables the interaction of normal forces, bending moments and shear forces acting in the joint.
The global analyses in Chapter 7 is taken into account the joint behaviour. The connection
design is sensitive to tolerances, which are recapitulated for beam to column connections and
base plates in Chapter 8. The worked examples in Chapter 9 demonstrates the application of
theory to design of pinned and moment resistant base plates, pinned and moment resistance
beam to column connections and the use of predicted values into the global analyses.
174
References
Standards and guidelines
CEBFIP Model Code 1990, Comit EuroInternational du Bton, Lausanne, 1993.
CEN/TS199241, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 42, Headed fasteners
Technical Specification, CEN, Brussels, 2009.
EN10902, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures, Part 2, Technical
requirements for steel structures. CEN, Brussels, 2008.
EN13670, Execution of concrete structures, CEN, Brussels, 2011.
EN1990, Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design, CEN, Brussels, 2002.
EN199111, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.1, General actions, Densities, selfweight, imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2002.
EN199111, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.7, General actions, Densities, selfweight, imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2006.
EN199211, Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 17, General actions Accidental actions, CEN, Brussels, 2004.
EN199311, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 11, General rules and rules for
buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2010.
EN199318, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 18, Design of joints, CEN,
Brussels, 2006.
EN199411, Eurocode 4, Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Part 11,
General rules and rules for buildings, CEN, 2010.
EN2061, Concrete  Part 1, Specification, performance, production and conformity, CEN,
Brussels, 2000.
FIB Bulletin 58, Design of anchorages in concrete, Guide to good practice, International
federation for structural concrete, Lausanne, 2011.
Textbooks and publications
Aribert, J. M., Influence of Slip on Joint Behaviour, Connections in Steel Structures III,
Behaviour, Strength and Design, Third International Workshop, Trento, 1995.
Astaneh A. et al., Behaviour and design of base plates for gravity, wind and seismic loads, In
AISC, National Steel Construction Conference, Las Vegas, 1992.
Bouwman L.P., Gresnigt A.M., Romeijn A., Research into the connection of steel base plates
to concrete foundations, TUDelft Stevin Laboratory report 25.6.89.05/c6, Delft.
Bravery P.N.R., Cardington Large Building Test Facility, Construction details for the first
building. Building Research Establishment, Internal paper, Watford (1993) 158.
British Steel plc, The behaviour of multistorey steel framed buildings in fire, European Joint
Research Programme, Swinden Technology Centre, South Yorkshire, 1999.
Demonceau J., Steel and composite building frames: Swayresponse under conventional
loading and development of membrane effects in beam further to an exceptional
actions. PhD Thesis, University of Liege, Liege, 2008.
Demonceau J.F., Huvelle C., Comeliau L., Hoang L.V., Jaspart J.P., Fang C. et al,
Robustness of car parks against localised fire,European Comission, Final Report
RFSRCT200800036, Brussels, 2012.
Da Silva L. Simoes, Towards a consistent design approach for steel joints undergeneralized
175
177
List of partners working on the dissemination project RFS2CT201200022 Valorisation of knowledge for innovative
fastening solution between steel and concrete:
Ulrike Kuhlmann, Jakob Ruopp
Institute of Structural Design
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Jan Hofmann, Akanshu Sharma
Institute of Construction Materials
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 4
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Frantiek Wald, rka Bekov, Ivo Schwarz
Czech Technical University in Prague
Department of Steel and Timber Structures
Thkurova 7
16629 Praha
Czech Republic
Luis Simes da Silva, Helena Gervsio, Filippo Gentili
GIPAC Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda.
Trav. Padre Manuel da Nbrega 17
3000323 Coimbra
Portugal
Markus Krimpmann
Goldbeck West GmbH
Ummelner Str. 46
33649 Bielefeld
Germany
Jrg van Kann
stahl+verbundbau GmbH
Im Steingrund 8
63303 Dreieich
Germany
Vronique Dehan
ECCS  European Convention for Constructional Steel work
AVENUE DES OMBRAGES 32
1200 Bruxelles
Belgium
ISBN 9789291471195
178
Deliverable of a project carried out with a financial grant
from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community_
Infaso+Handbook II
steel.fsv.cvut.cz/infaso
Germany:
www.unistuttgart.de/ke/
Germany:
www.iwb.unistuttgart.de/
Portugal:
www.steelconstruct.com/site/
List of Partners
List of partners working on the dissemination project RFS2CT201200022 Valorization of knowledge for
innovative fastening solution between steel and concrete:
Ulrike Kuhlmann, Jakob Ruopp
Institute of Structural Design
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Jan Hofmann, Akanshu Sharma
Institute of Construction Materials
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 4
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Frantiek Wald, rka Bekov, Ivo Schwarz
Czech Technical University in Prague
Department of Steel and Timber Structures
Thkurova 7
16629 Praha
Czech Republic
Luis Simes da Silva, Helena Gervsio, Filippo Gentili
GIPAC Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda.
Trav. Padre Manuel da Nbrega 17
3000323 Coimbra
Portugal
Markus Krimpmann
Goldbeck West GmbH
Ummelner Str. 46
33649 Bielefeld
Germany
Jrg van Kann
stahl+verbundbau GmbH
Im Steingrund 8
63303 Dreieich
Germany
Vronique Dehan
ECCS European Convention for Constructional Steel work
AVENUE DES OMBRAGES 32
1200 Bruxelles
Belgium
Infaso+Handbook II
Contents
LIST OF PARTNERS ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 9
1.1
2.1
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11
Program structure ...................................................................................................................................................... 11
Input and output data and input data cells ..................................................................................................... 12
Calculation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Results of evaluation of individual components ........................................................................................... 17
Global Results ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.2
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Program structure and static model .................................................................................................................. 22
EXCELWorksheets / VBAProgram ................................................................................................................... 27
Components .................................................................................................................................................................. 28
Safety factors ................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Boundary conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 28
Input mask ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 33
Optimization of the joint .......................................................................................................................................... 36
2.3
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 37
Program structure and static model .................................................................................................................. 37
EXCEL Worksheets / VBA program .................................................................................................................... 37
Components .................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Safety factors ................................................................................................................................................................ 38
Boundary condition ................................................................................................................................................... 39
Input mask ..................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Optimization of the joint .......................................................................................................................................... 40
3
Infaso+Handbook II
3.1
Composite beam of a standard office structure connected to reinforced concrete wall .................. 42
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 42
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 43
Structural analysis of the joint .............................................................................................................................. 44
Conducting ..................................................................................................................................................................... 49
3.2
Column base as connection of a safety fence on a car parking deck to a reinforced concrete slab
50
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 50
Conducting and assessment ................................................................................................................................... 55
3.3
Connection of a balcony construction on an insulated exterior reinforced concrete wall as simple
connection ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 57
Conducting and Assessment .................................................................................................................................. 60
4
General .................................................................................................................................................................................. 62
4.2
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 62
Example considered .................................................................................................................................................. 62
Parameter studied and methodology followed ............................................................................................. 62
Sensitivity to Concrete Strength, fck .................................................................................................................... 63
Sensitivity to parameter c ..................................................................................................................................... 64
Sensitivity to effective embedment depth hef ................................................................................................. 65
Sensitivity to shoulder with a ................................................................................................................................ 66
Sensitivity to pressing relation m ........................................................................................................................ 66
Sensitivity to design bond strength fbd .............................................................................................................. 67
4.3
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 70
Validation of the model ............................................................................................................................................ 70
Sensitivity study of major parameters .............................................................................................................. 72
Limits of the model and recommendations .................................................................................................... 78
4.4
General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 99
Parameters Studied and methodology followed ........................................................................................... 99
Failure Mechanism .................................................................................................................................................. 100
Valorization of slab reinforcement properties ........................................................................................... 100
Variation of angle ................................................................................................................................................. 102
Variation of wall concrete grade ....................................................................................................................... 104
Interaction between wall thickness and concrete grade ....................................................................... 105
Summary, Predesign charts for ductile behaviour ................................................................................... 107
5
Infaso+Handbook II
1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction and structure of the document
The mixed building technology allows to utilise the best performance of all structural materials available
such as steel, concrete, timber and glass. Therefore the building are nowadays seldom designed from only
one structural material. Engineers of steel structures in practice are often faced with the question of eco
nomical design of steeltoconcrete joints, because some structural elements, such as foundations, stair
cases and fire protection walls, are optimal of concrete. A gap in knowledge between the design of fastenings
in concrete and steel design was abridged by standardized joint solutions developed in the INFASO project,
which profit from the advantage of steel as a very flexible and applicable material and allow an intelligent
connection between steel and concrete building elements. The requirements for such joint solutions are
easy fabrication, quick erection, applicability in existing structures, high loading capacity and sufficient de
formation capacity. One joint solution is the use of anchor plates with welded headed studs or other fasten
ers such as postinstalled anchors. Thereby a steel beam can be connected by butt straps, cams or a beam
end plate connected by threaded bolts on the steel plate encased in concrete. Examples of typical joint so
lutions for simple steeltoconcrete joints, column bases and composite joints are shown in Fig. 1.1.
a)
b)
c)
Fig. 1.1: Examples for steeltoconcrete joints: a) simple joint, b) composite joint, c) column bases
The Design Manual II "Application in practice" shows, how the results of the INFASO projects can be simply
applied with the help of the developed design programs. For this purpose the possibility of joint design with
new components will be pointed out by using practical examples and compared with the previous realiza
tions. A parametric study also indicates the effects of the change of individual components on the bearing
capacity of the entire group of components. A detailed technical description of the newly developed com
ponents, including the explanation of their theory, can be found in the Design Manual I "Design of steelto
concrete joints"[13].
Chapter 2 includes a description of the three design programs that have been developed for the connection
types shown in Fig. 1.1. Explanations for the application in practice, the handling of results and informations
on the program structure will be given as well as application limits and explanations of the selected static
system and the components. Practical examples, which have been calculated by using the newly developed
programs, are included in Chapter 3. These connections are compared in terms of handling, tolerances and
the behaviour under fire conditions to joints calculated by common design rules. The significant increase of
the bearing capacity of the "new" connections under tensile and / or bending stress result from the newly
developed components "pullout" and "concrete cone failure with additional reinforcement". Chapter 4 con
tains parameter studies in order to show the influence of the change of a single component on the entire
group of components, and hence to highlight their effectiveness.
Infaso+Handbook II
10
2 Program description
2.1 Restrained connection of composite beams
General
In the following the Excel sheet Restrained connection of composite beams (Version 2.0 Draft) [21] is
presented. With this program the load bearing capacity (moment and shear) of a fully defined joint, com
posed of tensional reinforcement in slab and castin steel plate with headed studs and additional reinforce
ment at the lower flange of the steel section can be determined. The shear and the compression component,
derived from given bending moment, are acting on a welded steel bracket with a contact plate inbetween,
as the loading position on the anchor plate is exactly given. The tensional component derived from given
bending moment is transferred by the slab reinforcement, which is bent downwards into the adjacent wall.
Attention should be paid to this issue as at this state of modelling the influence of reduced distances to edges
is not considered. The wall with the castin steel plate is assumed to be infinite in elevation. In this program
only headed studs are considered. Post installed anchors or similar have to be taken in further considera
tion.
Program structure
11
Infaso+Handbook II
Type of sections:
Steel grades:
Concrete grades:
Reinforcement grade:
3. Concrete wall the shear and bending moment are to be transferred into the infinite concrete wall with
limited thickness. Per definition reinforcement and a castin steel plate are used. It can be chosen between:
Concrete grades:
C20/25 until C50/60 acc. to EN 199211 [7]
Reinforcement grade: Bst 500 ductility class B acc. to EN 199211 [7]
4. Anchor plate with studs at the bottom flange of the steel section an anchor plate is inserted into the
concrete wall. Welded studs on the rear side transfer tensional (if any) and/or shear forces from top of
12
anchor plate into the concrete. The compression components are transferred directly by contact between
the steel plate and the concrete.
Geometry of plate:
[mm],
Type of studs:
Length of studs:
Distribution studs:
5. Steel bracket is welded on top of the anchor plate and takes the shear force with small eccentricity and
transfers it into the anchor plate /concrete wall.
Geometry of plate:
6. Contact plate the contact plate is inserted forcefit between the end of the steel section and the anchor
plate at lower flange level. The compression force component from negative (closing) bending moment is
transferred on top of anchor plate.
Geometry of plate:
7. Reinforcement bars in the slab of the composite section. The tensional force component from negative
(closing) bending moment is transferred into the wall and bent down on the rear face of the wall and an
chored there. Whereas the necessary design reinforcement is calculated by the work sheet, for later use of
stiffness calculation, the existing reinforcement in the slab of the composite beam is required. The bar di
ameter should be chosen in a way that reasonable spacings within the effective width result and that the
bend can be installed within the wall. The length of tension zone is crucial for the stiffness evaluation and
depends on the structural system. It must be chosen in accordance with codes or independent calculation
results of the underlying model (Example: in case of beam simply supported and other side restrained it is
0,25 *length, in case of cantilever beam it is 1,0*length)
Bars:
steel area [cm], diameter and length of tension zone [cm], input check:
reinforcement must be minimum design reinf. area, spacing of bars should be
within interval 525 cm, bar curvature *20 must fit into wall.
8. Additional stirrups these optional stirrups are proposed as an effective means to improve the joint in
case of tension forces (if any, only in case of small moments and large shear force with large eccentricity) in
the stud. They are useful only in the upper row, and only under certain circumstances of the complete as
semblage. Further information can be found in the parameter study in Chapter 4. Generally there is always
a surface reinforcement in the front face of the wall. This may be optionally taken into account and will
improve the capacity of the joint under certain circumstances of the complete assemblage.
Reinforcement:
13
Infaso+Handbook II
9. Slab studs these studs are welded at the upper flange of the steel cross section and are the connection
medium in the joint between steel and concrete sections to work as a composite structure according to
EN 199411 [10]. Only the composite behaviour is subject of the calculation because its flexibility due to
slip influences the connection stiffness.
Studs:
Distribution studs:
Diameter (16 25 mm) and length of studs (75525 mm) of any kind,
input check: length less than slab thickness less coverage.
Number of studs < 27 within length of tension zone, input check:
spacing of studs should be within limits of EN 199411 [10].
10. Loads a combination of shear force and bending moment must be given by overwriting the preset
starting values. Design Forces with partial safety factors according to current codes are required. An evalu
ation of capacity of composite beam section is not executed at that point and must be done separately by
the user!
Loading:
Shear force Ved [kN] and bending moment Med [kNm] from external
member calculation.
Calculation
As it is the characteristic of worksheet programming the calculation has to be updated any time if the user
changes input parameters. This program does the same, starting with the preset values and recalculates any
time the content of a cell (if necessary for the mechanical model) is changed, so any result is up to date. Due
to the nonlinear characteristic of the compressed anchor plate on the top of the wall concrete at bottom of
top sheet a calculation button is placed, which starts the complex update of the effective geometry (via
Macroprogramming). After any change of input parameters this button must be pushed for updating the
complex evaluation of anchor plate behaviour. Even if differences often can be small, only the calculation
starting with the calculation button yields the correct result regarding the presented model. Detailed results
are given on second sheet. If the anchor plate is assumed to be rigid, the original dimensions can be used
for further calculation. In case of a thin and flexible anchor plate reduced dimensions are returned and used
for further calculation.
Output mask
The user inserts data only into cells coloured in light yellow. Any other cell is automatically (or by using the
Calculate button) updated with result data. At the bottom of top sheet (see Fig. 2.2) the load bearing capac
ity and utilization of the joint assemblage for tension and shear is given in terms of VR,d and MR,d, resp.
VS,d/VR,d and MS,d/MR,d. The minimum tensional reinforcement (design) in the slab is given as information.
On top of the second sheet (see Fig. 2.2) the input data from page one together with some additionally cal
culated geometry parameters and characteristic material properties are given. These are:
14
Steel section of the composite beam, with characteristics geometric and steel grade values. The sec
tion is restricted to common hot rolled sections as available in Europe. Three predefined steel
grades are available according to EN 199311 [8]. Attention should be paid, that these steel grades
are only used for assessment of the composite beam and not for the anchoring of the joint.
