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This Design manual I summarises the reached knowledge in the RFCS Project RFSRCT-2007-00051 New Market Chances for

Steel Structures by Innovative Fastening


Solutions between Steel and Concrete, INFASO. The material was prepared in
cooperation researchers from Institute of Structural Design and Institute of Construction
Materials, Universitt Stuttgart, Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Czech
Technical University in Prague, and practitioners from Gabinete de Informtica
e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda., Coimbra, Goldbeck West GmbH, Bielefeld,
stahl+verbundbau GmbH, Dreieich and European Convention for Constructional
Steelwork, Bruxelles, one targeting on fastening technique modelling and others
focusing to steel joint design.
The models in the text are based on component method and enable the design of steel to
concrete joints in vertical position, e.g. beam to column or to wall connections, and
horizontal ones, base plates. The behaviour of components in terms of resistance,
stiffness, and deformation capacity is summed up for components in concrete and steel
parts: header studs, stirrups, concrete in compression, concrete panel in shear, steel
reinforcement, steel plate in bending, threaded studs, embedded plate in tension, beam
web and flange in compression and steel contact plate. In the Chapters 5 and 6 are
described the possibility of assembly of components behaviour into the whole joint
behaviour for resistance and stiffness separately. The presented assembly enables the
interaction of normal forces, bending moments and shear forces acting in the joint. The
global analyses in Chapter 7 is taken into account the joint behaviour. The connection
design is sensitive to tolerances, which are recapitulated for beam to column
connections and base plates in Chapter 8. The worked examples in Chapter 9
demonstrates the application of theory to design of pinned and moment resistant base
plates, pinned and moment resistance beam to column connections and the use of
predicted values into the global analyses.

Ulrike Kuhlmann, Jan Hofmann, Frantiek Wald,, et al

ISBN 978-80-01-05439-0
February 2014
Frantiek Wald, Jan Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhlmann et al
Printing in Publishing house of CTU in Prague - production

Design of Steel-to-Concrete Joints

Design of Steel-to-Concrete Joints

Design
of Steel-to-Concrete Joints
Design Manual II
Ulrike Kuhlmann
Frantiek Wald
Jan Hofmann
et al

Deliverable of a project carried out with a financial grant


from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community

Design
of Steel-to-Concrete Joints
Design Manual I

Prague, Stuttgart, Coimbra, and Brussels, February 2014


Deliverable of a project carried out with a financial grant
from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community

Design of steel-to-concrete joints, Design manual I


Although all care has been taken to ensure the integrity and quality of this publication and the information herein, no liability is
assumed by the project partners and the publisher for any damage to property or persons as a result of the use of this publication
and the information contained herein.
Reproduction for non-commercial purpose is authorised provided the source is acknowledged and notice is given to the project
coordinator. Publicly available distribution of this publication through other sources than the web sites given below requires the
prior permission of the project partners. Requests should be addressed to the project coordinator: Universitt Stuttgart, Institut fr
Konstruktion und Entwurf / Institute for Structural Design, Pfaffenwaldring 7, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
The present document and others related to the research project INFASO RFSR-CT-2007-00051 New Market Chances for Steel
Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete and the successive dissemination project RFS2-CT2012-00022 Valorisation of Knowledge for Innovative Fastening Solution between Steel and Concrete, which have been co-funded
by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) of the European Community.
ISBN 978-92-9147-119-5

Frantiek Wald, Jan Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhlmann,


rka Bekov, Filippo Gentili, Helena Gervsio, Jos Henriques, Markus Krimpmann, Ana Obolt, Jakob Ruopp,
Ivo Schwarz, Akanshu Sharma, Luis Simoes da Silva, and Jrg van Kann.
Printing by European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
February 2014
178 pages, 138 figures, 32 tables


II

Contents
SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................................. VI
1

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 10

COMPONENT METHOD FOR STEEL TO CONCRETE JOINTS ................................ 12


2.1

Design method....................................................................................................................... 12

2.2

Classification of joints ............................................................................................................ 13

2.2.1

Global analyses ............................................................................................................. 13

2.2.2

Stiffness ......................................................................................................................... 15

2.2.3

Strength ......................................................................................................................... 16

2.2.4

Deformation capacity ..................................................................................................... 17

2.3

Steel-to-concrete joints .......................................................................................................... 18

2.3.1

Available models............................................................................................................ 18

2.3.2

Steel and composite structures ..................................................................................... 18

2.3.3

Concrete structures ....................................................................................................... 21

2.3.4

Components for joints with anchor plate ....................................................................... 21

COMPONENTS IN CONCRETE................................................................................... 24
3.1

Component model for headed studs ..................................................................................... 24

3.1.1

Headed studs in tension, component S ......................................................................... 24

3.1.2

Headed studs in tension, component CC ...................................................................... 25

3.1.3

Stirrups in tension, component RS ................................................................................ 27

3.1.4

Stirrups in tension - bond failure, component RB .......................................................... 28

3.1.5

Headed studs in tension, component P ......................................................................... 29

3.1.6

Headed studs in shear, component V ........................................................................... 30

3.2

Combination of components .................................................................................................. 31

3.2.1

Combination of concrete cone and stirrups, C1 = CC + RS/RB.................................... 31

3.2.2

Combination of steel and pullout, C2 = S + P ............................................................... 32

3.2.3

Combination of all components, C3 = CC + RS/RB + P +S .......................................... 33

3.2.4

Design failure load ......................................................................................................... 33

3.2.5

Combination of tension and shear components ............................................................ 34

3.3

Simplified stiffnesss based on technical specifications ........................................................ 34

3.3.1

Headed stud in tension without supplementary reinforcement ..................................... 34

3.3.2

Headed stud in shear .................................................................................................... 35

3.3.3

Concrete breakout in tension......................................................................................... 35

3.3.4

Pull out failure of the headed studs ............................................................................... 36

3.3.5

Interaction of components for concrete and stirrups ..................................................... 37

3.3.6

Determination of the failure load.................................................................................... 38

3.3.7

Friction ........................................................................................................................... 38

III

3.4

Base plate in bending and concrete block in compression ................................................... 38

3.4.1

Concrete 3D strength .................................................................................................... 38

3.4.2

Base plate flexibility ....................................................................................................... 40

3.4.3

Component stiffness ...................................................................................................... 41

3.5

Concrete panel ...................................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Longitudinal steel reinforcement in tension ........................................................................... 45

3.7

Slip of the composite beam ................................................................................................... 46

STEEL COMPONENTS ................................................................................................ 47


4.1

T-stub in tension .................................................................................................................... 47

4.1.1

Model ............................................................................................................................. 48

4.1.2

Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 50

4.1.3

Stiffness ......................................................................................................................... 57

4.2

Threaded stud in tension ....................................................................................................... 58

4.3

Punching of the anchor plate ................................................................................................. 58

4.4

Anchor plate in bending and tension ..................................................................................... 59

4.5

Column/beam flange and web in compression ..................................................................... 63

4.6

Steel contact plate ................................................................................................................. 64

4.7

Anchor bolts in shear ............................................................................................................. 64

ASSEMBLY FOR RESISTANCE .................................................................................. 66


5.1

Column base.......................................................................................................................... 66

5.1.1

Column base with base plate ........................................................................................ 66

5.1.2

Column base with anchor plate ..................................................................................... 68

5.2

Simple steel to concrete joint ................................................................................................. 69

5.3

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint ................................................................................ 75

ASSEMBLY FOR STIFFNESS ..................................................................................... 77


6.1

Column base.......................................................................................................................... 77

6.1.1

Column base with base plate ........................................................................................ 77

6.1.2

Column base with anchor plate ..................................................................................... 79

6.2

Simple steel-to-concrete joint ................................................................................................ 80

6.3

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint ................................................................................ 84

GLOBAL ANALYSIS INCLUDING JOINT BEHAVIOUR ............................................... 84


7.1

Structural analysis ................................................................................................................. 84

7.2

Examples on the influence of joint behaviour ........................................................................ 88


IV

7.2.1

Reference building structures ........................................................................................ 88

7.2.2

Design ............................................................................................................................ 90

7.2.3

Structural model............................................................................................................. 91

7.2.4

Analysis and discussion for Service Limit State ............................................................ 97

7.2.5

Analysis and discussion for Ultimate Limit State ......................................................... 100

TOLERANCES ............................................................................................................ 102


8.1

Standardized tolerances ...................................................................................................... 102

8.2

Recommended tolerances................................................................................................... 105

WORKED EXAMPLES................................................................................................ 107


9.1

Pinned base plate ................................................................................................................ 107

9.2

Moment resistant base plate ............................................................................................... 109

9.3

Stiffened base plate ............................................................................................................. 122

9.4

Column base with anchor plate ........................................................................................... 126

9.5

Simple steel to concrete joint ............................................................................................... 145

9.6

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint .............................................................................. 155

9.7

Portal frame ......................................................................................................................... 165

10

SUMMARY .................................................................................................................. 174

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 175

Symbols

k1

factor for concrete cone strength in


case of headed studs

Lower case

k2

factor for the headed studs


for component P

kA

factor considering the cross-section

ka

form factor at porous edge sections

kb

stiffness of the bolt

kb,re

bond stiffness due to supplementary


reinforcement, stirrups

kC1

stiffness due to the displacement


of the anchorage in case of concrete
cone failure with supplementary
reinforcement, combination C1

kC2

stiffness due to the displacement


of the head, due to the pressure under
the head on the concrete, and steel
elongation, combination C2

kc,de

stiffness of the descending branch


for component CC

factor considering the shoulder width,


length

length

minimum edge distance,


effective width, length

ccr,N

critical edge distance, ccr,N 1.5 hef

cw

drag coefficient

diameter

db

diameter of the bolt

dh

diameter of the head of headed stud

ds

diameter of the shaft of headed stud

ds,re

diameter of the stirrup

ds,nom

nominal diameter of the anchor shaft

dw

diameter of the washer

kc,soft

ex,y

length between the bolt axis


and the edge of the plate

stiffness of the concrete cone in the


softening branch

kj

concentration factor

eccentricity

kp

stiffness coefficient of the plate

fbd

design bond strength according


to EN1992-1-1:2004

kp,de

stiffness of the descending branch


for component P

fcd

design strength of concrete

ks

fck

characteristic strength of concrete

stiffness of the anchor shaft


for component S

fck,cube

characteristic square strength


of concrete

ks,re

steel stiffness due to supplementary


reinforcement, stirrups

fu

strength of structural steel

kv

fub

strength of the bolt

empirical value depending


on the type of anchor

fuk

characteristic strength of steel

l1

anchorage length

fy

nominal yield strength of steel

lep

elongated length

fya

average yield strength

leff

effective length of T-stub, defined


in accordance with EN1993 1-8:2006

fyb

nominal value of yield strength


of the bolt

lv,eff

effective length of shear area

fyd

design yield strength of steel

distance between threaded and


headed studs

fyd,re

design yield strength of the stirrups

mpl

plastic moment resistance per unit,

fyk

characteristic yield strength of steel

height

hef

effective embedment depth according


to product specifications

coefficient depending on the type


of forming


VI

defined as m

location of the prying force, number

nre

total number of legs of stirrups

internal pressure

radius of the fillet of a rolled profile

actual spacing of anchors

scr,N

critical spacing for anchors

F d

design load

thickness

Fk

characteristic load

tf

thickness of the T-stub, flange

Fmemb

axial force

tw

thickness of T-stub, column

Ft.Ed

external tensile force

tp1

thickness of the anchor plate

Ft.Rd

external ultimate resistance

tp2

thickness of the base plate

FT.Rd

resistance of tension part

wfic

fictive effective width

moment of inertia

distance between the anchor and


the crack on the concrete surface
assuming a crack propagation
from the stirrup of the supplementary
reinforcement to the concrete surface
with an angle of 35

It

torsion constant

general stiffness

length

Lb

length of anchor bolt

Lcr

buckling length

LD

the elongation length of the bolt, which


may be taken as the total grip length
(thickness of material plus washers)
plus half the sum of the height of the
bolt head and the height of the nut

distance of tension/compressed part

Upper case
A

cross section area

Ac0

loaded area

Lh

length of the anchor shaft

Ac1

maximum spread area

Ip,bp

equivalent moment of inertia

Ac,N

actual projected area of concrete cone


of the anchorage at the concrete
surface, limited by overlapping
concrete cones of adjacent anchors
(s scr,N), as well as by edges of the
concrete member (c ccr,N)

Mc,Rd

bending moment capacity

Mj,Rd

design moment resistance of a joint

MN,Rd

interaction resistance bending with


compression

Mpl.Rd

plastic moment resistance defined


l m
as M ,

Mt,Rd

torsion capacity

Nact

actual load on the anchor

Nb,Rd

design buckling resistance

Ncr

critical buckling load

NEd

tension/compression load

NETA

tension load for which the


displacements are derived
in the product specifications

reference area of the concrete cone


of an individual anchor with large
spacing and edge distance projected
on the concrete surface

Aeff

effective area

Ah

area on the head of the headed stud

Anet

net cross section area

As

tensile stress area in the bolt

As,nom

nominal cross section area of all shafts

As,re

nominal cross section area of all legs


of the stirrups

Npl,Rd

design tension resistance


of a single bolt-plate assembly

design capacity
in tension/compression

NRd

design capacity

Bt.Rd

B,

0.9 f

A /

diameter of column

modulus of elasticity the steel


E 210 000 MPa

force or load

Fc.Rd

resistance of compressed part

NRd,b,re design tension resistance


for bond failure of stirrups
NRd.C3

design failure load


or the combined model

NRd,c

design tension resistance for concrete


cone failure of headed stud

VII

NRd,cs

design failure load


for the concrete strut

NRd,p

design tension resistance


for pull out failure of headed stud

NRd,re

design failure load


for the supplementary reinforcement

NRd,s

design tension resistance


for steel failure of headed stud

NRd,s,re design tension resistance


for steel failure of stirrups
N

characteristic resistance
of a single anchor without edge and
spacing effects

Greek symbols

factor according to EN1992:2006 for


hook effect and large concrete cover

factor of component concrete break


out in tension

factor for the component head


pressing

factor of component stirrups

material coefficient

partial safety factor for actions

material safety factor

Mb

partial safety factor for bolts Mb = 1.25

Mc

partial safety factor for concrete


Mc = 1.5

Nu

ultimate resistance

Ny

yielding resistance

prying force

Ms

partial safety factor for steel Ms = 1.15

Rd

design capacity

MV

Rk

characteristic resistance

partial safety factor for shear


resistance of studs MV = 1.25

Si

elastic stiffness

Mw

partial safety factor for welds


Mw = 1.25

Sj,ini

initial stiffness

M0

VETA

shear load for which the displacements


are derived in the product
specifications

partial safety factor for resistance


of Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections
M0 = 1.0
partial safety factor for resistance
of a member to buckling M1 = 1.0
partial safety factor resistance
of net section at bolt holes M2 = 1.25

Vpl,Rd

shear capacity

VRd

design failure load


for the anchor under shear

VRd,c

design shear resistance


for concrete cone failure

VRd,cp

M1
M2

deformation, displacement

act

displacement corresponding to Nact

design shear resistance for concrete


pryout

displacement corresponding to Nact


for concrete cone

VRd,p

design shear resistance for pullout

VRd,s

design shear resistance


for steel failure

corresponding displacement
at failure load NRd,sre or NRd,bre

N,ETA

We

external work

displacement given in the product


specifications for a corresponding
tension load

Weff

section modulus of effective area

Rd,b,re

Wel

elastic section modulus

deformation corresponding to design


resistance for bond failure of stirrups

Wi

internal work

Rd,c

deformation corresponding to design


resistance for concrete cone failure

Wpl

plastic section modulus

Rd,p

deformation corresponding
to design resistance for pull out failure

Rd,s

deformation corresponding to NRd

Rd,s

deformation corresponding to design


resistance for steel failure

Rd,s,re

deformation corresponding to design


resistance for steel failure of stirrups


VIII

Rd,sy

deformation corresponding to design


yield resistance for steel failure

elongation

V,ETA

displacement given in the product


specifications for a corresponding
shear load

bu,re

cr

critical

design

external

eff

effective

ETA

European technical approval

strain limit for the stirrups due to bond

grout

su

ultimate design strain limit for steel

head

su,re

strain limit for the stirrups


under tension

internal

strain limit for the stirrups


under tension

characteristic

su,re

lim

limit

ultimate strain

Mc

material concrete

angle

Ms

material steel

slenderness of member

tension

coefficient of friction

nom

nominal

Poisson`s ratio, 0.30

po

pullout

stress

plate

reduction factor

pl

plastic

A,N

factor accounting for geometric effects


in anchor group, A,N = A , /A ,

Rd

resistance design

Rk

characteristic resistance

factor accounting for negative effect


of closely spaced reinforcement
in the concrete member on strength
of anchors with hef 100 mm

re

failure

rec

reinforcement

Sd

internal design

factor accounting for the influence


of edges of the concrete member
on the distribution of stresses in the
concrete s,N = 0.7 0. ,3 c/c ,
1.0

shaft of anchor, stud

soft

softening

supp

support

support factor considering the


confinement of the stirrups
1.0
supp = 2.5 x/h

tension part

tension

rotation

tot

total

plate

p1

anchor plate

re,N

s,N

supp

Subscripts
A

area

p2

base plate

act

actual

ultimate

bolt, bond

uk

characteristic ultimate

bd

design bond

shear

column, concrete

column web

cb

concrete block

x, y

directions

ck

characteristic concrete

yield

cp

concrete pry out

yd

design yield

cs

concrete strut

yk

characteristic yield

IX

1 INTRODUCTION
The mixed building technology allows to utilise the best performance of all structural materials
available such as steel, concrete, timber and glass. Therefore the building are nowadays
seldom designed from only one structural material. Engineers of steel structures in practice
are often faced with the question of economical design of steel to concrete joints, because
some structural elements, such as foundations, stair cases and fire protection walls, are
optimal of concrete. A gap in knowledge between the design of fastenings in concrete and
steel design was abridged by standardized joint solutions developed in the INFASO project,
which profit from the advantage of steel as a very flexible and applicable material and allow an
intelligent connection between steel and concrete building elements. The requirements for
such joint solutions are easy fabrication, quick erection, applicability in existing structures, high
loading capacity and sufficient deformation capacity. One joint solution is the use of anchor
plates with welded headed studs or other fasteners such as post-installed anchors. Thereby
a steel beam can be connected by butt straps, cams or a beam end plate connected by
threaded bolts on the steel plate encased in concrete. Examples of typical joint solutions for
simple steel-to-concrete joints, column bases and composite joints are shown in Fig. 1.1.

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 1.1 Examples for steel-to-concrete joints,


a) simple joint, b) composite joint, c) column bases
The Design Manual I gives an overview of the existing design rules and introduces components
developed. To present the use of the developed design rules, worked examples are given
within the Design Manual I. More detailed information about the background documents, the
experiments and development of the new design rules might be found in the final report,
(Kuhlman et al 2013) and in Design manual II. This manual is focused to more complex worked
examples, the application of a software tool for design, sensitivity study of proposed analytical
models and its boundary conditions as well as design tables of optimal solutions.
Chapter 2 gives a general overview about the component method and presents the existing
models for steel-to-concrete joints. It also includes a short summary of the joint models and
components developed in the project. In Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 the concrete and the steel
components for the modelling of steel-to-concrete joints are described in more detail. The
components already described in the codes as well as components of the newly derived
models are introduced. Values for stiffness and resistance are presented. In Chapter 5 the
single components are assembled to evaluate the overall joint resistance. Chapter 6 shows
how the joint stiffness can be derived due to the stiffnesss of the single components. For the
global analysis of a structure the joint behaviour/stiffness may have an influence. The effects
of the joint modelling on the global analysis are explained in Chapter 7. The tolerances for
steel-to-concrete joints and their effect on the construction are discussed in Chapter 8. In the
Chapter 9 worked examples for the whole range of the steel-to-concrete joints are prepared.
This examples are demonstrating the possibilities of the new design rules and allow an easy

10

access for the engineers in practice. The references are given to this Design manual I (DM I)
and to Eurocodes (EN199x-1-x). Chapter 10 summarises the offered opportunity for
innovations.
Chapters 1 and 2 were prepared by U. Kuhlman and J. Ruopp, Chapter 3 by J. Hofmann and
A. Sharma, Chapters 4, 5 and 6 by F. Wald, Bekov . and Schwarz I., Chapter 7 by da Silva
L. Simoes, H. Gervsio and J. Henriques and F. Gentili and Chapter 8 by M. Krimpmann. The
worked examples 9.1 to 9.3 were set by . Bekov and I. Schwarz, 9.4 by . Bekov,
I. Schwarz and M. Krimpmann, 9.5 by J. Ruopp, 9.6 and 9.7 by J. Henriques and F. Gentili,
with help of the headed studs design models by A. Sharma.

11

2 COMPONENT METHOD FOR STEEL TO CONCRETE JOINTS


2.1

Design method

In the past decades, the component method has been set as a unified approach for the efficient
analysis of steel and composite joints, see (Da Silva 2008). The basic principle of the
component method consists of determining the complex non-linear joint response through the
subdivision into basic joint components. The joint can be regarded as a set of individual basic
components that contribute to its structural behaviour by means of resistance, stiffness and
deformation capacity. The component method allows designers to take options more
efficiently because the contribution of each component to the joint behaviour may be optimized
according to the limiting components. Thus, one of the main advantages of the component
method is that the analysis of an individual component can be done independently of the type
of joint. In a second calculation step the single components are assembled by the designers
according to the joint configuration.
Joint components may be divided by the type of loading. Accordingly, three groups
of components are usually identified: components for tension, compression and shear.
Additionally, a second division may be done according to their location: panel zone or
connecting zone. In Fig. 2.1 these two definitions are illustrated based on a double sided
composite joint.

Fig. 2.1 Division of joint into groups and zones


In practice these components are modelled by translational springs with non-linear forcedeformation response that are exposed to internal forces. The joint may then be represented
by a spring model as illustrated in Fig. 2.2.


12

Fig. 2.2 Component model for composite joint with separated the panel zone in shear
The component method is given by EN1993-1-8:2006 and EN1994-1-1:2010 for the analysis
of steel and composite joints. The application of the method requires following steps:
1. Identification of the basic joint components
2. Characterization of the structural properties of the basic joint components
3. Assembly of the component properties
In the referred codes, a list of basic joint components is provided for the most common joint
configurations. Basic joint components are then characterized in terms of strength, stiffness
and deformation capacity allowing to obtain the F- curve, see Fig. 2.3, reproducing its
behaviour. Finally, through the assembly procedure the joint properties are determined. The
joint behaviour may be later reproduced by an M- curve, see Fig. 2.4, in the structural
analysis.

Fig. 2.3 Component force deformation,


F-, curve, experiment in black and
model in grey line

2.2
2.2.1

Fig. 2.4 Joint moment rotation,


M-, curve experiment in black and
model in grey line

Classification of joints
Global analyses

The classification of the joints is prepared to examine the extent to which the stiffness or
strength have to be considered in the calculation according the design accuracy. In total there
are three different calculation methods which require different joint properties. These
calculation methods and the joint properties are compared within Tab. 2.1Tab. 2.1 Relation
between method of global analysis and considered joint behaviour

13

Method of global analysis

Considered joint behaviour

Elastic

Rigid plastic

Elastic plastic

Elastic method
If the elastic calculation method is applied, only the joint stiffness Sj is considered. Sj is
implemented in the structural calculation as spring element or one-dimensional beam element
in order to determine the internal forces. If the bending moment does not exceed 2/3 of the
moment resistance of the joint the initial stiffness Sj,ini can be used to describe the elastic
behaviour. For calculations, where the plastic moment capacity is reached, the joint stiffness
can be calculated with the secant stiffness Sj,ini/. The joints are classified for this method by
taking into consideration the rotational stiffness.
Rigid plastic method
In the second calculation method the elastic behaviour of the joint is neglected. Internal forces
of the structural calculation are calculated from 1st order plastic hinge theory only satisfying
equilibrium conditions. Within this method only the plastic moment capacity is considered, but
the joints must have sufficient deformation capacity to allow full plastic redistribution. In this
case the joints are classified by the resistance.
Elastic plastic method
If the third method is applied the overall moment-rotation-relationship of the joint has to be
considered. This relationship is used within the joint modelling of the structural calculation.
For simplification a bilinear approach of the moment rotation curve may be used. Typically the
reduced secant stiffness is applied. If the elastic plastic method is used, the joint has to be
classified by stiffness and strength.
The advantages of this method are shown in the following example. In Fig. 2.5 a steel frame
with horizontal and vertical loading is shown. Instead of modelling the column bases as a
pinned joint as it is common in practice, the column bases may be classified as semi-rigid and
modelled with a rotational spring. Thereby the column bases may stabilise the structure and
reduce the bending moment in the steel-to-steel beam to column joints. So a classification of
the column bases as semi-rigid instead of pinned makes the steel structure more safe and
economical.

14

Fig. 2.5 Considering the rotation stiffness of joints with springs


It is also important not to underestimate the stiffness of the column bases, because big
rotational stiffness might cause unexpected high bending moments in the joints which may
lead to failure. The classification of the joints, may be found in cl 5 of EN1993-1-8:2006 and
is explained in the following section.
2.2.2

Stiffness

The first part of this chapter deals with the classification of beam to column/wall and beam to
beam joints, the second part with the classification of column bases. Depending on its initial
rotational stiffness S , a joint may be classified as pinned, rigid or semi-rigid. Normally pinned
joints can transfer axial and shear force. Rotation of the joint does not cause significant
bending moments. If a joint cannot be classified as normally pinned or rigid it is classified as
semi-rigid. Rigid joints have a rotational stiffness which legitimise to treat the joint as rigid in
the global analysis.

Fig. 2.6 Classification due to stiffness


Joints classified according to the connecting beams
Rigid joints, in Fig. 2.6 zone 1, is classified as rigid if
S,

K E I /L

(2.1)

If a bracing system reduces the horizontal displacement more than 80 %, then Kb 8. For
other frames provided that in every storey the following equation (2.2) is valid, then Kb 25.
K
K

0.1

(2.2)

15

Semi-rigid joints, in Fig. 2.6 zone 2, are all joints which are not classified as pinned or rigid.
For frames where Eq. 2.3 applies the joints should be classified as semi rigid and not as rigid.
K
K

(2.3)

0.1

Nominally pinned joints, in Fig. 2.6 zone 3, are expecting to have a limited bending stiffness
compared to the bending stiffness of the connected beam.

where
K
K
I
I
L
L

(2.4)

0.5 E I /L

S,

is mean value of I /L for all the beams at the top of that storey
is mean value of I /L for all columns of that storey
is the second moment of area of beam
is the second moment of area of column
is the span of beam
is the storey height of a column

Column bases classified according to the connecting column


Column bases are classified as rigid if the following conditions are satisfied. There are two
possible cases which have to be considered. If there is an additional bracing in a frame and
the additional bracing reduces the horizontal movement at least by 80 %, then the column base
affects the accuracy of the column design, which depends on the column relative slenderness.
This column base might be assumed as rigid according to EN1993-1-8:2006 cl. 5.2a, if

(2.5)

0.5

for
0.5

3.93 is S ,

3.93 and S ,

7 2

1 E I /L

(2.6)

and for
48 E I /L

(2.7)

where

is the relative slenderness of a column in which both ends are assumed as pinned.

For all other constructions, the cases where the storeys sway is not prevented, the column
base might be classified according to cl. 5.2d in EN1993-1-8:2006 as rigid if
S,

2.2.3

30 EI /L

(2.8)

Strength

A joint is classified for strength as pinned, full-strength or partial-strength, see Tab. 2.1 and
Fig. 2.7. The classification by strength may be found in EN1993-1-8:2006 cl 5.2.3. Nominally
pinned joint should have a design moment resistance less than 25 % of the design moment
resistance, which would be required for a full-strength joint. They must have sufficient rotational
capacity. A Partial-strength joint is a joint, which cannot be classified as pinned or full-strength.