Contact plate the contact plate is an interface between lower flange of the steel section and the
anchor plate. Per definition the gravity centre is in one line with the centroid axis of the flange. By
input of distance between upper edge of the anchor plate to upper edge of the contact plate the
loading position is defined.
Steel bracket this bracket is the interface to carry the shear load. The position is defined exactly
by input of contact plate because of direct contact. The eccentricity of shear loading, i.e. the position
of vertical support of section flange is defined by subtracting half contact area (tsb2 or ax) from total
thickness (tsb) of the bracket.
The rectangular steel plate is defined by three parameters. It is assumed to be flush with surface of
concrete wall, where it is embedded. Three predefined steel grades are available according to EN
199311 [8]. The given steel grade applies for contact plate and steel bracket as well.
The thickness and the steel grade with characteristic tensional resp. yield strength acc. to the Eu
ropean approvals of the stud types, the number of rows and columns with their corresponding dis
tances of axis.
Beneath the given external moment and shear loading (design forces) the resulting external design
components tension in slab reinforcement (Td) and compression on contact plate (Cd) are returned
these forces are equal in absence of external axial forces, as it is assumed in that model.
The eccentricity of the shear force is calculated with geometric components of bracket, anchor plate
thickness and following common practice the stud diameter. This yields a local moment acting
on the anchor plate which is returned.
15
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 2.2: EXCEL output file 1
16
General
In the following the results of evaluation of individual components are presented. In this specific joint con
stellation of moment resisting composite joint with closing, negative bending moment, generally concrete
is in compression and the anchor plate is in bending. The calculation model relies on consideration of the
activated components illustrated in the following Fig. 2.5. The Excel sheet evaluates the following compo
nents.
Number
Component
Anchor in tension
Infaso+Handbook II
18
2.1.6.2
Any result of this component is derived from the nonlinear evaluation of combined compression force from
negative bending moment and moment due to the eccentricity of shear force at the anchor plate. First the
minimum thickness required to consider the anchor plate as rigid is determined. By comparing the mini
mum thickness previously calculated with the actual thickness of the anchor plate, the type of the plate
under consideration is determined. If the plate is rigid, the real dimensions of the plate are used in the fol
lowing calculations. If flexible, an equivalent rigid and smaller plate is determined. An iterative procedure
using a macro is implemented. This macro will be started by pushing the CALCULATE button at top sheet.
Subsequently two extreme cases are considered:
Maximum axial load under compression together with a given eccentricity moment from shear
force X eccentricity.
Maximum bending moment together with a given axial load under compression.
The given values are the same as in cells D/36 and D/33 respectively, the calculated values define the cor
responding forces the anchor plate configuration can bear additionally. The fictive effective size of the plate
is returned as well.
2.1.6.3
In this part the resistance of the upper row of anchors, which possibly may be in tension, is evaluated. Dif
ferent failure modes are possible. Tension resistance of studs is equal to the minimum resistance value of
the five following components:
Steel failure
Steel failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.2.3 [2].
Pullout failure
Pull out failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.2.4 [2]. Cracked concrete is assumed, though
uncracked concrete of the wall is possible due to vertical loading in the wall; this must be separately as
sessed in case the parameter may be 1,4 for uncracked concrete.
Concrete cone failure without supplementary reinforcement (modified standard model)
Cracked concrete is assumed, though uncracked concrete of the wall is possible due to vertical loading in
the wall; this must be separately assessed in case the parameter may be 1,4 for uncracked concrete.
Concrete cone failure with supplementary hanger reinforcement
If supplementary stirrups are used with a di
ameter according to the input on the top sheet
and per definition with 2+2 legs, an additional
resistance component can be evaluated, as
suming the stirrup bar axis being 40 mm be
low the surface (see Fig. 2.6).This concrete
cone failure mode depends fully on the behav
iour of the stirrups. If steel yielding or steel
bond failure occurs before reaching the con
crete cone resistance, the resistance force will
be the yielding or anchorage force instead.
Fig. 2.6: Definition of distance x
Yielding of stirrups
Anchoring failure of stirrups
19
Infaso+Handbook II
Splitting failure
Due to the fact, that the wall per definition is indefinite only the minimum wall thickness must be checked.
For long studs with large cones splitting is generally possible and must be assessed. The existence of a min
imum surface reinforcement is sufficient to avoid splitting failure. This reinforcement should be determined
in each orthogonal direction according to Eq. (2.1). The material safety factor used with reinforcement bars
is s = 1,15. If this conditions is not fulfilled, the resistance force for splitting failure will be calculated.
A
2.1.6.4
0,5
N
f /
(2.1)
Regarding the concrete part of the wall, for the bending moment a
simple single diagonal compression strut has been assumed. In Fig.
2.7this strut is represented by a dashed line.
2.1.6.5
Fig. 2.7: Strut and tie model
2.1.6.6
Shear components
In this part the shear resistance of the anchors is evaluated. Three resistance components can be deter
mined for shear: friction, steel failure of the anchors and pryout failure. Shear resistance of studs is equal
to the minimum resistance value of the three components mentioned above.
Friction
In the compressed area a friction component acting opposite to the shear force is possible. Nevertheless the
coefficient at that stage is set to zero, i.e. no friction.
Steel failure
Steel failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.3.3 [2].
Pryout failure
Pryout failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.3.4 [2].
Resulting shear resistance
The shear force which can be applied to the concrete wall is restricted by two mechanism the minimum
of these two will be the relevant design force under given geometrical circumstances.
20
Pure shear: the shear resistance is derived from the fore mentioned considerations. This value
is governed under usual circumstances, as found in real structures. This force is called VRd,V.
Shear force with small eccentricity: the shear force can be limited as well by the resistance of
the anchor plate. The maximum moment derived from eccentricity under a given compression
force is evaluated in 2.1.6.2 cell D/36. Divided by the lever arm of the bracket the shear force
called VRd,M is defined.
2.1.6.7
In this part other steel components on top of the anchor plate might be assessed that should not fail even if
they are not part of the model anchor plate with headed studs. Under consideration are: steel contact
plate, beam web and flange in compression and steel bracket. The first two are calculated using
EN 199411 [10] and EN 199318 [9], respectively. The steel bracket is analysed comparing the acting
bending moment with resisting bending moment, at the crosssection in contact with the anchor plate. Ad
ditionally one must assess the welding seams of the bracket as well. The assessment of these components
is returning OK or NOT OK. The user has to decide what actions to be taken (e.g. changing geometry or
material grades) to fulfil the requirements.
Global Results
2.1.7.1
At the bottom of second sheet the load bearing capacity and utilization of the joint assemblage for tension
and shear is given in terms of VR,d and MR,d, resp VS,d/VR,d and MS,d/MR,d. These values are transferred to bot
tom of top sheet (see 2.1.5).
2.1.7.2
Interaction
In case of tension and shear in the stud additionally the combined action of both components must be as
sessed. As it is a rare situation due the governing compression force from closing moments, usually there is
no limitation. If tension and shear forces have to be considered, Eq (2.2) can be applied according to
EN 199242, Cl. 6.4.1 [10].
V
V
,
,
T,
T,
(2.2)
As Exponent = 2,0 is taken in case of steel failure acc. to Cl. 6.4.1.1 or = 1,5 in case of other failure modes
acc. to Cl. 6.4.1.2. In case of supplementary reinforcement which is designed for both failure modes tension
and shear, the same can be applied. For simplification, and according to the current status of European
approvals for headed studs, the value = 1,5 is used.
2.1.7.3
Due to the character of the joint, the stiffness of the moment resisting joint (i.e. relation of overall bending
moment to rotation) depends mainly on the nonlinear flexibility of steel/concrete bond, the slip of studs in
slab and the behaviour of concrete shear panel in the wall which is activated by the bend of reinforcement,
whereas the compression strain in the anchor plate is inferior. This approximate joint stiffness by M*lever
arm/horizontal displacement in axis of reinforcement is given with two parameters:
Sini = initial stiffness in unit [MNm/rad] gives the relation between bending moment and rotation
of the connection in the very beginning. The incline represents the maximum elastic behaviour.
Ssec = Secant stiffness in unit [MNm/rad] gives the relation between the effective bending moment
and the according, possibly nonlinear rotation of the connection. The incline is always equal (in
case of small bending moment and elastic behaviour) or typically smaller than Sini.
The term ductility is usually used in connections with energy consuming behaviour due to plasticity, if there
is displacement which will not reset but will remain in case of load removal. So even if the descent of stiff
ness Ssec points to nonlinearity it mostly will be a nonlinear elastic effect, which yields no ductility factor. In
that case the cell will give the information elastic.
2.1.7.4
The type of anchor plate behaviour is given as information (rigid/flexible) and represents cell B45 of this
sheet and the minimum tensional reinforcement (design) in the slab is given as information.
21
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 2.8: Geometry of the joint with slim anchor plate
General
The design software is based on the EXCEL table calculation program with the integrated programming
language VBA. Within the EXCEL file ten different spreadsheets for the in and output, for the design of the
different components, for the consideration of the joint in the global analysis and for a summary of the joint
properties. Due to physical nonlinear behaviour of the anchor plate under bending forces and the geomet
ric nonlinear effects based on the development of cinematic chains, the design approach is done iteratively
with consideration of changes in the system. The geometric nonlinear effect occurs due to the activation of
the anchor plate due to tension forces and additional nonlinear loaddeformation behaviour of the single
components. This is implemented in the VBAprogram, which is accessing the input data from the different
spreadsheets.
22
2.2.2.2
Loadtransfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moment M static model at the beginning
of the calculation process
The first model for the load transfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moments M is a continuous
beam supported on single springs. The anchor plate is therefore modeled as a twodimensional system. As
the connected profile stiffens the anchor plate, this sections is modeled with rigid members. Springs for
compression are placed at the nodes 1 to 8 to reflect the behaviour of the concrete under compression. If
the anchor plate is not in contact with the concrete surface and no compression forces in this place might
occur, the springs can be neglected. Nonlinear tensional springs are reflecting the load carrying behaviour
of the headed stud with the supplementary reinforcement. Depending on the geometry of the anchor plate
the tensional springs can be only placed on the nodes 2 and 7, 3 and 6 or 4 and 5. They are only activated if
the distance between the anchor plate and the concrete surfaces increases. If not a spring which is simulat
ing the compression forces of the concrete is placed at the same node. There are no hinges in the continuous
beam at the beginning of the calculation, but within the calculation process plastic hinges might occur at the
nodes 2, 3, 6 and 7. After each load step the boundary conditions of the supporting springs are adopted. The
prying forces of the anchor plate are considered by the compression springs in the external nodes 1 and 8
(see Fig. 2.9).
Fig. 2.9: Design model for vertical loads and bending moments
The calculation will be done by displacement method. Nonlinear (physical) effects will be considered by an
iterative calculation with continuous increase of load steps. For every load step the support conditions and
the appearance of plastic hinges will be checked. In case of changing support conditions or appearance of
plastic hinges the corresponding elements of the total stiffness matrix K, the kinematic transformation ma
trix a and the vector of the external nodal forces P will be manipulated. In case of bending loads without
tension forces (N 0) the row of headed studs near to the compression zone is not considered as support
spring for tension loads (cs=0). Internal forces and global node deformations caused by bending moments
and normal forces will be determined by using the displacement method, (Krtzig [18]).
kv
a V
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
a s
a k aV
kaV
KV
(2.6)
(2.7)
(2.8)
23
Infaso+Handbook II
24
With:
s
v
P
V
k
a
Nonlinear material effects will be considered by manipulating the total stiffness matrix K, the kinematic
transformation Matrix a and the vector of the external nodal forces P.
K
With:
Ksing
Kbound
(2.9)
P
With:
P
P
a
(2.10)
The bearing reactions will be determined by multiplying the diagonal elements of Kbound by the correspond
ing deformations of V plus the nodal forces of P.
C
C
P
P
20x1
V
V
4EI 2EI
l
l
2EI 4EI
l
l
2x2
P ;; C
20x1
(2.11)
P
K
M
M
M
M
4EI
l
2EI
l
14x1
2EI
l
4EI
l
14x1
(2.12)
4EI
l
2EI
l
14x14
2EI
l
4EI
l
25
Infaso+Handbook II
1
l
1
1
l1
0
a
0
1
l1
1
l1
1
l2
1
l2
0
0
1
l2
1
l2
1
l3
1
l3
1
l3
1
l3
1
l4
1
l4
1
l4
1
l4
1
l5
1
l5
1
l5
1
l5
1
l6
1
l6
1
l6
1
l6
1
l7
1
l7
0
0
1
l7
1
l7
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(14x20)
In case of no hinge at node 2, 3, 6 or 7 the marked values of the corresponding lines will be changed.
K
(2.13)
a k a 20x20
K
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
0 K
0 0
20x20
20x20
(2.14)
(2.15)
The loading that has been implemented by the engineer in the input worksheet is subdivided into 100 load
steps and applied gradually to the system. After 100 load steps the entire load is applied to the statical
system. It might happen, that a kinematic chain due to plastic hinges will occur and the beam series will fail
before reaching the last sub step (singular stiffness matrix). In this cases the iteration will continue with a
different system, which is described in the following.
2.2.2.3
Loadtransfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moment M static model after formation of
a plastic chain
The anchor plate can be considered as a tension member after the formation of a plastic chain (see Fig. 2.10.)
As a simplification the whole resultant tension force is assigned to the bar with the higher inclination. For
each new load step the increase in loading of the normal force in the deformed system is determined. In the
next step the elongation of the tensional bar and the entire deformation of the anchor plate is calculated. In
general the load carrying capacity is limited due to the component resistance of the supports (headed
studs). Due to the relatively low deformation of the anchor plate extreme horizontal forces will act at the
supports of the membrane system.
26
Fig. 2.10: Model of the baseplate under tension and simplified calculation model
For the load transfer of the horizontal forces V the friction forces between concrete and the anchor plate
are considered on all joints with compression springs (see Fig. 2.11). The remaining forces as difference
between friction part and applied shear load will be distributed among the headed studs according to the
stiffness of the spring.
Fig. 2.11: Design model for horizontal (shear) loads
EXCELWorksheets / VBAProgram
The whole design tool contains ten Microsoft Excel worksheets and one Microsoft Visual Basic program
part. Visible for the user are only the worksheets Input + Output and Design output. The following sched
ule gives a short overview about the function of the different worksheets (see Tab. 2.1 and Tab. 2.2).
Tab. 2.1: Overview of all worksheets
Name (Worksheet)
Function
Input + Output
Chapter 2.2.7
Design output
Chapter 2.2.8
Headed studs tension
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent headed studs in tension (considering additional reinforcement)
Headed studs shear
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent headed studs in shear
HS interaction tension Determination of the load bearing capacity of headed studs under tension and shear
shear
loads
Concrete member com Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
pression
ponent Concrete member under compression loads
Steel plate bending
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent Steel plate under bending moments
Calculation core anchor Calculation of internal forces and bearing reactions by displacement method for every
plate
load step
Data
Data schedule for fixed values (materials, dimensions, partial factors, internal control
parameters)
Data temp
Data schedule for temporary values (nodal displacements of every load step); nodal
displacements are used to create the momentrotation curve in Design output
Tab. 2.2: VBASubroutine
Program (Subroutine)
Function
27
Infaso+Handbook II
NL_Berechnung
Iterative calculation of internal forces and bearing reactions by using the worksheet
Calculation core anchor plate for 100 load steps; change of support conditions or in
troducing plastic hinges depending of the bearing reactions or the internal forces for
the current load step; system change after reaching a kinematic structure
Components
The following components are implemented in the program. Detailed explanations of this components can
be found in Handbook I in the specific sections. The load deformation behaviour of the anchor plate is con
sidered within the iterative calculation of the load steps.
Tab. 2.3: Components implemented in the calculation program for slim anchor plate
Component
Concrete
breakout in
tension
Headed stud
in tension
Stirrups in ten
sion
Pullout fail
ure of the
headed stud
Figure
Component
Friction
Concrete in compression
Threaded studs in tension/
shear
Figure
Safety factors
Tab. 2.4: Ultimate limit state (CEN/TS 199241:2009 4.4.3.1.1 [1])
Steel
Anchors tension
Ms
Anchors shear
Reinforcement
Ms
Ms=1,2*fuk/fykMs1,4)
Ms,re
1,15
Tab. 2.6: Ultimate limit state (CEN/TS 19924
1:2009 4.4.3.1.2 [1])
Steel
Steelplate
Ma
1,00
(no stability failure)
Concrete
Cone fail Pryout
ure
failure
Mc
Mc
1,5
1,5
1,5
Mc
1,5
Boundary conditions
Anchor plates with headed studs at the concrete side and a welded steel profile at the airside do have com
plex three dimensional load transfer. Under compression forces all sections of the anchor plate are sup
ported in places, where a gap might occur (except in the area of the headed studs) under tensional forces.
The web and the flange of the welded steel sections do have a stiffening effect on the anchor plate. Inde
pendently from the thickness of the anchor plat the anchor plate is assumed in the stiffened sections as
almost completely rigid. Due to this reason the system is assumed as two dimensional continuous beam. In
28
the midsection of the beam the normal and shear forces and the bending moments are acting. Between line
2 and line 3 (see Fig. 2.12) the anchor plate is assumed to be rigid and discretized by a rigid bar. The geo
metrical cross section of all other bars is formed by the effective width bm and the thickness of the anchor
plate tAP. As lower limit the effective width bm is assumed with bPR + 5 * tAP , as upper limit the entire width
of the anchor plate is possible. If plastic hinges in the anchor plate occur the yielding lines are assumed as
continuous and perpendicular to the axis of the discretized bar (see Fig. 2.12). If this plastic resistance of
the anchor plate is larger as if the yielding lines would be locally limited due to a triangular shape of the
yielding lines (see Fig. 2.13). The effective width of the anchor plate is reduced accordingly without falling
below the resistance of the lower limit.
Rolled I sections
Buttstrup
Fig. 2.12: Static model of the anchor plate yielding
lines with yielding lines over the whole width
The tensional resistance in cases of straight yielding lines (see Fig. 2.12) can be calculated with Equa
tions (2.16) to (2.18).
Z
m
Z
b
m
b
2
a
f
2
b
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.18)
The tensional resistance for local rotating yielding lines (see Fig. 2.14) can be calculated with Equations
(2.19) to (2.22).
29
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 2.14: Geometry for local rotating yielding lines
l
l
s
s
s
s
c
a
b
l
l
b
2 d
d /
a
c
d /
b
s
l sin with sin
d/l
l / tan with tan
d / a b
s
s
l tan with tan
b /d
l tan with sin
s /l
(2.20)
/s
tan
/s
tan
/s
tan
/l
/s
tan ,
/l
tan ,
tan
/s
/s
(2.21)
(2.19)
2l
2l
l ,
m , f
Z
2l
2l
l ,
,
2l
(2.22)
2 l /
If flocal < fbar the effective width of the bar is calculated with Eq. (2.23).
b
/f
(2.23)
The design calculations for the connection between the steel profile and the anchor plate are not covered
by the design program and have to be done in spate calculations. If steel profiles are not directly welded to
the anchor plate and connected by threaded studs and an endplate the dimensions lAP and bAP have to be
defined analogous independent from the actual dimensions of the steel profile (for example with the dis
tances of the threaded studs lAP and bAP). The new components that are used in the program are based on
test with large edge distances of the headed studs. Due to this reason the edge distances of Fig. 4.22 are
required (see Chapter 4.3.4.2).
If the supplementary reinforcement is located with too large distance from the headed stud or from the
concrete surface the anchorage length of the reinforcement within the concrete cone can be too small (see
Fig. 2.15). In the worst case the contribution due to the supplementary reinforcement can be neglected. The
distances X and Y in Fig. 2.15 have to be minimized.
30
Values X and Y as small as possible
Fig. 2.15: Arrangement of the hanger reinforcement
Input mask
The input sheet Input + Output shows on
top a sketch of the connection labeling the
most important input parameters. In the
second part of the worksheet the dimen
sions, materials and loads on the anchor
plate can be entered into the program. With
the CalculationButton on the right bot
tom of the worksheet the nonlinear deter
mination of internal forces and the compo
nent design will be started. Left beside the
CalculationButton the degree of utiliza
tion of the main components is shown. In
the following the input data is described in
particular.
Steel profile (1. line): Input of the length
lPR [mm] and the width bPR [mm] of the con
nected profile or steel element to deter
mine the rigid plate area. In case of connec
tions of steel profiles with head plates by
threaded studs welded on the anchor plate
directly the outer distances of the threaded
studs in both directions have to be used for
lPR and bPR.
Anchor plate (2. line): Input of the length
lAP [mm], the width bAP [mm] and the thick
ness tAP [mm] of the anchor plate; the num
ber of headed studs per row (2 or 3); the
material of the steel plate (acc. to EN 1993
11 Chyba! Nenalezen zdroj odkaz. and
EN 10025 [4]).
31
Infaso+Handbook II
Reinforcement (4. line): Input of the diameter dS [mm] and the material (acc. to DIN 488 [3]) of the rein
forcement stirrups. The reinforcement stirrups have to be formed as loops with the smallest admissible
bending role diameter. They have to be grouped in pairs close to the shafts of the headed studs with mini
mum distance to the bottom side of the anchor plate (maximum possible overlapping length of stirrup leg
and headed stud).
Concrete member (5. line): Input of the thickness hC [mm] and the material type (acc. to EN 199211 [7])
of the concrete member.
Loads (last line): Input of the bending moment MEd [kNm], the normal force NEd [kN] and the shear force
VEd [kN] as design loads (ultimate limit state). Design loads have to be determined by the user. Partial factors
will not be considered at the load side by the program!
32
Output mask
The output sheet Design output is divided into four parts. The first part gives information about the struc
tural system and the nonlinear support conditions (spring models). Results of the nonlinear determination
of internal forces are shown in the second part. In part 3 the main verifications of the components are given.
The last part shows the momentrotation behaviour of the joint.
Fig. 2.17: Excel worksheet Design output page 1/3
33
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 2.18: Excel worksheet Design output page 2/3
34
Fig. 2.19: Excel worksheet Design output page 2/3
35
Infaso+Handbook II
(M1) Arrangement of supplementary reinforcement next to the tensional loaded headed stud row.
(M2) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs lHS in the transversal direction.
(M3) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs up to bHS = 3 * hef.
(M4) Enlargement of the effective height of the headed studs.
(M5) Enlargement of the diameter of the headed studs.
(M6) Enlargement of the number of headed suds per row.
(M7) Choice of different steel properties for the headed studs.
(M8) Choice of higher concrete strength.
(M9) Enlargement of the thickness of the anchor plate.
(M10) Choice of different steel properties for the anchor plate.
(M2a) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs lHS = 3 * hef.
(M3) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs bHS = 3 * hef .
(M4) Enlargement of the effective height of the headed studs.
(M5) Enlargement of the diameter of the headed studs.
(M6) Enlargement of the number of headed suds per row.
(M7) Choice of different steel properties for the headed studs.
(M8) Choice of higher concrete strength.
For bending and shear forces the methods as described above might be combined. The following table
shows possibilities for optimization of joints for different objectives (see Tab. 2.7).
Tab. 2.7: Optimization of the slim anchor plate with headed studs
Objectives
Small thickness of the anchor plate
Method
For bending: Arrangement of the headed studs at the edges of the con
nected steel profile
For bending: Configuration of the components of the joint in a way that
the plastic chain becomes the decisive component of the anchor plate.
Choice of a ductile steel material of the anchor plate.
For bending: Methods M1, M2, M3, M5, M6, (M7), M8, M9, M10;
For shear: Methods M2a, M3, M5, M6, (M7), M8
For bending: Methods M2 till M8, (M9), (M10)
High ductility
36
(2.24)
With the equilibrium of moments at the intersection point of the action lines of the concrete force CEd and
the shear components of the headed studs VEd,2 and VEd,1 the formulations in Eq. (2.25) can be obtained for
the calculation of the applied normal force in the second stud row. By a vertical equilibrium of forces the
assumed height of the compression zone can be verified. In the program the effective compressive height is
determined iteratively. For further information see Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints",
Chapter 5.2.2 [13] and for the calculation of the deformations see Chapter 4.2 and Chapter 4.3.
V
e
z
t d
d
(2.25)
37
Infaso+Handbook II
Function
Chapter 2.3.7
Chapter 2.3.8
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component headed studs in tension (considering additional reinforcement)
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component headed studs in shear
Determination of the load bearing capacity of headed studs under tension and
shear loads
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component Concrete member under compression loads
Design of the anchor plate under bending moments
Calculation of internal forces by equilibrium of forces and moments; iterative
determination of the compression zones length
Data schedule for fixed values (materials, dimensions, partial factors, internal
control parameters)
Data schedule for temporary values (nodal displacements of every load step);
nodal displacements are used to create the momentrotation curve in Design
output
Components
The following components are implemented in the program (see Tab. 2.9). Detailed explanations of this
components can be found in Handbook I in the specific sections. The load deformation behaviour of the
anchor plate is considered within the iterative calculation of the load steps.
Tab. 2.9: Components implemented in the calculation program for a rigid anchor plate
Component
Concrete
breakout in
tension
Headed stud
in tension
Stirrups in ten
sion
Pullout fail
ure of the
headed stud
Figure
Component
Concrete in compres
sion
Friction
Threaded studs in
tension/ shear
Anchor plate in
bending and ten
sion
Figure
Safety factors
See Chapter 2.2.5
38
Boundary condition
The calculation of the design resistance of the connection between the steel element and the anchor plate
is not covered by the program and has to be done separately by the engineer. If the steel elements or the
steel profiles are not directly welded to the anchor plate and connected by threaded studs and an endplate
the dimensions lAP and bAP have to be defined analogous independent from the actual dimensions of the
steel profile (for example with the distances of the threaded studs lAP and bAP). The new components that
are used in the program are based on test with large edge distances of the headed studs. Due to this reason
the edge distances described in Chapter 2.2.6 are required. Also requirements for the exact location of the
supplementary reinforcement are given there.
Input mask
The input sheet Input + Output shows on
top a sketch of the connection labeling the
most important input parameters (see Fig.
2.21). In the second part of the worksheet
the dimensions, materials and loads on the
anchor plate can be fed into the program.
With the CalculationButton on the right
bottom of the worksheet the determination
of internal forces and the component de
sign will be started. Left beside the Calcu
lationButton the degree of utilization of
the main components is shown. In the fol
lowing the input data is described in partic
ular.
Steel profile (1. line): Input of the length
lPR [mm] and the width bPR [mm] of the con
nected butt strap.
Anchor plate (2. line):Input of the length
lAP [mm], the width bAP [mm] and the thick
ness tAP [mm] of the anchor plate; the num
ber of headed studs per row (2 or 3); the
material of the steel plate (acc. to EN 1993
11 [8] and EN 10025 [4]).
Headed studs (3. line):Input of the dis
tances of the headed studs in longitudinal
direction lHS [mm], in cross direction bHS
[mm]; the shaft diameter [mm]; the length
of the studs hn [mm]; the material of the
headed studs (acc. to EN 10025 [4]).
Fig. 2.21: Excel worksheet Input + Output CM page 1/1
Reinforcement (4. line): Input of the diameter dS [mm] and the material (acc. to DIN 488 [3]) of the rein
forcement stirrups. The reinforcement stirrups have to be formed as loops with the smallest admissible
bending role diameter. They have to be grouped in pairs close to the shafts of the headed studs with mini
mum distance to the bottom side of the anchor plate (maximum possible overlapping length of stirrup leg
and headed stud).
Concrete member (5. line): Input of the thickness hC [mm] and the material type (acc. to EN 199211 [7])
of the concrete member.
39
Infaso+Handbook II
Loads (last line): Input of the shear force VEd [kN] and their eccentricity to the anchor plates surface in
[cm]. Design loads have to be determined by the user. Partial factors will not be considered at the load side
by the program!
Output mask
The output sheet Design output is divided into three parts. The first part gives information about the
structural system (see Fig. 2.21). Results of the static calculation of internal forces are shown in the second
part (see Fig. 2.23). In part 3 the main verifications of the components are given (see Fig. 2.23).
40
41
Infaso+Handbook II
3 Design examples
3.1 Composite beam of a standard office structure connected to reinforced con
crete wall
General
3.1.1.1
Fig. 3.1: Structural system
The example shows a concrete steel composite beam made of a hot rolled cross section IPE 300 with a semi
finished concrete slab (total 14 cm) connected by studs. The lateral distance of the beams is 2 1,35 m
2,70m, the span is 7,8 m. The inner support can be at a reinforced concrete (RC) wall of the building core,
the outer support is a faade column (see Fig. 3.1).
Semifinished slab (6cm precast concrete) + cast insitu of altogether 14 cm, continuous system,
span 2,70 m each.
Hot rolled beam IPE 300 S355 JR, L = 7,8 m; uniformly distributed loading with headed studs.
Support faade: Steel column spaced 2,7 m.
Support inner core: Reinforced concrete wall with fully restraint connection by reinforcement and
steel/concrete compression contact.
3.1.1.3
Loads
42
g
g1
g2
g3
g
q
=
=
=
=
=
=
1,6 kN/m
3,5 kN/m
1,6 kN/m
0,4 kN/m
5,50 kN/m
3,00 kN/m
Execution options
3.1.2.1
Previous realization
To provide a moment resistant connection of composite structures to a concrete wall is not new at all, as it
isnt the separation of tensile forces into the slabs reinforcement and compression into lower beam flange
resp. anchor plate. Nevertheless there have been bolted solutions with fin plates for the shear forces or
endplates as an adaption of common steel constructions, which were more costly in terms of manufacturing
costs. These solutions with their more complex mechanisms were as well difficult to design effectively and
to predict their rotational behaviour. Therefore a larger range of maximum and minimum forces has to be
covered, as the redistribution of forces is unknown.
3.1.2.2
Improved implementation
The presented connection of a moment resistant connection of composite structures to a concrete wall pro
vides a solution that is simple feasible on site, because the vertical and horizontal tolerances are relatively
high, and the necessary parts are minimized. Forces are strictly separated and transferred by easy mecha
nisms. Due to this reason the knowledge of the connection behaviour has grown since any of these single
shares have been explored further on and the characteristics have been put in a simple component (spring)
model. The component method is implemented in Eurocodes, but has been improved by detail research
throughout this project. So the stressstrain model of the slabs reinforcement has been developed with
additive tensile stresses in concrete, the displacement of the anchor plate, the slip of the slab studs can now
be considered and the contribution of the nonlinear behaviour of the shear panel in the connecting concrete
wall has been added.
length slab in tension
hc
xr
reinforcing bars
3
2
20
1
V
M
steel section
hz dz
lz
ez
8
contact plate
6
5
steel bracket
anchor plate
ax
tap
tcp
tc,wall
x
y
z
tsb
2. Concrete slab
4. Anchor plate
6. Contact plate
8. Additional stirrups
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Infaso+Handbook II
Modelling
The member forces of the structure generally can be calculated with any software which is able to consider
ranges of different beam stiffness and rotational springs. As the structure is statically indeterminate the
different stiffness of the positive and negative moment range must be taken into account to properly calcu
late the member and support forces. For this example the software KRASTA [21] for spatial frame analysis
has been used. Prior to any calculation we can do a reliable prediction concerning the quality of moment
distribution. There will be a maximum negative moment at the moment resistant support, the moment will
then be reduced and will cross the zeroline. Afterwards it will drop down to its positive maximum at ap
prox. 5/8 of the span and ending at zero at the hinged support at the end of the beam. The negative range is
assumed for the first quarter of span, the positive is set for the rest of span. According to EN 199411
Cl. 5.4.1.2 [10] the effective width can be calculated with Eq. (3.1).
b
(3.1)
b ,
In case of equally spaced beams these equation can be calculated in the negative range with Eq. (3.2) and in
the positive range with Eq. (3.3) each of them less as the spacing between adjacent beams (270 cm). This
means that necessary reinforcement bars in the negative range of the slab must be arranged within the
effective width.
b
b
15
15
2 780 0,25/8
2 780 0,75/8
63,8 cm
(3.2)
161,25 cm
(3.3)
The different moments of inertia Ipos are calculated in accordance to common values of creep influence (see
Eq. (3.4) to (3.5). In this example the relation between stiffness shortly after erection and after 12 years
(means T=) is approximately . The effect of shrinking (eccentricity of tensional force in slab) is not con
sidered. The moment of inertia for T= will be used with dead load and value for T=0 will be used with life
load. This will yield the maximum restraint moment and force at support A.