16

The design moment resistance of a full-strength joint is bigger than the design moment
resistance of the beam or column connected to it.

Fig. 2.7 Classification due to resistance


If the design resistance of the beam M , , is smaller than the design resistance of the column
M , , , M , , is replaced for connections at the top of a column by M , , see Fig. 2.7. If
the design resistance of the beam M , , is smaller than the double design resistance of the
column M , , than in the figure above M , , is replaced for connections within the column
height by 2 M , , .
2.2.4

Deformation capacity

In EN1993-1-8:2006 an explicit classification for deformation or rotational capacity of the joint


is not implemented. The complexity on classification according to deformation capacity is in
the lack of knowledge of the upper values of material properties by designers, which do not
allow a safe prediction of the failing component. In EN 1993-1-8 cl 6.4 design rules for the
rotation capacity are given based on best engineering practice. If the system is calculated with
a plastic global analysis a sufficient rotation capacity is needed. No investigation of the rotation
capacity of the joint is necessary, if the moment resistance of the joint M , is at least 20 %
bigger than the plastic moment resistance M , of the connected beam, see (2.9). Then the
plastic hinge appears in the beam and the rotational capacity has to be satisfied by the beam
section.
M,

1.2 M

(2.9)

If the moment resistance of the joint is not 1.2 times the plastic moment resistance of the
connected beam and a plastic hinge is assumed in the joint, minimum rotational capacities for
bolted and welded joints have to be checked.
Bolted joints
The rules for bolted joints may be found in EN1993-1-8:2006 cl 6.4.2. A bolted joint is assumed
to have a sufficient rotation capacity if following conditions can be applied:
If the failure load M ,
69
panel d/t

is determined by the resistance of the column web panel and for this

where
d
tw

is the nominal bolt diameter and


is the thickness of the web

17

If the thickness of the flange of the column or the beam end plate is sufficiently thin to satisfy
the following formula.
t

0.36 d f /f

(2.10)

where
is ultimate strength of the bolts
f
f
is yield strength of the flange or the end plate
Welded joints
The rules for welded joints may also be found in EN1993-1-8:2006 cl 6.4. For a welded beam
to column connection the rotation capacity may be calculated with the following equation.
In this case the web has to be stiffened in the compression area but not in the tension are and
the moment resistance is not determined by the resistance of the column web panel.

0.025 h /h

(2.11)

where
h is the depth of the column
h is the depth of the beam
For a welded beam to column connection where the compression and the tension area in the
column are not stiffened, the rotation capacity may be assumed to be at least 0.015 rad.

2.3
2.3.1

Steel-to-concrete joints
Available models

Design models for steel-to-concrete joints are currently available in the three standard
documents:
EN1993-1-8:2006 includes values for stiffness and resistance for all steel components and
values for stiffness and resistance for concrete components in compression. There are no
rules for concrete components in tension or shear.
EN1994-1-1:2010 enhancement of the rules from EN 1993-1-8 on composite joints such as
the connection of composite girder to steel columns.
CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009 summarises values for the design resistance of fasteners in concrete.
But no values for stiffness and ductility are available.

2.3.2

Steel and composite structures

Design rules in the Eurocode are given for different joint configurations. The model for the
column bases is described in the EN1993-1-8:2006 and the model for the composite joint in
EN1994-1-1:2010.
Column bases with base plates
The analytical prediction model for column base with base plate is described in the EN19931-8:2006. With these design rules column bases loaded by axial force and bending moments
are calculated. The model is only including concrete components for the compression forces.

18

For the tension force only steel components are considered. The design resistance of column
bases with steel base plates is described in EN1993-1-8:2006, cl 6.2.8. First according to the
eccentricity of the axial force and the geometry of the column base one of the four loading
types is chosen, and the lever arm is calculated. For this see Tab. 2.2. Then the loading of
the tension and the compression components are calculated. The failure load is determined
by the weakest activated component. These components are for:
Tension
Base plate in bending under tension
Anchor bolt in tension
Column web in tension

cl 6.2.6.11 in EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.12 in EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.8 in EN1993-1-8

Compression
Base plate in bending under compression
Concrete in compression
Column web and flange in compression

cl 6.2.6.10 in EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.9 in EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.7 in EN1993-1-8

Shear
Anchor bolts in shear

cl 6.2.2.6 to 6.2.2.9 in EN1993-1-8

According to procedure in EN1993-1-8:2006 cl 6.3.4 one of the four cases of the loading and
geometry is chosen, see Tab.2.2. Then the rotational stiffness is calculated. One complexity
creates change of the loading type depending on the loading cases. From this different
rotational stiffness values for different combinations of bending moment and axial forces are
resulting. The design of the embedded column base according to Eurocodes was developed
by (Pertold et al, 2000) based on set of tests and finite element modelling. This model is
prepared to approve resistance to combine base plate with embedding.
Composite joints
The composite joint is described in the Section 8 in EN1994-1-1:2010. The composite joint
may be used for the connection of composite beams to steel columns. The design rules are
an enhancement of the rules according to EN1993-1-8:2006 and new components are added.
These additional components are:
-

Longitudinal steel reinforcement in tension


Steel contact plate in compression
Column web in transverse compression
Reinforced components
Column web panel in shear
Column web in compression

cl. 8.4.2.1 EN1994-1-1:2010


cl 8.4.2.2 EN1994-1-1:2010
cl 8.4.3 EN1994-1-1:2010
cl 8.4.4 EN1994-1-1:2010
cl 8.4.4.1 EN1994-1-1:2010
cl 8.4.4.2 EN1994-1-1:2010

For all other components EN1993-1-8:2006 is applied.

19

Tab. 2.2 The loading situations for the definition of the lever arm
Number

Description of loading

Sketch

Explanation

Left side in tension


1

Right side in compression

Bending moment
is dominating

Left side in tension


2

Right side in tension

Tensile force
is dominating
,

Left side in compression


3

Right side in tension

Bending moment
is dominating
,

Left side in compression


4

Right side in compression

Fig. 2.8 Composite joint


20

Compression force
is dominating

Tab. 2.3 Failure modes observed for anchors in concrete


Loading

Failure modes
Steel failure

Tension

Concrete cone failure

Pull-out / Pull-through

Local Blow-out failure

Steel failure

Splitting failure

Steel failure

Concrete edge failure


Pry-out failure

Pull-out failure

Shear

2.3.3

Concrete structures

In CEN/TS1992-4-1:2009 the design of fastenings in concrete is given. In these rules the failure
modes of the fasteners and the concrete are described in a detailed way. For tension and
shear loading various failure modes exist. Failure modes are given according to CEN/TS 19924-1:2009, see Tab. 2.3.. All possible failure modes are determined. The smallest resistance
defines the design resistance of the joint. The design rules for the resistance include different
types of geometries. Also edge effects, concrete with and without cracks and different kinds
of fasteners are considered. However for stiffness no design rules are given and the use of
additional stirrups is covered in a very conservative way.
2.3.4

Components for joints with anchor plate

Headed studs in tension / Headed studs with stirrups in tension


Load-displacement-curves of test specimens have shown, that in cases were additional
reinforcement is used, also other components besides the reinforcement have a contribution
on the overall load bearing capacity of the fixture. If, for instance, the reinforcement starts to
yield, compression struts may develop and a small concrete cone failure can be the decisive
component. With the design model the interaction of the concrete cone and the stirrups is
considered. This allows the increase of the design resistance and the determination of the
stiffness of the two combined components concrete cone and stirrups in tension in cases,
where both of them are interacting. In Fig. 2.9 a headed stud with additional reinforcement and
the assembly of single components is shown.

21

Headed stud failure in tension


Pull-out failure
Concrete cone failure with stirrups in tension

Fig. 2.9 Component headed studs with stirrups in tension


Embedded plate in tension
Ductile behaviour and a larger rotation capacity of column bases can be initiated with a thin
anchor plate in combination with a base plate welded to the end of the column. In Fig. 2.10
three different kinds of geometries of embedded plates are shown, see Kuhlman et al, 2013.

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 2.10 Example of different positions of headed and treaded studs,


a) above, b) in distance in one major direction, c) in distance in general
The headed studs are welded on the bottom side of the base plate to connect the thin plate to
the concrete. The column base plate is connected to the anchor plate by the threaded bolts. If
the threaded bolts and the headed studs are in one line like, see Fig. 2.10, the anchor plate
has no influence on the behaviour of the joint. If the threaded bolts and the headed studs are
not in one line the anchor plate is activated. The model of the embedded plate represents an
additional failure mode for the T-stub in tension. If the T-stub reaches its limit state, the thin
base plate may still increase its capacity due to the membrane effect. The component
embedded plate in tension shows a ductile behaviour as large deformations occur before
failure. A detailed explanation of this component is given in Chapter 7.
The Tab. 2.4 summarises the components, which are used to model the simple and rigid steel
beam to concrete column/wall joints and column bases using anchor plates.
Tab. 2.4 Components for joints with anchor plates
Headed
stud in
tension

Concrete
breakout in
tension

Stirrups in
tension

Pull-out
failure of
the headed
stud

Headed stud in shear

Chapter

3.1.1

3.1.2

3.1.4

3.1.5

3.1.6

Component

Friction

Concrete in
compression

Component

Figure


22

Concrete panel
in shear

Longitudinal
steel

Slip of the
composite
beam

reinforcement
in tension

Figure

Chapter

Component

3.3.7

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

Threaded
studs in
tension/
shear

Punching of the
anchor plate

Anchor plate in
bending and
tension

Colum/beam
flange and web
in compression

Steel contact
plate

4.7

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

Figure

Chapter

23

3 COMPONENTS IN CONCRETE
3.1

Component model for headed studs

For components embedded in concrete the displacement behaviour and therefore


the F-curve is influenced by the concrete properties itself and the interaction between the
anchorage and the concrete. The influence of concrete on the behaviour of anchorages in
tension have to be considered. The scatter in concrete is much larger than that observed for
the material steel, see (Pallars and Hajjar, 2009).
For design, a material safety factor for concrete according to EN1992-1-1:2004 of Mc 1.5 is
used. The characteristic values for the resistances are derived by assuming a normal
distribution and a probability of 90 % for the 5 % fractal that corresponds to the characteristic
value. The given displacements and stiffnesss are mean values and can scatter with
coefficient of variation up to 50 %.
The complete Fcurve for the design of a headed stud in tension is described by a rheological
model using and combining different components for the headed stud. The individual
components for anchorages with supplementary reinforcement are:
Component S
Component CC
Component RS
Component RB
Component P

Steel failure of the headed stud (Rd,s / NRd,s)


Concrete cone failure (Rd,c / NRd,c)
Steel failure of the stirrups (Rd,s,re / NRd,s,re)
Bond failure of the stirrups (Rd,b,re / NRd,b,re)
Pull out failure of the headed stud (Rd,p / NRd,p)

The combination is given in Fig. 3.1.

Components

Components

S
P

S
P

CC
CC
KS/RB

a) with supplementary reinforcement

b) without supplementary reinforcement

Fig. 3.1 Spring models for the different components of anchorages embedded in concrete

3.1.1

Headed studs in tension, component S

If a headed stud is loaded in tension, the load is first transferred from the loading point at the
base plate to the bearing areas of the headed stud. Therefore the shaft will elongate up to the
f / . For design the behaviour is assumed as linear elastic
design yielding strength f
up to the yielding load of the headed stud. The corresponding elongation due to the introduced
stress is calculated with the equation using the Hookes law. The elongation corresponding to
the yield load is given by


24


where
Lh
NRd,s
Es
As,nom

N
A,

L
E

(3.1)

[mm]

is length of the anchor shaft [mm]


is design tension resistance of the headed stud [N]
is elastic modulus of the steel, Es 210 000 N/mm [N/mm]
is nominal cross section area of all shafts

d
,

(3.2)

mm

where
ds,nom is nominal diameter of the shaft [mm]
The design load at steel yielding failure is calculated as given below
N

(3.3)

where
is characteristic ultimate strength of the shaft material of the headed stud [N/mm]
fuk
n
is number of headed studs in tension [-]
is partial safety factor for steel [-]
Ms
Exceeding the design steel yielding strength fyd, the elongation will strongly increase without
a significant increase in load up to a design strain limit su. For the design, this increase of
strength is neglected on the safe side and the stiffness is assumed to be zero, ks 0 N/mm.
Depending on the product the failure shall be assumed at the yielding point. In general,
fasteners as headed studs are deemed to have an elongation capacity of at least su 0.8 %.
This limit shall be used to determine the response of the fasteners unless it is proven by means
of tests that they have a higher elongation capacity.
Therefore the stiffness ks is described as given below depending on the displacement or load
k
k

0 for

for N
e

N
and N

(3.4)

N/mm
N

N/mm

(3.5)

where
Rd,sy is displacement at yielding of the shaft, see Eq. (3.1) [mm]
is maximum elongation capacity of the shaft, 0.8 % [-]
su

3.1.2

Headed studs in tension, component CC

The component concrete breakout in tension is described using the design load NRd,c for
concrete cone failure and the displacement in the softening branch after failure. Up to the
design load the component cant be assumed as absolutely rigid without any displacement.
The displacement corresponding to design load is given by

25

N
k

[mm]

(3.6)

The design load at concrete cone failure is calculated as


N

[N]

(3.7)

where
N , is characteristic resistance of a single anchor without edge and spacing effects
N
where
k1
hef
fck
,

k h

[N]

(3.8)

is basic factor 8.9 for cracked concrete and 12.7 for non-cracked concrete [-]
is embedment depth given according to the product specifications [mm]
is characteristic concrete strength according to EN206-1:2000 [N/mm]
is factor accounting for the geometric effects of spacing and edge distance [-]

(3.9)

[-]

where

is factor accounting for the influence of edges of the concrete member on the
distribution of stresses in the concrete

0.7

0.3

c
c

(3.10)

where
,
is factor accounting for the negative effect of closely spaced reinforcement in the
concrete member on the strength of anchors with an embedment depth hef 100 mm
0.5 hef / 200 for s 150 mm (for any diameter) [-]
or s 100 mm (for ds 10 mm)
1.0
for s 150 mm (for any diameter) [-]
is 1.5 for concrete [-]
Mc
is reference area of the concrete cone of an individual anchor with large spacing and
A,
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm]. The concrete cone is idealized
as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base length equal to scr,N with
s
c

0.5 s

3.0 h [mm]
,

1.5 h [mm]

(3.11)
(3.12)

where
is actual projected area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface,
Ac,N
limited by overlapping concrete cones of adjacent anchors, s scr,N, as well as by edges
of the concrete member, c ccr,N. It may be deduced from the idealized failure cones
of single anchors [mm]
To avoid a local blow out failure the edge distance shall be larger than 0.5 hef. Due to sudden
and brittle failure, the initial stiffness for concrete cone is considered as infinity, i.e. till the actual
load, Nact is less than or equal to the design tension resistance for concrete cone, the

26

displacement c is zero. Once the design load is exceeded, the displacement increases with
decreasing load, descending branch. Thus, the load-displacement behaviour in case of
concrete cone breakout is idealized as shown in Fig. 3.2.
Nact
NRd,c
kc,de
1
c
Fig. 3.2 Idealized load-displacement relationship for concrete cone breakout in tension
The stiffness of the descending branch kc,de for the design is described with the following
function
k
where
c
hef
fck
Ac,N
A,

f h

[N/mm]

(3.13)

is factor of component concrete break out in tension, currently c 537


is embedment depth of the anchorage [mm]
is characteristic concrete compressive strength [N/mm]
is projected surface of the concrete cone [mm2]
projected surface of the concrete cone of a single anchorage [mm2]

The displacement c as a function of the acting load Nact is described using the design
resistance and the stiffness of the descending branch.
For ascending part
N

and c

(3.14)

For descending branch

3.1.3

0 mm and

N
k

(3.15)

Stirrups in tension, component RS

The component stirrups in tension was developed based on empirical studies. Therefore the
tests results were evaluated to determine the displacement of the stirrups depending on the
load Nact acting on the stirrup. The displacement is determined like given in the following
equation

2N
, ,

, ,

[mm]

(3.16)

where

27

s
NRd,s,re
ds,re
fck
nre

is factor of the component stirrups, currently s 12 100 [-]


is design tension resistance of the stirrups for tension failure [N]
is nominal diameter of thereinforcement leg [mm]
is characteristic concrete compressive strength [N/mm]
is total number of legs of stirrups [-]

The design load for yielding of the stirrups is determined as given


N
where
As,re
ds,re
fyd
nre

, ,

[N]

(3.17)

is nominal cross section area of all legs of the stirrups [mm]


is nominal diameter of the stirrups [mm]
is design yield strength of the shaft material of the headed stud [N/mm]
is total number of legs of stirrups [-]

Exceeding the design steel yielding strength fyd,re the elongation will increase with no significant
increase of the load up to a strain limit su,re of the stirrups. For the design this increase of
strength is neglected on the safe side. In general reinforcement steel stirrups shall have an
elongation capacity of at least su,re = 2,5 %. So the design strain limit su,re is assumed to be
2.5 %. The displacement as a function of the acting load is determined as
n f
k

for

2
k

3.1.4

0 for

, ,

[N/mm]

, ,

[N/mm]

(3.18)

(3.19)

Stirrups in tension - bond failure, component RB

The displacement of the concrete component stirrups in tension is determined under the
assumption that bond failure of the stirrups will occur. This displacement is calculated with
equation (3.19) as

where
s
NRd,b,re
ds,re
fck

2N
, ,

, ,

(3.20)

[mm]

is factor of the component stirrups, currently s 12 100 [-]


is design tension resistance of the stirrups for bond failure [N]
is nominal diameter of the stirrups [mm]
is characteristic concrete compressive strength [N/mm]

The design anchorage capacity of the stirrups according CEN/TS-model [5] is determined the
design tension resistance of the stirrups for bond failure
N
where
ns,re is number of legs [-]

28

, ,

l d , f

[N]

(3.21)

l1
ds,re
fbd

is anchorage length [mm]


is nominal diameter of the stirrups [mm]
is design bond strength according to EN1992-1-1:2004 [N/mm]
is factor according to EN1992-1-1:2004 for hook effect and large concrete cover,
currently 0.7 0.7 = 0.49 [-]

n f
k

for

2
k

3.1.5

0 for

, ,

[N/mm]

, ,

[N/mm]

(3.22)

(3.23)

Headed studs in tension, component P

The pull out failure of the headed studs will take place if the local stresses at the head are
larger than the local design resistance. Up to this level the displacement of the headed stud
will increase due to the increasing pressure under the head.

2 k

, ,

N
A f

, ,

min N , ; N
A f n
k

n
,

(3.24)

[mm]

, ,

[mm]

k k
k

(3.25)

(3.26)

where
is area on the head of the headed stud [mm]
Ah

d
4

(3.27)

where
ka
is form factor at porous edge sections [-]
k

5/a

(3.28)

where
is factor considering the shoulder width [mm]
ap
a

0.5 d

(3.29)

where
is factor considering the cross section depending on factor ka [-]
kA

0.5 d

m d

0.5 d

(3.30)

where
n
is number of the headed studs [-]

29

p
k2
m
dh
ds
NRd,p

is factor of the component head pressing, currently is p 0.25 [-]


is factor for the headed studs in non-cracked concrete, currently 600 [-]
is factor for the headed studs in cracked concrete, currently 300 [-]
is pressing relation, m 9 for headed studs [-]
is diameter of the head [mm]
is diameter of the shaft [mm]
is design load at failure in cases of pull out
N

np

(3.31)

A /

where
is characteristic ultimate bearing pressure at the headed of stud [N/mm2]
puk
NRd,c is design load for concrete cone failure without supplementary reinforcement
N

(3.32)

[N]

where
NRd,re design load at failure of the supplementary reinforcement minimum value of
N

, ,

and N

, ,

[N]

(3.33)

The stiffness as a function of the displacement is determined as

k
k

A f

min N

A f n
k

;N

(3.34)

[N/mm]

[N/mm]

, ,

/ [N/mm]

(3.35)

(3.36)

The stiffness kp,de depends on the failure modes. If the supplementary reinforcement fails by
yielding (NRd,s,re NRd,b,re and NRd,s,re NRd,p) the design stiffness kp,de is assumed as 104 N/mm,
negative due to descending branch.
In all other cases (e.g. NRd,s,re NRd,b,re or NRd,s,re NRd,p) kp,de shall be assumed as infinite due to
brittle failure. The stiffness in case of pull out failure is calculated using the minimum value of
the stiffnesss calculated with equation (3.34) to (3.36).
k

3.1.6

min k

;k

;k

[N/mm]

(3.37)

Headed studs in shear, component V

The load-displacement behaviour mainly depends on the pressure to the concrete near the
surface of the concrete member. Due to concrete crushing at the surface of the concrete
member, the displacement under shear loading varies very large with a coefficient of variation
about 40 % to 50 %. However a semi-empirical calculation shows that the displacement at
failure mainly depends on the acting loading, the diameter of the anchors and the embedment

30

depth. Therefore the displacement under shear loading for a given load level is calculated,
see (Hofmann 2005), using the following equation only as an estimation

V
d

[mm]

(3.38)

where
kv
empirical value depending on the type of anchor [-], for headed studs kv 2 to 4
design failure load as the minimum of the design failure loads calculated for the different
VRd
failure modes (VRd,s, VRd,cp, VRd,c , VRd,p) given according to the technical product
specification CEN/TS 1992-4-1 or (FIB Bulletin 58, 2011)
The displacement at ultimate load up three times larger than the displacement at the design
load level due to the assumption, that the concrete near the surface is not fully crushed at
design load level.

3.2

Combination of components

To come up with the total stiffness of the connection with headed studs anchored in concrete
with or without supplementary reinforcement, the stiffnesss must be combined. The
combination depends on whether the components are acting in parallel, equal displacements,
or in serial, equal load. Three combinations are given, see (Hofmann, 2005):
Combination C1
Concrete cone failure with or without supplementary reinforcement, ks,re = 0 and kb,re = 0
Combination C2
Displacement due to steel elongation and head pressure, pull out
Combination C3
Total connection of headed studs anchored in concrete with supplementary reinforcement

Fig. 3.3 Combinations of different single components


for an anchorage with supplementary reinforcement

3.2.1

Combination of concrete cone and stirrups, C1 = CC + RS/RB

If both components are summarized, the load is calculated using the sum of the loads at the
same displacement due to the combination of the components using a parallel connection

31

from the rheological view. Two ranges must be considered. The first range is up to the load
level at concrete failure NRd,c the second up to a load level of failure of the stirrups NRd,s,re or
NRd,b,re.
k

for N

for N

(3.39)

[N/mm]

This leads to the following equation


n f
k

(3.40)

[N/mm]

In the second range the load is transferred to the stirrups and the stiffness decreases. The
stiffness is calculated if Nact is larger than NRd,c with the following equation
k

for N

(3.41)

[N/mm]

This leads to a relative complex equation


N

for N

, ,

(3.42)

2
[N/mm]

, ,

If the load exceeds the ultimate load given by NRd,s,re or NRd,b,re the stiffness of the stirrups are
negligible. Therefore the following equation applies:
k

3.2.2

0 for N

, ,

, ,

[N/mm]

(3.43)

Combination of steel and pullout, C2 = S + P

If both components are summarized the load is calculated using the sum of the displacements
at the same load Nact due to the combination of the components using a serial connection from
the rheological view. This is done by summing up the stiffnesss as given below
k

1
k

1
k

(3.44)

[N/mm]

This loads to the following equation


k

L
A

1
k

L
A

1
min k ; k ; k

[N/mm]

where
kp is the minimum stiffness in case of pullout failure as the minimum of kp1, kp2 and kp3


32

(3.45)

3.2.3

Combination of all components, C3 = CC + RS/RB + P +S

To model the whole load- displacement curve of a headed stud embedded in concrete with a
supplementary reinforcement the following components are combined:
concrete and stirrups in tension, components CC and RB/RS, as combination C1,
shaft of headed stud in tension, component S, and
pull-out failure of the headed stud component P as Combination 2.
The combinations C1 and C2 is added by building the sum of displacements. This is due to
the serial function of both components. That means that these components are loaded with
the same load but the response concerning the displacement is different. The combination of
the components using a serial connection leads to the following stiffness of the whole
anchorage in tension:
1/k

1/k

[N/mm]

1/k

(3.46)

where
is the stiffness due to the displacement of the anchorage in case of concrete cone
kC1
failure with supplementary reinforcement, see combination C1 [N/mm], if no
supplementary reinforcement is provided kC1 is equal to kc
is the stiffness due to the displacement of the head, due to the pressure under the head
kC2
on the concrete, and steel elongation, see combination C2 [N/mm]

3.2.4

Design failure load

In principle two failure modes are possible to determine the design failure load NRd,C3 for the
combined model. These modes are failure of
the concrete strut NRd,cs,
the supplementary reinforcement NRd,re.
The design failure load in cases of concrete strut failure is calculated using the design load in
case of concrete cone failure and an increasing factor to consider the support of the
supplementary reinforcement, angle of the concrete strut,
N

(3.47)

where
NRd,c is design failure load in case of concrete cone failure, see Eq. 3.7 [N]
support is support factor considering the confinement of the stirrups
2.5

x
h

(3.48)

where
x
is distance between the anchor and the crack on the concrete surface assuming a crack
propagation from the stirrup of the supplementary reinforcement to the concrete surface
with an angle of 35 [mm]

33

Fig. 3.4 Distance between the anchor and the crack on the concrete surface
The load is transferred to the stirrups and the concrete cone failure load is reached. Depending
on the amount of supplementary reinforcement the failure of the stirrups can decisive
NRd,re NRd,cs. Two failure modes are possible:
steel yielding of stirrups NRd,s,re, see equation (3.16),
anchorage failure of stirrups NRd,b,re, see equation (3.20).
The corresponding failure load is calculated according to equation (3.49) summarizing the
loads of the corresponding components
N

min N

;N

, ,

, ,

[N]

(3.49)

where
NRd,c is design failure load in case of concrete cone failure, see equation (3.7), [N]
NRd,s,re is design failure load in case of yielding of the stirrups of the supplementary
reinforcement, see equation (3.16) [N]
NRd,b,re is design failure load in case of bond failure of the stirrups of the supplementary
reinforcement, see equation (3.20) [N]
is stiffness of the concrete cone in the descending branch, see equation (3.13) [N/mm]
kc,de
is corresponding displacement at failure load NRd,s,re or NRd,b,re [mm]
f

3.2.5

Combination of tension and shear components

The displacements in tension and shear is calculated by the sum of the displacement vectors.

3.3
3.3.1

Simplified stiffnesss based on technical specifications


Headed stud in tension without supplementary reinforcement

For simplification the displacements and the stiffness of headed studs or anchorages is
estimated using technical product specifications. The elongation Rd is estimated up to the
design load NRd using the displacements given in the technical product specification. The
displacement is estimated by the following equation

,
N

(3.50)

where
N,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
NETA is tension load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications

34

NRd

is design tension resistance

The stiffness of the anchorage is calculated with the following equation


k

,
N

(3.51)

where
N,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
NETA is tension load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications

3.3.2

Headed stud in shear

For the design the displacement v is estimated up to the design load VRd using the
displacements given in the technical product specification. The displacement is estimated
using the displacements far from the edge v,ETA for short term and long term loading. The
displacement is estimated by the following equation

,
V

(3.52)

where
V,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
VETA is shear load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications
VRd,c is design shear resistance
The stiffness of the anchorage is calculated with the following equation
k

,
V

(3.53)

where
V,ETA is displacement given in the product specifications for a corresponding load
VETA is shear load for which the displacements are derived in the product specifications

3.3.3

Concrete breakout in tension

The characteristic load corresponding to the concrete cone breakout in tension for a single
headed stud without edge influence is given by equation
N

k h

(3.54)

where
k1
is basic factor for concrete cone breakout, which is equal to 8.9 for cracked concrete
and 12.7 for non-cracked concrete, for headed studs, [-]
is effective embedment depth given according to the product specifications [mm] [-]
hef
is characteristic concrete strength according to EN206-1:2000 [N/mm]
fck
The design load for concrete cone breakout for a single anchor, N
partial safety factor of concrete to the characteristic load as

is obtained by applying

35

(3.55)

= 1.5.