I
Negative range:
Positive range:
3.1.3.2
18360
15,5 30/2
15
18000 cm
(3.4)
(3.5)
Calculation of forces
Fig. 3.3: Mind: these are independently calculated input values for
The structural design and the evaluation of the connection stiffness will be done by using the program "Re
strained connection of composite beams ".The model data of the parts which contribute to the connection
must be defined in detail. These are geometric data like size, position and thickness of plates with headed
studs, the beams cross section, reinforcement in the slab and in the wall. As the rotational characteristics
are largely dependent of the slab reinforcement, a contribution of stud slip, the concrete shear panel behav
iour and the compressed anchor plate is considered as well. Therefore the user is asked for parameters,
which are not important for the connection design but might have influence on the horizontal displacement
of the slab. By starting the Excel worksheet all parameters are set by default with a valid set of input data,
where an obviously rational result is obtained. It will never the less be a duty for the user to ensure, that all
parameters are reasonable, at least under geometrical aspects (spacing of reinforcement and slab studs,
enough reinforcement, studs inside plate etc.). These validation results will show up on the right of the input
mask.
The slab reinforcement is set to a
value a little higher than the mini
mum that is due to the assessment
of the shear panel resistance, which
is amongst others affected by the
amount of reinforcement. This area
must be built in within the effective
width of the negative moment range
of 64 cm. The number of studs over
the length of tensile action in the slab
is chosen as 13, spacing approx.
15 cm.
Though the calculation is executed
with an Excel sheet and is therefore
directly updating most of the values
upon any changed cell input value,
there is a VisualBasicMacro imple
mented to iterate depending on the
used model. To update all of these
characteristics the calculation must
be started with pushing the calcu
late button in the lower region of
the page. Any changes connected
with the anchor plate, beginning
with wall concrete and reinforce
ment parameters and the geometry
of plate and studs need the use of this
updated macro.
After all geometry data and forces
have been inserted into the mask, the
two main results will be the utiliza
tion of the connection, the relation
between given force and the re
Fig. 3.4: Excel sheet, Input+Short OutputMask
sistance of the connection, and sec
ondly the stiffness of the restrained cross section at the edge of wall to generate a new, updated rotational
spring. In the Fig. 3.4 see the completely filled input mask and resulting utilization of the connection. In the
following figures (see Fig. 3.5 to Fig. 3.7) the complete detailed output with intermediate results of compo
nents and the resulting stiffness of the actual constellation is shown.
45
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 3.5: Output file with intermediate results (1)
46
Fig. 3.6: Output file with intermediate results (2)
The rotational stiffness of the connection will be given as a result of the connection assessment, with a se
cant stiffness of C 93 MNm/rad. If the secant stiffness of C is taken as a rotational stiffness of the support
internal forces can be obtained (see Fig. 3.8).
Fig. 3.8: Internal forces by taking into account the secant stiffness C at the support A
47
Infaso+Handbook II
These values will be approximately very close to convergence and are those values to be assessed finally,
and in this case of statically indeterminant systems. The reduced moment and shear force acting in the con
nection will increase the resulting stiffness output to approximately C 94 MNm/rad, which is no remark
able difference to the value considered. Generally with decreasing moments the stiffness value converges
to a maximum, the so called initial stiffness, which is 135 MN/rad and cannot be exceeded. This limit is
connected to steel strain with uncracked concrete contribution. Due to the a possible reduction of the rein
forcement grade the resulting stiffness will decrease to 89 MNm/rad. As there is no underestimation of
stiffness, higher forces don`t have to be expected in the connection and the connection can be considered
safe.
3.1.3.3
Structural analysis
The structural analysis will be done by using the program "Restrained connection of composite beams "(see
Fig. 3.9). As mentioned above, the reinforcement grade is possibly reduced according to the moment reduc
tion.
Fig. 3.9: Structural analysis of the restrained connection
48
The bending diameter of the reinforcement in the wall has a significant influence on the model. Even gen
erally allowed with a value of minimum 10 s (with higher edge distances) it is strongly recommended to
take a value of 20 s , because the curvature influences the diagonal concrete strut in size. The larger the
diameter of bending is, the larger is the effective concrete area which resists the tensile force within the
slabs reinforcement bars. Definitely this can be the component which limits the resistance of the entire
joint. Using the minimum bending diameter one will experience a limitation in the concrete shear panel
behaviour which is not appropriate. The increase in the amount of reinforcement or the concrete grade is
not a useful option as consequence. In case of statically determined systems the iteration step can obviously
be skipped, as the internal forces are not related to the changes of the stiffness in the model.
Conducting
3.1.4.1
Installation
The anchor plate can be installed easily at the inner surface of the formwork because the relatively small
headed studs can easily installed onsite within the crosswise placed external reinforcement layer of the
concrete wall. The loopshaped hanger reinforcement will be fixed at the inner reinforcement layer. These
must be adjusted after installing the anchor plate, if the distance to the headed studs are too large. The
reinforcement in the slab transferring the tensile forces into the wall will be easily mounted by using a rebar
splicing system. The screwed joint will be fixed at the formwork. The bar has to have a large bending diam
eter of 20 s as a recommendation to optimize the transfer of the diagonal compression force in the shear
panel zone. After removal of formwork the steel bracket will be welded on the anchor plate. In a next step
the steel profiles can be mounted, adjusted and the contact element of the formwork for the slab (or semi
finished panels) will be placed and the reinforcement can be screwed into the couplers. After having all
reinforcement placed properly the concrete slab can be poured.
3.1.4.2
Tolerances
Deviations of the anchor plate regarding to the longitudinal axis of the beam in horizontal and vertical di
rection can easily be compensated, because the steel bracket is welded to the anchor plate onsite. If larger
tolerances in longitudinal direction of the beam have to be taken into consideration, the beam has to be
produced after measurement of the exact distances between supports. Small deviations can be bridged by
adapting the steel contact element. The reinforcement connectors placed in the concrete wall may have
vertical or horizontal deviations, as far they can be cast in the slab with the necessary concrete cover. The
concrete cover should be taken into account sufficiently large not to overrate the inner lever arm of forces.
3.1.4.3
Fire protection
For the structure shown in this example usually the fire resistance R90 has to be fulfilled. The steel structure
including its connections must be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels. As there
is no required space for installation within the cross section chambers during erection, the chamber can be
filled with concrete as a fire protection. The open bracket at lower flange must nevertheless be protected
additionally. This can be assessed by a fire protection expertise. The reinforcement is protected by concrete
covert and can be assessed by considering codes.
3.1.4.4
Costs
The ability to calculate the stiffness of the connection with deeper understanding and less uncertainties and
therefore getting a more realistic force distribution helps to reduce overall costs of the steel construction.
The connection itself can be easily installed by placing the beam on the steel bracket without using any bolts.
The use of screwed reinforcement connectors is nevertheless necessary.
49
Infaso+Handbook II
3.2 Column base as connection of a safety fence on a car parking deck to a rein
forced concrete slab
General
3.2.1.1
A safety fence, consisting of a horizontal beam barrier of two connected hollow sections on vertical
columns of rolled sections, is connected at the column bases to a 300 mm thick reinforced concrete
slab. Embedded anchor plates with headed studs and welded threaded studs are used to connect
the columns base plates with the concrete deck. The distance between the steel columns varies
from 1,50 m up to 2,00 m and the centre of the beam barrier is 0,50 m above the concrete surface.
The whole construction has to be protected against corrosion, for example by galvanization.
3.2.1.2
3.2.1.3
Loads
3.2.1.4
Fdx
50,00 kN
=
=
50,00 kN
25,00 kNm
Joint loads
Design load
VEd = Fdx
MEd = 50,00 * 0,50
Execution options
3.2.2.1
Previous realization
Fig. 3.10: Conventional joint solution of the safety fence
50
In the conventional joint solution the columns base plate is directly bolted to the anchor plate by threaded
studs which are welded on the embedded steel plate (see Fig. 3.10). In order to reduce the headed studs
tension forces caused by bending, the distance of the studs in load direction and therewith the length of the
embedded steel plate have to be large. For this reason the distance between the threaded bolts and headed
studs is quite large and high bending moments in the anchor plate are resulting. The anchor plates is de
signed as thick and rigid in order to consider an elastic approach in the calculation. The dimensions of the
anchor plate are given in the following.
Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs
3.2.2.2
Fig. 3.11: Improved realization Version 1
Within this modified joint solution the new components of the INFASO [12] project are considered. In this
solution the columns base plate is directly bolted to the anchor plate by threaded studs which are welded
on the embedded steel plate (see Fig. 3.11). The choice of a quite small anchor plate generates high tension
forces in the headed studs caused by external bending moment. So additional hanger reinforcement is fixed
very close to the headed studs loaded by tension forces. The distance of the headed studs in load direction
is small. Due to the fact that the headed studs and the threaded studs are spaced very close, low bending
moments in the anchor plate are resulting. A plastic design of the anchor plate is possible. Thin steel plates
can be used. The complete embedded plate is covered by the columns base plate. The dimensions of the
anchor plate are given in the following.
Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs
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Infaso+Handbook II
The structural design will be done by using the program "Slim anchor plate with headed studs"(see Fig. 3.12
and Fig. 3.13).
Fig. 3.12: Excel sheet, Input+Outputmask for version 1
52
53
Infaso+Handbook II
Improved realizationVersion 2
Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs
54
The moment resistance, the kinetic energy the deformation energy and the deformation of the
joint can be calculated with the Equations (3.6) to (3.9)
M
17,0 kNm M
V
34,0 kN
V t
d
18,0 kNm
11,0 kNm 17/18 10,40 kNm
M
M
E
1/2 m v
E
10,4
17
E
5787 Nm
(3.6)
5,787KNm
5,787
0,33 rad
(3.7)
(3.8)
(3.9)
Note 1 The required rotation of 18,9 induces extremely large stretching at the locations with plastic
hinges. It has to be checked that the admissible elongation is not exceeded.
Note 2 The component Headed studs in tension is high exploited. So the installation of additional hanger
reinforcement is advised to ensure that the component Anchor plate in bending is the decisive
component.
Due to the extremly deviation of the necessary rotation from the calutated diagram range, the execution of
this version can not be recommended!
Installation
In each of both cases the embedded plates can be installed easily. The anchor plate of the previous realiza
tion is large and heavy and thus it is not so easy to handle during installation. Much more compact and light
is the solution of the improved realization, but additional reinforcement is needed.
3.2.3.2
Tolerances
Deviations of the anchor plates centre in any horizontal direction could only be settled by oversized holes,
in vertical direction by using filler plates. Normally for more or less rude constructions like guide boards
low tolerances are needed.
3.2.3.3
Fire protection
For the structure shown in this example, no requirements relating to fire protection have to be fulfilled. If
the classification in a particular fire resistance class should be required in other cases, the steel structure
including its connections shall be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels.
3.2.3.4
Costs
For the improved construction lower material costs can be expected. The advantage of the smallest weight
of the anchor plate of the improved realization is a bit compensated by the installation costs of the needed
additional reinforcement.
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Infaso+Handbook II
Continuous, 3.00 m wide balconies are connected to a thermally insulated reinforced concrete wall, sup
ported at their outer edge at a distance of 6.50 m (see Fig. 3.17). The walkin area is realized as a 14 cm thick
precast concrete slab with surrounding up stand. Paving slabs laid in a gravel bed are laid on top. The load
bearing reinforced concrete plates are supported at their ends and arranged parallel to steel girders of
6,50 meters length. These are connected to interception beams running perpendicular to the wall plane and
which are connected to the external wall and the steel columns. Embedded anchor plates are used to fasten
the steel girders on the concrete wall. Due to the 22 cm thick thermal insulation composite system of the
buildings external wall a joint eccentricity of 30 cm between steel beam and anchor plate has to be consid
ered. Within the insulation, a thermal separation is provided. In order to fulfil the plastering practical and
professionally, the intersection of the plaster layer should be done only by simple steel plate. All weathered
external components must be galvanized.
Fig. 3.17: Conventional solution and structural system
56
3.3.1.2
3.3.1.3
Loads
3.3.1.4
g1
g2
g3
g
q
=
=
=
=
=
0,40 kN/m
2,00 kN/m
3,50 kN/m
5,90 kN/m
4,00 kN/m
=
=
=
57,53 kN
39,00 kN
136,17 kN
Joint loads
Dead load
Dead load
Design load
Execution options
3.3.2.1
Previous realization
Fig. 3.18: Conventional joint solution of the balcony construction
The conventional joint solution consists of two parts with an end plate connection, where the inner part
made of a rolled profile segment (IPE 220) is welded directly to the anchor plate. At the other end of the
57
Infaso+Handbook II
profile, a welded end plate for a rigid joint to the end plate of the outer connector part is located. This outer
part consists of a vertical butt strap for a hinged connection to the web of the interception beam. A com
pressionproof bearing plate for the thermal separation of the two parts will be placed between the two end
plates. Depending on the type and thickness of the separating layer a projecting plate to transfer the shear
force without bolts in bending must be welded under the connectors internal part. The weathered external
adapter segment is galvanized. As just the inner part to the anchor plate is welded only coating is planned.
The concretecasted part of the joint consists of an anchor plate with welded reinforcement and a welded
on rolled section. The centrally arranged steel profile is designed to carry the vertical shear force. The loca
tion of the load resultant can be assumed approximately in the middle of the shear section. Bending mo
ments caused by outer eccentricity (30 cm) and inner eccentricity (outer edge of the anchor plate up to the
mid of the shear section) are taken by a couple of horizontal forces. The pressure force is transferred by
contact, the tension force is taken by the welded on reinforcement bars. Due to the relatively low wall thick
ness, the tensile reinforcement is turned down with large bending roll diameter and overlapping with the
vertical reinforcement layer of the walls inner side. The horizontal part of the diagonal, from the point of
deflection to the anchor plates lower pressure point leading strut is at equilibrium with the lower pressure
force transferred by contact. The location and size of welded steel profiles have decisive influence on the
stiffness of the anchor plate. As the end plate is stiffened by the welded steel profiles, pure bending has to
be taken into consideration only in the external sections.
3.3.2.2
Improved realization
Fig. 3.19: Improved joint solution of the balcony construction
The steel connection of this version is identical to the previously described solution. The concretecasted
part consists of a 25 mm thick anchor plate with four headed studs 22/150 mm (see Fig. 3.9). Closed to the
tensional loaded headed studs two reinforcing loops 8 mm are installed. A welding of reinforcement to
the anchor plate is not required. The hanger reinforcement is placed next to the reinforcement at the inner
side of the wall. The supplementary reinforcement has a large bending roll diameter and overlaps with the
vertical reinforcement on the inside of the wall. All four studs are involved in the load transfer of the verti
cally acting shear force, where only the top couple of headed studs will also be used for carrying the hori
zontal tensile force resulting from the eccentricity moment. The concrete cone failure mode is positively
influenced by the slope reinforcement arranged directly parallel to the headed studs. The anchor plate is
also stiffened in this connection by the welded steel profile of the docking adapter. The structural design
will be done by using the program "Rigid anchor plate with headed studs"(see Fig. 3.20 to Fig. 3.21).
58
Fig. 3.20: Excel sheet, Input+Outputmask of the improved realization of the balcony construction
Fig. 3.21: Excel sheet, Design output of the improved realization of the balcony construction
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Infaso+Handbook II
Installation
In the improved realization the anchor plate can be installed easily because the relatively small headed
studs have a minimal impact on the crosswise running external reinforcement layer of the concrete wall.