For concrete, the recommended value of is

For a group of anchors, the design resistance corresponding to concrete cone breakout is
given by equation (3.56), which is essentially same as equation (3.7)
N

(3.56)

where
N , is characteristic resistance of a single anchor without edge and spacing effects
,
is factor accounting for the geometric effects of spacing and edge distance
given as

,
,

Mc

is reference area of the concrete cone for a single anchor with large spacing and
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm].
The concrete cone is idealized as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base
length equal to scr,N with s ,
3.0 h , thus A ,
9 h .
is reference area of the concrete cone of an individual anchor with large spacing and
edge distance projected on the concrete surface [mm].
The concrete cone is idealized as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base
length equal to scr,N with s , 3,0 h mm
is actual projected area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface,
limited by overlapping concrete cones of adjacent anchors s scr,N,
as well as by edges of the concrete member c ccr,N.
It may be deduced from the idealized failure cones of single anchors [mm]
is minimum edge distance c 1.5 hef [mm]
is critical edge distance ccr,N 1.5 hef [mm]
is factor accounting for the negative effect of closely spaced reinforcement in the
concrete member on the strength of anchors with an embedment depth hef < 100 mm
for s 150 mm, for any diameter [-]
0.5 + hef / 200
or s < 100 mm, for ds 10 mm
1.0
for s 150 mm (for any diameter) [-]
is 1.5 for concrete [-]

3.3.4

Pull out failure of the headed studs

Ac,N

c
ccr,N
re,N

The design load corresponding to the pull out failure of the headed stud, NRd,p is given by
N

A /

(3.57)

where
puk
is characteristic ultimate bearing pressure at the head of stud [N/mm2]
is area on the head of the headed stud [mm]
Ah
A
dh
ds
Mc

36

is diameter of the head [mm]


is diameter of the shaft [mm]
is 1.5 for concrete [-]

d
4

(3.57b)

3.3.5

Interaction of components for concrete and stirrups

In case of headed stud anchored in concrete with supplementary reinforcement, stirrups, the
stirrups do not carry any load till the concrete breakout initiates, i.e. till Nact is less than or equal
to NRd,c. Once, the concrete breakout occurs, the load shared by concrete decreases with
increasing displacement as depicted in Fig. 3.4. The load shared by concrete Nact,c
corresponding to a given displacement is therefore given by equation
N

(3.57)

where kc,de is the slope of descending branch of Fig. 3.4, negative value, given by Eq. (3.7).
Simultaneously, in case of concrete with supplementary reinforcement, the stirrups start to
carry the load. The load carried by the stirrups corresponding to a given displacement is
given by equation

N
where
s
ds,nom
fck
nre

f
2

(3.58a)

is factor of the component stirrups, currently is s = 12 100 [-]


is nominal diameter of the stirrups [mm]
is characteristic concrete compressive strength [N/mm]
is total number of legs of stirrups [-]

The total load Nact carried by concrete cone and stirrups corresponding to any given
displacement is therefore given as the sum of the two components:

min n

f
; N
2

, ,

; N

, ,

(3.59)

The displacement corresponding to peak load of the system is obtained by differentiating the
right hand side of Eq. (3.60) and equating it to zero. If the bond failure or steel failure of stirrups
is not reached at an earlier displacement then the design peak load carried by the system Nu,c s
is given by
N
where
NRd,c
s
ds,re
fck
nre
kc,de

(3.60)

,
,

is design load at concrete cone failure given by equation (3.7)


is factor of the component stirrups, currently is s = 12 100 [-]
is Nominal diameter of the stirrups [mm]
is characteristic concrete compressive strength [N/mm]
is total number of legs of stirrups [-]
is stiffness of descending branch for concrete cone failure, given by eq. (3.13)

In a relatively rare case of all studs loaded in tension, both the legs of the hanger reinforcement
are not uniformly loaded and the distribution of forces is difficult to ascertain. Due to this reason
and also to avoid the problems with serviceability requirements, it is recommended that in such
a case, the contribution of hanger reinforcement is ignored.

37

3.3.6

Determination of the failure load

The failure load Nu is given by the minimum of the failure load corresponding to each
considered failure mode

3.3.7

Friction

For base plates the friction is defined in EN1993-1-8 cl 6.2.2. For the resistance the resistance
values of friction and bolts may be added as long as the bolt holes are not oversized. For the
friction between a base plate and the grout underneath the plate the following calculation may
be used.
F,

C, N

(3.61)

where
is coefficient for friction, for sand-cement mortar C ,
C,
is axial compressive force of the column
N,

0.2

In this design manual the friction is not only applied to compression forces caused by axial
forces but also for compression forces generated by bending moments. This principle is
applied in EN1993-1-8:2006 for beam to the column end joints with end plates in cl 3.9.2(3).

3.4
3.4.1

Base plate in bending and concrete block in compression


Concrete 3D strength

The components concrete in compression and base plate in bending represent the behaviour
of the compressed part of a steel to concrete connection. The resistance of these components
depends primarily on the bearing resistance of the concrete block under the flexible base plate,
see (Melchers, 1992). The resistance of concrete is influenced by flexibility of base plate. In
case of loading by an axial force, the stresses in concrete are not uniformly distributed, they
are concentrated around the footprint of the column under the plate according to its thickness,
see (Dewolf, Sarisley, 1980). For the design the flexible base plate is replaced by reducing
the effective fully rigid plate. The grout layer between the base plate and concrete block
influences the resistance and stiffness of the component. That is why this layer is also included
into this component, see (Penserini, Colson, 1989). Other important factors which influence
the resistance are the concrete strength, the compression area, the location of the plate on the
concrete foundation, the size of the concrete block and its reinforcement.
The stiffness behaviour of column base connection subjected to bending moment is influenced
mostly by elongation of anchor bolts. The Component concrete in compression is mostly stiffer
in comparison to the component anchor bolts in tension. The deformation of concrete block
and base plate in compression is important in case of dominant axial compressive force.
The strength of the component FRd,u, expecting the constant distribution of the bearing stresses
under the effective area, is given by
F

(3.62)

The design value of the bearing strength fjd in the joint loaded by concentrated compression,
is determined as follows. The concrete resistance is calculated according to cl. 6.7(2) in
EN1992-1-1:2004 see Fig. 3.6 is

38

A
A

3.0 A

(3.63)

where
A

and A

b d

(3.64)

b d

where Ac0 is the loaded area and Ac1 the maximum spread area. The influence of height of the
concrete block to its 3D behaviour is introduced by

b1 and h

b2
3 b

d2

b and 3 d

d1

(3.65)

Load axes

Fig. 3.5 Concrete compressive strength for calculation of 3D concentration


From this geometrical limitation the following formulation is derived

F
b l

A f
A

A
A

3A f
A

3.0 f

(3.66)

The factor j represents the fact that the resistance under the plate might be lower due to the
quality of the grout layer after filling. The value 2/3 is used in the case of the characteristic
resistance of the grout layer is at least 0.2 times the characteristic resistance of concrete and
thickness of this layer is smaller than 0.2 times the smallest measurement of the base plate.
In different cases, it is necessary to check the grout separately. The bearing distribution under
45 is expected in these cases, see (Steenhuis et al, 2008) and Fig. 3.5 Concrete compressive
strength for calculation of 3D concentration
Fig. 3. The design area Ac0 is conservatively considered as the full area of the plate Ap.

39

Fig. 3.6 Modelling of grout


3.4.2

Base plate flexibility

In case of the elastic deformation of the base plate is expected homogenous stress distribution
in concrete block is expected under the flexible base plate based on the best engineering
practice. The formula for the effective width c is derived from the equality of elastic bending
moment resistance of the base plate and the bending moment acting on the base plate, see
(Astaneh et al., 1992). Acting forces are shown in Fig. 3.7.

Column

FSd

FRd
c

tw

t
L

Base plate

fj

Fig. 3.7 Base plate as a cantilever for check of its elastic deformation only
Elastic bending moment of the base plate per unit length is
f
1
t
6

(3.69)

and the bending moment per unit length on the base plate of span c and loaded by distributed
load is
M

1
f c
2

(3.70)

where fj is concrete bearing strength and from Eq. (3.69) and (3.70) is
c

f
3f

(3.71)

The flexible base plate, of the area Ap, is replaced by an equivalent rigid plate with area Aeq,
see Fig. 3.8. Then the resistance of the component, expecting the constant distribution of the
bearing stresses under the effective area is given by

40

(3.72)

The resistance FRd should be higher than the loading FEd


F

F
A

Ap
Aeq

Ap

(3.73)

Ap

Aeq
c
c
Aeq

Fig. 3.8 Effective area under the base plate

3.4.3

Component stiffness

The proposed design model for stiffness of the components base plate in bending and concrete
in compression is given also in (Steenhuis et al, 2008). The stiffness of the component is
influenced by factors: the flexibility of the plate, the Youngs modulus of concrete, and the size
of the concrete block. By loading with force, a flexible rectangular plate could be pressed down
into concrete block. This flexible deformation is determined by theory of elastic semi-space

where
F

ar
Ec
Ap

F a
E A

(3.74)

is acting load
is shape factor of the plate
is width of equivalent rigid plate
is elastic modulus of concrete
is area of the plate

The factor depends on the material characteristics. The Tab. 3.1 gives values of this factor
dependent on the Poison's ratio, for concrete is 0.15. The table shows also the approximate
value of factor , that is 0.58 L/a .
Tab. 3.1 Factor and its approximation for concrete
l / ar
1
1.5
2
3
5
10


0.90
1.10
1.25
1.47
1.76
2.17

Approximation as 0.58 L/a .


0.85
1.04
1.20
1.47
1.90
2.69

For steel plate laid on concrete block it is

41

0.85 F

(3.75)

la

where
r
is deformation under the rigid plate
l
is length of the plate
The model for the elastic stiffness behaviour of component is based on a similar interaction
between concrete block and steel plate. The flexible plate is expressed as an equivalent rigid
plate based on the same deformation, modelled in Fig. 3.9.

cfl
x
E Ip

Fig. 3.9 A flange of flexible T-stub


Independent springs support the flange of a unit width. Then, the deformation of the plate is a
sine function.
(3.76)

sin x / c

The uniform stress on the plate is rewritten by the fourth differentiate and multiplied
by E Ip

E l /c

sin

x
c

12
c

sin x /c

(3.77)

where
E
is elastic modulus of steel
Ip
is moment of inertia per unit length of the steel plate (Ip t3 / 12)
t
is thickness of the plate

h /E

(3.78)

where
is equivalent concrete height of the portion under the steel plate
hef
Assume that
c

(3.79)

Factor expresses the rotation between hef and cfl. Hence

c /E

After substitution and using other expressing it is


42

(3.80)

/2
12

E
E

(3.81)

The flexible length cfl may be replaced by an equivalent rigid length


(3.82)

c 2/

The factor shows the ratio between heq and cfl. The value ar represents height heq. Factor
t
2c and t
0.5 c . Then it is written
is approximated to 1.4 a
1.4 0.5

2 c

1.4 2.5 c

2.2 c

(3.83)

Hence 2.2.
For practical joints is estimated by Ec 30 000 N / mm2 and E 210 000 N / mm2, what leads
to

/2
12

E
E

/2
12

2.2

210000
30000

1.98 t

(3.84)

or
c

1.98

2
t

1.25 t

(3.85)

The equivalent width ar is in elastic state replace with


a

2.5 t

(3.86)

3.125 t

(3.87)

0.5 c

or
a

0.5 1.25 t

2.5 t

From the deformation of the component and other necessary values which are described
above, the formula to calculate the stiffness coefficient is derived
k

F
E

E a

1.5 0.85 E

1.275 E

E t L
0.72 E

(3.88)

where
aeq,el is equivalent width of the T-stub
L
is length of the T-stub

3.5

Concrete panel

The resistance and deformation of the reinforced concrete wall in the zone adjacent to the joint
is hereby represented by a joint link component, see (Huber and Cermeneg, 1998). Due to
the nature of this joint, reinforced concrete, the developed model is based on the strut-and-tie
method, commonly implemented in the analysis of reinforced concrete joints. The problem is
3D, increasing its complexity, as the tension load is introduced with a larger width than the

43

compression, which may be assumed concentrated within an equivalent dimension of the


anchor plate, equivalent rigid plate as considered in T-stub in compression. Thus, a numerical
model considering only the reinforced concrete wall and an elastic response of the material
has been tested to identify the flow of principal stresses. These show that compression
stresses flow from the hook of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to the anchor plate. In this
way the strut-and-tie model (STM) represented in Fig. 10a is idealized. Subsequently, in order
to contemplate the evaluation of the deformation of the joint, a diagonal spring is idealized to
model the diagonal compression concrete strut, as illustrated in Fig. 10. The ties correspond
to the longitudinal steel reinforcement bars. The properties of this diagonal spring are
determined for resistance and stiffness.
The resistance is obtained based on the strut and nodes dimension and admissible stresses
within these elements. The node at the anchor plate is within a tri-axial state. Therefore, high
stresses are attained as confinement effect. In what concerns the strut, because of the 3D
nature, stresses tend to spread between nodes. Giving the dimensions of the wall of infinite
width, the strut dimensions should not be critical to the joint. Thus, the node at the hook of the
bar is assumed to define the capacity of the diagonal spring. The resistance of the spring is
then obtained according to the dimensions of this node and to the admissible stresses in the
node and in the strut. For the latter, the numerical model indicates the presence of transverse
tension stresses which have to be taken into consideration.
The deformation of the diagonal spring is obtained by assuming a non-linear stress-strain
relation for the concrete under compression, as defined in (Henriques, 2012). The maximum
stress is given by the limiting admissible stress as referred above. Then, deformation is
calculated in function of the length of the diagonal strut and the concrete strain.

Node 1
T
Strut

Node 2
T

a)

11

Strut-and-tie model

b) Single diagonal spring

Fig. 3.10 Joint link modelling


Tab. 3.2 provides the stresses for nodes and struts according to EN1992-1-1:2004. Node 1 is
characterized by the hook longitudinal reinforcement bar. The represented dimension is
assumed as defined in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. In what concerns the width of the node,
based on the numerical observations, it is considered to be limited by the distance between
the external longitudinal reinforcement bars within the effective width of the slab. The numerical
model demonstrates that the longitudinal reinforcement bars are sufficiently close, as no
relevant discontinuity in the stress field is observed. Though, this is an issue under further

44

investigation and depending on the spacing of the reinforcing bars, this assumption may or
may not be correct (Henriques, 2013).
Tab. 3.2 Stresses in strut-and-tie elements according to EN1992-1-1:2004
Element
Node 1
Node 2
Strut

Limiting stresses
0.75 fcd
3 fcd
0.6 fcd with

Ft1

41

1 fck/250

Ft1

Fc
Ft2

Fc
Ft2

2 02 .35 26

Fig. 3.11 Definition of the dimension related to the hook


of the longitudinal reinforcement bar in Node 1, according to the CEB Model Code
Finally, to simplify the assembling of the joint model, the diagonal spring representing the joint
link component is converted into a horizontal spring. The properties of the horizontal spring
are directly obtained from the diagonal spring determined as a function of the angle of the
diagonal spring.

3.6

Longitudinal steel reinforcement in tension

In the composite joint configuration under consideration, the longitudinal reinforcement in


tension is the only component able to transfer tension forces introduced by the bending
moment to the supporting member e.g. a reinforced concrete wall. This component determines
the behaviour of the joint. According to EN1994-1 the longitudinal steel reinforcement may be
stressed to its design yield strength. It is assumed that all the reinforcement within the effective
width of the concrete flange is used to transfer forces. The resistance capacity of the
component may then be determined as in Eq. (3.89). Regarding the deformation of the
component, the code provides stiffness coefficients for two composite joint configurations,
single and double-sided joints. The stiffness coefficient for single-sided joints may be
estimated as in Eq. (3.90). This stiffness coefficient depends essentially on the elongation
length of the longitudinal reinforcement contributing to the deformation of the component.
Analogous to the code provisions, the dimension h involved in Eq. (3.90) is assumed as shown
in Fig. 3.12.
F

A,
3.6 h

(3.89)
(3.90)

45

Fig. 3.12 Dimension h for elongation length


The tension component of the joint is calculated according to
F

3.7

(3.91)

/h

Slip of the composite beam

The slip of composite beam does not directly influence the resistance of the joint. However,
the level of interaction between concrete slab and steel beam defines the maximum load the
longitudinal reinforcement can achieve. Therefore in such joint configuration, where
reinforcement is the only tension component, the level of interaction affects the joint resistance.
In the EN1994-1-1:2008, the influence of the slip of composite beam is taken into account.
The stiffness coefficient of the longitudinal reinforcement, see Eq. (3.92) should be multiplied
with the reduction factor kslip determined as follows:
k
1
K

1
E k
k

(3.92)

N k
1 h
1 d

(3.93)

N k
E I
E I
d E A

l d

(3.94)

(3.95)

where
hs is the distance between the longitudinal reinforcing bars and the centre of compression of
the joint, that may be assumed as the midpoint of the compression flange of the steel
beam
ds

46

is the distance between the longitudinal reinforcing bars and the centroid of the steel beam
section, see Fig. 13

Ia

is the second moment area of the steel beam section

is the length of the beam in hogging bending adjacent to the joint, in the case of the tested
specimens is equal to the beams length

is the number of shear connectors distributed over the length l

ksc is the stiffness of one shear connector

Fig. 3.13 Dimensions hs and ds

4 STEEL COMPONENTS
4.1

T-stub in tension

The base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension is modelled by the help of T-stub model
based on the beam to column end plate connection model. Though in its behaviour there are
some differences. Thickness of the base plate is bigger to transfer compression into the
concrete block. The anchor bolts are longer due to thick pad, thick base plate, significant layer
of grout and flexible embedding into concrete block. The influence of a pad and a bolt head
may be higher.
Column flange
e m

t
eff
Base plate

Fig. 4.1 The T stub - anchor bolts in tension and base plate in bending
Due to longer free lengths of bolts, bigger deformations could arise. The anchor bolts, compare
to bolts, are expecting to behave ductile. When it is loaded by tension, the base plate is often
separated from the concrete surface. This case is shown in (Wilkinson et al, 2009). By bending
moment loading different behaviour should be expected. The areas of bolt head and pad
change favourably distribution of forces on T-stub. This influence is not so distinctive during
calculation of component stiffness. The all differences from end plate connections are involved

47

in the component method, see EN1993-1-8:2006. The design model of this component for
resistance as well for stiffness is given in (Wald et al, 2008).

L bf L
b
L be
d

Fig. 4.2 Length of anchor bolt

4.1.1

Model

When the column base is loaded by bending moment as it is shown in Fig. 4.3, anchor bolts
transfer tensile forces. This case of loading leads to elongation of anchor bolts and bending
of the base plate. Deformed bolts can cause failure as well as reaching of the yield strength
of the base plate. Sometimes failure in this tensile zone is caused by both, see (Di Sarno et
al, 2007).

Fig. 4.3 Tensile zone and equivalent T-stub in case of loading by bending moment
Column with connected base plate taken, as it is shown in Fig. 4.4, into model of T-stub.

F
m

Q=0

Q=0

Fig. 4.4 T-stub separated from the concrete block with no prying force
There are two models of deformation of the T-stub of the base plate according to presence of
prying. In the case the base plate separated from the concrete foundation, there is no prying
force Q, see Fig. 4.4. In other case, the edge of the plate is in contact with concrete block, the
bolts are loaded by additional prying force Q. This force is balanced just by the contact force
at the edge of the T-stub, see Fig. 4.5.
When there is contact between the base plate and the concrete block, beam theory is used to
describe deformed shape of the T-stub.

48

F
2
F
+Q
2

2
+x

Fig. 4.5 Beam model of T-stub and prying force Q


Deformed shape of the curve is described by differential equation
E I "

(4.1)

After writing the above equation for both parts of the beam model 1 and 2, application of
suitable boundary conditions, the equations could be solved. The prying force Q is derived just
from these solved equations as
Q

F
3 m n A 2L I

2 2 n A 3 m n
3L I

(4.2)

When the base plate is in contact with concrete surface, the prying of bolts appears and on the
contrary no prying forces occur in the case of separated base plate from the concrete block
due to the deformation of long bolts. This boundary, between prying and no prying has to be
determined. Providing that n 1.25 m it may be expressed as
L

8.82 m A
l t

(4.3)

where
As
is the area of the bolt
is equivalent length of anchor bolt
Lb
is equivalent length of T-stub determined by the help of Yield line method, presented in
leff
following part of work
For embedded bolts length Lb is determined according to Fig. 4.2 as
L

(4.4)

where
Lbe
is 8 d effective bolt length
L , there is no prying. Previous formulae is expressed for
When the length of bolt L
boundary thickness tlim, see (Wald et al, 2008), of the base plate as

2.066 m

A
l

(4.5)
L

49

If the base plate are loaded by compression force and by bending moment and not by tensile
force it is recommended to neglect these prying forces. In other cases it needs to be checked.

4.1.2 Resistance
The design resistance of a T-stub of flange in tension of effective length eff is determined as
minimum resistance of three possible plastic collapse mechanisms. For each collapse
mechanism there is a failure mode. Following collapse modes, shown in Fig. 4.6, is used for
T-stub in contact with the concrete foundation, see in EN1993-1-8:2006.

FRd.3

FRd.1

FRd.2
Bt.Rd

Bt.Rd

Bt.Rd

B
Q

a)

Mode 3

B t.Rd

B
Q

Mode 1

b)

c)

Mode 2

Fig. 4.6 Failure modes of the T-stub in contact with the concrete foundation
Mode 1
According to this kind of failure the T-stub with thin base plate and high strength anchor bolts
is broken. In the base plate plastic hinge mechanism with four hinges is developed.
F

4 l

m
m

(4.6)

Mode 2
This mode is a transition between failure Mode 1 and 3. At the same time two plastic hinges
are developed in the base plate and the limit strength of the anchor bolts is achieved.
F

2 l

B,
n

(4.7)

Mode 3
Failure mode 3 occurs by the T-stub with thick base plate and weak anchor bolts. The collapse
is caused by bolt fracture.
F

(4.8)

B,

The design strength FRd of the T-stub is derived as the smallest of these three possible modes:
F

50

min F

,F

,F

(4.9)

Because of the long anchor bolts and thick base plate different failure mode arises compare
to an end plate connection. When the T-stub is uplifted from the concrete foundation, there is
no prying, new collapse mode is obtained, see Fig. 4.7. This particular failure mode is named
Mode 1-2.
FRd,1-2

Fig. 4.7 T-stub without contact with the concrete foundation, Mode 1-2
Mode 1-2
The failure results either from bearing of the anchor bolts in tension or from the yielding of the
plate in bending, where a two hinges mechanism develops in the T-stub flange. This failure
does not appear in beam to column connection because of the small deformation of the bolts
in tension, see (Wald et al, 2008).
F

2 l
,

m
m

(4.10)

The relationship between Mode 1-2 and modes of T-stub in contact with concrete is shown in
Fig. 4.8.
F / B T,Rd
1,0

Mode 2
Mode 3

0,8
Mode1

0,6

Mode 1-2

0,4
0,2

4 eff m pl,Rd / B T,Rd

0,0
0

0,5

1,5

Fig. 4.8 Failure mode 1-2


The boundary between the mode 1-2 and others is given in the same way like the boundary of
prying and no prying according to the limiting bolt length Lb,min.
During the Mode 1-2 large deformations of the base plate can develop. Finally these
deformations could lead to contact between the concrete block and the edge of the T-stub
(prying forces can arise even in this case). After loading Modes 1 or 2 should be obtained like
the first. But for reaching this level of resistance, which is necessary to obtain these modes,
very large deformations are required. And so high deformations are not acceptable for design.
In conclusion, in cases where no prying forces develop, the design resistance of the T-stub is
taken as

51

min F

,F

(4.11)

where
F

B ,

(4.12)

The equivalent length of T-stub leff, which is very important for the resistance determination, is
calculated by the help of the yield line method, which is explained in the following part of the
work.

Yield line method


Although numerical methods, based on extensive use of computers, are potentially capable of
solving the most difficult plate problems, yield-line analysis is such an alternative computational
technique (Thambiratnam, Paramasivam, 1986). It provides such an alternative design
method for plates. This simple method, which uses concepts and techniques familiar to
structural engineers, provides realistic upper bounds of collapse loads even for arbitrary
shapes and loading conditions. The advantages of the yield-line method are: simplicity and
economy, information is provided on the real load-carrying capacity of the slab, the basic
principles used are familiar to structural engineers, the method also gives acceptable estimates
for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of structural steel plates, and resulting designs are often
more economical. On the other hand, the present limitations of the method are: the method
fails in vibration analysis and cannot be used in the case of repeated static or dynamic loads
(but is applied effectively for suddenly applied one-time loads), and theoretically, the law of
superposition is not valid. The yield-line method offers, especially for the practicing engineer,
certain advantages over the elastic stress analysis approaches.
Assumptions
The correct failure pattern is known, the critical load is obtained either from virtual work or from
equilibrium considerations. Both approaches use the following basic assumptions: at
impending collapse, yield lines are developed at the location of the maximum moments, the
yield lines are straight lines, along the yield lines, constant ultimate moments mu are
developed, the elastic deformations within the slab segments are negligible in comparison with
the rigid body motions, created by the large deformations along the yield lines, from the many
possible collapse mechanisms, only one, pertinent to the lowest failure load, is important. In
this case the yield-line pattern is optimum, when yield lines are in the optimum position, only
ultimate bending moments, but no twisting moments or transverse shear forces are present
along the yield lines. The location and orientation of yield lines determine the collapse
mechanism. The Fig. 4.9 introduces an example of yield line.
Free edge

Fig. 4.9 Possible yield line patterns



52

The work method


The work method, see (Johansen, 1949), gives an upper-bound solution to the critical load at
which the slab, with a certain ultimate resisting moment, fails. A particular configuration is
searched, from a family of possible yield-line patterns which gives the lowest value of the
ultimate load. The solution is based on the principle of virtual work.
The effective length of T-stub
The effective length leff of a T-stub is influenced by the failure mode of the T-stub. When there
are more than one possible failure modes, it means more than one effective length, the
calculation is done with the smallest (shortest) length, see EN1993-1-8:2006. The Fig. 4.10
shows, that two groups of yield line patterns can arise circular yield line and non-circular yield
line. The main difference between these two types is related to contact between the T-stub
and concrete foundation. By the non-circular patterns prying forces are developed. In this work
there are taken into account only the modes without the contact of the edge of the base plate
to the concrete foundation, it means without prying forces in bolts.

a) Circular pattern, eff,cp

b) Non-circular pattern, eff,np

Fig. 4.10 The yield line patterns


As it was written in previous paragraphs, the effective length could be determined by the yield
line method. Hence the yield line of the base plate must be designed. The collapse Mode 1
of the plate, which is shown in Fig. 4.11, is expected.

Fig. 4.11 Expected collapse mode


For this collapse mode there are following formulas:
m

tan
F

4l

1
t f
4

(4.13)

(4.14)

(4.15)

m
m

where
mpl,Rd is plastic bending moment resistance of the base plate per unit length
is force acting in the bolt position
Fpl

53

The assumptions to determine the yield line of the base plate are following the yield line is a
straight line, this line is perpendicular to a line which pass through the bolt and tangent to the
column, or this line is tangent to the column and parallel to the edge of the base plate. With
these assumptions are determined. Following calculation procedure of the effective length of
the T-stub in plate corner is given in (Wald et al, 2000) and (Heinisuo et al, 2012).

Fig. 4.12 The yield line parameters


represents the angle between the yield line and the edge and c the minimal distance between
the corner of the plate and the yield line. With the previous geometrical relation, the following
relations is obtained
tan

x
y

(4.16)

where
x, y
are coordinates of the bolt, which could vary
For the design of the parameter c, the work method of the yield line theory is used. The internal
work is
W

;m ;1

1
x
y

1
y
x

(4.17)

The external work is


P

where represents the deformation of the plate in the bolt position, see Fig. 4.13.

Fig. 4.13 The deformation of the plate represented by value

According to previous figure is replaced with


54

(4.18)

d
c

(4.19)

After replacement in the formula of the external work and putting it into equality with the
internal work as
x

y
c

x
y

y
x

(4.20)

and then the effective length of the T-stub is


cm x
y
4
c

(4.21)

The ultimate load is given by


F
F
c

cm

(4.22)

xy
x

y
xy

cst

(4.23)

With the yield line assumption the characteristics of the different possible failure models could
be designed.
The effective length of T-stub
Two groups of yield line patterns called circular and non-circular yield lines are distinguished
in EN1993-1-8:2006. The major difference between circular and non-circular patterns is
related to contact between the T-stub and rigid foundation. The contact may occur only for
non-circular patterns and prying force will develop only in this case. This is considered in the
failure modes as follows:
Mode 1
The prying force does not have influence on the failure and development of plastic hinges in
the base plate. Therefore, the formula (4.2) applies to both circular and non-circular yield line
patterns.
Mode 2
First plastic hinge forms at the web of the T-stub. Plastic mechanism is developed in the base
plate and its edges come into contact with the concrete foundation. As a result, prying forces
develop in the anchor bolts and bolt fracture is observed. Therefore, Mode 2 occurs only for
non-circular yield line patterns, which allow development of prying forces.

55

e m

e
ex
mx
0 ,8

0 ,8 2 a

2 a

bp
Fig. 4.14a The effective length of T-stub
for bolts inside the flanges

Fig. 4.14b The effective length of T-stub


for bolts outside the flanges

Mode 3
This mode does not involve any yielding of the plate and applies therefore to any T-stub. In the
design procedure, the appropriate effective length of the T-stub should be used for Mode 1
l

min l

;l

(4.24)

and for Mode 2


l

min l

(4.25)

The design resistance of the T-stub is given by the formula (4.8). Tab. 4.1 and Tab. 4.2 indicate
the values of leff for typical base plates in cases with and without contact. See Fig. 4.14 for the
used symbols.
Tab. 4.1 The effective length leff of a T-stub with bolts inside the flanges (Wald et al, 2008)
Prying case

No prying case

l1 2 m 4 m 1,25 e

l1 2 m 4 m 1,25 e

l2 2 m

l2 4 m

leff,1 min l1; l2

leff,1 min l1; l2

leff,2 l1

leff,2 l1

Tab. 4.2 Effective length leff for bolts outside the flanges (Wald et al, 2008)
Prying case

No prying case

l1 4 mx 1,25 ex

l1 4 mx 1.25 ex

l2 2 mx

l2 2 mx

l3 0.5bp

l3 0.5 bp

l4 0.5 w 2 mx 0.625 ex

l4 0.5 w 2 mx 0.625 ex

l5 e 2 mx 0.625 ex

l5 e 2 mx 0.625 ex

l6 mx 2 e

l6 2 mx 4 e

l7 mx w

l7 2 mx w

leff,1 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5 ; l6 ; l7
leff,2 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5


56

leff,1 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5 ; l6 ; l7
leff,2 min l1 ; l2 ; l3 ; l4 ; l5

4.1.3 Stiffness
The prediction of the base plate stiffness is based on (Steenhuis et al, 2008). The stiffness of
the component analogous to the resistance of the T-stub is influenced by the contact of the
base plate and the concrete foundation (Wald et al, 2008). The formula for deformation of the
base plate loaded by the force in bolt Fb is
1F m
2 3EI

2F m
El t

2F
Ek

(4.26)

and deformation of the bolt is


F L
E A

F
E k

(4.27)

The stiffness of the T-stub is written as


F

(4.28)

In following conditions cases prying force are appearing in the T-stub


l , t
8.82 m

A
L

(4.29)

Formulas for stiffness coefficient of the base plate and of the bolt are
l

m
k

1.6

0.85 l t
m

(4.30)

A
L

(4.31)

In case of no prying, it means when


l , t
8.82 m

A
L

(4.32)

Formulas are as following:


k

F
E

0.425 l
m

2m
F
E

2.0

A
L

(4.33)

(4.34)

The stiffness of the component of base plate in bending and bolts in tension is summarised
from above simplified predictions as
1
k

1
k ,

1
k ,

(4.35)

57

For base plates are used the bolt pads under the bolt nut to help to cover the tolerances. The
impact of an area of the bolt pad/nut changes the geometrical characteristics of T-stub. The
influence is taken into account by the help of equivalent moment of inertia Ip,bp and addition of
stiffness kw to the previous stiffness kp. By practical design this influence is neglected for
simplicity, see (Hofmann, 2005), even if it may be significant for resistance.

4.2

Threaded stud in tension

The threaded studs are efficient connectors welded by fabricator or on side with high level of
automation, see (Metric studs 2009,2013 and Pitrakkos and Tizani, 2013) . The tension
resistance of a threaded stud may be limited by
yielding resistance
N

n A f

(4.36)

n A f

(4.37)

EA
l

(4.38)

ultimate resistance

initial stiffness
S,

where
na

is the number of threaded studs in a row

As

is the area in tension of one threaded stud

is the effective length of the threaded stud

fyk

is the yield stress of the threaded stud

fuk

is the ultimate stress of the threaded stud

This solution procedure is applied to the headed stud connection the anchor plate to concrete
block.

4.3

Punching of the anchor plate

The anchor plate under the threaded stud or above the headed stud may reach its load
capacity due to shear resistance
F

A
,

(4.39)

The stress area Ap1,eff is determined from the thickness of the anchor plate tp1 and effective
length lv1,eff of the sheared area
A


58

(4.40)

Due to high bending of the threaded stud under the large deformations of the thin plate is
assumed the effective length of shear area as half of the circumference only
l

d
2

2 a

(4.41)

where
aw

is throat thickness of weld of threaded stud [mm]

dts

is diameter of the headed/threaded stud [mm]

This failure is assumed at all places, where a stud loaded by tension force is welded directly
to a steel plate. The endless stiffness of this component should be assumed in calculations
as no visible significant deformation performs due to punching trough steel plate during
loading.

4.4

Anchor plate in bending and tension

The anchor plate is designed as a thin steel plate located at the top of concrete block and
loaded predominantly in compression and shear. By loading the column base by the bending
or tension is the anchor plate exposed to the tensile force from the treaded studs. If the
threaded studs are not located directly under the headed studs, which are embedded in
concrete, the anchor plate is exposed to bending, see Fig. 2.15. After the plastic hinges of the
T-stub are developed, the anchor plate between the plastic hinges is elongates by tensile force.

Base plate and anchor plate

T stub plastic deformation under threaded stud

Plastic hinges at anchor plate

Anchor plate elongation under the threaded stud

Fig. 4.15 Model of the anchor plate in bending and tension


The resistance of the component, see (Kuhlman et al, 2012), is not restricted to plastic
mechanism only.

The deformed shape with the elongated anchored plate between the

threaded and headed studs is caring the additional load and may be taken into account. The
behaviour, till the plastic hinges are developed, is modelled as the based plate in bending with
help of T stub model, see Chapter 3.4. The anchor plate in tension resistance is

59

F,

(4.42)

where
is the thickness of the anchor plate

t
b

n d

is the anchor plate effective width

2 2 a

aw

is throat thickness of weld of threaded stud

n1

is the number of treaded studs

d1

is the diameter of treaded stud

As the tensile force is developing in anchor plate the headed and threaded studs are exposed
to horizontal force, see in Fig. 4.16. The elastic-plastic deformation at the stage of full
plastification of the T stub is evaluated, see in Fig 4.17, by model of beam with four supports
and three plastic hinges, see Fig. 4.15. The elongation of the anchor plate allows the uplift of
the threaded stud. The model assumes that the supports, i.e. the headed and threaded studs,
dont move in the horizontal direction and the headed stud in the vertical direction. E.g. the
horizontal force depends linearly to the vertical one, see Fig. 4.18 and Fig. 4.19. The resulting
horizontal force from tension in anchor plate is taken into account for evaluation of resistance
of the components in shear and for the interaction of shear and tensile resistances.

FEd bd Med /b

FEd

MEd
Map,pl Map,pl

Map,pl

(
( )

Map,pl

E Ib
Map,pl
b1

b2

) (

E Ic

b
L

Map,pl

Map,pl

Map,pl

Fig. 4.16 Plastic hinges and bending moments in the anchor plate
In case of activation of the membrane action in anchor plate is verified the resistance of the
related components in tension in vertical direction and in shear in horizontal direction. In the
procedure is derived:
- the bending resistance of the anchor plate,
- the tensile resistance of the anchor plate,
- the bending and tensile deformation of the anchor plate.
and further is limited the resistance of the component anchor plate in bending and tension by
- the vertical resistance of the threaded stud (tensile and punching resistance) and the
headed studs (tensile resistance, concrete cone failure, stirrups failure, bond failure).
- the horizontal resistance of the threaded stud (shear and bearing resistance) and the
headed studs (shear and pry out resistance).


60

- the interaction in the threaded stud (tension and shear resistances) and the headed studs
(tension and shear resistances).
The plastic resistance of the anchor plate is
M

(4.43)

where
tp1

is thickness of the anchor plate [mm]

leff,1

is the effective width of the anchor plate [mm]

The effective width of the anchor plate is minimum of the


4 m

1.25 e
2 m
5 n d 0.5
0.625 e
0.5 p
min 2 m
2 m 0.625 e
e
m
2e
m
p

(4.44)

where 5 h d is the effective width of the T stub between the headed and threaded studs.
The vertical deformation of the anchor plate under bending may be assumed for a beam with
four supports and three plastic hinges as
1 1
b M
E I 6

1 1
bcM
EI 3

(4.45a)
,

The elastic part of the deformation is

(4.45b)

The elastic-plastic part of the deformation, see Fig. 4.17, is

2.22

(4.45c)

The force at the bending resistance of the anchor plate is evaluated from equilibrium of internal
forces
N

b
b

N b

M
for M

is N b

2M

2M

2M

2M
1
a

1
b

1
a

(4.45)
(4.46)

1
b

(4.47)

61

2M

1
b
e

1
b a
b

(4.48)

The vertical resistance of the component anchor plate in tension is limited by the resistance of
the components: threaded stud in tension, punching of the threaded stud and tensile resistance
of the anchor plate. For the thin anchor plate is decisive the punching of the threaded stud.
The deformed length of the anchor plate between the threaded and headed studs at the
resistance in punching of the anchor plate under the threaded stud is
a

aF
t b

,
,

(4.49)

Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
FT,el

T,el

T,pl

p,1

p,tot

Fig. 4.17 Linear relation of acting vertical forces Fv and vertical deformation v
The component of vertical deformation by the elongation of the anchor plate, see Fig. 4.14, is

(4.50)

The component of the horizontal force at the resistance in punching of the anchor plate under
the threaded stud, see Fig. 4.18, is
F

a
,

F,

(4.51)

Fv
Ft,p,Rd
FT,pl

Fp,Rd,H

FH

Fig. 4.18 Linear relation of vertical Fv and horizontal forces FH


The horizontal force F , is limited by shear resistance of the threaded and headed studs VRd,
see in Figs 4.19. The resistance to vertical force is


62

F,

, ,

(4.52)

Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl

VRd

Fp,Rd,H

FH

Fig. 4.19 Linear relation of vertical Fv and horizontal forces FH at resistance


The interaction of the tensile and shear forces is verified for the threaded and headed studs,
see Tab. 3.4 in EN1993-1-8:2006 by
F
F

F,
1.4 F ,

,
,

(4.53)

The interaction of tensile and shear forces is verified for the headed stud anchoring to concrete,
see Chapter 3.2.5 by
F
F

4.5

F,
F,

,
,

(4.54)

Column/beam flange and web in compression

The resistance of the column flange and web in compression may be expected as for the beam
flange, see Chapter 6.2.6.7 in EN1993-1-8:2006. In this model the column/beam web has its
full plastic resistance on the lever arm of column/beam flanges
F

,,

M,
h t

(4.55)

in EN1993-1-8:2006 Eq. (4.1), where


Mc,Rd

is the design moment resistance of the beam cross-section, see EN1993-1-1:2004

is the depth of the connected column/beam

tf

is the column/beam flange thickness

If the height of the column/beam including the haunch exceeds 600 mm the contribution of the
beam web to the design compression resistance should be limited to 20%. If a beam is
reinforced with haunches the proposal for design is in cl 6.2.6.7(2). The stiffness of this
component in compression is expected to be negligible.

63

4.6

Steel contact plate

The resistance of the steel contact plate in joint may be taken as its full plastic resistance
f

(4.56)

where
fy,cp

is the yield strength of the steel contact plate

Acp

is the effective area of the contact plate under compression

A height or breadth of the contact plate exceeds the corresponding dimension of the
compression flange of the steel section, the effective dimension should be determined
assuming dispersion at 45 through the contact plate. It should be assumed that the effective
area of the contact plate in compression may be stressed to its design yield strength fyd, see
EN1994-1-1:2010. The stiffness of the component the steel contact plate is negligible

4.7

Anchor bolts in shear

In most cases the shear force is transmitted via friction between the base plate and the grout.
The friction capacity depends on the compressive normal force between the base plate and
the grout and the friction coefficient, see Chapter 3.3.7. At increasing horizontal displacement
the shear force increases till it reaches the friction capacity. At that point the friction resistance
stays constant with increasing displacements, while the load transfer through the anchor bolts
increases further. Because the grout does not have sufficient strength to resist the bearing
stresses between the bolts and the grout, considerable bending of the anchor bolts may occur,
as is indicated in Fig. 4.20, see (Bouwman et al, 1989). The tests shows the bending
deformation of the anchor bolts, the crumbling of the grout and the final cracking of the
concrete. Based on the work (DeWolf and Sarisley, 1980) and (Nakashima,1998) and of tests
(Bouwman et al, 1989) the analytical model for shear resistance of anchor bolts was derived
in EN1993-1-8 cl 6.2.2, see (Gresnight at al, 2008). Also, the preload in the anchor bolts
contributes to the friction resistance. However, because of its uncertainty, e.g. relaxation and
interaction with the column normal force, it was decided to neglect this action in current
standard.

Fig. 4.20 Test specimen loaded by shear force and tensile force
The design shear resistance Fv.Rd may be derived as follows
F

64

F,

nF

(4.57)

where
Ff,Rd

is the design friction resistance between base plate and grout layer
Cf,d Nc,Ed v,Rd

Ff.Rd

(4.58)

Cf,d

is the coefficient of friction between base plate and grout layer. The following values
may be used for sand-cement mortar Cf,d = 0.20, see Chapter 3.3.7.

Nc,Sd

is the design value of the normal compressive force in the column. If the normal force
in the column is a tensile force Ff,Rd = 0

is the number of anchor bolts in the base plate

Fvb,Rd

is the smallest of F1.vb.Rd and F2.vb.Rd

F1.vb.Rd is the shear resistance of the anchor bolt and


F

As

is the tensile stress area of the bolt or of the anchor bolt

bc

is a coefficient depending on the yield strength fyb the anchor bolt

fyb

0.44

0.0003 f

(4.59)

(4.60)

is the nominal yield strength the anchor bolt


where 235 N/mm2 fyb 640 N/mm2

is the partial safety factor for anchor bolt

65

5 ASSEMBLY FOR RESISTANCE


5.1
5.1.1

Column base
Column base with base plate

The calculation of the column base resistance, based on the plastic force equilibrium on the
base plate and applied in EN1993-1-8:2006, is described in (Wald et al, 2008). Based on the
combination of acting load, see Fig. 5.1, three patterns may be distinguished:
Pattern 1

without tension in anchor bolts occurs due to high normal force loading.
The collapse of concrete appears before developing stresses in the tension part.
with tension in one anchor bolt row arises when the base plate is loaded by small
normal force compared to the ultimate bearing capacity of concrete. During
collapse the concrete bearing stress is not reached. The breaking down occurs
because of yielding of the bolts or because of plastic mechanism in the base plate.
with tension in both rows of anchor bolts occurs when the base plate is loaded by
tensile normal force. The stiffness is guided by yielding of the bolts or because of
plastic mechanism in the base plate. This pattern occurs often in base plates
designed for tensile force only and may lead to contact of baseplate to the concrete
block.

Pattern 2

Pattern 3

The connection is loaded by axial force NEd and bending moment MEd, see Fig. 5.1. The
position of the neutral axis is calculated according to the resistance of the tension part FT,Rd.
Then the bending resistance MRd is determined assuming a plastic distribution of the internal
forces, see (Dewolf, Sarisley, 1980). For simplicity of the model, only the effective area is
taken into account. The effective area Aeff under the base plate, which is taken as an active
part of equivalent rigid plate, is calculated from an equivalent T-stub, with an effective width c,
see Chapter 3.4.2. The compression force is assumed to act at the centre of the compressed
part. The tensile force is located at the anchor bolts or in the middle when there are more rows
or bolts, see (Thambiratnam, Paramasivam, 1986). Like for another cross sections of the
composite structures there should be a closer look at the resistance for the ultimate limit state
ULS and to the elastic behaviour under the serviceability limit state SLS. In the ultimate limit
state the failure load of the system is important. Under service loads is checked the elastic
behaviour and that the concrete cone will not fail. This would lead to cracks and with the time
to a corrosion of the reinforcement of the concrete wall and finally to a failure of the
construction.

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 5.1 The force equilibrium of the base plate a) no tension in anchor bolts,
b) one row of the anchor bolts in tension, c) two rows of the anchor bolts in tension


66

Active part
of the equivalent plate

Active part
of the equivalent plate

Neutral axis

Equivalent rigid plate

MRd

Centre of the compressed part


NEd

MRd
NEd

Neutral axis
Ft.Rd
zt

Fc.Rd

Ft.Rd

Fc.Rd

zt

zc

zc
z

Fig. 5.2 Force equilibrium for the column base, one row of the anchor bolts in tension
The equilibrium of forces is calculated according to Fig. 5.2 as follows:
F

N
M

F,

F,

(5.1)

(5.2)

where
F
A

(5.3)

is effective area under the base plate.

The resistance of the compressed part Fc,Rd and the resistance of the part in tension Ft,Rd are
determined in previous Chapters. If the tensile force in the anchor bolts according to Fig. 5.2
occur for
M
N

(5.4)

formulas for tension and compressed part is derived


MRd

NEd zc

MRd

NEd zc1

Fc1,Rd

(5.5)

Fc,Rd

(5.6)

Then, the column base moment resistance MRd under a constant normal force NEd is expressed
as follow:
with tension force in the anchor bolts
MRd

min

Ft,Rd z
Fc,Rd z

NEd zc
NEd zt

(5.7)

without tension force, both parts are compressed

67

MRd

min

Fc1,Rd z NEd zc
Fc,Rd z NEd zc1

(5.8)

The procedure is derived for open section of I/H cross section. For rectangular hollow section
RHS may be taken directly taking into account two webs. For circular/elliptical hollow sections
CHS/EHS may be modified, see Fig. 5.2 and (Horov, 2011). Using sector coordinates
depends the effective area Aeff 2 r c on the angle . The lever arm and the resistance of the
component in compression is
zc
Fc,Rd

r cos
Fc1,Rd

(5.9)

(5.10)

rc

The resistance of the base plate connection under different loading is illustrated in M-N
interaction diagram. In Fig. 5.3a there is an example of this diagram with its important points.
NRd

Normal force, kN

Rd

HE 200 B

M pl.Rd
1 835
1 000

M 24

t=
30

t=
40
30

h = 1 000

Npl.Rd

25

1 600
340 630

20
15

Column end resistance

630
340

0
100

151,0 Moment, kNm


1 600

Important points of interaction diagram

Fig. 5.3a An example of M-N interaction diagram for the base plate connection

5.1.2

Column base with anchor plate

The bending resistance of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the
tensile/compression resistances of its component. The additional components to the column
bases without the anchor plate is the anchor plate in bending and in tension. The procedure
for evaluation of the resistance is the same in all connections loaded by bending moment and
normal force.
First the resistance of the components in tension is evaluated: the base plate, the threaded
studs, the anchor plate and the headed studs. The activated area in contact under the base
and anchor plate is calculated from the equilibrium of internal forces for the tensile part
resistance. From the known size of the contact area is calculated the lever arm and the

68

bending resistance of the column base for particular acting normal force by the same
procedure like for column base with the base plate only without the anchor plate.
During design of the base plate with the anchor plate is the elastic-plastic stage at serviceability
limit verified separately, similar to the composite steel and concrete beam design. If the
headed and threaded studs are not over each another the resistance of the base plate is
influenced by the resistance of the component the anchor plate in tension and related
components like punching of treated studs. The elastic-plastic resistance at Serviceability limit
state is calculated based on the bending resistance of the anchor plate only. Moment rotational
diagram at Fig. 5.4b sums up the behaviour of column base which is influenced by the elastic
bending of the anchor plate (1), its elastic-plastic bending (2) and its tension (3).
M, kNm

Resistance

Anchor plate in tension


Elastic-plastic behaviour

Initial stiffness

Elastic behaviour

, mrad

Fig. 5.3b Moment rotational diagram of column base with anchor plate

5.2

Simple steel to concrete joint

This joint typically represents a connection of a steel structure to a concrete wall. The anchor
plate is loaded by shear load V and a bending momentM , . The developed model assumes
a stiff anchor plate and deformations due to the anchor plate are neglected. The connection
between the girder and the anchor plate may be regarded as pinned, rigid or semi-rigid. For
most structures the connection between the beam and the anchor plate may be assumed as
pinned. In this case of a simple connection the anchor plate is only loaded by shear load and
a corresponding bending moment caused by the eccentricity of the shear load. The connection
between the girder and the anchor plate may be realised with butt straps or cams or any other
simple connection, see Fig. 5.4.

69

Fig. 5.4a Simple joint with butt straps

Fig. 5.4b Simple joint with cams

If the connection between the girder and the anchor plate cannot be assumed as pinned, there
might be larger bending moments in the joint. In this Chapter the system described is a pinned
connection between the beam and the anchor plate with an eccentricity e . However if there
is a bending moment derived in the global analysis, the eccentricity e may be assumed no
longer a purely geometrical value anymore but is calculated by
e

M ,
V

(5.11)

The developed component model describes the structural behaviour of the simple joints. The
joints are consisting of an anchor plate with headed studs with and without additional
reinforcement in cracked as well as non-cracked concrete. To prove a sufficient resistance for
the ultimate limit state, the following steps have to be done:
-

evaluation of the tension force caused by the shear load,


verification of the geometry of the tension zone,
evaluation of the tension resistance,
evaluation of the shear resistance,
verification of interaction conditions.

In the following the mechanical joint model for the simple joints is described. Due to the
eccentricity of the applied shear load a moment is acting on the anchor plate. This moment
causes forces, which are shown in Fig. 5.5. The anchor row on the non-loaded side of the
anchor plate is in tension. This anchor row represents the tension component of the joint NEd,2
and forms a vertical equilibrium with the compression force CEd under the anchor plate on the
loaded side. The shear forces are carried by the headed studs, VEd,1 and VEd,2, and the friction
between steel and concrete Vf.
The tension component of the joint, which is represented by the headed studs in tension or
headed studs with stirrups in tension, in the case of using additional reinforcement, is described
in Chapter 3. If no additional reinforcement is used, the following failure modes may occur:
steel failure of the shaft, pull-out failure of the headed stud due to the high compression of the
stud head on the concrete and concrete cone failure of the anchorage. When using additional
reinforcement however, the stirrups contribute to the deformation and the resistance of the
tension component. Besides the steel failure and the pull-out failure of the headed studs, a
concrete failure due to yielding of the stirrups, an anchorage failure of the stirrups and a smaller

70

concrete cone failure may appear. A detailed description of these components is found in
Chapter 3.

Fig. 5.5 Forces at the anchor plate caused by the shear force VEd and its eccentricity eV
For the compression zone a rectangular stress block is assumed under the loaded side of the
plate. The stresses in the concrete are limited according to EN1993 1-8 cl 6.2.5. The design
bearing strength of the concrete is fjd . When there is no grout and the anchor plate has a
common geometry, fjd may be assumed as fjd 3fcd . The stress area Ac is given by the width
of the anchor plate b and the length of the compression zone xc perpendicular to the load,
resulting from the equilibrium with the assumed tension force in the studs on the non-loaded
side NEd,2. As the anchor plate is regarded as stiff, the compression zone starts at the edge of
the plate. The stiffness of this component is assumed according to Chapter 3.
Equilibrium

Compression force

N: C
C

(5.12)

f x b

for most cases f

3f

(5.13)

The position of the shear load VEd,1 and VEd,2 has been derived according to the stress
distribution given by the results of numerical calculations. There it is seen that the resulting
shear force is placed with a distance of about d in average from the anchor plate, when d is
the diameter of the headed stud. As a simplification of the mechanical joint model it is assumed
that the shear forces of both anchor rows appear in the same line, see Fig. 5.6. In case of a
high tension in the first row of studs only small additional shear forces VEd,2 is applied the 2nd
stud row. The position of the friction force Vf is assumed between the concrete surface and
the anchor plate.

71

V1

V2
d

Fig. 5.6 Stress distribution x in load direction


Forming the moment equilibrium according to (5.14), the size of the tension and the
compression component of the joint is calculated. The rotational equilibrium is calculated for
the point in the middle of the compression zone in one line with VEd,1 and VEd,2. The shear force
is turning clockwise with a lever arm of ev d tp. The tension force NEd,2 is turning counter
clockwise with a lever arm of z. The friction force is turning counter clockwise with a lever arm
of d. The tension component carried by the second stud row NEd,2 is calculated with the
following formula.
V

d
V

d t
z

(5.12)

V d
V d

(5.13)

If the pinned joint is loaded by diagonal pull, additional normal forces have to be considered in
the moment equation, see Eq. (5.16). This equation requires, that the normal force does not
lead to an uplift of the anchor plate. In this case both anchor rows would be subjected to tension
forces and no shear resistance due to friction forces is carried by the pinned joint.
V

s
2

V d

(5.14)

As already described above, the assumed tension load in the headed studs on the non-loaded
side and the compression component form a vertical equilibrium. This approach requires an
iterative process, as the area of the compression zone is dependent on the assumption for the
tension load in the studs on the non-loaded side. But the shear resistance of the joint is not
only limited by the acting moment. Therefore as a last step the resistance of the shear
components have to be verified. The joint shear resistance is defined by the sum of the shear
resistance of the studs and the friction between the concrete surface and the anchor plate, see
Fig. 5.7 The resistance due to friction Vf is defined by the coefficient for friction between steel
and concrete. In cl 6.2.2 of EN1993-1-8:2006 a friction coefficient of = 0.2 is proposed. The
stiffness is assumed as infinite, as the displacement is zero if the shear force is smaller than Vf.