The loopshaped hanger reinforcement can be fixed first on the inner reinforcement layer. These must be
adjusted yet after installing the anchor plate, if the distance to the headed studs is too large. Due to welded
bars on shear connection in the previous realization and reinforcement the anchor plate is unhandy and the
walls reinforcement and their order of installation have to be coordinated to the plates anchors.
3.3.3.2
Tolerances
Deviations of the anchor plates centre to the longitudinal axis of the docking adapter in horizontal and
vertical direction inside the walls plane can easily be absorbed, because the adapter is welded to the anchor
plate onsite. If tolerances in longitudinal direction of the adapter have to be taken, the port adapters have
to be either manufactured extralong to be cut to the appropriate size onsite or produced after measure
ment of the exact location of the anchor plates.
3.3.3.3
Fire protection
For the structure shown in this example, no requirements relating to fire protection have to be fulfilled. If
the classification in a particular fire resistance class should be required in other cases, the steel structure
including its connections shall be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels.
3.3.3.4
Costs
The cost advantage of the "improved realization" to the anchor plate with shear section and welded rein
forcement mainly results by the simpler manufacturing and installation. The studs are fixed by drawn arc
stud welding on the fitting steel plate. This process takes a very short time. Concerning the shear section
variant, the steel and the rebar in their position must be fixed first and then circumferential welded by hand.
This process takes considerably more time. The same applies also for the installation of the anchor plate,
because the relatively large shear section and the welded reinforcement have influence on the assembly of
the walls reinforcement and some reinforcing bars can be inserted only after the installation of the anchor
plate.
60
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Infaso+Handbook II
4 Parameter studies
4.1 General
In this parameter studies the three steeltoconcrete connections of the Design Manual I "Design of steelto
concrete joints" [13] are under examination (see Fig. 1.1). In the parameter study for concrete components
in Chapter 4.2 experimentally determined prefactors are taken into consideration. Their influence on the
stiffness of the concrete component is shown. In Chapter 4.3 parameters for geometry and material are
changed in order to show their influence on the loaddeformation and moment rotational behavior of the
simple steeltoconcrete joints. Changes in the thickness of the anchor plate and in steel grade for column
bases are explained in Chapter 4.4 where especially this two parameters have a high influence on the struc
tural behavior for this type of connection. Also recommendations for design values are given in this Chapter.
In the last parameter study the focus is on composite joints in Chapter 4.5.
Example considered
A basic example of a single headed stud with supplementary reinforcement subjected to tensile loads is
considered in this parameter study. The stud is considered to be far from the edges. All the components are
considered while evaluating the stiffness of the anchor. The variation of secant stiffness as a function of
anchor displacement is evaluated and plotted. Though the plots are given in terms of absolute values for the
anchor stiffness and displacement, the objective of this study is to relatively compare the stiffness variation
and verify, principally, the influence of different parameters.
62
Symbol
Concrete Strength
fck
c
hef
a
m
fbd
Units
N/mm2
(MPa)
mm
mm
N/mm2
(MPa)
Recommended
value in DM
537
9
0 5
Range of study
25 65
ds,re
mm
6 20
kp,de
N/mm
10000
k h
(4.1)
The stiffness of the ascending branch of the loaddeflection curve is considered as infinite and the failure
load is assumed to occur at zero displacement. After the peak load is reached, a linearly degrading softening
branch is considered. The concrete strength, fck, governs the stiffness of this descending branch, kc,de through
Eq. (4.2) for a single anchor far from edge influences.
,
N/mm
(4.2)
16000
20
14000
Stiffness (N/mm)
25
12000
35
10000
45
55
8000
65
6000
4000
2000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
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Infaso+Handbook II
16000
20
14000
25
Stiffness (N/mm)
12000
35
10000
45
55
8000
65
6000
4000
2000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
n f
2
N/mm
(4.3)
Thus, the stiffness of both concrete component and the stirrup component are dependent on concrete
strength, fck. Fig. 4.2 shows the influence of concrete strength on the stiffness of anchorage system with
supplementary reinforcement. Again, a similar shaped curve as that obtained for anchorage in plain con
crete is obtained. The secant stiffness gradually reduces with increasing displacement and at higher dis
placements the band of stiffness values gets narrower. Based on the results of calculations, it can be said
that the sensitivity of the evaluated stiffness of the anchorage to the concrete compressive strength is rea
sonable. For the given range of concrete strength that can be expected in practice from the same concrete
mix, the sensitivity to concrete strength can be considered through material safety factor. Therefore, the
sensitivity of stiffness on concrete strength can be reasonably considered in the analysis.
Sensitivity to parameter c
The parameter, c, is used to determine the stiffness of the linear descending branch in case of concrete
breakout in tension (see Eq. (4.2)). Currently, a value of 537 is assigned to the factor c. In this study, the
influence of variation of this parameter on the secant stiffness of the anchor is considered for c in the range
of 250 to 1000. The influence of the factor c on stiffness of the anchorage is displayed in Fig. 4.3. During
initial displacement range, the secant stiffness is almost independent of c. This is because the stiffness dur
ing initial displacements is governed by components other than component C and the factor c governs only
the descending stiffness of the component C.
64
Stiffness (N/mm)
l d , f
, ,
(4.4)
There is no recommended value of hef given in the design manual, however considering the most used sizes
in practice, in this study, a range of hef from 50 mm to 400 mm is considered. As expected, the stiffness of
the anchorage system is strongly influenced by the effective embedment depth, hef for low displacement
levels (see Fig. 4.5).
20000
50
100
l1
hef
Theoretical fail
ure cone
Stiffness (N/mm)
16000
150
200
12000
250
400
8000
4000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
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Infaso+Handbook II
However, as the displacement level increases and concrete cone breakout occurs and the influence of hef
reduces. Nevertheless, in reality, the effective embedment depth of the headed stud is known a priori almost
accurately and therefore, the stiffness can also be estimated with reasonable confidence.
, ,
N ,
A f n
N ,
2k
A f n
k
, ,
mm
, ,
mm
(4.5)
(4.6)
In expressions (4.5) and (4.6), the shoulder width appears indirectly in the bearing area of the head, Ah as
well as through the factor kp. The factor kp is given by Eq. (4.7).
k
k k
k
(4.7)
In Eq. (4.7), the shoulder width appears indirectly in the expression for ka (see Eq. (4.8)) and kA (see
Eq. (4.9)).
k
k
0,5 d
5/a
m d
(4.8)
0,5 d
(4.9)
Stiffness (N/mm)
66
Stiffness (N/mm)
12000
8
9
10000
10
8000
11
12
6000
4000
2000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
Stiffness (N/mm)
12000
1
2
10000
8000
4
5
6000
4000
2000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
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Infaso+Handbook II
, ,
(4.10)
The loaddisplacement relationship of the anchorage corresponding to the failure of supplementary rein
forcement is given by Eq. (4.11).
, ,
2N
d
(4.11)
mm
Stiffness (N/mm)
12000
5000
10000
Stiffness (N/mm)
7500
10000
8000
12500
15000
6000
20000
4000
2000
0
0
Displacement (mm)
The stiffness of the anchorage is found to be most sensitive to the shoulder width a, followed by the em
bedment depth, hef. However, both these parameters are known quite accurately during design, therefore
the stiffness can be reasonably accurately determined. The next biggest variation comes through the con
crete strength with a reasonable coefficient of variation of 20%. For the given range of concrete strength
that can be expected in practice from the same concrete mix, the sensitivity to concrete strength can be
considered through material safety factor. The stiffness is sensitive to the parameter, c only in the mid
range of displacement (see Figure 5.2.3), while the initial stiffness and the stiffness at large displacements
are practically independent of this parameter. The variation in stiffness due to c can also be considered
through material safety factor. The stiffness is found to be practically insensitive to other parameters listed
in Tab. 4.2.
Tab. 4.2: Statistical information on parameter study
fck
kp,de
fbd
hef
ds,re
Min
3,29
1,49
3,3
3,48
2,88
3,5
4,5
3,3
3,704
2,29
3,3
3,38
3,01
3,4
3,3
3,96
3,29
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
4,64
4,21
3,3
3,22
3,54
3,2
2,87
3,3
4,95
5,1
3,3
3,15
3,78
3,1
2,56
3,2
Max
5,66
5,32
3,3
3,1
4,29
3,06
3,1
Mean
4,367
3,617
3,300
3,272
3,467
3,260
3,205
3,250
Stabw
0,878
1,539
0,000
0,143
0,522
0,172
0,927
0,084
Var Koeff
20%
43%
0%
4%
15%
5%
29%
3%
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Infaso+Handbook II
In the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13] this approach is described in more detail
based on a flowchart and a worked example. In order to determine the momentrotation curve of the joint,
the deformation of the single components have to be calculated. Therefore loaddeformation curves of the
single steel and concrete components have been developed. A parameter study on the concrete components
and a detailed investigation on the unknown factors of the concrete components can be found in the previ
ous chapter. Fig. 4.11 shows the mechanical model and a simplified joint model if the tensional and the
compression components are assembled in one spring.
Fig. 4.11: Analytic model of the simple steeltoconcrete joint (left), loaddeformation of the tensional
component if supplementary reinforcement can be activated in best case (right)
The deformation of the tensional component can be determined in three ranges (see Fig. 4.11). In the first
range the deformations can be calculated according to [12] with Eq. (4.12). For this the deformation due to
pullout failure (see Eq. (4.5)) and the deformation due to elongation of the shaft of the headed stud are
added.
, ,
With:
, , Deformation due to pullout failure;
, Deformation due to yielding of the headed stud.
70
(4.12)
At the end of the first range first cracks might develop from the head of the headed stud into the direction
of the concrete surface. If the load carrying capacity at concrete cone failure is reached, the supplementary
reinforcement can be activated. In this case the deformations can be calculated up to the ultimate load with
Eq. (4.13).
With:
, ,
,
,
, ,
(4.13)
The deformations in the third range depend on the failure mode of the ultimate load. If yielding of the sup
plementary reinforcement occurs, a ductile behaviour can be observed in the third range. The deformations
in the third range can be calculated with Eq. (4.14).
With:
k ,
k
N
k
(4.14)
10000
0
If the failure mode concrete failure and anchorage failure of the stirrups occurs;
Characteristic load carrying capacity of the supplementary reinforcement in interaction
with concrete cone failure;
It has to be considered, that the supplementary reinforcement can only be activated in the optimum case.
As the failure modes like, pullout failure of the headed studs, concrete cone failure between the supple
mentary reinforcement and steel failure of the headed stud can also occur, scenario distinctions have to be
made in all ranges. Within the following parameter study this issue will be highlighted and explained. The
rotation of the joint can be determined with Eq. (4.15) according to the spring model of Fig. 4.12.
With:
(4.15)
For the calculation of the full momentrotation curve of the joint the interac
tion conditions for steel failure (see Eq. (4.16)) and for concrete failure (see
Eq. (4.17)) have to be considered as tension forces and shear forces are acting
simultaneously on the simple steeltoconcrete joint.
Concrete failure
With:
N , , /V
N , /V
, ,
,
Steel failure
N
N
, ,
(4.16)
, ,
V
V
(4.17)
In Fig. 4.13 the validation of the model is shown for the different test specimens [12]. In this figures the
momentrotation curves are compared with the calculated curves according to the developed mechanical
joint model. It can be seen, that the model curves fit well to the test curves.
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Infaso+Handbook II
Momentrotationcurve for test B1BS
Momentrotationcurve for test R1C
Fig. 4.13: Validation of the INFASO model without supplementary reinforcement (left),
with supplementary reinforcement (right)
Within the first section the momentrotational behaviour of the joint is described up to concrete cone fail
ure. Test specimens without additional reinforcement reach their ultimate resistance up to this point. If
additional reinforcement is placed next to the stirrups, the load carrying capacity of the tensional compo
nent can be increased (see 2nd range for B1BR and B2CR in Fig. 4.13). In these cases the additional rein
forcement is activated and the ultimate load can be increased. In the following parameter study configura
tions will be shown, where the supplementary reinforcement can be activated and a ductile failure mode
can be obtained.
General
Based on the worked example on simple joints of Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13]
the different parameters were defined and varied in particular in the following. The worked example is used
thereby as reference version. Safety factors weren`t considered in this parameter study. Furthermore the
absolute terms in the equations for pullout failure and concrete cone failure were assumed as 12 and 15.5
to reproduce the real loadcarrying capacity. Values for application may be taken from the relevant Euro
pean Technical Specification of the specific headed studs.
4.3.3.2
The loadcarrying capacity and the rotational stiffness depends on different parameters and boundary con
ditions. The examined parameters are listed in Table 4.1.
72
Tab. 4.3: Overview of the examined parameters and their influence on the model
Parameter
Influence
Effective height
++
Eccentricity
++
+++
Diameter stirrups
++
Number of stirrups
++
Concrete strength
+++
4.3.3.3
Chapter
4.3.3.3
4.3.3.5
4.3.3.3
4.3.3.6
4.3.3.6
4.3.3.7
Effective height
The effective height (see Fig. 4.4) can either be varied by changing the thickness of the anchor plate, the
overall length of the headed stud or the head height of the anchor. In this study only the anchor length has
been modified as this factor has the biggest influence on the final result, see Tab. 4.4.
Tab. 4.4: Analyzed effective heights
Case 3
Case 4
100
Reference ver
sion
150
200
250
115
165
215
265
Parameter
Case 1
Case 2
50
65
Fig. 4.14 shows the loaddisplacement curve of the tensile component. The desired behaviour of the simple
joint can be monitored, if an effective height of 165 mm is used. By selecting this effective height all three
sections Range1, Range2 and Range3 in Fig. 4.14 are clearly evident. By the end of the first section Range1 the
ultimate load of the concrete cone failure without considering supplementary reinforcement NRk,c = 190 kN
is reached for the reference version (see Tab. 4.4). By further increase of the load, the hanger reinforcement
is activated and the smallest resistance of steel yielding of the stirrups NRk,re,1, anchorage failure of the stir
rups NRk,re,2 or the small concrete cone failure NRk,cs can be decisive. In the third range Range3 the inclination
of the loaddisplacementcurve depends whether brittle failure modes like concrete cone failure or anchor
age failure or steel failure becomes crucial. According to Fig. 4.14 ductile behaviour occurs if longer headed
studs are used. The headed stud is yielding before other failure modes can be recognized. Fig. 4.14 indicates
that the selection of longer headed studs does not increase the load carrying capacity of the tensional com
ponent of the joint. In this cases steel failure of the headed studs becomes the decisive failure mode. If
headed studs with smaller effective heights are used, brittle failure modes might occur. For effective height
of 115 mm concrete cone failure between the supplementary reinforcement with approx. NRk,cs = 250 kN is
decisive and for an effective height of 65 mm with approx. NRk,cs = 105 kN is the governing failure mode. In
Fig. 4.15 the momentrotation curve by varying the effective length of the headed stud is shown. By changing
the effective height the rotational behavior of the joint can be influenced less as if the diameter of the heads
stud is changed. Changes of the diameter of the headed stud have higher influence on the stiffness EA of this
component (see Eq.(4.12)).
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Infaso+Handbook II
Loaddisplacement curve
400
350
Load [kN]
300
250
200
hn = 50 mm
150
hn = 100 mm
100
hn = 150 mm
hn = 200 mm
50
hn = 250 mm
0
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.14: Loaddisplacement curve of the tensional component for variation of the effective height
Momentrotation curve
1,20
1,00
Mref/Mx []
0,80
0,60
hn = 50 mm
hn = 100 mm
hn = 150 mm
0,40
hn = 200 mm
hn = 250 mm
0,20
0,00
0,00
1,00
2,00
3,00
4,00
5,00
6,00
7,00
8,00
Rotation [mrad]
9,00
10,00
In Fig. 4.16 the loaddisplacement curves of the tensional component for different diameters of the headed
stud is shown. The diameters of the headed studs are varied according to Tab. 4.5. By using a diameter of
22 mm in the reference version the supplementary reinforcement can be activated. This can be seen in Fig.