72

Friction between steel and concrete Vf


1st stud row of headed studs in shear VEd,1
2nd stud row of headed studs in shear VEd,2

Fig. 5.7 Shear components


After subtracting the component of the friction force, the rest of the applied shear load has to
be carried by the headed studs. The total shear resistance depends on two possible failure
modes due to shear: Steel failure of the headed studs as well as Concrete cone failure
respectively pry-out failure. Also the distribution of the shear load among the anchor rows
depends on the failure mode. Furthermore interaction between tension and shear loads in the
stud row on the non-loaded side of the anchor plate has to be considered resulting in a reduced
resistance of these studs. In case of a steel failure of the headed studs, it is assumed that at
ultimate limit state the front anchor row is subjected to 100% of its shear resistance, as there
are acting no tensional forces. The remaining part of the shear load is carried by the back row
of anchors, depending on the interaction conditions. In contrast when verifying the anchorage
for concrete failure, the shear load is distributed half to the front and half to the back row of
anchors. Thereby the interaction condition for concrete failure has to be considered. The
following interaction conditions are used:
Concrete failure

Steel failure

n
n

1
1

(5.15)
(5.16)

where
n

is the minimum value for

is the minimum value for

,
,
,
,

Additional verifications required


In the preceding description not all verifications are covered. Additional checks, which are not
described in this manual have to be done:
Verification of the steel components connected to the anchor plate.
Calculation of the anchor plate. The calculated tension and compression forces causes
bending moments in the anchor plate. The anchor plate must be able to carry these
bending moments. The anchor plate has to be stiff and therefore in the plate no yielding
is allowed.
Additional checks for the reinforcement in the concrete wall to prevent local failure of the
concrete due to the compression force with have to be done, see EN19921-1:2004.
The concrete wall must be able to carry the loads transferred by the anchor plate.
The verification of the design resistance of the joint is described in the Table 5.1 in a stepwise
manner.

73

Tab. 5.1 Verification of the design resistance of the joint


Step

Description

Formula

The eccentricity e and the shear force V


1

Evaluation of the
tension force caused by
the shear load

are known.

z is depending on xc

Estimation of xc and
calculation of the tension
component NEd,2 .
2

Verification of
compression height.

tp

Vf d

NEd,2

xc

CEd
b fjd

Check if the assumption


for xc is OK.

If x is estimated too small go back to Step 1 and try again.

Evaluation of the
tension resistance

Without Stirrups

For most cases fjd

d
z

N: CEd

With Stirrups
NRd,u,s
NRd,p

, ,
,
, ,

NRd,u

VRd,s

Calculation of the shear


resistance
Verification of
interaction conditions

3 fcd

N
N
N
min

Calculation of NRd,u

VEd ev

NEd,2

VRd,cp

min

NRd,cs
NRd,re,1
NRd,re,2

0.7 NRd,u,s

k min NRd,cs , NRd,re,1 , NRd,re,2 , NRd,u,group

Possible failure modes


Steel failure
of the headed studs
VEd,2

NEd,2
NRd,u,s

VEd

VRd,s

VEd,2
VRd,s

Concrete failure

Vf

VEd,2
NEd,2

NRd,u

3/2

Vf

VEd
2
VEd,2

3/2

VRd,cp

NRd,u is not including NRd,u,s

Are both interaction equations OK?


YES
Design calculation
finished


74

NO
The load carrying capacity
of the joint is not sufficient.
The joint has to be improved.

5.3

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint

A representative spring and rigid link model was idealized for the behaviour of composite beam
to reinforced concrete wall joint, subjected to hogging bending moment, which is illustrated in
Fig. 5.8. The joint components are:

longitudinal steel reinforcement in the slab, at Fig. component 1


slip oft he composite beam ,component 2;
beam web and flange, component 3;
steel contact plate, component 4;
components activated in the anchor plate connection, components 5 to 10 and 13 to 15;
the joint link, component 11.

Fig. 5.8: Joint component model for the composite beam to reinforced concrete wall joint

In order to obtain the joint properties, the assembly of the components and of the joint models
is described in the present section. For the joint under hogging bending moment, the assembly
procedure was based on the mechanical model depicted in Fig. 5.8b. The determination of the
joint properties to bending moment may be performed using a direct composition of
deformations. The longitudinal steel reinforcement bar in slab, the slip of the composite beam,
and the anchor plate components consider the models described in section 3. These models
enable a good approximation to the real behaviour of the components, see (Henriques, 2008).
The models may be described and composed also based on its stiffness coefficients as used
in EN1993-1-8:2006.
The mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.9 presents only one row of components in tension
and another in compression. This implies that the assembly procedure is much simpler, as no
distribution of load is required amongst rows, as in steel/composite joint with two or more
tension rows. Thus, the first step is the assembly of the components per row. Equivalent
springs are defined per row, as represented in Fig. 5.9. The equivalent component/spring
should perform as the group of components/springs it represents. The determination of its
properties takes into consideration the relative position of the components: acting in series or
in parallel. In the present case, either for the compression row either for the tension row, all
joint components are acting in series. Thus, the determination of the properties of equivalent
components/springs was performed as expressed in (5.17) for resistance Feq,t and Feq,c, see
(Henriques, 2008).

75

Fig. 5.9 Simplified joint model with assembly of components per row

min F toF

(5.17)

where, the indexes i to n represent all components to consider either in tension either in
compression, depending on the row under consideration.
Then, because only one tension row and one compression row was considered, the
determination of the joint properties, Mj, j, becomes relatively easy. In order to determine the
joint rotation, it is important to define the lever arm hr. According to the joint configuration, it
was assumed that the lever arm is the distance between the centroid of the longitudinal steel
reinforcement bar and the mid thickness of bottom flange of the steel beam. The centroid of
steel contact plate is assumed to be aligned with this reference point of the steel beam.
Accordingly, the joint properties are obtained as follows:
F

min F

,F

,F

(5.18)

where, Feq,tand Feq,care the equivalent resistance of the tension and compression rows,
respectively, determined using Eq. (5.17).


76

6 ASSEMBLY FOR STIFFNESS


6.1
6.1.1

Column base
Column base with base plate

The calculation of stiffness of the base plate, given in (Wald et al, 2008), is compatible with
beam to column stiffness calculation. The difference between these two procedures is in the
fact that by the base plate joint the normal force has to be introduced, see (Ermopoulos,
Stamatopoulos, 1996). In Fig. 6.1 there is the stiffness model which shows a way of loading,
compression area under the flange, allocating of forces under the base plate, and a position
of the neutral axes.
MEd

NEd

Fc,r,Rd

Ft,l,Rd
zt,l

z c,r
z

Fig. 6.1 The stiffness model of the base plate connection of the column base
By the calculation of the stiffness the effective area is only taken into account. The position of
compression force Fc.Rd is located at the centre of compression area. The tensile force Ft.Rd is
located at the anchor bolts. The rotational bending stiffness of the base plate is usually
determined during proportional loading with constant eccentricity
e

M
N

const.

(6.1)

According to the eccentricity three possible basic collapse modes can arise with activation of
anchor bolts, see (Wald et al, 2008). For large eccentricity with tension in one row of anchor
bolts Pattern 1, see Fig. 6.2a, without tension in row of anchor bolts, small eccentricity, Pattern
2 in Fig. 6.2b, and with tension in both row of anchor bolts Pattern 3.
Pattern 1

Pattern 2

with tension in one bolt row of anchor bolts arises when the base plate is loaded
by small normal force compared to the ultimate bearing capacity of concrete.
During collapse the concrete bearing stress is not reached. The breaking down
occurs because of yielding of the bolts or because of plastic mechanism in the
base plate.
without tension in anchor bolts grows up during high normal force loading. The
collapse of concrete appears before developing stresses in the tension part.

77

Pattern 3

with tension in one bolt row of anchor bolts arises when both bolt row of anchor
bolts may be activated and column base is exposed to tension force in not so
common, and the theorems may be derived similarly.

MEd

MEd

NEd

M Ed

NEd

c,r

t,l
zt,l

c,l

zc,r

zc,l

NEd

zc,r

c,r

t,l

t,r
z t,l

zc,r
z

Fig. 6.2 The mechanical model of the base plate a) one anchor bolt row activated,
b) no anchor bolt activated c) both anchor bolt rows activated
Deformations t and c of components depend on the stiffness of tension part kt and the
stiffness of the compression part kc.
MEd
z

t,l

MEd
z

c,r

NEd zt
z
E kt

MEd

NEd zt
z
E kc

MEd

NEd zt

(6.2)

E z kt
NEd zt

(6.3)

E z kc

The rotation of the base plate could be determined from formulas above

1
M

E z

N
k

N
k

(6.4)

From the rotation the initial stiffness is derived


Ez
1
1
k
k

S,

Ez
1

(6.5)

Nonlinear part of the moment-rotation curve is given by coefficient , which express the ratio
between the rotational stiffness in respect to the bending moment, see (Weynand et al, 1996)
and EN1993-1-8:2006

S,
S

M
M

where

is coefficient introducing the beginning of non-linear part of curve, = 1.5

is shape parameter of the curve, = 2.7

The rotation stiffness is calculated as



78

(6.6)

Sj

E z2
1

k

(6.7)

For above described components, the stiffness coefficients, showed in Fig. 6.3, is revised from
bolt in tension kb, base plate in bending kp, and concrete in compression kc.

Fig. 6.3 The mechanical simulation with stiffness coefficients


As it is evident in Fig. 6.3, the stiffness of the tension part kt consists of the stiffness of the base
plate kp and the stiffness of bolts kb. With these parameters, Sj, , and MRd, we obtain the
moment rotation curve, which is the best way how to describe behaviour of the base plate
connection, see Fig. 6.4.
The procedure for evaluation of stiffens is derived for open section of I/H cross section. For
rectangular hollow section RHS may be taken directly taking into account two webs. For
circular/elliptical hollow sections CHS/EHS may be modified, see (Horov, 2011).

Fig. 6.4 Moment rotation curve for proportional loading


6.1.2

Column base with anchor plate

The bending stiffness of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the deformation
stiffnesss of its components, e.g. in the tensile part the base plate, the threaded studs, the
anchor plate, and the headed studs and in the compressed part the concrete block in
compression and base plate plus anchor plate in bending. The additional components are the
anchor plate and treated studs. The deformation springs representing the individual
components and its lever arms are summarized in Fig. 6.5. The effective stiffness coefficient,
see Chapter 6.3 in EN1993-1-8:2005, is applied to transfer all deformational springs into the
position of the threated stud.

79

Base plate in bending

Base plate in bending and concrete in compression

Threaded studs in tension


The anchor plate in bending and tension
Headed studs in tension
Pull-out of headed studs
Concrete cone with/without reinforcement

Fig. 6.5 Deformational springs representing in the model the components

6.2

Simple steel-to-concrete joint

The stiffness of the concrete components are not yet considered in the CEN/TS 1992-4-2 to
calculate the deformation behaviour of the Simple joint. In the following the stiffness that have
been developed within the INFASO project were applied to the Simple joint and from this the
rotational stiffness of the joint is developed. A detailed description of this components may be
found in Chapter 3. Thereby the rotational behaviour of the joint caused by the shear load VEd
is calculated. It is assumed that in the case of a Simple joint the rotation does not influence
the global analysis or the bending resistance of the joint to a high extend, see Fig. 6.6 and 6.7.
The Simple joint is primarily a shear force connection and the rotation or the rotational stiffness
of the joint is not relevant.

Fig. 6.6 Model for the global analysis


of a simple joint
between the beam and the anchor plate

Fig. 6.7 Model for the global analysis


of a rigid joint
between the beam and the anchor plate

If the connection between the girder and the anchor plate cannot be assumed as pinned, there
might be larger bending moments in the joint. In the following Chapters the system described
is a simple connection between the beam and the anchor plate with an eccentricity ev .
However if there is a real bending moment derived in the global analysis, the eccentricity ev
may be assumed no longer a purely geometrical value anymore but is calculated by

80

ev

My,Ed
VEd

. In this case it is very important to determine the rotational stiffness of the joint

because the rotational stiffness may influence the load distribution in the global analysis and
the size of the bending moment of the joint, see Fig. 6.8. In order to model the rotational
behaviour of the joint, at minimum two components are necessary, a tension component and
a compression component. The tension component is represented by the headed stud in
tension, see Chapter 3, and the compression component by the component concrete in
compression. With these two components and the lever arm z and the rotational behaviour of
the joint may be modelled.

Fig. 6.8 Forces at the anchor plate caused by the shear force VEd and its eccentricity eV
The shear load VEd causes a tension force NEd,2 in the headed stud on the non-loaded side of
the anchor plat. In equilibrium with the tension force there is a compression force CEd . For the
equilibrium of moments and forces also see Chapter 3.
This forces are leading to a deformation T caused by the tension force on the non-loaded side
of the anchor plate and a deformation C caused by the compression force on the loaded side
of the anchor plate, see Fig. 6.. With these two deformation values and the lever arm z the
rotation of the stiff anchor plate may be calculated according to the following formula

(6.8)

81

Fig. 6.9 Rotation of the anchor plate caused by the shear load VEd
In the following an overview over the tension and over the compression component is given.
The tension component
The tension component is described in detail in Chapter 3. For these components two
alternatives exist, one with additional stirrups and one without, see Fig. 6.10. For every
alternative a model including several springs has been developed.
Headed studs in tension

Headed studs with stirrups in tension

Steel failure in tension

Steel failure in tension

Pull-out failure

Pull-out failure

Concrete cone failure


Concrete cone failure

with stirrups in tension

Fig. 6.10 Spring model for headed stud in tension, with and without stirrups
Depending on, whether additional reinforcement is used or not, the deformations of the headed
studs are defined as follow:
Headed studs in tension
N

0 to N

to N

and

and

(6.9)
N

N
k

(6.10)

Headed studs with stirrups in tension


N


82

0 to N

and

(6.11)

N to N

to N

N
0

and

and

(6.12)

N
N
10 000

(6.13)

In both cases it is necessary to ensure that neither yielding nor pull-out failure of the headed
studs is the decisive failure mode. The load-displacement behaviour after of these failure
modes are not considered in the equations above.
The compression component
For the compression force the spring stiffness may be calculated as follows:
K

E A
1.275

(6.14)

The formula is taken from EN1993-1-8. The influence of the concrete stiffness is not very large
on the rotational behaviour.
Determination of the lever arm z
Due to the equilibrium for each value of the shear load V , a corresponding tension force NEd,2
and the compression force CEd have to be calculated. As every value of VEd corresponds to
a different compression force C , there is also a different height of the compression area xc
and another corresponding lever arm z. For example if a small VEd causes a small NEd,2 and
CEd , the height of the compression zone xc is small and the lever arm z is relatively large. If the
shear load is increased, the size of the compression force rises and the height of the
compression area xc also grows, whereas the lever arm z decreases.
The changing of the lever arm z is easily taken into account in a computer based calculation.
For a calculation without computer a constant lever arm should be assumed. For the most
structures the best solution to determine the lever arm is to calculate the maximum resistance
of the tension load of the headed studs. Based on this value the maximum compression force
and the minimum z may be calculated. Only if the anchor plate is extreme small and the
tension resistance is extremely large the lever arm should be determined in a different way.
The rotational stiffness
Not only the rotation caused by the shear load, but also the rotational stiffness of the joint is
calculated. With the help of the rotational stiffness it is possible to model the joint in the global
analysis assuming his realistic behaviour. The initial rotational stiffness Sj,ini may be calculated
according to EN1993-1-8. The following equation may be found in EN1993-1-8:2006, cl 6.3.1
S,

z
1
K

1
K

(6.15)

where
KT

is the stiffness of the tension component

Kc

is the stiffness of the compression component

If no ductile behaviour is expected, the initial stiffness Sj,ini is assumed up to the maximum load.
In the case of ductility the stiffness Sj of the joint is changed according to the utilization level of
the joint. Therefore the behaviour of the joint is represented by a moment-rotation curve with
a trilinear shape, see equation 6.17. The determination of the associated factor is taken from

83

EN1993-1-8. It has to be mentioned that in this case large cracks that are undesirable might
occur.
S

6.3

(6.16)

S , /

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint

For the joint under hogging bending moment, the assembly procedure was based on the
mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.8a. The determination of the joint properties to
bending moment is performed using two different approaches: the direct deformation
superposition and model based on composition of stiffness coefficients by spring procedure.
The mechanical model represented in Fig. 5.8b presents only one row of components in
tension and another in compression. The determination of the properties of equivalent
components/springs was performed as expressed in (6.17), for deformation eq,t and eq,c.

(6.17)

where, the index i to n represent all components to consider either in tension either in
compression, depending on the row under consideration. In order to determine the joint
rotation, it is important to define the lever arm hr. Accordingly, the joint properties are obtained
as follows

(6.18)

where
eq,t and eq,c are the equivalent deformation of the tension and compression rows, respectively,
determined using (6.17).

7 GLOBAL ANALYSIS INCLUDING JOINT BEHAVIOUR


7.1

Structural analysis

The analysis of structures regarding the steel and composite joints modelling has been
conventionally based on the concept of rigid, infinite rotational stiffness, or pinned, no rotational
stiffness. However, it is well recognized that the real behaviour is often intermediate between
these extreme situations, see (Jaspart, 2002). In these cases, the joints are designated as
semi-rigid. In such joints, partial relative rotation between connected members is assumed,
contrarily to the traditional concept of no or free rotation.
Consequently, the behaviour of the joint has a non-negligible influence on the structural
analysis, see (Jaspart, 1997); and (Maquoi, Chabrolin, 1998) affecting: distribution of internal
forces and deformations. In terms of resistance, the influence of the joint properties is obvious,
as the structural capacity is limited if the joint is not fully capable of transmitting the internal
forces, namely the bending moments. In such cases, the joint rotation capacity also becomes
critical, defining the type of failure and the possibility to redistribute the internal forces. Thus,
joints are keys parts of the structure, playing an important role in the behaviour of the structure.
In what regards to the reinforced concrete joints, the structural analysis remains in the classical
concept of rigid or pinned joints EN1992-1-1:2004. This is understandable due to the nature
of the joints. In what concerns the steel-to-concrete joints, the joint behaviour is similar to steel

84

joints. In this way, the effect of the steel-to-concrete joint on the structural behaviour should be
considered as in steel structures.
With the component method (Jaspart, 1997), the real behaviour of the steel/composite joints
may be efficiently evaluated and characterized in terms of rotational stiffness, bending moment
resistance and rotation capacity. Subsequently, their behaviour is introduced in the structural
analysis. This allows integrating the joint design with the structural design. Such type of
analysis is recommended by the codes, EN1993-1-8:2006 and EN1994-1-1:2010, and should
follow the subsequent steps:

Characterization of the joint properties in terms of rotational stiffness, bending moment


resistance and rotation capacity,
Classification of the joint,
Joint modelling on the structural model,
Joint idealization.

The joint classification as already been introduced in section 2.2 and consists in determining
the boundaries for the conventional type of joint modelling regarding the stiffness, see Fig. 2.6,
and the resistance, see Fig. 2.7. The classification of the joint determines the type of joint
modelling that should be adopted for the structural analysis. For stiffness classification, the
stiffness of the connected beam is used to define the boundaries. In terms of resistance, the
classification is set according to the minimum capacity of the connected members. In terms
of rotation capacity, the information available is quite limited. In the code EN1993-1-8:2006
only a qualitative classification is given which consists in the following: i) ductile joints (suitable
for plastic analysis) ductile components govern the behaviour of the joint; ii) semi-ductile
joints components with limited deformation capacity govern the joint response; iii) and brittle
joints (do not allow redistribution of internal forces) - brittle components control the joint
response.
Tab. 7.1 Criteria to define the boundaries
for classification of beam-to-column steel and composite joints
Rigid/Semi-rigid
Semi-rigid/Pinned
Full-strength/Partial-strength
Partial-strength/Pinned

Stiffness
8 E Ib/Lb
0.5 E Ib/Lb
Resistance
Top of column: min{Mc, pl,Rd; Mb,pl,Rd}
Within column height: min{2Mc,pl,Rd; Mb,pl,Rd}
25% of Full-strength/Partial-strength

In the structural analysis, according to the stiffness and strength classification, three types of
joint modelling are possible, as listed in Tab. 7.2. In the case of continuous joint, the full rotation
continuity is guaranteed between the connected members. In the case of simple joint, all
rotational continuity is prevented between the connected members.
Otherwise, the joint is semi-continuous. In relation to the physical representation of the joint in
the structural model, different approaches may be used, as illustrated in Tab. 7.2. In Fig. 7.1a
the actual behaviour of the joint is modelled: L-springs Sr,L representing the connecting zone
and S-springs Sr,S representing the panel zone. The infinite rigid stubs assure that the flexibility
of the joint will not be taken into consideration more than once. In Fig. 7.1b is presented a
model to be used in the software which does not support flexural springs. Stubs with adequate
bending stiffness E I and resistance M, maintaining the clear separation between bending and
shear influences are used to replace rotational springs. Finally, the concentrated model is
represented in Fig. 7.1c. In this model, L-springs and S-springs are assembled into one single
spring and displaced to the column axis Sc. The overall joint behaviour is then represented by
a single rotational spring, two in the case of double sided joints. This simplified modelling
solution is prescribed by EN1993-1-8:2006. The simplifications adopted are compensated in

85

the joint transformation. The joint transformation takes into account the shear force acting in
the column, and the combination of the shear panel and connections in the joint spring at the
beam-to-column axis intersection point, see (Huber et al, 1998).
Tab. 7.2 Criteria to define the boundaries for classification
of beam-to-column steel and composite joints EN1993-1-8:2006
Joint modelling
Continuous

Joint Classification
Full-strength and Rigid
Full-strength and Semi-rigid
Partial-strength and Rigid
Partial-strength and Semi-rigid
Pinned and Pinned

Semi-continuous
Simple

EIS

Sr,S
Sr,L

Sr,L

EIL
EIL

EI=

EIS

Sr,S

Fig. 7.1a Representation


of joint by infinite rigid stubs

Fig. 7.1b Representation


of joint by deformable stubs

Sc

Sc

Fig. 7.1c Representation of joint by two rotational springs


The joint idealization consists in defining the type of flexural curve which will be attributed to
the flexural spring representing the joint. The behaviour of the joints is typically nonlinear;
however, its implementation in the flexural spring is not practical for everyday design. In this
way, the behaviour of the joint may be simplified as schemed in Fig. 7.2. The selection of the
appropriate curve depends on the type of analysis to perform: elastic, elastic-plastic, rigidplastic. Accordingly the following behaviours may be assumed: i) linear elastic, Fig. 7.2a only
requires rotational stiffness; ii) bi-linear or tri-linear elastic-plastic, Fig. 7.2b requires rotational
stiffness, resistance and deformation capacity; iii) rigid plastic, Fig. 7.2c requires resistance
and rotation capacity. In the case of semi-rigid joint, the joint rotational stiffness to be consider
depends on the expected load on the joint, thus the following is considered: i) the acting
bending moment is smaller than 2/3 of the joint bending moment resistance Mj,Rd and the joint
initial rotational stiffness Sj,ini may be used; ii) in the other cases, the joint secant rotational
stiffness Sj should be used. The latter is obtained dividing the joint initial stiffness Sj,ini by the

86

stiffness modification coefficient . The codes EN1993-1-8:2006 and EN1994-1-1:2010


provide the stiffness modification coefficient to consider according to the type of connection.
Mj

Mj

Mj,Rd

Mj,Rd

2/3Mj,Rd

2/3Mj,Rd

Sj,ini

Sj

Sj,ini

Sj

Fig. 7.2a Linear elastic M- curve


idealized for the joint behaviour

Fig. 7.2b Bi-linear and tri-linear elastic-plastic


M- curve idealized for the joint behaviour

Mj
Mj,Rd

Fig. 7.2c Rigid plastic M- curve idealized for the joint behaviour
The stiffness of a joint influences the deformability of the structure, which is reflected in the
check for SLS. The influence of non-linear behaviour of joints in terms of ULS is more difficult
to assess as it requires a non-linear analysis. The following example illustrates in a simplified
way, the influence of joints in the behaviour of the structure. Considering the beam
represented in Fig. 7.3, under a linear uniform load q and assuming rigid joints at both ends of
the beam leads to the bending moment Mj, at both supports, and to the bending moment
diagram represented by the dashed line. On the other hand, assuming at both ends of the
beam a rotational stiffness of the joints Sj, then the bending diagram represented by the
continuous line is obtained. This represents a bending moment re-distribution of M that varies
from 0 to q L2/12. This re-distribution is also reflected in the vertical deflection of the beam,
which may vary from q L4/ 384 EI to 5 q L4/ 384 E I .

87

Fig. 7.3 Influence of a semi-rigid joint in the behaviour of the beam


The use of the concept of semi-rigid joints may has economic benefits, particularly in the
optimization of moment connections. Possible savings due to semi-rigid design is 20 25 %
in case of unbraced frames and 5 - 9 % in case of braced frames, see EN1990:2002.

7.2
7.2.1

Examples on the influence of joint behaviour


Reference building structures

In order to illustrate the influence of joint behaviour in the global analysis of structures, an
example is provided in the following paragraphs. For complete details of the analysis see
(Henriques, 2013). The building structures selected for the analysis considered two types of
occupancy: office and car park. For the first type, the building structure erected in Cardington
and subject to fire tests was chosen, see (Bravery 1993) and (Moore 1995). The building was
designed to represent a typical multi-storey building for offices. For the car park building, the
structure used in a recent RFCS project regarding Robustness in car park structures subject
to a localized fire, see (Demonceau et al, 2012), was selected. Though the main
characteristics of the reference building structures are used, modifications were performed
whenever required to adapt the structures. Furthermore the performed calculations only
considered the analysis of plane sub-structures which were extracted from the complete
building structures. As higher variation of the structural system was found in the office building,
two sub-structures were selected to represent this type of building while for the car park only
one sub-structure was considered. The main characteristics and the adopted modifications of
the referred building structures are summarized in the following paragraphs, see (Kuhlmann
et al, 2012) and (Maquoi, 1998).
The office building structure
The main geometrical and mechanical properties of the office building are summarized in
Tab. 3, together with the adopted modifications. The floor layout is illustrated in Fig. 7.4..


88

Tab. 7.3 The main properties and performed modifications


of the reference structure representing the office building type
Reference Structure
N of floors and height: 1 x 4.34 m + 7 x 4.14 m
N of spans and length in longitudinal direction:
5x9m
N of spans in transversal direction:
2 x 6 m+1 x 9 m
Columns: British steel profiles, grade S355,
cross-section variation along height
Beams: composite, British steel profiles +
composite slab; grade S355 and grade S275;
Lightweight concrete
Bracing system: cross bracing flat steel
Beam-to-column joints: simple joints
Column bases: continuous

A
9m

Modifications
No modifications
All British steel profiles were replaced by
common European steel profiles with equivalent
mechanical properties.
Bracing systems were replaced by shear walls in
order to introduce in the structural system, steelto-concrete joints.
The type of joint between horizontal members
and vertical members was one of the key
parameters of the study. The joint modelling was
varied from continuous to simple.
Column bases were assumed as simple joints.

C
9m

D
9m

9m

9m

4
6m

4,5m

3
9m
2m

2
6m

Fig. 7.4 Floor layout of the reference structure representing the office building type
The car park building structure
This type of building represents the standard configuration of a car park structure in Europe.
The main geometrical and mechanical properties of this type of building are summarized in
Tab. 7.4. In this case, only a few modifications were required. Fig. 7.5 illustrates the floor
layout.

89

Tab. 7.4 The main properties and performed modifications for the car park building type
Reference structure

Modifications

N of floors and height: 8 x 3 m


N of spans and length in longitudinal direction: 6 x 10 m

No modifications

N of spans in transversal direction: 10 x 16 m


Columns: steel profiles, grade S460,
cross-section variation along height
Beams: composite (steel profiles + composite slab); grade S355; normal weight concrete

Dimensions given
to the concrete
core

Bracing system: concrete core (assumed but not defined)


Beam-to-column joints: semi-continuous joints

No modifications

Column bases: simple joints

3
16m

2
Reinforced
Concrete core

16m

1
10m

10m

10m

10m

10m

10m

Fig. 7.5 Structural layout of the car park building type


7.2.2

Design

The structural calculations performed considered an elastic-plastic analysis. In all members


and joints, except RC walls, plastic deformations were admissible. For sake of simplicity, the
wall behaviour was always assumed elastic without limitation of capacity. However, it was
considered that the steel-to-concrete joint includes the part of the wall surrounding the joint.
Therefore, partially, hypothetic localized failure of the wall was considered. In terms of loading,
two types of combinations were considered: i) Service Limit State; and ii) Ultimate Limit State.
In relation to the calculations, the strategy consisted in performing several numerical
simulations where the beam-to-column and beam-to-wall joint properties were varied within
the boundaries for joint classification. In addition, two cases considered the extreme situations
of all joints either continuous or simple joints. For the other cases, the steel joints and steelto-concrete joints are semi-continuous. In all calculations, the column bases joints were
assumed simple. Tab. 7.5 lists the numerical simulations performed and identifies the joint
properties considered in each case. Although the focus was on steel-to-concrete joints, steel
joints were also considered to be semi-continuous so that the structural system was consistent.

90

The different cases presented in Tab. 7.5 considered the combination of different values of
joint initial rotational stiffness and resistance capacity. In terms of rotation capacity, it was
assumed that unlimited rotation capacity was available. A total of 10 cases were considered
for each load combination.
Tab. 7.5 Definition of the cases for each load combination and each sub-structure
Case

Initial Rotational Stiffness


Steel-toSteel joint
concrete joint

3
4
5
6
7
8

SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
2/3 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
1/3 (R/SR+SR/P)

10

R
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
SR:
0.5 (R/SR+SR/P)
P

Col.
bases

Bending Moment Resistance


Steel-toSteel joint
concrete joint

Col.
bases

FS

FS

FS

FS

FS

FS

FS

FS

PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)

PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
2/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3(FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
1/3 (FS/PS+PS/P)
PS:
0.5 (FS/PS+PS/P)

P
P
P
P
P

P
P
P
P
P
P

R-Rigid; SR-Semi-rigid; P-Pinned; FS-Full-strength; PS-Partial-strength

7.2.3

Structural model

Geometric and mechanical properties of members


The three sub-structures selected for the structural calculations are illustrated in Fig. 7.6. The
members geometric dimensions and material properties are given in Tab. 7.6. For the bare
steel cross-sections, the material behaviour was considered elastic-perfectly-plastic.

91

Tab. 7.6 Sub-structures members geometric and material properties


Sub-structure

Members
Columns:
AL-1 and 4
AL-2
Beams*
Walls
Columns

II

Beams*
Walls

Columns
III

Beams*
Walls

Geometric
Bottom to 2nd floor: HEB320
2nd floor to Top: HEB260

Material
S355
S355

Bottom to 2nd floor: HEB340


2nd floor to Top: HEB320
IPE360+Composite slab (hslab = 130mm)
#6//200mm
tw = 300mm
vertical reinforcement 20//30cm horizontal 10//30cm
Bottom to 2nd floor: HEB 340
2nd floor to Top: HEB 320
IPE360+Composite slab (hslab = 130mm)
#6//200mm
tw = 300 mm
vertical reinforcement 20//300 mm horizontal
10//300mm
Bottom to 2nd floor: HEB 550
2nd floor to 4th floor: HEB 400
4th floor to 6th floor: HEB 300
6th floor to 8th floor: HEB 220
IPE450+Composite slab (hslab = 120 mm)
#8//200 mm
tw = 400 mm
# 20//200 mm

S355
S355
S355
LC35/38
C30/37
S500
S355
S355
S355
LC35/38

4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,34m

6m

4,5m 4,5m

6m

Fig. 7.6a Geometry of sub-structure I, office building alignment A


92

C30/37
S500
S460
S460
S460
S460
S355
C25/30
C30/37
S500

4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,14m
4,34m

4,5m

4,5m

9m

9m

9m

4,5m

4,5m

Fig. 7.6b Geometry of sub-structure II, Office building alignment 3


3m
3m
3m
3m
3m
3m
3m
3m
6m

10m

10m

10m

10m

10m

10m

6m

Fig. 7.6c Geometry of sub-structure III, car park building alignment 2


In order to simplify the structural modelling, the composite beams cross-section was replaced
by equivalent rectangular cross-sections, see Table 7.7. Because of the different behaviour
of the composite section under sagging and hogging bending moments, the equivalent beams
cross-section (EqCS) varies within its length, as identified in Fig. 7.7. In terms of material
properties, equivalent yield strength was also determined so that the equivalent cross-section
attained a maximum bending moment equal to the resistance of the real composite crosssection.

93

Tab. 7.7 Properties of the equivalent cross-sections


replacing the real composite cross-sections
Sub-structure I
Eq CS-1
Eq CS-2
Eq CS-3
Eq CS-4
Eq CS-5
I=1.59x108mm4
I=3.885x108mm4
I=1.63x108mm4
I=5.4975x108mm4
I=1.58x108mm4
2
2
2
2
A=7034.56mm
A=14512.67mm
A=7087.57mm
A=12633.20mm
A=7024.62mm2
Equivalent rectangular cross-section dimension
h=520.08mm
h=566.78mm
h=525.23mm
h=580.67mm
h=519.09mm
b=13.53mm
b=25.61mm
b=13.49mm
b=21.76mm
b=13.53mm
Yield strength (fy) of the equivalent rectangular cross-section to obtain the maximum bending moment (Mcb.max) of the
composite beam cross-section
Mcb.max
Mcb.max
Mcb.max
Mcb.max =605.00kN.m
Mcb.max =349.98kN.m
=351.41kN.m
=358.94kN.m
=565.00kN.m
fy=441.31N/mm2
fy=575.88N/mm2
2
2
2
fy=576.30N/mm
fy=578.52N/mm
fy=462.12N/mm

Sub-structure II
Eq CS-1
Eq CS-2
Eq CS-3
Eq CS-4
Eq CS-5
I=1.14x108mm4
I=2.74x108mm4
I=1.20x108mm4
I=3.38x108mm4
I=1.23x108mm4
A=6012.32mm2
A=11207.20mm2
A=6101.78mm2
A=16431.90mm2
A=6141.54mm2
Equivalent rectangular cross-section dimension
h=476.37mm
h= 541.42mm
h=486.39mm
h=496.74mm
h=490.57mm
b=12.62mm
b= 20.70mm
b= 12.54mm
b= 33.08mm
b= 12.52mm
fy of the equivalent rectangular cross-section to obtain the Mmax of the composite cross-section
Mmax=274.86kN.m Mmax=470kN.m
Mmax=286.85kN.m
Mmax=631kN.m
Mmax=292.05kN.m
fy=575.81N/mm2
fy=464.75N/mm2
fy=579.90N/mm2
fy=463.83N/mm2
fy=581.62N/mm2

Sub-structure III

EqCS-1

EqCS-2

EqCS-1

3,0m

1,5m

EqCS-5
1,125m

1,5m

EqCS-4
2,25m

EqCS-3
1,5m

EqCS-3

EqCS-2
3,0m

1,125m

EqCS-1
1,5m

Eq CS-1
Eq CS-2
Eq CS-3
I=6.72x108mm4
I=1.42x109mm4
I=7.23x108mm4
2
2
A=13192.32mm
A=27012.63mm
A=13600.91mm2
Equivalent rectangular cross-section dimension
h=781.66mm
h=794.22mm
h=798.44mm
b=16.88mm
b=34.01mm
b=17.00mm
fy of the equivalent rectangular cross-section to obtain the Mmax of the composite cross-section
Mmax=988.86kN.m Mmax=1338.00kN.m Mmax=1057.61kN.m
fy=575.37N/mm2
fy=374.20N/mm2
fy=584.00N/mm2

Fig. 7.7a Identification of the equivalent cross-sections of the beams in sub-structure I


94

1,125m

EqCS-3
EqCS-2
EqCS-1

EqCS-3
2,25m

1,125m
2,25m

EqCS-4
4,5m

EqCS-5

EqCS-5
2,25m

2,25m

EqCS-4
4,5m

EqCS-5
2,25m

EqCS-5

EqCS-4
4,5m

2,25m

EqCS-1
EqCS-2
EqCS-3
EqCS-3
1,125m
2,25m
1,125m
2,25m

EqCS-1

EqCS-2

EqCS-3

EqCS-3

EqCS-2

EqCS-3

EqCS-3

EqCS-2

EqCS-3

EqCS-3

EqCS-2

EqCS-3

EqCS-3

EqCS-2

EqCS-3

EqCS-3

EqCS-2

EqCS-1

2,5m

5m

2,5m
2,5m

5m

2,5mv

2,5m

5m

2,5m

2,5m

5m

2,5m
2,5m

5m

2,5m
2,5m

5m

2,5m

Fig. 7.7b Identification of the equivalent cross-sections of the beams in sub-structure II

Fig. 7.7c Identification of the equivalent cross-sections of the beams in each sub-structure III
Joint properties
The boundaries values for classification of the joint in terms of rotational stiffness and
resistance are listed in Tab. 7.8 for the three sub-structures. The joints were included in the
structural models using concentrated flexural springs. For the partial-strength joints, a tri-linear
behaviour was assigned, Fig. 7.8. The initial joint rotational stiffness is considered up to 2/3
of Mj,Rd, and then the joint rotation at Mj,Rd is determined using the secant joint rotational
stiffness. The latter is determined using a stiffness modification coefficient equal to 2.
Tab. 7.8 The boundary values for classification of the joints in each sub-structure

Sub-structure III

Sub-structure II

Sub-structure I

Joints
AL-1-right
AL-2-left
AL-2-right
AL-3-left
AL-3-right
AL-4-left
AL-A-right
AL-B-left
AL-B-right
AL-C-left
to
AL-D-right
AL-E-left
AL-E-right
AL-F-left
AL-A-right
AL-B-left
AL-B-right
to
AL-F-left
AL-F-right
AL-G-left

Rotational Stiffness
R-SR [kNm/rad] SR-P [kNm/rad]
108780.0
2782.5
2782.5
108780.0
205340.0
3710.0
205240.0
3710.0
108780.0
2782.5
108780.0
2782.5
102293.3
2660.0
102293.3
2660.0
94640.0
2100.0

Bending Moment Resistance


FS-PS [kNm]
PS-P [kNm]
351.4
87.9
358.9
89.7
358.9
89.7
345.0
87.5
351.4
85.9
351.4
87.9
274.9
68.7
286.9
71.7
286.9
71.7

94640.0

2100.0

292.1

73.0

94640.0
102293.3
102293.3
238560.0
238560.0

2100.0
2660.0
2660.0
7056.0
7056.0

238560.0

7591.5

286.9
286.9
274.9
988.9
As below
b-6th: 1058.1
6th-T:380.4

71.7
71.7
68.7
247.2
As below
b-6th: 264.3
6th-T: 95.1

238560.0
238560.0

7056.0
7056.0

As above
988.9

As above
247.2

R-Rigid; SR-Semi-rigid; P-Pinned; FS-Full-strength; PS-Partial-strength

95

Mj
Mj,Rd
2/3Mj,Rd

Sj,ini

j
Fig. 7.8 Partial strength joint mechanical behaviour
Loading conditions
The loading considered in each sub-structure was determined for each load combination and
varies with the structural conception and building occupancy. The loads and load combinations
were defined according to EN1990:2002 and EN1991-1-1:2002. Note that for Sub-structure I
and II, the wind action was also considered while for Sub-structure 3 no lateral action was
assumed, this action was not quantified in (Demonceau et al, 2012) and it was considered that
the stiffness of the wall will absorb it. In the office building structure, the slab works in the
transverse direction, therefore the beams in the Sub-structure II are loaded with uniform
distributed loads. For the other two sub-structures, the represented beams are the main
beams so the loads are transmitted as concentrated loads, at the intersection of the secondary
beams. In all cases the self-weight is considered.
Sub-structures finite element models
The structural calculations were performed in the finite element software (Abaqus 6.11, 2011).
In Tab. 7.9 are listed the types of elements used to reproduce each component of the structural
system (members and joints): i) beam elements for beams and columns, ii) shell/plate
elements for the RC walls, and iii) spring elements to connect the structural members, in the
different degrees of freedom.
Tab. 7.9 Types of finite elements attributed to each component, members and joints
Structural Model Component
Beams and Columns

Type of finite element


Beam element

Shear Walls

Shell element

Beam-to-column and Beam-toWall Joints

Spring element

Description
2-node linear beam element B31
4-node shell element S4R
(general-purpose) with reduce
integration and hourglass control
Non-linear spring element with
single degree of freedom

The concentrated joint modelling was selected, where a flexural spring was used to represent
the connection at each side of the column. As the parametric study was performed varying
the properties of this flexural spring, it was assumed that this spring was already integrating
the deformation of the column web panel and was already affected by the transformation
parameter , so that an iterative calculation was avoid. As the main goal is to analyse the
influence of the joint and to obtain some structural requirements to the steel-to-concrete joints,
the joint springs are located at the axis of the columns, and the eccentricity associated to the
height of this member is neglected. . In what concerns the other degrees of freedom, namely
axial and shear direction of the beam, translation springs are used to connect the members.

96

In this way, in each connection, between structural members, three springs are used, one for
each relevant degree of freedom.
The use of the above described types of elements was previously validated against academic
problems (Simoes da Silva et al, 2010). Simultaneously, the calibration of the required mesh
refinement was performed. Tab. 7.10 summarizes the mesh refinement to consider in the
different members of the structural models simulated and discussed in the next section.
Tab. 7.10 Summary of the mesh refinement for each member of the structural model
Member
Beams
Columns
Shear walls

Number of elements or mesh size


40
10
400 mm x 400 mm

The performed numerical calculations are two dimensional; therefore, no out-of-plane


deformations occur. Both material and geometrical non-linearities are taken into account.
Furthermore, the analysis neglects any possible in-plane buckling phenomena. The structural
capacity is in this way only limited by the maximum resistance of the members and joints crosssections. Finally, in what concerns to the simulation of the column loss, the procedure
consisted in replacing the support of the relevant column by the reactions forces obtained in
a previous calculation during the application of the real loading, and then to reduce them to
zero.
7.2.4

Analysis and discussion for Service Limit State

The structure under service limit state (SLS) has to guarantee the comfort of the users. If in
terms of loading this limit state is less demanding, in terms of deformation requirements it is
often the most limiting state, and therefore, design guiding. For this load condition, the analysis
of the steel-to-concrete joint properties is performed using the two following parameters:
beams deflection and structure lateral deformation. For the latter, only Substructures I and II
are considered, as no horizontal load (namely wind load) was considered in the analysis of
Sub-structure III.
Fig. 7.10 illustrates how the beams deflection was considered. The maximum values obtained
for each case are listed in Table 7.11, in a beam connected to a RC member, columns in grey,
and in a beam only supported by steel columns. According to the Portuguese National Annex
to EN1993-1-1:2006 the limit value max L/300 was calculated and is included in the table. It
is observed that in Sub-structures I and II, the values are distant from this limit, even if the
beams deformation achieves 20 mm in the sub-structure II with simple joints, the value is still
33% below the limit. The beam deformations in sub-structure III are closer to the limit value
but still, this value is not exceeded for any of the cases. In Fig. 7.11 are represented the beams
deformations for the cases corresponding to the maximum and minimum deflections, for the
beams implementing steel-to-concrete joints. These is seen as the envelope of the beams
deformation, as these cases consider the two extreme situations in what respects the joint
properties: i) continuous (Rigid + Full Strength); and ii) simple (Pinned). Using the beam
deformation mode corresponding to the maximum beam deflection, the deformation
corresponding to the code limit was extrapolated and is also included in the figure. The figure
illustrates the above observations, confirming Substructure III closer to the limit.

97

Fig. 7.9 Representation of the considered beams deflection


Tab. 7.11 Maximum beams deformation under service limit state [mm]
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
max [mm]

Sub-structure I
Beam
Beam
1-2
3-4
2.6
3.0
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.2
4.6
6.1
6.1
20
20

Sub-structure II
Beam
Beam
C-D
A-B
5.5
0.3
7.8
0.3
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.4
7.8
0.6
20.5
1.5
30
15

Sub-structure III
Beam
Beam
C-D
F-G
21.7
7.7
22.9
12.7
23.4
12.6
23.7
12.6
23.7
14.1
24.1
14.1
24.7
18.8
25.2
18.8
28.1
15.1
31.8
27.1
33.3
33.3

Joint Properties
R

FS

R-Rigid; P-Pinned; FS-Full-strength

a) Sub-structure I

b) Sub-structure II

c) Sub-structure III

Fig. 7.10 Beam deformations envelop and limit according to PNA to EN1993-1-1:2006
supported by a steel-to-concrete joint


98

Besides the beams deformation, the lateral stiffness of the sub-structures is also affected by
the joint properties. In Tab. 7.12 are listed the maximum top floor displacements obtained for
each case and for Sub-structures I and II. The design limit dh,top,limit according to Portuguese
National Annex to EN1993-1-1:2006 is also included. As for the beams deflections, it is
observed that the observed values are distant from the code limit. Note that as long as the
joints are continuous or semi-continuous, the top floor displacement suffers small variations.
This is due to the dominant contribution of the RC wall to the lateral stiffness of the substructures. In Fig. 7.11 are represented the sub-structures lateral displacement envelops and
the code limit. In Sub-structure II, because two RC walls contribute to the lateral stiffness of
the sub-structure, the variation between minimum and maximum is quite reduced.
Tab. 7.12 Top floor lateral displacement for Sub-structures I and II [mm]
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
dh.top.limit [mm]

Sub-structure I
26.7
27,6
28.3
28.6
28.3
28.6
28.3
28.6
31.4
36.0
94.3

Sub-structure II
13.5
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.8
16.2
94.3

Joint Properties
R
FS

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Floor

Floor

R-Rigid; P-Pinned; FS-Full-strength

Case 1
Case 10
Limit
0

20
40
60
80
Lateral displacement [mm]

Sub-structure I

100

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Case 1
Case 10
Limit
0

20
40
60
80
Lateral displacement [mm]

100

Sub-structure II

Fig. 7.11 Lateral displacements envelops


In what concerns the steel-to-concrete joints, under service limit state, the bending moment
developed in the joints and the required joint rotation are represented in Fig. 7.12. In Fig. 7.13
the ratio between the bending moment developed in the joints and the joint or beam bending
moment capacity is represented. For none of the cases, the joints under SLS attained the
maximum bending moment resistance of the joint. As for the deformations, Sub-structure III
is the most demanding to the joints. In case 7, almost 70% of the joint bending moment
capacity is activated. Because the assumed joint resistance is lower, in case 7 and 8 the
percentage of bending moment activated is higher. In Fig. 7.13 is shown the maximum joint
rotations observed for each sub-structure and for each case. For the cases where the joints
are modelled as pinned, the joint rotation required is naturally higher, but never greater than
11 mrad. In the other cases, the joint rotation is quite low, below 3.2 mrad, which is expectable
as not plastic deformation of the joints occurs.

99

0.6
Sub-structure I
Sub-structure II

0.4

Sub-structure III

Mj,Ed/[Mj,Rd or Mb,pl,Rd [-]

0.5

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1

Case

Fig. 7.12 Ratio between acting bending moment and bending moment capacity
of joint/beam under SLS
12
Sub-structure I
Sub-structure II
Sub-structure III

j [mrad]

10
8
6
4
2
0
1

5
6
Case

10

Fig. 7.13 Joint rotation under SLS


7.2.5

Analysis and discussion for Ultimate Limit State

At Ultimate Limit State (ULS), joints should perform so that the structural integrity is not lost.
This requires to the joints either resistance either deformation capacity, allowing the
redistribution of internal forces within the structure. In order to quantify such structural demands
to the steel-to-concrete joints, calculations considering the load combinations of this limit state
are performed. In Fig. 7.14 are summarized the maximum loads obtained on these joints Mj,
Nj, Vj. In all cases, hogging bending moment and the axial compression are reported. Though,
it should be referred that axial tension is observed in bottom floors of the sub-structures;
however, in average, the maximum value does not exceed 10 kN.


100

Tab. 7.13 Top floor lateral displacement for Sub-structures I and II


Joint
Location
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Sub-structure I
ALAL-33-L
R
Mj
Nj
[kNm]
[kN]
169.0
68.5
170.0
61.7
151.2
62.3
136.2
62.8
151.2
62.3
136.3
62.8
138.0
62.1
121.7
62.4
0
65.9
0
43.3

Sub-structure II
ALALF-L
A-R
Nj
Mj
[kNm]
[kN]
64.7
31.8
65.
33.4
54.2
31.5
46.2
30.1
54.2
31.5
46.2
30.1
54.8
33.0
46.6
31.6
0
21.0
0
51.7

AL3-L
Vj
[kN]
181.1
183.3
178.3
174.3
178.3
174.3
174.8
170.5
138.9
134.0

AL-FL
Vj
[kN]
72.9
73.9
70.8
68.7
70.8
68.7
71.3
69.2
56.5
59.4

Sub-structure III
ALAL-G-L
A-R
Nj
Mj
[kNm]
[kN]
441.1
387.6
539.5
406.4
406.4
392.6
350.4
382.1
432.1
384.0
376.1
372.5
401.9
381.3
344.7
371.9
0
282.4
0
346.7

Joint
Properties

ALA-L
Vj
[kN]
345.8
371.4
362.3
355.6
381.6
376.1
394.5
388.9
346.5
370.9

FS

AL-Alignment; L Left hand side; R- right hand side; R Rigid; P Pinned; FS Full Strength

Fig. 7.14 shows the ratio between acting bending moment and the bending moment capacity
of the steel-to-concrete joints or of the beams, in the case of full strength joints. As expected,
for this limit state the ratio increases in comparison to the service limit state though, in none of
the cases the full capacity of joints is activated. The higher ratios are observed in Substructures I and III, for the cases with lower bending moment resistance.
In Fig. 7.15 are plotted the maximum joint rotations observed in the different calculations. The
maximum required joint rotation is approximately 20 mrad for the case studies where the steelto-concrete joints are modelled as simple joints.

25
Sub-structure I
Sub-structure II
Sub-structure III

1
0.8

Sub-structure I
Sub-structure II
Sub-structure III

20
j [mrad]

Mj,Ed/[Mj,Rd or Mb,pl,Rd[-]

1.2

15

0.6

10

0.4

0.2

0
1

4
5
Case

Fig. 7.14 Ratio between acting bending


moment and bending moment capacity of
joints, and beam at ULS

5 6
Case

10

Fig. 7.15 Maximum joint rotation at ULS

101

8 TOLERANCES
8.1

Standardized tolerances

The European standard EN1090-2:2008 describes the geometric tolerances in Chapter 11.
Limits of geometric deviations contained therein are independent from the execution classes
and they are divided into two types.
Essential tolerances called those which are necessary for the mechanical resistance and
stability of the completed structure.
Functional tolerances have decisive influence on other criteria such as fit-up and
appearance. The permitted limits of deviations are defined for two tolerance classes in
generally. Stricter limits apply to class 2. Is not a class set, tolerance class 1 applies.
The essential tolerances, as well as the functional tolerances are normative.
With regard to the connections of steel structures in concrete components, essential tolerances
are limited in Chapter 11.2.3.2 for foundation bolts and other supports and in Chapter 11.2.3.3
for column bases. There, with regard to their desired location, permissible deviations of a
group of anchor bolts and instructions for the required hole clearance are specified for base
plates.
More interesting for connections with embedded anchor plates in concrete structures are the
functional tolerances given in Annex D Tab. 2.20, see Fig. 8.1.
The European standard EN13670:2011 Execution of concrete structures contains in Chapter
10 also information to geometrical tolerances, which are for buildings of importance, such as
structural safety. Two tolerance classes are defined, in which in generally the tolerance class
1 (reduced requirements) applies. The application of the tolerance class 2 is intended mainly
in connection with structural design according to EN1992-1-1:2004 Appendix A. Fig. 8.2 (Fig. 2
in EN13670:2011) provides limits of permissible deviations from the vertical of walls and pillars.
Deviations of these components have decisive influence on the steel structures to be
connected there (if required).


102

No

Criterion

Parameter

Permitted deviation

Foundation level
Deviation
from specified level

-15 mm +5 mm

Vertical wall

Kay
1 Specified
position
2 Steel component
3 Supporting wall
Pre-set foundation bolt where prepared
for adjustment

Deviation
from specified position
at support point
for steel component

Deviation from specified


location and protrusion :
- Location at tip
- Vertical protrusion p
NOTE
The permitted deviation for
location of the centre of a
bolt group is 6 mm.

Pre-set foundation bolt where not prepared


for adjustment

Deviation from specified


location, level and
protrusion:
- Location at tip
- Vertical protrusion p
- Vertical protrusion x
NOTE
The permitted deviation for
location also applies to the
centre of bolt group.

= 25 mm

y, z = 10 mm
-5 mm p 25 mm

y, z = 3 mm
-5 mm p 45 mm
-5 mm x 45 mm

Steel anchor plate embedded in concrete

Deviations x, y, z
from the specified location
and level

x, y, z = 10 mm

Fig. 8.1 Functional tolerances concrete foundations and support,


Tab. D.2.20 in EN1090-2:2008

103

No

Type of deviation

Description

Inclination of a
column or wall at
any lever in a
single or a multistorey building
10
10

Permitted deviation
Tolerance class 1

The larger of
15
/400
25
/800

h= free height

Deviation between
centres

The larger of
t/300 or
15 mm
But not more than
30 mm

Curvature of a
column or wall
between adjacent
storey levels

The larger of
/30 or
15 mm
But not more than
30 mm

Location of a
column or a wall at
any storey level,
from a vertical line
through its
intended centre at
base level in a
multi-storey
structure
n is the number of
storeys where
1

=sum of height of storeys considered

The smaller of
50
or

200

1
2

Fig. 8.2 Permissible deviations from the vertical of walls and pillars,
abridged Fig. 2 in EN13670:2011
Geometric tolerances, which are in terms of suitability for use and the accuracy of fit for the
building of importance, are regulated in the informative Annex G, unless regulated otherwise,
the tolerances of Annex G apply, see Fig. 8.3. It is assumed that tolerances contained therein
relate to geometrical sizes, which have only a limited influence on the bearing capacity.
Fig. 8.1 shows the permissible deviations of built in components in all directions, compare
EN1090-2:2008 D. 2.20 line 5.


104

No

Type of deviation

Description

Permitted deviation

Anchoring plates
and similar inserts
Deviation in plane

x, y = 20 mm

Deviation in depth

z = 10 mm

1 normal position in plane


2 normal position in depth

Fig. 8.3 Permitted deviations for holes and inserts,


abridged Fig. G.6 in EN13670:2011
An assessment of the impact of the tabular listed permissible limits on connections with
embedded anchor plates will be in the next Chapter 8.2.

8.2

Recommended tolerances

For deviations from fixtures (anchoring) of the target location, relatively low values are allowed
in the previously mentioned standards, 10 mm in each direction, see EN1090-2:2008, or 20
mm in the plains and 10 mm perpendicular to the surface, see EN13670:2011. Tolerances
for angular misalignments of the anchor plates to their installation levels are not available.
However, in EN 13670 Fig. 2d for multi-story buildings clearly greater deviations of the upper
floors to the vertical are allowed. For example, the permissible horizontal displacement of the
top-level of a floor from the target location is for a seven-story building with a floor height of
3.50 m.
h / 200 n

= 46 mm

(8.1)

If the building is made of prefabricated concrete elements, the concrete anchor plate - even
with exact location within the individual component - may exhibit the same displacement from
the target location as the above shown deviations.
Therefore, the deviations defined directly for anchor plates by 10 mm seem to be hardly
feasible. Much larger deviations have to be expected. If necessary, special tolerances for the
location of the built in components have to be defined. EN13670:2011 describes another
principle of tolerance definition, in which the allowable deviation of any point of construction
compared to a theoretical target location over a fixed value is defined in Chapter 10.1 cl 5.
A recommendation for the maximum permissible deviation is 20 mm.
Definitely, connecting elements between steel and concrete structures must be able to
compensate tolerances. Considering the previous explanations, a development of joints for
taking deviations of the anchor plate from the theoretical target location of 20 to 25 mm is
recommended. Fig. 8.4 and 8.5 show exemplary a connections with and without the possibility
to compensate geometrical derivations.