4.16 as the load can be increased from approx. NRk,u,c = 190 kN up to NRk,u = 350 kN (for definition see Fig.
4.11, right). The overall load carrying capacity cannot be increased by selecting even a higher diameter of
the headed stud. As yielding of the supplementary reinforcement becomes the decisive component with
NRk,re,1 = 350 kN a larger diameter is not more advantageous. If the diameter is reduced, the increase in
74
loading due to the supplementary reinforcement cannot be taken into account fully. In this case a diameter
of 16 mm is too small as the load level of concrete cone failure, NRk,c = 190 kN, cannot be reached. In Fig.
4.17 the momentrotation curves of this simple steeltoconcrete joint by varying the diameter of the headed
stud are shown. The variation of the diameter has also an influence on the interaction equations of the joint.
Steel failure might become the decisive interaction equation.
Tab. 4.5: Diameter of the headed studs
Parameter
Diameter headed studs
[mm]
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Reference version
Case 4
13
16
19
22
25
Loaddisplacement curve
400
350
Load [kN]
300
250
200
150
ds,nom = 16 mm
ds,nom = 19 mm
100
ds,nom = 22 mm
50
0
0,00
ds,nom = 25 mm
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
12,00
14,00
16,00
18,00
20,00
Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.16: Loaddisplacement curve of the tensional component for variation of the diameter of the
headed studs
Momentrotation curve
1,40
1,20
Mref/Mx []
1,00
ds,nom = 16 mm
ds,nom = 19 mm
0,80
ds,nom = 22 mm
0,60
ds,nom = 25 mm
0,40
0,20
0,00
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
70,00
80,00
90,00
100,00
Rotaition [mrad]
Fig. 4.17: Momentrotation curve of the simple steeltoconcrete joint for variation of the diameter of
the headed studs
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Infaso+Handbook II
4.3.3.5
Eccentricity
According to Tab. 4.6 five different cases are considered in order to determine the influence of the eccen
tricity on the rotational behavior of the joint. Originally there shouldn`t be any effect to the loadcarrying
capacity of the simple joint since there is no direct relation between the eccentricity and the tensile compo
nent. But changes in the eccentricity have influence on the overall loadcarrying capacity. As interaction
equations (see Eq. (4.16) to (4.17)) have to be considered, increases of the eccentricity can have an influence
on the moment resistance of the joint. Either steel failure or concrete failure can be decisive. If joints are
designed with higher eccentricities, increases of the tensional components of the joint have to be consid
ered. By varying the eccentricity in this example the interaction equation is not overstepped as the re
sistances due to friction also increases due to higher normal forces in the joint (see Fig. 4.19). As the normal
forces are getting larger the load capacity of the friction component rises and the shear resistance of the
headed studs is exceeded. Smaller shear forces are transferred to the second anchor row and possible nor
mal forces can be raised in this row. The particular application must be investigated therefore on caseby
case basis.
Tab. 4.6: Analyzed eccentricities
Parameter
Case 1
Case 2
Eccentricity [mm]
50
75
Reference ver
sion
100
Case 3
Case 4
200
250
Momentrotation curve
2,50
2,00
Mref/Mx []
hn = 250 mm
hn = 200 mm
1,50
hn = 150 mm
hn = 100 mm
1,00
hn = 50 mm
0,50
0,00
0,00
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
12,00
14,00
16,00
Rotaition [mrad]
18,00
20,00
The parameters of the diameter and the number of stirrups have been changed according to Tab. 4.7. If the
load carrying capacity of concrete cone failure is reached, further load increases depend on the supplemen
tary reinforcement. Two different failure modes have to be considered if the supplementary reinforcement
can be activated. Bond failure according to Chapter 4.2.9 or yielding of the supplementary reinforcement
might occur. By increasing the diameter of the stirrup the ultimate resistance of the tensile component can
only be increased slightly (see Fig. 4.19). By increasing the diameter of the headed stud, steel failure of the
headed studs becomes the decisive component with approx. NRk,s = 350 kN. As this is the crucial component
increases in the diameter of the supplementary reinforcement are not more advantageous. In a further pa
rameter study the number of stirrups has been varied. If the number of stirrups is reduced brittle failure
modes might occur, as the surface area of the supplementary reinforcement is reduced (see Fig. 4.20).
76
Case 1
Reference version
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
12
14
Case 1
Case 2
10
Reference
version
4
Loaddisplacement curve
400
350
Load [kN]
300
250
200
ds,re= 14 mm
ds,re= 12 mm
ds,re= 10 mm
ds,re= 8 mm
ds,re= 6 mm
150
100
50
0
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.19: Loaddisplacement curve for variation of the diameter of the supplementary reinforcement
Loaddisplacement curve
400
350
Load [kN]
300
250
200
150
nre= 1
100
nre= 2
50
nre= 4
0
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.20: Loaddisplacement curve for variation of the number of stirrups
4.3.3.7
Concrete strength
The concrete strength has an influence on all components and therefore a high influence on the loaddefor
mation behavior of the tensile components. The issue of the scattering of this parameter is described in
Chapter 4.2.4. In this parameter study this component is varied according to Tab. 4.8. If the concrete
strength is reduced the load carrying capacity of the concrete component without considering the additional
reinforcement (see Eq. (4.1)) decreases. The supplementary reinforcement cannot be activated fully in two
77
Infaso+Handbook II
cases as (Case 1 and Case 2) as pullout failure is the decisive component NRk,p = 280 kN (Case 1) in this
cases.
Tab. 4.8: Variation of concrete strength
Parameter
Case 1
Case 2
C20/25
C25/30
Reference
version
C30/37
Case 3
Case 4
C35/45
C40/50
Loaddisplacement curve
400
350
Load [kN]
300
250
200
fck = 50 N/mm
fck = 45 N/mm
fck = 37 N/mm
fck = 30 N/mm
fck = 25 N/mm
150
100
50
0
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
Displacement [mm]
3,50
4,00
4,50
78
5,00
4.3.4.1
General
Edge distances
Within the INFASO project [11] a calculation approach for the tensile concrete components has been devel
oped. Tests with loading perpendicular toward a free edge under shear with consideration of the positive
contribution of the supplementary reinforcement have not yet been made. The additional reinforcement
can only be taken into account, if the geometric limitations in Fig. 4.22 are taken into consideration. These
limitations ensure that there are no edge effects which might lead to different failure modes. Further infor
mation will be given in Obolt [19]. Furthermore conservative calculation approaches for the calculation of
the shear resistance due to pryout failure have to be made, as the calculation of the resistance due to pry
out failure is based on the tensile resistance of the concrete components without considering the additional
reinforcement. In future further tests have to be done for this failure mode.
4.3.4.3
Fig. 4.23: Number of headed studs according to
CEN/TS 199241 [1]
Concrete strength
A relatively low concrete strength of C20/25 [7] has been used for all test specimens to achieve concrete
failure modes as lower bound of all failure mechanism. The developed INFASO models [11] are only valid
for normalstrength concrete and should not be transferred to highstrength concrete.
4.3.4.5
Number of stirrups
The model of the tensile components has been developed in the INFASO project [11] for one stud row. This
model is based on tests of headed studs under pure tension, where supplementary reinforcement is consid
ered. In the test specimens with consideration of supplementary reinforcement two stirrups have been
placed next to the headed stud. In total four legs have been considered within the concrete cone of one
headed stud. The model of this tensile component has been implemented in the model of the simple joint,
where the tensional forces have to be considered in the second row of headed studs (see Fig. 4.11). The
79
Infaso+Handbook II
model of this simple steeltoconcrete joint has been validated with good agreement against the test results
(see Fig. 4.13) with the exact constellation of supplementary reinforcement as in the component tests under
pure tension.
If the new INFASO design approach [11] is transferred to anchor
plates with more than two stud rows, the load distribution among
the supplementary reinforcement has to be considered in special. If
the model is assigned for two stud rows under tension, calculation
approaches are given in [16]. If the supplementary reinforcement is
placed next to the headed studs according to Fig. 4.24 the concrete
cone can be subdivided into the intermediate part with normal con
crete breakout and the right side and left side part where the factor
supp is considered. The failure load of this component can be calcu
lated with Eq. (4.18):
N
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
(4.18)
Further investigations no the subject of edge effects, number of stir
rups (see [19] and [14]) and number of heads studs (see [15])are on
the way but not yet in a status to be implemented in Eurocodes.
80
Fig. 4.25: Geometry of tests with column base with anchor plate
The analytical component based model of column base with anchor plate was validated on experiments
prepared under the project, see Kuhlman et al. [12]. The specimen was consisted of two steel units, see Fig.
4.25. The thin steel anchor plate was tp1 = 10 mm with welded studs d = 22 mm, h = 150 mm and with
threaded studs d = 24 mm, h = 100 mm. The thick steel base plate tp2 = 25 mm was design under the column
HE180B, fillet weld aw = 6 mm. The concrete block was made from reinforced concrete
1 600 x 1 000 x 400 mm, see Tab. 4.9 The test results were published in Ph.D. thesis of ika, J. [20]
Tab. 4.9: Geometric dimensions of the tests
Column
HE180B
S355
Threaded studs
d = 24 mm; h = 100 mm
fyk = 355 MPa
Base plate
250x380x25
fyk = 355 MPa
Anchor plate
S355
Headed studs
S355
d = 22 mm; h = 150 mm
fy,exp = 444.8 MPa
350x560x10
S235
fu,exp = 421.3
Foundation (cracked)
S355
fu,exp = 542.1
1600x1000x400
fck = 25 MPa
C25/30
fck,c = 30 MPa
M[kNm]
The analytical model is described in Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13]. For the calcu
lation were taken the measured values of material properties of steel. In the experiments S20, S25, and
S230 varies the thickness of the grout, form 0 mm, 5 mm and 30 mm. The experimental moment rotational
curves are summarized in Fig. 4.26.
50
40
30
20
S20
10
S25
S230
0
0,00
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
[rad]
Fig. 4.26: Momentrotation curves of three experiments with different position of headed and threaded
studs
81
Infaso+Handbook II
The differences of experimental results are reported to be due to changes of lever arm during the loading
at large deformations, see Fig. 4.27. The vertical deformations were measured at points 111, the horizontal
ones in 12 and 13, see Fig. 4.27. Results of each experiments were recalculated based on the measured actual
acting force, see Fig. 4.28 to Fig. 4.30. The eccentricity is recalculated to the column axes. The comparison
of the calculated and measured initial stiffness Sj,ini shows a good agreement. The difference is in between a
range of 5 %. The elasticplastic stage is affected to the material properties and the development of cracks
in concrete block. The modelling respects the engineering level of accuracy in prediction of resistance.
M[kNm]
[rad]
M[kNm]
[rad]
M[kNm]
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Calculation
5
S230
0
0,01 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10
[rad]
Normalforce[kN]
The bending resistance of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the tensile and compression
resistance of its components. The additional component is the anchor plate in bending and in tension. The
procedure for evaluation of the resistance is the same in all connections loaded by bending moment and
normal force. The influence of parameters like the base plate thickness, the anchor plate thickness, and the
distance between the headed and threaded studs is studied. The study is prepared for column of cross sec
tion HE180B, for all plates and cross sections of steel S355 (if not mentioned for all plates and cross sections
S235), concrete C25/30, threaded studs M 24, steel S355, and headed studs M22, steel S355. In each normal
force moment interaction diagram are marked the important points e. g. the resistance in tension, in maxi
mal bending, in pure bending, and in maximal compression. The Fig. 4.31 and Fig. 4.32 demonstrate the
influence of the base plate thickness tp2 for steel S355 and S235.
3250
3000
tp2 =40mm
2750
30mm
2500
25mm
2250
2000
20mm
1750
15mm
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.31: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different base plate
thickness tp2 and steel S355
83
Normalforce[kN]
Infaso+Handbook II
3000
2750
tp2 =40mm
2500
30mm
2250
25mm
2000
20mm
1750
15mm
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.32: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different base plate
thickness tp2 and steel S235
Normalforce[kN]
The parameter study of the anchor plate thickness tp1 is influenced by the interaction of acting developed
forces in headed studs in shear and in tension. The selected value of effective height of the headed stud is
included for each anchor plate thickness. Fig. 4.33 to Fig. 4.36 show the influence of the anchor plate thick
ness to the column base resistance for two material properties. For headed studs with the effective height
150 mm, only the anchor plate with thickness 10 mm is not affected by the headed studs resistance.
2750
tp1 =10mm
2500
2250
tp1 =8mm
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
heff =150mm
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.33: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud length heff = 150 mm
84
Normalforce[kN]
3000
2750
tp1 =20mm
tp1 =10mm
2500
2250
tp1 =8mm
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
heff =150mm
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
M[kNm]
Fig. 4.34: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud length heff = 150 mm
160
tp2 =20mm
140
120
100
15mm
80
60
10mm
40
8mm
20
0
0,00
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
[rad]
Fig. 4.35: Moment rotation diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 350 mm
85
M[kNm]
Infaso+Handbook II
120
tp2 =20mm
100
80
60
15mm
40
10mm
8mm
20
0
0,00
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
[rad]
Fig. 4.36: Moment rotation interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 300 mm
Normalforce[kN]
The influence of the effective length of the headed stud 200 and 350 mm, for steel S355, the plate thickness
25 mm is summarized in a moment normal force interaction diagram in Fig. 4.37 and Fig. 4.38.
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
250
500
750
tp1 =20mm
15mm
10mm
8mm
Columnendresistance
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.37: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 350 mm
86
Normalforce[kN]
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
250
500
15mm
10mm
tp1 =20mm
8mm
Columnendresistance
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.38: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 300 mm
Normalforce[kN]
Different distance between the headed and threaded studs of the anchor plates and their influence on the
moment resistance are shown in Fig. 4.39 to Fig. 4.42 for the anchor plate thickness 10 mm, base plate
thickness 25 mm, and steels S355 and S235. The pure bending resistance decreases till the distance between
the headed and threaded studs 200 mm, where the base plate resistance is changed.
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
m1 =200mm
m1 =150mm
m1 =120mm
m1 =100mm
m1 =80mm
m1 =50mm
1000
750
500
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.39: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different distances between the headed and
threaded studs m1, for the anchor plate steel S355
87
Infaso+Handbook II
Normalforce[kN]
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
m1 =200mm
m1 =150mm
m1 =120mm
m1 =100mm
m1 =80mm
m1 =50mm
1000
750
500
250
Columnend
resistance
0
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Moment[kNm]
M[kNm]
Fig. 4.40: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different distances between the headed and
threaded studs m1, for the anchor plate steel S235
50
45
40
35
30
m1 =50mm
60mm
70mm
80mm
90mm
100mm
110mm
120mm
25
20
150mm
200mm
15
10
5
0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20 0,22 0,24 0,26 0,28 0,30 0,32
[rad]
Fig. 4.41: Moment rotation diagram for different distances between the headed and threaded studs
m1, for the anchor plate steel S355
88
M[kNm]
35
m1 =50mm
60mm
70mm
80mm
90mm
100mm
110mm
120mm
30
25
20
15
150mm
200mm
10
5
0
0,00
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,22
[rad]
Fig. 4.42: Moment rotation diagram for different distances between the headed and threaded studs
m1, for the anchor plate steel S235
min 2.5 d
(4.19)
min 1.2 d
(4.20)
a 2
(4.21)
min 1.2 d
With:
p2
d10
d20
eb1
eb2
m2
min 1.2 d
(4.22)
min 1.2 d
(4.23)
89
Infaso+Handbook II
Fig. 4.43: Scheme of base plate with anchor plate
where
tp1
tp2
d1
d2
heff
For very thin anchor plates tp1 < 6 mm and huge headed and threaded studs d1 > 40 mm too rough simplifi
cation of changes in the geometry in the model might occur. The prediction of the tensile resistance of the
component anchor plate in bending and in tension should be modelled by iteration, which is described in
ika, J. [20].