105

Fig. 8.4 Joint with possibility of adjustment

Fig. 8.5 Joint without possibility of adjustment


The following methods is used to compensate certain displacements of build in components
to the target location. Depending on the loading, priority direction of the loads, the most
appropriate solution has to be chosen.
Tolerance absorption in the longitudinal direction of the profile
Bolted connection with end plate and scheduled filler plates
Bolted connection with base plate and grouting
Cleat / console
Beam / pillar scheduled with overlength; adjustment and welding on site
Buttstrap with overlength; adjustment and welding on site
Buttstrap with slot holes
Tolerance absorption perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of profile:
Additional steel plate with threaded bolts; welded on site; beam / pillar with end plate
Anchor plate with threaded bolts; head plate with oversized holes
Buttstrap; welding on site


106

9 WORKED EXAMPLES
9.1

Pinned base plate

Check the resistance of the column base. The column of HE 200 B section, a concrete
foundation size 850 x 850 x 900 mm, a base plate thickness 18 mm, steel S 235 and
concrete C 12/15, Mc = 1.50, M0 = 1.00.
FRd
HE 200 B

4xP30-40x40

t = 18
30

a1 = 850
a = 340

ar = 255
b r = 255

h = 900

b = 340

b = 850
1

Fig. 9.1 Designed column base

Step 1 Concrete design strength


The stress concentration factor should be calculated, see Chap. 3.3. The minimum
values for a1 (or b1) are taken into account
a
a

min

The condition a

a b
ab

2 a
340 2 255 850
3 a 3 340 1 020
a h 340 900 1 240
850

850 850
340 340

EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.2.5

850 mm

340 mm is satisfied, and therefore

2.5

The concrete design strength is calculated from the equation


F
b l

A f

A
A

f k

12.0
0.67
2.5
1.5

EN1993-1-8

13.4 MPa

cl 6.2.5

Step 2 Flexible base plate


The flexible base plate is replaced by a rigid plate, see the following picture Fig. 9.2.
The strip width is

f
3f

235
18
3 13.4 1.00

EN1993-1-8

43.5 mm

cl 6.2.5

107

bc = 200 c

t f = 15
c
c

h c = 200

tw = 9

Fig. 9.2 Effective area under the base plate


The effective area of the base plate of H shape is calculated as a rectangular area minus
the central areas without contact such that;
min b; b

2c min a; h

max min b; b
A

200
200

2c

2c; 0 max h

2 43.5 200

2 43.5

82 369

2c
2c; 0

2 43.5

2 43.5 200

15 853

2t

2 15

2 43.5

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

66 516 mm

Step 3 Design resistance


The design resistance of the column base in compression is
N

66 516 13.4

891 10 N
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

Comments
The design resistance of the column footing is higher than the resistance of the column
base
N

A f

7808 235
1.00

1 835 10 N

EN1993-1-1
cl 6.2.4

where Ac is area of the column. The column base is usually designed for column
resistance, which is determined by column buckling resistance.
It is expected, that the grout will not affect the column base resistance. The grout has
to be of better quality or the thickness has to be smaller than
0.2 min a; b

0.2 340

68 mm

The steel packing or the levelling nuts is placed under the base plate during the erection.
It is recommended to include the packing/nuts in the documentation


108

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

9.2

Moment resistant base plate

In the following example the calculation of the moment resistance and the bending
stiffness of the column base at Fig. 9.3 is shown. The Column HE 200 B is loaded by
a normal force FSd = 500 kN. The concrete block C25/30 of size 1 600 x 1 600x 1000 mm
is designed for particular soil conditions. The base plate is of 30 mm thickness and the
steel strength is S235. Safety factors are considered as Mc = 1.50; Ms = 1.15, M0 = 1.00;
and M2 = 1.25. The connection between the base plate and the concrete is carried out
through four headed studs of 22 mm diameter and an effective embedment depth of
150 mm, see Fig. 9.3. The diameter of the head of the stud is 40 mm. The
supplementary reinforcement for each headed stud consists of two legged 12 mm
diameter stirrups on each side of the stud. Consider fuk = 470 MPa for studs and design
yield strength of the supplementary reinforcement
as f

435 MPa.
a 1 = 1600

MSd

FSd

a r = 590

a = 420

HE 200 B
M22

t = 30
30

e a = 50

br = 590

eb = 90
p = 240

h = 1000

e c = 60

b = 420

b1 = 1600

r b = 160

Fig. 9.3 Designed column base


Step 1 Base plate resistance
1.1 Component base plate in bending and headed studs in tension
Lever arm, for fillet weld a

6 mm is

0.8 6 2

60

0.8 a

60

53.2 mm

The minimum T-stub length in base plates where the prying forces not taken into

DM I

account, is

Fig. 4.4

4 m

1.25 e
4 53.2 1.25 50
2 m 2 53.2 334.3
b 0.5 420 0.5 210
0.5 p 2 53,2 0.625 50
min 2 m 0.625 e
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 53.2 0.625 50
2 53.2 4 90
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 p 2 53.2 2 240
210 mm

The effective length of headed studs Lb is taken as

275.3

0.5 240 257.7


90 227.7
694.3
814.3

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.4
(Wald et al, 2008)
DM I
Tab. 4.2

109

min h ; 8 d

t
2

150

30

30

19
2

219.5 mm

DM I
Fig. 4.1

The resistance of T - stub with two headed studs is


F

2 L , t f
4 m

2 210 30 235
4 53.2 1.00

417.4 kN

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.4.1

The resistance is limited by tension resistance of two headed studs M 22, the area in
tension A
F

303 mm.

2B,

, ,

0.9 f

0.9 470 303


1.25

205.1 kN
EN1993-1-8

1.2 Component base plate in bending and concrete block in compression

cl 6.2.4.1

To evaluate the compressed part resistance is calculated the connection factor as


a
a

min

and a

420 2 590 1 600


2. a
3a 3 420 1260
a h 420 1 000 1 420

1 260

1 260 mm

420 mm

EN1993-1-8

The above condition is fulfilled and


a b
ab

1 260 1 260
420 420

cl 6.2.5

3.00
DM I

The grout is not influencing the concrete bearing resistance because


0.2 min a; b

0.2 min 420; 420

84 mm

30 mm

Eq. 3.65

The concrete bearing resistance is calculated as


EN1993-1-8

2 k f

2 3.00 25

3
1.5

cl 6.2.5

33.3 MPa

From the force equilibrium in the vertical direction F

F , , the area of

concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part is calculated
F

500 10

205.1 10
33.3

EN1993-1-8

21 174 mm

cl 6.2.5

The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of
the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.4, is calculated from
c


110

f
3f

30

235
3 33.3 1.00

46.0 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

c bc= 200 c
c t w= 9 c
c
c

tf =15

rt

hc=200

b eff

tf=15 c
c

rc

Fig. 9.4 The effective area under the base plate


1.3 Assembly for resistance
The active effective width is calculated as
A

2 c

21 174
200 2 46.0

72.5 mm

2 c

15

2 46.0

107.0 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as


h
2

b
2

200
2

46.0

72.5
2

EN1993-1-1

109.8 mm

cl 6.2.5

The moment resistance of the column base is M


M

205.1 10 160

21 174 33.3 109.8

Under acting normal force N


M

, ,

f r

EN1993-1-1
cl 6.2.4

110.2 kNm

500 kN the moment resistance in bending is

110.2kNm.

1.4 The end of column resistance


The design resistance in poor compression is
N

Af

7808 235
1.00

1 835 10 N

EN1993-1-1

500kN

cl 6.2.5

The column bending resistance


M

W f

642.5 10 235
1.00

EN1993-1-1

151.0 kNm

cl 6.2.9

The interaction of normal force reduces moment resistance


N
N ,
A 2 b t
0.5
A

1
M

500
1 835
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1

151.0
1

124.2 kNm
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

The column base is designed on acting force only (not for column resistance).

111

Step 2 Base plate stiffness


2.1 Component base plate in bending and headed stud in tension
The component stiffness coefficients for headed studs and base plate are calculated
A
L

2.0

0.425 L
m

303
219.5

2.0

EN1993-1-8

2.8 mm

cl 6.3

0.425 210 30
53.2

EN1993-1-8

16.0 mm

cl 6.3

tf =15
t

b c =200

aeq

Fig. 9.5 The T stub in compression


2.2 Component base plate in bending and concrete block in compression
For the stiffness coefficient the T-stub in compression, see Fig. 9.5, is
a

2.5 t

15

2.5 30

E
a
1.275 E

90 mm

31 000
90 200
1.275 210 000

EN1993-1-8

15.5 mm

cl 6.3

2.3 Assembly of component tensile stiffness coefficient to base plate stiffness


The lever arm of component in tension zt and in compression zc to the column base
neutral axes is
z
z

h
2

h
2

t
2

200
2

60

200
2

15
2

160 mm
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

92.5 mm

The stiffness coefficient of tension part, headed studs and T stub, is calculated as
k

1
1
k

1
1
k

1
2.8

1
16.0

2.4 mm

EN1993-1-1
cl 6.2.9

For the calculation of the initial stiffness of the column base the lever arm is evaluated
z

160

k z
k

k z
k


112

92.5

252.5 mm

15.5 92.5
15.5

2.4 160
2.4

and
58.6 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

The bending stiffness is calculated for particular constant eccentricity


e

M
F

110.2 10
500 10

EN1993-1-1

220.4 mm

cl 6.2.9

as
S,

e
e

E z
a 1
k

220.4
210 000 252.5

1
220.4 58.6 1 1
2.4 15.5

21.981 10 Nmm/rad

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

21 981 kNm/rad

Step 3 Anchorage resistance and stiffness


As discussed in Chapter 3 Concrete components, the stiffness of anchorage is
determined for separate components, failure modes, and then combined together.
In this case, the anchorage is considered as a group of four headed studs with nominal
stud diameter of 22 mm arranged in a way displayed in Fig. 9.6. Furthermore,
supplementary reinforcement with the arrangement shown in Fig. 9.6 is considered.
Due to moment loading on the anchor group generated by the lateral loads only one
side studs will be subjected to tension loads. Therefore in the following example, two
studs are considered while evaluating the behaviour of the anchor group. Here,
diameter of the reinforcing bar is considered as 12 mm and the effective embedment
depth of the stud is considered as 150 mm, distance from of the head to the concrete
surface.
640

320

1600

640
150

320

100
1600

1000

500

240

Fig. 9.6 Headed studs and supplementary reinforcement configuration


3.1 Component S Steel failure of headed stud
Component S comprises of evaluating the design load-displacement response of the
headed studs under tensile loading, when they undergo steel failure. Only two anchors
will be considered in tension. From Eq. (3.3) and (3.4) is calculated the load and the
stiffness as

113

nd ,
4

2 22 470
4 1.5

2 22 210 000
E
L
L
4 150
N
kN
1 064 371
1 064.4
, for N
238.2 kN
mm
mm
0; N
238.2 kN
k
k

nd
4

238 216 N

238.2 kN

DM I
Eq. (3.3)

DM I
Eq. (3.4)

DM I
Eq. (3.5)

Hence, the load-displacement curve for the spring is obtained as shown in Fig. 9.7.
Nact kN
238.2

1064.4
1
c mm

Fig. 9.7 Load-displacement behaviour of spring representing component S


3.2 Component C Concrete cone failure
Component CC comprises of evaluating the design load-displacement response of the
headed studs under tensile loading, when they undergo concrete cone failure. The
critical edge distance c ,
1.5 h
225 mm. Using Eqs (3.7) through (3.9), it is
N

N
N

k h

A
A

12.7 150

1.5 150

240

DM I
Eq. (3.7)

25

1.5 150 1.5 150


9 150

Since maximum edge distance, c

116.7 1.53 1.0

.
.

1.5 150

225 mm, hence

There is no closely spaced reinforcement, hence,


Therefore, N

Eq. (3.8)

116,7 kN

690 450
9 150

Eq. (3.9)

1.53

1.0

1.0

119.0 kN

The stiffness of the descending branch kc,de for the design is described with the following
function
k

f h

53725 150 1.53 1.0 1.0

The displacement corresponding to zero load is


114

.
,

2.37 mm

50.31

kN
mm

Eq. (3.13)

1600

450

1600

Ac,N

690

Fig. 9.8 Evaluation of group effect


The load-displacement curve for the spring is shown in Fig. 9.9.
Nact kN
119.0

DM I
Eq. (3.13)

50.31
1
c mm

Fig. 9.9 Load-displacement behaviour of spring representing component CC


3.3 Component RS Steel failure of stirrups
Component RS comprises of evaluating the design load-displacement response of the
stirrups, when they undergo steel failure. The design load for yielding of the stirrups is
given as Eq. (3.17)
N

, ,

/4 f

For each stud, two stirrups with two legs on either side of the headed stud are provided.
Therefore, for two headed studs in tension, the total number of the legs of the stirrups
in tension is 8. Hence,

N ,,
8
12 435 393.6 kN
4
DM I
Eq. (3.17)
2N , ,
2 393 578
,,
0.77 mm
12 100 25 12 8
f d , n
Stiffness as a function of displacement is given as Eq. (3.18)

115

n
k

DM
,

8 12 100 25 12

448 023

for
k

, ,

0 for

Eq. (3.16)

N/mm

DM I
eq. (3.18)

, ,

The load-displacement curve for the spring is shown in Fig. 9.10

DM I
eq. (3.19)

450000

Axial load, N (Newtons)

400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
0

0.5

1.5

Axial displacement, (mm)

Fig. 9.10 Load-displacement behaviour of spring representing component RS


3.4 Component RB Bond failure of stirrups
Component RB comprises of evaluating the design load-displacement response of the
stirrups under tensile loading, when they undergo bond failure. The design anchorage
capacity of the stirrups is given by Eq. (3.21). Assuming a cover of 25 mm to stirrups
and considering the distance between the stud and the stirrup as 50 mm, l1 is calculated
as CEN/TC1992-4-1:2009
l

150

25

0.7 50

90 mm

Considering fbd for C25/30 grade concrete is 2.25


see Eq (8.2) cl 8.4.2.(2) in EN1992:2004, it is
N

, ,

l d

8 90 12

1.0 1.0

2.7
0.49

2.7 N/mm2,

149 565 N

149.6 kN

DM I
Eq. (3.21)


The corresponding displacement is obtained using Eq. (3.20) as
2N

, ,

, ,
,

2 149 565
12100 25 12 8

DM I
Eq. (3.20)

0.11 mm

It may be noted that since NRd,b,re NRd,s,re, bond failure of stirrups is the governing
failure mode for the stirrups.
Stiffness as a function of displacement is given as
n
k

for

116

f
2

, ,

8 12100 25 12

448 023

N/mm

DM I
Eq. (3.22)

DM I
Eq. (3.23)

0 for

, ,

The load-displacement curve for the spring is shown in Fig. 9.11.


160

Axial load, N (kN)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Displacement, (mm)

Fig. 9.11 Load-displacement relation of spring representing component RB


3.5 Component P - Pull out failure of the headed stud
For the first range, N

using Eqs (3.26) through (3.30), it is

k k
k

0.5 d

5
a

0.5 40

22

9 mm
DM I
Eq. (3.26)

1.0; hence, ka

0.5 d

m d

1.0
d

0.5 d

0.5 22

9 40

22

0.5 40

31.30

DM I
Eq. (3.28)

k2 = 600 (assuming uncracked concrete)


k

k k
k

0.25

1.0 31.30
600

0.0130

DM I
Eq. (3.30)

Thus, using Eq. (3.24), it is

, ,

N
A f

119.0 10
0.0130
40
22 25 2
4

0.096 mm

In second range, using Eq. (3.25), it is

, ,

min N , ; N
A f n

2k

DM I
Eq. (3.29)

DM I
Eq. (3.24)

, ,

Eq. (3.31) yields


N

np

A /

min N

, ,

;N

DM I
Eq. (3.25)
, ,

min 393.6; 149.6

149.6 kN

The typical value of puk is considered as 12 fck 12 25 300 MPa. Hence, it is

117

, ,

2 300

40
22

4
1.5

2 0.0130
40
4

350.6 kN

149 565
25 2

22

0.096

0.21 mm

The stiffness as a function of displacement is obtained using equations (3.34) and


(3.35) as:

40
22 25 2
4
0.0130

40
22 25 2
4

2 0.0130

DM I
Eq. (3.34)

384 373

DM I
Eq. (3.35)

271 792

0.096

0.096

The load-displacement curve for the spring is shown in Fig. 9.12.


400

Axial load, N (kN)

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

1.7

Displacement, (mm)

Fig. 9.12 Load-displacement behaviour of spring representing component P


3.6 Interaction of components Concrete and Stirrups
Once the concrete breakout occurs, the load is transferred to the stirrups and the load
shared by concrete decreases with increasing displacement. The load carried by the
combined component concrete + stirrups corresponding to any given displacement is
given by Eq. (3.59) as

min n d

f
; N
2

, ,

; N

, ,

DM I
Eq. (3.59)

Hence, for a given displacement [mm] the load [kN] carried by combined concrete and
stirrups is given as
N


118

119.0

50.31

min 448.023; 393.6; 149.6

DM I
Eq. (3.59)

The load-displacement curve for the spring is shown in Fig. 9.13.


300

Axial load, N (kN)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Displacement, (mm)

Fig. 9.13 Load-displacement behaviour of spring representing combined component


concrete and stirrups
Interaction of all components:
The combined load-displacement behaviour combining all the components is
displayed in Figure 9.14
250

Nultduetosteelfailure

Axial load, N (kN)

200

Range2:NRd,c<N <Nult
150

100

Range1:N <NRd,c
50

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Displacement, (mm)

Fig. 9.144 Load-displacement behaviour obtained by combining all the components


Notes
- The resistance of the anchoring by the headed studs is limited by its threaded part,
which represents a ductile behaviour.
- The resistance of the base plate is limited by the tension resistance of two headed
studs M 22, 205.1 kN. Under the serviceability limit state SLS is required resistance of
the concrete cone,119.0 kN. The elastic behaviour is expected till the 2/3 of the bending
resistance of the base plate, which comply, 2/3 417.4 314.3 kN.

119

NSd

Normal force, kN

Sd

HE 200 B

Mpl.Rd
1 835
1 000

M 22

t=
30

t=
40

h = 1 000

Npl.Rd

30
25

1 600
340 630

20
15

Column resistance
630
340

0
100

151.0 Moment, kNm


1 600

Fig. 9.155a The column base resistance is compared to the column resistance
for different base plate thickness
- The column base resistance is compared to the column resistance for different base
plate thickness, see Fig. 9.15a. For plate P 30 are shown the major points of the
diagram, e.g. the pure compression, the highest bending resistance, in case of
coincidence of the neutral axis and the axis of symmetry of cross-section, the pure
bending and the pure tension.
- A conservative simplification may be applied by placing the concrete reaction on the
axes of the compressed flange only see Fig. 9.15b. This model is uneconomical and
not often used for prediction of resistance, but applied for stiffness prediction.
Normal force, kN
Lever arm is changing by activation of one bolt row
Lever arm is changing by activation of both bolt rows
Base plate thickness, t
40

mm

Simplified prediction
M pl.Rd

Simplified prediction
Npl.Rd

30
25

Full model

20
15
Column resistance
0

Full model
Moment, kNm

Fig. 9.16b The column base resistance calculated by the simplified prediction,
the contact force under the compressed flange only,
is compared to the application of the of the full contact area
- The stiffness of the anchoring by the headed studs corresponds to the expected
stiffness calculated by a simplified conservative method based on the embedded
effective length. The component stiffness coefficients for headed studs is estimated

120

as
k

2.0

2.0

4.04 mm

2.0

and the deformation for acting force 300 kN is

0.35 mm.

For headed stud is predicted, see Fig. 9.13, more precise value reached 0.22 mm.
- The classification of the column base according to its bending stiffness is evaluated in
4 m and its crosscomparison to column bending stiffness. For column length L
section HE 200 B is relative bending stiffness
S,

S,

L
E I

21.981 10

4000
210 000 56.96 10

7.53

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

The designed column base is sway for braced as well as non-sway frames because
S,

7.53

12

S,

; S,

7.53

30

S,

- The influence of tolerances and size of welds, see EN 1090-2 and Chapter 8, is not
covered in above calculation.

121

9.3

Stiffened base plate

Calculate the moment resistance of the column base shown in Fig. 9.17. Column
HE 200 B is loaded by normal force FSd = 1 100 kN. Concrete block C16/20 of size
1 600 x 1 600 x 1000 mm is design for particular soil conditions. Base plate of thickness
30 mm, steel S235, Mc = 1.50; M0 = 1.00; and M2 = 1.25.

Fig. 9.17 Designed column base


Step 1 Component in tension
Resistance of component base plate in bending and headed studs in tension. Anchor

6 mm is

stud lever arm, for fillet weld a


m

70

0.8 a

70

0.8 6 2

63.2 mm

DM I
Fig. 4.4

The T-stub length, in base plates are the prying forces not taken into account, is:
4 m

1.25 e
4 63.2 1.25 110 390.3
2 m 2 63.2 397.1
b 0.5 320 0.5 160
min 2 m 0.625 e
0.5 w 2 63.2 0.625 110 0,5 132 261.2
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 63.2 0.625 110 94 289.2
2 63.2 4 94 773.1
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 w 2 63.2 2 132 661.1

160 mm

EN1993-1-8
6.2.6.4

The effective length of headed studs Lb is taken as


DM I

8d

t
2

8 24

30

30

19
2

261.5 mm

The resistance of T - stub with two headed studs is


122

Fig. 4.1

2 L , t f
4 m

2 160 30 235
4 63.2 1.00

EN1993-1-8

267.7 kN

6.2.4.1

The resistance is limited by tension resistance of two headed studs M 24 with the area
in tension
F

353 mm
0.9 f
2

2B,

, ,

EN1993-1-8

0.9 360 353


2
1.25

6.2.4.1

183.0 kN

Step 2 Component in compression


The connection concentration factor is calculated as
a
a

min

min

and a

2 a
3 a
a
h

560 2 520 1 600


3 560 1 680
560 1 000 1 560

2b
320 2 640 1 600
3 b
3 320 960
b
h 320 1 000 1 320

1560

560 mm b

960

EN1993-1-8

1 560 mm

6.2.5

960 mm
b

320 a

The above condition is fulfilled and


a b
ab

1 560 960
560 320

DM I

2.89

Eq. 3.65

The grout is not influencing the concrete bearing resistance because


0.2 min a; b

0.2 min 560; 320

64 mm

30 mm

The concrete bearing resistance is calculated as


2 k f

2 2.89 16

3
1.5

EN1993-1-8
6.2.5

20.6 MPa

From the force equilibrium in the vertical directionF

F , , is calculated the

area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part.
F

F
f

1 100 10
183 10
20.6

62 282 mm

EN1993-1-8

The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of 6.2.5
the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.18, is calculated from

f
3f

30

235
3 20.6 1.00

58.5 mm

EN1993-1-8
6.2.5

123

Fig. 9.18 The effective area under the base plate


The effective area is
A

l 2c

120 2 58.5

12

EN1993-1-8

15 480 mm

6.2.5

2c

200 2c

t
,

2 58.5

200 2 58.5

62 282

15 480

41 844

15

41 844 mm
4 958 mm

The active effective width is calculated from known area in compression


A
2 c

4 958
2 58.5 9

EN1993-1-8

39.3 mm

6.2.5

Step 3 Assembly for resistance


The gravity centre of effective area
A

A
15 480

l
2

15 480 60

b
t
2c t
4 958 l
2
2
62 282
2 58.5 15
41 844 120
4 958 120 2 58.5
2
62 282

41 844 l

2c

15

39.3
2

161.5 mm
The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as
r


124

h
2

120

53
2

200
2

120

58.5

39.3

26.5

161.5

129.8 mm
The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as
h
2

53
2

70

170

26.5

39.3

157.2 mm

EN1993-1-1
cl 6.2.5

Moment resistance of column base is


M

183 103 157.2

, ,

f r

62 282 20.6 129.8

Under acting normal force N


M

195.3 kNm

1 100 kN is the moment resistance

195.3 kNm

Step 4 Resistance of the end of column


The design resistance in poor compression is
N

Af

2l t
1.00

EN1993-1-1

7 808

235

cl 6.23

2 120 12 235
1.00

2 511.7 kN

1 100 kN

and column bending resistance


M

W f

2l t z

642.5 10

2 12 120 160

642.5 10

1 103.3 10 mm3
M

W f

1 103.3 10 235
1.00

259.3 kNm

The interaction of normal force reduces moment resistance

N
1
N ,
A 2 b t
0.5
A

1 100
2 511.7
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1

259.3
1

EN1993-1-1
cl 6.29

164.8 kNm

The column base is designed on acting force even for column resistance.
Note
The resistance of the base plate is limited by the tension resistance of two headed studs
M 24; 183.0 kN. The elastic behaviour is expected till the 2/3 of the bending resistance
of the base plate; 2/3 267.7 = 178.5 kN, which comply for the bending moment at SLS
about 195.3 178.5/183.0 kNm.

125

9.4

Column base with anchor plate

Evaluate the resistance of the column base shown in Fig. 9.19 using component method.
The Column HE 200 B is loaded by the normal force FEd = 45 kN and by the bending
moment MEd = 20 kNm. The concrete block designed for the particular soil conditions is
made out of concrete strength C30/37 and has dimensions of 1600 x 1600 x 1000 mm.
The base plate thickness is 30 mm and the anchor plate 10 mm. The steel grade is S355
and the safety factors are considered as Mc = 1.50; M0 = 1.00 and M2 = 1.25.

Fig. 9.19 Designed column base with anchor plate


Procedure
The calculation follows the Component method procedure for the column bases:
1 Components in tension
1.1. Threaded studs in tension
1.2. Punching of the anchor plate under threaded studs
1.3. Base plate in bending
1.4. Threaded studs in shear and bearing
1.5. Headed studs in tension
1.6. Punching of the anchor plate above the headed studs

126

1.7. Concrete cone failure without reinforcement


1.8. Concrete cone failure with reinforcement
1.9. Pull out failure of headed studs
1.10. T stub of the anchor plate in bending
1.11. Anchor plate in tension
1.12. Headed studs in shear
1.13. Pry-out failure of headed stud
1.14. Reduction of vertical resistance
of the threaded stud (tensile and punching resistance) and
the headed studs (tensile resistance, concrete cone failure, stirrups failure, bond
failure the threaded stud)
Reduction of horizontal resistance
of the threaded stud (shear and bearing resistance) and
the headed studs (shear and pry out resistance)
1.15. Interaction in shear and tension for threaded and the headed studs
2 Component in compression
3 Assembly for resistance
3.1
Base plate resistance
3.2
End column resistance
3.3
Elastic resistance for Serviceability limit state
4 Connection stiffness
4.1
Components stiffness
4.2
Assembly for stiffness
Step 1 Components in tension
Step 1.1 Threaded studs in tension
The resistance of the component threaded studs in tension, with d = 22 mm, strength 8.8,
fub = 800 N/mm2, with number of studs is n = 2, area of one stud is As

303 mm2 and

coefficient k2 = 0.9, is
F,

nk A f

2 0.9 303 800


1.25

349.1 kN

EN1993-1-8
Tab. 3.41

The resistance of one stud is 174.5 kN.

Step 1.2 Punching of the anchor plate under threaded studs


The resistance in punching of the anchor plate, for fu = 510 MPa and the effective width
of studs weld aw = 1 mm, is

127

nt

nA f
,

nt

2 a

22
510
2
3 1.25

2 10 2 1

d
2

DMI

Ch. 4.3

355.2 kN

The resistance of one stud is 177.6 kN.