For ductile behaviour of the base plate with anchor plate it is necessary to avoid a brittle failure of the con
crete components. The concrete cone failure without or with reinforcement, the pullout failure of headed
studs, the pryout failure of headed stud, and its interaction. The steel failure of the threaded stud in tension
is unacceptable brittle for design of steel structures. In column bases it is approved, that the failure of the
anchor bolts is for predominantly static loading of column bases ductile enough. The headed studs with
embedded length of at least 8 d1 may be expected to present ductile behaviour. The deformation capacity
of headed studs with shorter embedded length in the reinforced concrete block should be checked by pre
sented method in Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13].
Under serviceability limit state the elastic plastic behaviour without any membrane actions is expected in
connections. Column bases with base plate and anchor plate develop the plastic hinge mechanism and the
anchor plate due to a tensile bar. This behaviour is ductile but creates large deformations. Hence this
method is recommended to limit the serviceability limit state by the creation of the full plastic mechanism
only.
90
The distance between the threaded and headed studs m1 is expected in one direction along the base plate
only. For distances in both direction the real distance m1 should be taken into account. The threaded and
headed studs deviation from the specified location is expected in the calculations as 6 mm. The stud devi
ation is taken into consideration reducing the lever arm as:
m1
m
4 mm
2 mm
Due to loading of the of column base with plastic mechanism in the anchor plate internal vertical and hori
zontal forces in the headed studs from changed geometry have to be considered. In the presented tables this
is dissipated till 20 % of the horizontal resistance of headed studs. The remaining 80 % may carry the acting
external shear forces. The symbols used are summarized in Fig. 4.43. By utilization of tables the linear tran
sition for different normal force / bending moment ratio is recommended. The geometry of the column base
is defined by following values:
ap2
d1
d2
eb1
eb2
m1
m2
p1
p2
tp2
tp1
Normal force, kN
M=0
NM=0
M3
N3
M2
N2
Moment, kNm
M N=0
N=0
M1
N1
91
Infaso+Handbook II
The tables contain the limiting length of columns for the rigid column bases for frames where
Lcb = 8 E Ic / Sj.ini and for other frames as Lco = 25 E Ic / Sj.ini.
92
Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.
Tab. 4.10: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE160B
Column
HE160B
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
700 x 1200 x 850
Base plate
P25 200 x 360
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 100 mm
C20/25 eb2 = 50 mm
m2 = 50 mm
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.6
4.8
3.8
84.8
44.1
21.4
34
48
65
29
39
58
awf = 6 mm
Lco
M1
N 1
Sj,ini
tp1
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5
Lco
M2
S355
Foundation
N 2
Sj,ini
Lcb
Lco
[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5
M3
N 3
Sj,ini
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5
[m]
9.4
9.5
9.6
20.8
16.2
13.2
244.2
140.7
73.5
[kN]
1804
1887
1926
1804
1887
1926
1804
1887
1926
Base plate
P30 200 x 360
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 100 mm
C20/25 eb2 = 50 mm
m2 = 50 mm
MN=0,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
2.5
2.6
2.6
6.3
4.6
3.6
84.9
44.0
21.3
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 240 x (380 + 2m1)
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
S355
p1 = 100 mm
eb1 = 70 mm
Varying
m 1
Lcb
Column
HE160B
Threaded studs
24 mm
S355
S355
p1 = 100 mm
eb1 = 70 mm
Varying
m 1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 240 x (380 + 2m1)
S355
Threaded studs
24 mm
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
36
49
67
30
41
60
Lco
M1
N 1
Sj,ini
Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2
Lco
M2
N 2
Sj,ini
Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2
Lco
M3
N 3
Sj,ini
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2
[m]
8.6
8.7
8.8
19.8
15.3
12.4
240.3
138.7
72.6
[kN]
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
93
Infaso+Handbuch Teil I
Tab. 4.11: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE180B
Column
HE180B
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
800 x 1200 x 850
Base plate
P25 220 x 380
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 100 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm
m2 = 50 mm
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
3.5
3.5
3.5
7.9
5.9
4.7
97.6
50.7
24.8
39
55
74
33
45
66
awf = 6 mm
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
10.8
127
10.9
134
11.0
145
24.8
117
18.4
131
14.7
149
305.1
114
158.5
126
77.4
148
N 1
Sj,ini
tp1
S355
Foundation
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 100 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm
m2 = 50 mm
MN=0,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
94
heff = 200 mm
B500A
[m]
3.9
3.9
4.0
8.3
6.6
5.5
92.3
54.1
29.0
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
12.1
127
12.3
134
12.6
145
25.8
117
20.5
131
17.3
149
288.4
114
169.0
127
90.5
148
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
989
16342
1054
16160
1151
15911
1069
7668
1077
9701
1117
11631
1089
685
1110
1177
1126
2220
Lcb
Lco
[m]
3.9
4.0
4.0
8.4
6.6
5.5
94.0
54.7
29.0
M3
[m] [kNm]
12.3
127
12.4
134
12.6
145
26.2
116
20.7
131
17.3
149
293.8
113
171.0
126
90.6
148
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1036
16088
1085
16009
1154
15897
1116
7522
1107
9600
1120
11620
1135
670
1141
1162
1129
2217
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
4.0
4.0
4.0
8.6
6.7
5.5
96.1
55.4
29.0
[m]
12.5
12.6
12.7
26.7
21.0
17.3
300.3
173.1
90.7
[kN]
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
[kNm]
[m]
3.2
3.2
3.3
7.7
5.6
4.5
97.7
50.6
24.6
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 260 x (400 + 2m1)
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
S355
p1 = 100 mm
eb1 = 80 mm
Threaded studs
M24
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
Base plate
P30 220 x 380
Varying
m 1
Lcb
[kN] [kNm/rad]
942
16566
1023
16299
1148
15925
1022
7795
1046
9795
1114
11642
1042
697
1080
1190
1123
2222
Column
HE180B
Threaded studs
M24
S355
S355
p1 = 100 mm
eb1 = 80 mm
Varying
m 1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 260 x (400 + 2m1)
S355
40
56
77
34
46
68
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
10.0
140
10.1
147
10.2
158
23.9
129
17.6
144
13.9
163
305.3
126
158.1
139
76.7
161
N 1
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1093
17608
1150
17448
1231
17255
1173
7984
1174
10173
1197
12328
1193
691
1208
1188
1208
2254
Lcb
[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.2
54.2
28.6
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
11.4
140
11.5
147
11.7
158
25.2
129
19.8
144
16.3
163
291.3
126
169.2
139
89.2
161
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1096
17593
1150
17448
1231
17255
1177
7976
1174
10173
1197
12328
1196
690
1208
1188
1208
2254
Lcb
[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.3
54.2
28.6
Lco
M3
[m] [kNm]
11.4
140
11.5
147
11.7
158
25.2
129
19.8
144
16.3
163
291.6
126
169.2
139
89.2
161
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1099
17577
1150
17448
1231
17255
1180
7967
1174
10173
1197
12328
1200
689
1208
1188
1208
2254
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.4
54.2
28.6
[m]
11.4
11.5
11.7
25.2
19.8
16.3
292.0
169.2
89.2
[kN]
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.
Tab. 4.12: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE200B
HE200B
Column
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
800 x 1300 x 900
Base plate
P25 240 x 400
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 120 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm
m2 = 50 mm
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
Lco
awf = 6 mm
M1
N 1
Sj,ini
tp1
Lco
Foundation
N 2
Base plate
S355
M2
S355
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 120 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm
m2 = 50 mm
MN=0,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
heff = 200 mm
B500A
N 3
Sj,ini
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
3.4
3.5
3.5
7.4
5.8
4.8
82.9
47.8
25.1
[m]
10.8
10.8
10.9
23.1
18.1
14.9
259.1
149.4
78.3
[kN]
2725
2772
2772
2725
2772
2772
2725
2772
2772
S355
p1 = 120 mm
eb1 = 80 mm
M3
Threaded studs
Lco
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]
10.4
148 1220
18664
10.6
157 1279
18588
10.7
171 1363
18483
22.3
135 1308
8696
17.6
153 1310
11117
14.7
175 1335
13514
248.2
132 1328
776
144.8
148 1344
1346
77.0
173 1349
2567
Anchor plate
Sj,ini
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
10.2
152 1131
19257 3.3
10.4
160 1203
19043 3.4
10.6
172 1311
18748 3.4
21.6
139 1219
9036 7.1
17.2
155 1235
11421 5.6
14.5
176 1284
13721 4.7
240.3
136 1240
810 79.4
141.2
150 1270
1389 46.3
75.9
174 1298
2612 24.6
Varying
m 1
Lcb
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
9.1
152 1041
19735 3.3
9.2
160 1127
19423 3.3
9.2
172 1260
18985 3.4
21.4
139 1131
9302 6.9
15.6
155 1160
11676 5.5
12.3
176 1232
13907 4.6
266.0
135 1152
837 76.9
136.6
150 1195
1424 45.2
65.8
174 1248
2651 24.3
Column
HE200B
Threaded studs
Headed studs
Stirrups
M24
S355 22 mm
S355 8 mm
S355
p1 = 120 mm
eb1 = 80 mm
Varying
m 1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 280 x (420 + 2m1)
M24
Headed studs
S355 22 mm
Stirrups
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
Lcb
Lco
M1
N 1
Sj,ini
Lcb
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
8.5
167 1205
20840 3.1
8.6
175 1293
20524 3.1
8.6
187 1430
20077 3.2
20.7
154 1294
9508 6.8
15.0
170 1326
12005 5.4
11.8
192 1402
14392 4.5
266.2
151 1315
830 77.6
136.3
165 1361
1412 45.6
65.3
189 1418
2633 24.4
Lco
M2
N 2
Sj,ini
Lcb
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
9.7
167 1256
20579 3.1
9.8
175 1326
20367 3.2
10.0
187 1431
20071 3.2
21.2
154 1345
9366 6.9
16.8
170 1358
11901 5.4
14.0
192 1403
14388 4.5
242.4
151 1366
816 78.9
142.4
165 1393
1398 46.0
76.4
189 1419
2633 24.4
Lco
M3
N 3
Sj,ini
[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]
9.8
166 1307
20286
9.9
174 1359
20198
10.0
187 1432
20066
21.5
153 1396
9206
16.9
170 1391
11790
14.0
192 1404
14384
246.5
150 1416
800
143.8
165 1425
1383
76.4
189 1420
2632
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
3.2
3.2
3.2
7.0
5.5
4.5
80.4
46.5
24.5
[m]
9.9
10.0
10.0
21.8
17.1
14.0
251.3
145.4
76.4
[kN]
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
95
Infaso+Handbuch Teil I
Tab. 4.13: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE220B
Column
HE220B
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000
Base plate
P25 260 x 420
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 120 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm
m2 = 50 mm
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
2.5
2.5
2.5
6.0
4.3
3.4
75.3
38.3
18.2
44
62
85
36
49
74
awf = 6 mm
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
7.8
177
7.9
186
8.0
201
18.7
161
13.5
179
10.6
203
235.3
157
119.5
173
56.8
199
N 1
Sj,ini
tp1
S355
Foundation
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 120 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm
m2 = 50 mm
MN=0,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
96
heff = 200 mm
B500A
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.9
5.9
4.7
3.9
64.9
38.2
20.6
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
8.7
177
8.8
186
9.0
201
18.3
161
14.6
179
12.3
203
202.8
158
119.4
173
64.3
200
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1411
21614
1470
21509
1560
21351
1468
10175
1470
12962
1498
15742
1489
913
1506
1575
1517
2987
Lcb
Lco
[m]
3.0
3.0
3.0
6.3
5.0
4.1
70.5
40.9
21.5
M3
[m] [kNm]
9.3
162
9.4
175
9.4
194
19.8
148
15.5
169
12.8
197
220.3
145
127.7
164
67.3
194
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1672
19614
1700
19909
1740
20258
1714
9108
1685
11958
1665
14953
1734
807
1719
1437
1681
2821
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
3.3
3.2
3.2
7.1
5.4
4.3
79.7
44.8
22.8
[m]
10.3
10.1
9.9
22.1
16.8
13.5
249.1
140.0
71.3
[kN]
3232
3232
3232
3220
3232
3232
3220
3232
3232
[kNm]
[m]
2.3
2.4
2.4
5.8
4.2
3.2
75.4
38.2
18.1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 300 x (440 + 2m1)
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
S355
p1 = 120 mm
eb1 = 90 mm
Threaded studs
M24
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
Base plate
P30 260 x 420
Varying
m 1
Lcb
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1149
23107
1240
22751
1380
22250
1221
10963
1256
13750
1331
16407
1243
992
1291
1685
1352
3128
Column
HE220B
Threaded studs
M24
S355
S355
p1 = 120 mm
eb1 = 90 mm
Varying
m 1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 300 x (440 + 2m1)
S355
45
63
88
37
51
75
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
7.3
195
7.4
204
7.5
219
18.2
179
13.0
197
10.1
221
235.5
175
119.3
191
56.5
218
N 1
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1325
24272
1418
23913
1562
23405
1395
11184
1432
14102
1511
16924
1417
984
1468
1672
1532
3108
Lcb
[m]
2.7
2.7
2.7
5.8
4.6
3.8
65.4
38.5
20.7
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
8.3
195
8.4
204
8.6
219
18.0
179
14.3
197
11.9
221
204.4
175
120.3
191
64.7
218
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1498
23316
1559
23178
1651
22973
1555
10702
1559
13658
1588
16630
1577
937
1595
1612
1608
3048
Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.0
4.7
3.9
68.7
39.9
21.1
Lco
M3
[m] [kNm]
8.6
188
8.7
200
8.8
217
18.8
173
14.7
193
12.1
220
214.6
170
124.8
188
66.0
217
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1672
22155
1700
22319
1740
22498
1716
10113
1687
13145
1665
16312
1736
880
1721
1543
1684
2983
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
2.9
2.9
2.9
6.4
4.9
3.9
73.1
41.7
21.6
[m]
9.1
9.0
8.9
19.9
15.3
12.3
228.5
130.3
67.4
[kN]
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.
Tab. 4.14: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE240B
Column
HE240B
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000
Base plate
P25 280 x 440
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 140 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm
m2 = 50 mm
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
2.2
2.2
2.2
5.3
3.8
2.9
67.4
33.9
15.9
47
65
91
38
52
78
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
6.8
206
6.8
216
6.9
233
16.6
183
11.9
202
9.2
229
210.7
179
106.0
196
49.8
224
N 1
Sj,ini
Lcb
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1251
26832
1347
26425
1495
25853
1292
12783
1329
16025
1407
19151
1314
1162
1366
1971
1433
3653
[m]
2.4
2.4
2.5
5.0
4.0
3.4
55.4
32.7
17.6
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
7.5
206
7.6
216
7.8
233
15.7
183
12.6
202
10.5
229
173.1
179
102.0
196
55.1
225
Column
HE240B
Threaded studs
M24
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
S355
p1 = 140 mm
eb1 = 90 mm
Varying
m 1
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 320 x (460 + 2m1)
S355
Sj,ini
Lcb
Lco
[m]
2.5
2.5
2.6
5.3
4.2
3.5
58.3
34.1
18.2
M3
[m] [kNm]
7.8
193
7.9
205
8.0
225
16.5
172
13.1
193
10.8
222
182.2
168
106.7
187
57.0
219
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1601
24068
1679
24010
1791
23934
1605
11359
1621
14560
1663
17821
1626
1019
1657
1768
1685
3372
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
2.7
2.7
2.7
5.7
4.4
3.6
63.1
36.4
19.1
[m]
8.4
8.4
8.4
17.7
13.8
11.3
197.3
113.8
59.6
[kN]
3328
3502
3763
3176
3341
3588
3176
3341
3588
Base plate
P30 280 x 440
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 140 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm
m2 = 50 mm
Varying
m 1
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad] [kNm]
10
83
31486
0
12
84
31253
15
86
30907
10
44
12436
48
50
12
64
17530
67
15
93
22905
93
10
33
954
39
12
47
1901
53
100
15
74
4064
79
N 2
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1426
25704
1513
25420
1643
25031
1448
12204
1476
15408
1535
18567
1470
1104
1512
1886
1559
3529
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 320 x (460 + 2m1)
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
S355
p1 = 140 mm
eb1 = 90 mm
Threaded studs
M24
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
6.4
227
6.4
238
6.5
254
16.2
203
11.5
223
8.8
250
210.9
199
105.8
216
49.5
245
N 1
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1439
28047
1538
27640
1690
27062
1473
13017
1514
16396
1594
19694
1496
1153
1550
1957
1621
3631
Lcb
[m]
2.3
2.3
2.4
4.9
3.9
3.3
55.8
32.9
17.7
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
7.2
227
7.3
238
7.4
254
15.5
203
12.3
223
10.2
250
174.4
199
102.8
217
55.4
246
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1587
27147
1672
26870
1799
26484
1601
12582
1626
15954
1681
19320
1623
1111
1662
1897
1706
3554
Lcb
[m]
2.4
2.4
2.4
5.1
4.0
3.3
57.9
33.9
18.1
Lco
M3
[m] [kNm]
7.4
218
7.5
231
7.6
251
16.0
197
12.6
218
10.4
247
181.0
193
106.0
212
56.6
243
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1735
25948
1806
25880
1908
25779
1728
12007
1738
15401
1769
18885
1750
1055
1774
1823
1792
3465
Lcb
[m]
2.5
2.5
2.5
5.4
4.2
3.4
61.0
35.3
18.6
Lco
[m]
7.8
7.8
7.8
16.8
13.1
10.7
190.6
110.3
58.0
NM=0
[kN]
3651
3763
3763
3481
3641
3763
3481
3641
3763
97
Infaso+Handbuch Teil I
Tab. 4.15: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE260B
Column
HE260B
Base plate
awf = 6 mm
S355
Foundation
100 x 1500 x 1050
Anchor plate
p2 = 140 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 80 mm
m2 = 50 mm
ea1 = 60 mm
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
[kNm]
[m]
1.9
1.9
1.9
4.8
3.4
2.6
60.9
30.4
14.1
49
69
97
40
55
81
awf = 6 mm
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
6.0
235
6.0
247
6.1
266
14.9
204
10.5
225
8.0
255
190.4
200
94.9
218
44.1
249
N 1
Sj,ini
tp1
S355
Foundation
ea2 = 50 mm
p2 = 140 mm
C25/30 eb2 = 80 mm
m2 = 50 mm
MN=0,pl
MN=0,mem
Lcb
98
S355
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
[m]
2.1
2.1
2.2
4.4
3.5
2.9
47.7
28.1
15.2
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
6.5
235
6.6
247
6.8
266
13.6
204
10.9
225
9.1
255
149.0
200
87.9
219
47.5
250
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1576
29258
1670
28938
1811
28498
1531
14019
1563
17694
1625
21346
1554
1273
1600
2172
1654
4059
Lcb
Lco
[m]
2.2
2.2
2.3
4.6
3.6
3.0
50.5
29.6
15.9
M3
[m] [kNm]
6.9
215
7.0
229
7.1
251
14.3
189
11.4
212
9.4
244
157.9
185
92.6
206
49.6
240
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1796
26868
1883
26826
2010
26774
1716
12847
1738
16489
1786
20242
1738
1156
1774
2005
1811
3827
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
2.4
2.4
2.4
5.0
3.9
3.2
55.7
32.1
16.8
[m]
7.5
7.5
7.5
15.7
12.2
9.9
174.0
100.3
52.6
[kN]
3627
3816
4099
3339
3511
3769
3339
3511
3769
[kNm]
[m]
1.8
1.8
1.8
4.6
3.3
2.5
61.0
30.3
14.0
Anchor plate
P(tp1) 340 x (480 + 2m1)
S355
ea1 = 60 mm
S355
p1 = 140 mm
eb1 = 100 mm
Threaded studs
M24
S355
Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm
B500A
Stirrups
Base plate
P30 300 x 460
Varying
m 1
Lcb
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1355
30797
1457
30340
1613
29698
1346
14783
1386
18528
1465
22170
1369
1350
1424
2287
1495
4232
Column
HE260B
M24
Headed studs
S355
p1 = 140 mm
eb1 = 100 mm
Varying
m 1
S355
ea2 = 50 mm
Threaded studs
50
71
99
41
56
83
Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
5.6
259
5.7
272
5.8
291
14.5
227
10.2
248
7.7
278
190.5
223
94.8
242
43.8
273
N 1
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1556
32062
1660
31606
1820
30960
1534
15027
1577
18914
1659
22735
1557
1340
1615
2271
1689
4207
Lcb
[m]
2.0
2.0
2.1
4.3
3.4
2.8
48.0
28.3
15.3
Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
6.3
259
6.4
272
6.5
291
13.4
227
10.6
248
8.8
278
150.0
223
88.6
242
47.8
273
N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1755
30753
1847
30442
1986
30008
1694
14420
1724
18271
1782
22141
1717
1281
1761
2185
1811
4086
Lcb
[m]
2.1
2.1
2.1
4.5
3.5
2.9
50.2
29.5
15.8
Lco
M3
[m] [kNm]
6.5
245
6.6
260
6.7
282
13.9
217
11.0
240
9.1
273
157.0
213
92.0
234
49.2
268
N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1954
28875
2035
28824
2152
28750
1854
13571
1870
17420
1906
21409
1876
1198
1906
2071
1933
3936
Lcb
Lco
NM=0
[m]
2.2
2.2
2.2
4.7
3.7
3.0
53.7
31.1
16.4
[m]
7.0
7.0
7.0
14.8
11.5
9.4
167.8
97.1
51.1
[kN]
3987
4171
4203
3665
3832
4083
3665
3832
4083
Beam
Concrete grade
fck,cyl[MPa]
fck,cube[MPa]
Ecm[MPa]
Profile
IPE 240
IPE 270
20
25
30
500
600
1.15
1.25
1.35
50
75
Case D
2
6
16
Case C
1
6
16
Case B
1
6
14
160
200
200
240
300
30
37
33
40
50
35
50
60
37
60
75
39
IPE 300
IPE 330
IPE 360
IPE 400
99
Infaso+Handbook II
Failure Mechanism
Considering the simultaneous variation of all parameters, the most common failure type is the joint link
(34149 cases of 51840, 65.87%); only in 14493 cases (27.96) a slab reinforcement failure occurs; in few
cases (3198, 6.17%) the failure depends on the behaviour of beam. Fig. 4.45 summarizes found failure types
in the sensitivity analysis.
6.17
Beam Web and Flange
27.96
Joint Link
65.87
Reinforcement
Fig. 4.45: Failure type
80.00
73.56
62.43
60.00
47.01
40.00
37.57
33.77
25.79
19.21
14.70
20.00
0.00
0.65
Case A
Case B
4.81
0.00
Case C
Case D
Joint Link
Reinforcement
100
75.67
80.00
65.25
60.00
40.00
49.65
49.26
28.94
15.21
20.00
5.81
1.09
9.12
0.00
400
500
600
fsyk [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
75.67
80.00
65.25
60.00
40.00
49.65
49.26
28.94
15.21
20.00
5.81
1.09
9.12
0.00
400
500
600
fsyk [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
101
Infaso+Handbook II
100
82.22
79.72
80
76.04
75.07
71.25
70.63
65.63
61.46
59.51
60
56.32
57.15
50.21
42.85
49.79
40.42
40
33.89
27.29
27.29
22.29
21.67
20
7.08
15.42
14.44
3.26
0.00
1.05
10.76
9.51
11.81
9.51
9.51
7.08
7.08
5.97
4.65
3.26
0.00
1.15
1.25
1.35
k []
Beam fsyk 600 MPa
Variation of angle
In order to assess the role of the angle theta, the influence of the individual parameters (twall, tslab and hbeam)
is studied. In addition, the total height (slab + beam) has been considered. The main parameter that affects
the development of the failure mechanism is the wall thickness. For a thickness of 160 mm in 93.45% of
cases the failure occurs in the concrete panel. The number of cases of brittle failure drops to 76.04 for a
thickness of 200 mm (Fig. 4.50). The ductile failure becomes the main type of failure only for a thickness of
300 mm.
102
76.04
80.00
56.94
60.00
53.24
37.06
35.51
40.00
18.87
20.00
4.21
0.00
9.70
7.55
5.09
2.34
160
200
240
300
twall [mm]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
Fig. 4.50: Influence of twall
The influence of the slab thickness is shown in Fig. 4.51. For the three values considered (120, 160, 200),
structural failure happens in the concrete panel in most of the cases (variation between 55.09% and
67.34%). The percentage of beam failure does not vary appreciably. The increase in the height of the beam
determines a clear trend, as seen in Fig. 4.52. For a height of 240 mm, in about 50% of cases the failure
happens for the concrete panel. Here, the number of cases with beam failure is not negligible (22%). With
the increase of the height, the possibility of a failure in the beam decreases significantly, increasing sharply
the percentage of the failure in the concrete panel. The consideration of the total height (slab + beam) leads
to a less clear trend for low values (Fig. 4.53).
100.00
80.00
67.34
61.74
60.00
55.09
39.58
40.00
33.59
28.68
20.00
5.32
4.68
3.98
160
200
0.00
120
tslab [mm]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
103
Infaso+Handbook II
100.00
80.00
78.29
78.3
21.71
21.7
69.76
65.14
58.85
60.00
49.34
40.00
31.25
27.81
20.00
31.11
29.72
9.90
22.85
3.75
0.52
300
330
360
400
0.00
240
270
hbeam [mm]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
80.00
64.17 65.63 65.73
58.96 58.85
60.00
51.98
35.21
31.15
27.60
82.08
56.67
36.88
36.46
31.88
78.85
49.69
41.67
40.00
73.96 75.00
30.42
23.96
10.00
22.71 4.17
19.38
0.63
3.96
26.15
31.25 29.38
8.13
0.00 0.52
3.13
21.15
17.92
0.00
360
390
400
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
520
530
560
600
hbeam [mm]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
104
83.97
80.00
63.74
60.00
53.22
47.80
36.86
40.00
20.00
12.24
1.59
0.00
43.20
29.31
3.79
6.94
9.00
9.92
50
60
1.16
20
29.6
40
fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam Web and Flange
Joint Link
Reinforcement
99.88
96.06
89.35
80.00
81.94
60.00
twall = 160 mm
40.00
20.00
0.00
12.96
0.00 0.00
20.00
2.78
6.37
1.62
0.00
2.31
29.6
40
5.09
4.28
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
105
Infaso+Handbook II
100.00
100.00
94.91
80.00
79.17
60.00
63.89
twall = 200 mm
45.83
44.68
40.00
28.36
14.93
20.00
0.00
7.75
9.49
50
60
2.78
5.9
0.00
29.6 2.31
20.00
40
fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
82.52
80.00
70.37
57.29
55.21
60.00
twall = 240 mm
36.57
40.00
31.48
17.59
20.00
12.38
11.23
8.22
5.09
1.16
0.93
12.04
0.00
20.00
29.6
40
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
106
80.00
91.09
72.57
64.12
57.75
60.00
twall = 300 mm
34.49
40.00
24.54
20.00
5.44
0.00
14.7
11.34
7.75
13.19
3.01
12.73
3.47
20.00
29.6
40
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam
Joint Link
Reinforcement
107
Infaso+Handbook II
Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 360 and 440 mm
300
280
260
D
B
twall
[mm]
D
B
240
220
200
180
160
20
30
40
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35
Fig. 4.59: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
360 and 440 mm
108
Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 440 and 520 mm
300
D
B
280
D
B
260
D
B
twall
[mm]
D
B
240
220
200
180
160
20
30
40
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35
Fig. 4.60: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
440 and 520 mm
109
Infaso+Handbook II
Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 520 and 600 mm
300
D
B
280
D
B
260
twall
[mm]
240
220
D
B
200
180
160
20
30
40
50
60
fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35
Fig. 4.61: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
520 and 600 mm
110
5 Summary
This Design Manual II is based on the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13] which sum
marizes the reached knowledge in the RFCS Project RFSRCT200700051 New market Chances for Steel
Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete (INFASO) [12].
Within the INFASO project design programs were developed for three different steeltoconcrete joints. This
programs have been revised and updated within INFASO+. In this design manual background information
about this design programs is given and the application of the programs is explained in detail (see Chap
ter 2). This includes following design programs:
Furthermore the transferability of the results to real life is shown within realistic design examples taken
from practice where the newly developed design rules are applied (see Chapter 3). In the worked examples
common solutions for steeltoconcrete connections are compared with the innovative developed solutions.
These connections are compared in terms of calculation approaches, handling, tolerances and behavior un
der fire conditions. Parameter studies of the components and analytic model of the three different steelto
concrete joints show the influence of each parameter. Furthermore recommendations for design values and
limits of the model are given (see Chapter 4).
The material was prepared in cooperation of two teams of researchers one targeting on fastening technique
modelling and other focusing to steel joints design from the Institute of Structural Design and Institute of
Construction Materials, University Stuttgart, Department of Steel and Timber structures, Czech Technical
University in Prague and practitioners Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda., Coim
bra, Goldbeck West GmbH, Bielefeld, stahl+verbundbau GmbH, Dreieich and European Convention for Con
structional Steelwork, Bruxelles.
111
Infaso+Handbook II
6 References
Standards and guidelines
[1]
CEN/TS 199241, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 41, General, CEN, Brussels,
2009.
[2]
CEN/TS 199242, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 42, Headed fasteners Technical
Specification, CEN, Brussels, 2009.
[3]
DIN 4881, Reinforcing steels Part 1: Grades, properties, marking, CEN, Brussels, 2009.
[4]
DIN EN 100251, Designation systems for steels Part 1: Steel names, CEN, Brussels, 2005.
[5]
EN199111, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.1, General actions, Densities, selfweight,
imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2002.
[6]
EN199117, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.7, General actions, Accidental actions, CEN,
Brussels, 2006.
[7]
EN199211, Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 17, General actions Accidental ac
tions, CEN, Brussels, 2004.
[8]
EN199311, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 11, General rules and rules for buildings,
CEN, Brussels, 2010.
[9]
EN199318, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 18, Design of joints, CEN, Brussels, 2006.
[10]
EN199411, Eurocode 4, Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Part 11, General
rules and rules for buildings, CEN, 2010.
[11]
Abaquus 6.11: Theory Manual and Users Manuals, Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp., 2011.
KUHLMANN, U.; WALD, F.; DA SILVA, L et al: New Market Chances for Steel Structures by Innovative
Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete, INFASO Publishable Report, Project No. RFSRCT
200700051, Research Fund for Coal and Steel, European Comission, 2011.
[13]
KUHLMANN, U.; WALD, F.; DA SILVA, L et al: Valorisation of Knowledge for Innovative Fastening
Solutions between Steel and Concrete, INFASO+ Design Manual 1, Project No. RFSRCT201200022,
Research Fund for Coal and Steel, European Comission, 2013.
[14]
KUHLMANN, U,; OZBOLT, A.: Verbesserung der Tragfa higkeit von Ankerplatten mit angeschweiten
Kopfbolzen in stabfo rmigen Stahlbetonbauteilen. Schlussbericht, Forschungsvorhaben Aif/IGFNr.
17028 u ber den Deutschen Ausschuss fu r Stahlbau (DASt), 2013.
[15]
[16]
INFASOIWB09: Determination of the Failure Load and LoadDisplacement. Behaviour of the Joints
with Supplementary Reinforcement under Tension Load, internal project document, RFSRCT
200700051, 2010.
[17]
INFASOKE50: Component Model for Pinned Steel to Concrete Joints, internal project document,
RFSRCT200700051, 2010.
[18]
[19]
[20]
ZIZKA, J.: Component method for column base with embedded plate, Ph.D. thesis, CVUT, Prague
2012.
112
Software
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
VAN KANN, J.: Restrained connection of composite beams (Version 2.0), (http://www.uni
stuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRIMPMANN, M.: Slim anchor plates with headed studs bending joints (Version 2.0),
(http://www.unistuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRIMPMANN, M.: Slim anchor plates with headed studs simple joints (Version 2.0),
(http://www.unistuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRASTA Stabstatik fu r betriebsfestigkeitsrelevante und bewegte Strukturen, KUHNE BSB GmbH
Fo rdertechnik & Stahlbau.
113