Step 1.3 Base plate in bending


The base plate has thickness tp2 = 30 mm, width ap2 = 250 mm, yield strength
fyk = 355 N/mm2, m2 = 33.2 mm, ea2 = 40 mm, eb2 = 75 mm, and p2 = 100 mm, see in
6 mm is

Fig. 9.18. Headed stud lever arm for fillet weld a

DM I

40

0.8 a

40

0.8 6 2

33.2 mm

Ch. 4.1.1

The T-stub length, in base plate are the prying forces not taken into account, is
4 m

1.25 e
4 33.2 1.25 40
2 m 2 33.2 208.7
b 0.5 250 0.5 125.0
0.5 p
2 33.2 0.625 40
2 m
0.625 e
min
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 33,2 0.625 40
2 33.2 4 75
2 m 4 e
2 m 2 p 2 33.2 2 100

125 mm

182.9

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.6.5

0.5 100 141.4


75 166.4
508.7
408.7

Resistance of rigid plate T-stub in bending is verified for three possible failure modes
Mode 1

4l
, ,

m
m

, ,

4l

EN1993-1-8

t , f

4
m

30 355
4 125
4 1.0
33.2

cl 6.2.4.1

1 202.5 kN

Mode 2

2l
, ,

, ,

F ,

. n

2l

30 355
349 10 40
2 125
4 1.0
33.2 40
Mode 3


128

t , f
F ,
4
m n

n
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.4.1

463.5 kN

F,

min F , ; F

min 349.1; 355.2

349.1 kN

EN1993-1-8
Tab. 3.41

, ,

F,

349.1 kN

Decisive is Mode 3 with failure in threaded studs in tension Ft,3,Rd = 349.1 kN.

Step 1.4 Threaded studs in shear and bearing


Threaded studs have diameter d = 22 mm, d0 = 24 mm, base plate thickness tp2 = 30 mm,
coefficient e1 = 40 mm, e2 = 75 mm, tensile strength fu = 510 N/mm2, fub = 800 N/mm2, area
of one stud As

303 mm2; v = 0.6; M2 = 1.25 see in Fig. 9.18.


EN1993-1-8

n f

2 0.6 800

22
2

1.25

Tab. 3.41

291.9 kN

The resistance of one stud is 146.0 kN.

nk f dt

2 2.5 0.56 510 22 30


1.25

EN1993-1-8

754.0 kN

Tab. 3.41

The resistance of one stud is 377.0 kN.


where
k

min 2.8

min

e
d

1.7; 2.5

f
e
; 1.0;
f
3d

min 2.8

min

75
24

1.7; 2.5

800
40
; 1.0;
510
3 24

min 7.05; 2.5

min 1.57; 1.0; 0.56

2.5

0.56

Step 1.5 Headed studs in tension


The resistance of headed studs in tension, of diameter d = 22 mm and material 8.8, with
tensile strength fub = 800 N/mm2, two studs n = 2 and coefficient k2 = 0.9; is
F,

nk A f

22
2
1.25

2 0.9

800

EN1993-1-8

437.9 kN

Tab. 3.41

The resistance of one stud is 219.0 kN.

129

Step 1.6 Punching of the anchor plate above the headed studs
The resistance in punching of the anchor plate, for fu = 510 N/mm2 and the effective

DM I

width of studs weld aw = 1 mm, is

Ch. 4.3

nt

nA f
,

2 a

nt

22
510
2
3 1.25

2 10 2 1

d
2

355.2 kN

The resistance of one headed stud is 177.6 kN.

Step 1.7 Concrete cone failure without reinforcement


The resistance of concrete cone failure without reinforcement, for the concrete block
made out of concrete strength C30/37, fck = 30 N/mm2, k1 = 12.7; and length of headed
studs hef = 200 mm, is
N

k h
A
A

DM I

2 c

30

Eq. (3.8)
Eq. (3.9)

2 1.5 h

1.5 200 2 1.5 200

p
100

Since maximum edge distance is c

2 1.5 200

196.8 1.17 1.0 1.0


.

360 000 mm

1.5 h
1.5 200
c

420 000 mm

1.5 h

There is no closely spaced reinforcement and


N

Eq. (3.7)

196.8 kN

1.17

2 1.5 h

1.5 h

Chap. 3.1.2

12.7 200

420 000
360 000

300 mm and
,

1.0

1.0

230.3 kN

153.5 kN

Step 1.8 Concrete cone failure with reinforcement


For concrete cone failure with reinforcement, with diameter of headed studs d = 22 mm
and diameter of stirrups ds = 8 mm, is factor for support of reinforcement


130

2.5

x
h

22
2

8
5
2

2.5

d
2

2.5

d,
tan 35

8
10
2
tan 35

22
2
200

d
2

2.5

d
5
2

d
2
h

d
10
2
tan 35

DM I

Eq. (3.47)

2.3 230.2
1.5

353.0 kN
DM I

with
k

Eq. (3.48)

2.3

and resistance
N

DM I

Eq. (3.13)

537 30 200 1.17 1.0 1.0

48.7 kN/mm
where
c = -537 is factor of component concrete break out in tension
DM I

Yielding of reinforcement will occur for


N

, ,

Eq. (3.16)

DM I

nn

8
500
24

1.15
4
174.8

153.5

where
s = 12 100
nre = 4
NRd,s,re
ds,re = 8 mm
dp = 25 mm
fyk,s = 500 N/mm2
Ms = 1.15
l1

2N
f d ,

, ,

nn

Eq. (3.16)
,

500
8

4
1.15
12100 30 8 2 4

2 24
153.5

0.642

48.7

48.7

297.0 kN

is factor of the component stirrups


is total number of legs of shafts
is design tension resistance of the stirrups for tension failure [N]
is nominal diameter of the stirrup
is the covering
is design yield strength of the stirrups
is the partial safety factor
is anchorage length [mm]

Anchorage failure resistance of the of reinforcement is

131

nn

, ,

l d

nn

l d

8
2

25

2 2 4 200

10

153.5

0.765

DM I
Eq. (3.21)
; ,

; ,

; ,

8 22
2 2
1.5
5

10

48.7

DM I

8 22
2 2
1.5

2.25 1.0 1.0 2.0


0.49 1.5

153.5

2.25 1.0 1.0 2.0


0.49 1.5

12100 30 8 2 4
190.8

k
5

8
2

25

Eq. (3.20)

, ,

10

2 4 200

d,
2.25 f
d
1.5

2 nn

nn

2N

48.7

307.0 kN

where
l1

is anchorage length [mm]

ds

is diameter of stirrups [mm]

EN1992-1-1

is factor for hook effect and large concrete cover


0.70.7 = 0.49
.
is for C30/37 grade concrete is 2.25
1.0 1.0 3.0 N/mm2
fbd
.
is coefficient of bond conditions for vertical stirrups
1 1.0
and 0.7 for horizontal stirrups
2 = 1.0

is coefficient of bond conditions for dimension 32 mm


and (132 - ds)/100 for dimension 32 mm

The resistance of concrete cone failure with reinforcement is


min N


132

;N

;N

min 353.0; 297.0; 307.0

297.0 kN

Step 1.9 Pull-out failure of headed studs


The resistance of pull-out failure of headed studs, with diameter of stud d = 22 mm,
diameter of studs head dh = 37 mm, concrete C30/37 with compressive strength
fck = 30 N/mm2 and the characteristic ultimate bearing pressure at ultimate limit state
under the headed of stud p

12 f

N/mm2,

is

DM I
Eq. (3.20)
DM I

np

n 12 f

500.5
1.5

d
4

2 12 30 37
4

22

500.5 kN

Eq. (3.21)

333.7 kN

The resistance of one stud is 166.8 kN

Step 1.10 T stub of the anchor plate in bending


The resistance of component T-stub of the anchor plate in bending has thickness
tp1

10 mm, yield strength fyk = 355 N/mm2, distance of threaded and headed stud

m1 80 mm, ea1

50 mm, eb1 = 125 mm and p1

100 mm, see in Fig. 9.18.

Due to small thickness of the anchor plate are the prying forces for evaluation of the
effective length of T stub taken into account as
Resistance of anchor plate T-stub in tension is verified for three failure modes, see in
Fig. 9.19. For effective length of the T stub
4 m

1.25 e
4 80 1.25 50 382.5
2 80 502.7
2 m
5 n d 0.5 220 0.5 110.0
0.625 e
0.5 p
2 80 0.625 50 0.5 100 241.3
min 2 m
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 80 0.625 50 93.8 285.0
2 e
80 2 93.8 721.4
m
m
p
80 100 351.3

110.0 mm

DM I
3.1.5.
Eq. 3.31

Fig. 9.19 T-stub in tension and forces in the individual failure modes

133

Mode 1
EN1993-1-8

4l
, ,

m
m

4l

t , f

4
m

cl 6.2.4.1

10 355
4 1.0
80

4 110.0

48.8 kN

Mode 2

2l
, ,

, ,

2 110.0

F ,

2l

. n

10 355
297.0 10 50
4 1.0
80 50

t , f
F ,
4
m n

EN1993-1-8

cl 6.2.4.1

129.1 kN

Mode 3
F,

min F ,

; F

, ,

; N

; N

min 437.9; 355.2; 297.0; 333.7


EN1993-1-1

297.0 kN
F

, ,

F,

cl 6.2.4.13

297.0 kN

Mode 1 is decisive for the thin plate, 48.8 kN, see in Fig. 9.20.
Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl
FT,el

T,el

T,pl
T

p,1

p,tot

Fig. 9.20 Vertical forces Fv and vertical deformation of T stub


Step 1.11 Anchor plate in tension
The anchor plate in tension resistance is
F,

where
b

n d

2 2 a

studs weld effective thickness aw = 1 mm



134

10 2 22

2 2 1

355
1.0

DM I

176.3 kN

Chap. 4.4

Step 1.12 Headed studs in shear


The shear resistance of headed studs, with material 8.8, strength fub = 800 N/mm2,
v = 0.6; M2 = 1.25; is

n f

2 0.6 800

22
2

1.25

EN1993-1-8

291.9 kN

Tab. 3.41

The resistance of one stud is 146.0 kN.

Step 1.13 Pry-out failure of headed stud


The resistance in pry-out failure of headed studs for is
V

2N

2 153.5

DM I

307.0 kN

Ch. 3.2

Step 1.14 Reduction of resistance in the vertical/horizontal direction


For the calculation of plastic deformation is used model of continues beam with three
plastic hinges at supports and under applied load, see in Fig. 9.21.

FEd bd Med /b

FEd

MEd
Map,pl Map,pl

Map,pl

(
( )

Map,pl

E Ib
Map,pl
b1

b2

) (

E Ic

b
L

Map,pl

Map,pl

Map,pl

Fig. 9.21 Model of continues beam with three plastic hinges


A

min F

, ,

; F

, ,

; F

, ,

min 48.8; 126.1; 296.7

48.8 kN

DM I
Ch. 4.4

135

Q
N

m
n
A

2
48.8

t , f
4
n

39.1

110.0

10 355
4 1.0 2
50

39.1 kN

87.9 kN

Plastic deformation is calculated, see Fig. 9.21, for moment resistance


b

t
4

1
b
12

350 10 355

1
4
1
350 10
12

1 1
b M
E I 6

3.1 kNm

29.2 10 mm4 ; I

1 1
bcM
E I 3

1
1
232.5 3106
210 000 6

1
1
232.5 127.5 3106
210 000 29.2 3

5.2

5.2 mm
with distance between threaded stud and headed stud a = 80 mm as

1.48

7.8 mm

a
DM I

7.8

80

,
,

355
1.0
210 10

80 8.88

80

,
,

13.9 mm

For the plastic deformation at resistance of the anchor plate punching under the threaded
studs Fp,Rd = 176.28 kN and Fp,Rd,V = A

The acting horizontal force for this deformation is


136

79.0 kN

Eq. (4.43)

F, , a
,

79.0 80
13.9

454.3 kN

For the resistance of headed studs in shear VRd = 291.9 kN is assumed the linear proportion
between the axial and horizontal forces, see in Fig. 9.22. The resistance in tension is
calculated as
F

, ,

F,
,

F ,
F,

F
F

,
,

48.8

and deformation for Fp,1,Rd

79.0 48.8
291.9
454.3

68.2 kN

68.2 kN, see in Fig. 9.20, is

7.8

68.2
79.0

48.8
13.9
48.8

16.7 mm

Fv
Ft,p,Rd
Fp,1,Rd
FT,pl

VRd

Fp,Rd,H

FH

Fig. 9.22 Acting vertical Fv and horizontal FH forces to the anchor plate
The acting force in headed studs in case of the membrane action in the anchor plate
N

68.2

39.1

DMI
Eq. (4.53)

107.3 kN

Step 1.15 Interaction in shear and tension for treaded and headed studs
For the threaded studs is the interaction in shear and tension
F
F

,
,

F,
1.4 F ,

DMI
Eq. (4.54)

291.9
291.9

107.3

1.15 is not

220
48.8
140
1.4 349.1

165.9
165.9

EN1993-1-8

1.00

Tab.3.4

137

For the headed studs is the interaction in shear and tension


F
F

F,
1.4 F ,

,
,

291.9
291.9

Eq. (4.54)

EN1993-1-8
Tab.3.4

107.3 48.8
1.4 437.9

1.10 is not

DMI

For anchoring of headed stud in concrete is the interaction in shear and tension
DMI

F
F

F,
F,

,
,

Eq. (4.54)

107.3 48.8
296.7

291.9
306.1
1.02 is not

The full capacity in shear is not achieve due to headed stud resistance. By reducing the
acting forces to 80 % it is for interaction of the threaded stud
107.3

233.5
291.9
0.95

220
140
1.4 349.1

165.9
165.9

48.8

and for the headed stud


233.5
291.9
0.86

107.3 48.8
1.4 437.9

and for anchoring of headed stud in concrete


233.5
306.1
0.71


138

107.3 48.8
296.7
1

Step 2 Component in compression


The component base plate in bending and concrete block in compression is calculated for
the strength of the concrete block, C30/37, fck = 30 N/mm2, and Mc = 1.5.

DM I
Ch. 3.4.1

The connection concentration factor is

EN1992-1-1 cl.

a
a

min

min

and a

2 a
250 2 675 1 600
3 a
3 250 750
a
h 250 1 000 1 250

750 mm

2b
360 2 620 1 600
3 b
3 360 1080
b
h 360 1 000 1 360

1 080 mm

750

250 mm b

1080

6.7(2)

360 mm

The above condition is fulfilled and


DM I

a b
ab

1 080 750
250 360

3.00

Eq. (3.65)

The concrete bearing resistance is calculated as


f

2 k f

2 3.00 30

3
1.5

40.0 N/mm

From the force equilibrium in the vertical direction F

F , , is calculated the

area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension part
F

45 10

107.3 10
40.0

DM I

1 557 mm

Eq. (3.71)

The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area. The width of the
strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.23a, is calculated from

f
3f

30

10

355
3 40.0 1.00

68.8 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.5.2

139

c bc= 200 c
c t w= 9 c
c
c

tf =15

rt

hc=200

b eff

tf=15 c
c

rc

Fig. 9.23a The effective area under the base plate


Step 3 Assembly for resistance
Step 3.1 Column base resistance
The active effective width is calculated as
A

1 557
270

2 t

5.8 mm

DM I

2 c

15

2 68.8

152.6 mm

The lever arm of concrete to the column axes of symmetry, see Fig. 9.23b, is calculated
as
h
2

b
2

200
2

5.8
2

68.8

165.9 mm

The moment resistance of the column base is M


F

107.3

220
140

165.9
165.9

135.3 10 140

f r

135.3 kN

1 557 40 165.9

Under acting normal force N


M

29.3 kNm

45 kN the moment resistance in bending is

29.3 kNm.
MRd
FEd

FT,3,Rd
rt

Fc
rc

Fig. 9.23b The lever arm of concrete and threaded stud to the column axes

140

Ch. 5.1

3.2 End of column resistance


The design resistance in poor compression is
N

Af

7808 355
1.00

2 772 10 N

EN1993-1-1

cl 6.2.5

45 kN

The column bending resistance


EN1993-1-1

W f

642.5 10 355
1.00

cl 6.2.9

228.1 kNm

The interaction of normal force reduces moment resistance (this interaction is valid for
compression load only)
N
N ,
A 2 b t
0.5
A

1
M

1
M

0
2772
7 808 2 200 15
0.5
7 808
1

228.1
1

EN1993-1-8

258.0 kNm

cl 6.3

228.1 kNm

The column base is designed on acting force only not for column resistance.
Step 3.3 Elastic resistance for Serviceability limit state
The resistance of the base plate is limited by the T stub resistance, 48.8 kN. The elastic-

DM I
Ch. 5.1

plastic behaviour is expected by reaching the bending resistance of the anchor plate T
stub; 87.9 kN, which comply for the bending moment at SLS as 22.7 kNm.

Step 4 Connection stiffness


4.1 Components stiffness
The components stiffness coefficients are calculated as in Worked example 9.2. The
additional component is the anchor plate in bending and in tension and the component
threaded stud. In compression are transferring the forces both plates under the column,
the base and anchor plates.
The component base plate in bending and the threaded studs in tension
The stiffness coefficient for the threaded stud is assumed as
k

A
2.0
L

303
2.0
49.5

EN1993-1-8

12.2 mm

cl. 6.3

The component stiffness coefficients for base plate is calculated as


k

0.425 L
m

0.425 125 30
33.2

39.2 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.3

141

Component base and anchor plates and concrete block in compression

tf =15
t

b c =200

aeq

Fig. 9.23c The T stub in compression


The stiffness coefficient for concrete block in compression, see Fig. 9.23c, is calculated
for a

2.5 t

15

2.5 40

115 mm

where thickness t t1 t2 = 10 + 30 = 40 mm
k

E
a
1.275 E

33 000
115 200
1.275 210 000

EN1993-1-8

18.7 mm

Tab. 6.11

Component anchor plate in bending and in tension


The component stiffness coefficients for anchor plate is calculated from the bending of
the anchor plate as
k

0.85 L
m

0.85 110.0 10
22
80 2
2

EN1993-1-8

0.5 mm

Tab. 6.11

Component headed stud in tension


The component stiffness coefficients for headed studs is calculated as
k

nA ,
L

22
4
8 22

EN1993-1-8

4.3 mm

Tab. 6.11

4.2 Assembly for stiffness


The coefficients of the initial stiffness in elongation are assembled to rotational stiffness as
in Worked example 9.2. The additional component is the anchor plate in bending and in
tension only.
FEd

Ft2,1

zt

MRd

zc

Ftc2

Fig. 9.23d The lever arm in tension and compression


142

The lever arm of components, see Fig. 9.23d, in tension zt and in compression zc to the
column base neutral axes are
z

h
2

200
2

40

140 mm

h
2

t
2

200
2

15
2

92.5 mm

EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.3.3.1
DMI 6.1.2

The stiffness of tension part, studs, T stubs and concrete parts, is calculated from the
stiffness coefficient for base plate and threaded studs
1

1
k

1
1
12.2

1
k

9.33 mm

1
39.2

EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.3.3.1

from the stiffness coefficient for anchor plate and headed studs
1

1
k

1
0.5

1
k

0.43 mm

1
4.3

based on eccentricity
k

z
,

80

EN1993-1-8

232.5
0.43
312.5

cl. 6.3.3.1

0.32 mm

where
z

EN1993-1-8

140

92.5

cl. 6.3.3.1

232.5 mm

with the effective stiffness coefficient in tension in position of threaded stud


1

1
k

1
1
k

1
0.32

1
9.33

0.31 mm

For the calculation of the initial stiffness of the column base the lever arm is evaluated
z
a

232.5 mm
k z
k

k z
k

and
18.7 92.5
18.7

0.31 140
0.31

88.7 mm

The bending stiffness is calculated for particular constant eccentricity


e
as

M
F

20 10
45 10

EN1993-1-8
Tab. 6.11

444 mm
EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.3.3.1

143

S,

e
e

E z
a 1
k

444
210 000 232.5

1
444 88.7 1 1
0.31 18.7

2 888 10 Nmm/rad
EN1993-1-8
cl. 6.3.4

2 888 kNm/rad
Summary
Moment rotational diagram at Fig. 9.23e sums up the behaviour of column base with
anchor plate for loading with constant eccentricity.
M, kNm

EN1993-1-8

29.3
22.7

cl. 6.3.3.1

15.1

2 888 kNm/rad
1
5.2

11.6

50.0

, mrad

Fig. 9.23e Moment rotational diagram of column base with anchor plate
for loading with constant eccentricity


144

9.5

Simple steel to concrete joint

In this example the calculation of a simple steel-to-concrete joint is demonstrated. A girder


is connected to a concrete wall by a simple joint. The load capacity of the joint will be raised
by the use of additional reinforcement. The example does only include the design calculation
of the joint. The verification of the concrete wall is not included and the local failure of the
concrete wall due to the tension force caused by the eccentricity of the shear load is not
considered.
Overview about the system
In this example a steel platform is installed in an
industrial building. The main building is made of
concrete. The system consists of concrete walls
and concrete girders. An extra platform is
implemented in the building in order to gain
supplementary storage room.
The platform consists of primary and secondary
girders. The primary girders are made of
HE400A and they are arranged in a grid of
4.00 m. On one side they are supported on the
concrete wall, on the other side they are
supported by a steel column. The concrete wall
and the steel beam are connected by a pinned
steel-to-concrete joint.

HE400A; S235

Fig. 9.24 Side view on structure


Structural system and design of the girder
The structural system of the primary girder is a simply supported beam with an effective
length of 9.4 m. The cross section of the girder is HE400A. The girder carries load
applied to a width a = 4.0 m which is the distance to the next girder, see Fig. 9.25

Fig. 9.25 structural system


Load on the girder
Self-weight of the girder with connection

2.0 kN/m

Floor and other girders

4.0 m 1.0

Dead load

6.0 kN/m

4.0 kN/m

145

Live load

4.0 m 5.0

20.0 kN/m

Design forces
Load comb.
according to
EN 1990

Maximum shear load


V,

9.4 m

1.35 6.0

kN
m

1.5 20.0

kN
m

179 kN

180 kN

Maximum bending moment


M

9.4 m

1.35 6.0

kN
m

1.5 20.0

kN
m

420 kNm

Verification of the girder section


Next to the joint

V,

In the middle of the girder

180 kN
,

420 kNm

777.8 kN

, ,

, ,

602.1 kNm

The girder is stabilized against lateral torsional buckling by the secondary girders, which
have a distance of 1.0 m. Lateral torsional buckling is not examined in this example.
The example only includes the design calculation of the joint. The verification of the
concrete wall is not included.
Overview of the joint
EN1993-1-1

Fig. 9.26 Joint geometry


146

Fig. 9.27 Reinforcement


In the following an overview of the joint geometry is given.
Connected girder

HE400A, S235

Concrete

C30/37 (fck,cube = 37 N/mm, cracked)

Stirrups

4 x 8 mm / B500A (two per headed stud)

Butt straps:

150 x 250 x 20 mm / S235

Anchor plate

300 x 250 x 25 mm / S235

Headed Studs

d = 22 mm
h = 150 mm / S235J2 + C470

Bolt connection

2 x M24 10.9

Shear load of the joint

VEd =180 kN

Connection between the girder HE400A and the anchor plate


The small torsion moment caused by the eccentricity between the girder and the butt
straps is transferred into the girder HE400A and from this primary girder to the
secondary girders. The eccentric connection induces bending and shear stresses in the
butt strap. In the following they are determined:
M

0.1 18 kNm
V
180
1.5
1.5
54.0 135.6 N/mm
5000
A
18
M
86.4 235.0 N/mm
250 20
W
6

The maximum forces don`t appear at the same place.


Edge distances:

EN 3-1-8

65 mm

1.2 d

1.2 26

31.2 mm

50 mm

1.2 d

1.2 26

31.2 mm

120 mm

2.2 d

2.2 26

57.2 mm

Table 3.3

Shear resistance of the bolts:

147

n F

1000
169.4 kN
1.25
338.8 kN

EN 3-1-8

0.6 353

2 169.4

Table 3.4

Bearing resistance of the butt strap:


V
F

286.8 kN
k f d t 2.5 0.83 360 24 20
286.8 kN
1.25

e
p
min 2.8
1.7; 1.4
1.7; 2.5
min 3.68; ; 2.5
d
d
e
f
min
;
; 1.0
min 0.83; 2.78; 1.0
3d f

,
,

EN 3-1-8
Table 3.4

Bearing resistance of the beam web:


V
F

EN 3-1-8

190.1 kN
k f d t 2.5 1.0 360 24 11
190.1 kN
1.25

e
p
min 2.8
1.7; 1.4
1.7; 2.5
min 3.68; ; 2.5
d
d
e
f
min
;
; 1.0
min ; 2.78; 1.0
3d f

,
,

min V

;V

;V

190.1 kN

Table 3.4

EN 3-1-8
4.5.3.2

180 kN

Welding of the butt straps to the anchor plate


A welding seam all around with a
welding seam can be determined:
a
l
W

2 7 14 mm
250 mm
a l ,
14 250
6
6
f
360
0.8 1.25

,
,

7 mm is assumed. Following stresses in the

145.8 10 mm
360 N/mm

Shear stresses caused by shear load and eccentricity:


V

2a l ,
M
1 8
145.8
W

180
2 7 250

51.4 N/mm

123.5 N/mm

sin 45

123.5 sin 45

87.3

0.9 f

259.2 N/ mm

Interaction caused by bending and shear stresses:


148

87.3

3 87.3

51.4

195.0

360 N/mm

Additional

Design of the connection to the concrete

condition Eq. (4.1)

The anchor plate has the geometry

300 x 250 x 25 mm S235

Headed studs

22 mm

150 mm S350 C470

Stirrups (for each headed stud)

EN 3-1-8

4 8 mm B 500 A

The verification of the design resistance of the joint is described in a stepwise manner.
The eccentricity e and the shear force V are known.
Step 1 Evaluation of the tension force caused by the shear load
If the joint is loaded in shear the anchor row on the non-loaded side of the anchor plate
is subjected to tension. In a first step the tension load has to be calculated. Therefore
the height of the compression area has to be assumed.
Shear load of the connection

Resistance due to friction

Thickness plate

25 mm

Diameter anchor

Eccentricity

Calculation of N
N

180 kN
0.2

0.2

100 mm

d t
z

22 mm

V d

V e
d t
0.2 d
z
z
The height of the compression zone is estimated to x

20 mm

With xc the lever arm


z

40

220

x
2

40

220

20
2

250 mm
DM I

and
N

Eq. (5.12)

0.2 22
250

100 22
250

From this the tension force result N

25
,

104.0 kN

Step 2 Verification of the geometry of the compression zone


The tension component of the joint NEd,2 forms a vertical equilibrium with the
compression force CEd under the anchor plate on the loaded side. The next step of the
calculation is to prove that the concrete resistance is sufficient for the compression force
and that the assumption of the compression area was correct.
Calculation of the compression force
N: C

104.0 kN

Height of the compression zone is

149

17 N/mm

where 0.85
The compression forces are causing a bending moment
in the anchor plate. To make sure that the anchor plate
is still elastic, only the part of the anchor plate is
activated which is activated with elastic bending only.
t

2t

20

C
b3f

f
3f

Fig. 9.28 Effective with

235
2 25
3 17 1.0

104.0
127 3 17

127 mm

EN 3-1-8
6.2.5

16 mm

Instead of the regular width b of the anchor plate the effective width beff is used. The
16 mm is smaller than the predicted value of x
20 mm. That means
calculated x
that the lever arm was estimated slightly too small. This is on the safe side, so the
calculation may be continued.
Step 3 Evaluation of the tension resistance
3.1 Steel failure of the fasteners
Calculation of the characteristic failure load of the headed studs on the non-loaded side:
N

n A

2 380

470
10
1.5

238.1 kN
DM I

where
Characteristic ultimate strength
Characteristic yield strength
Number of headed studs in tension

f
f
n

470 N/mm
350 N/mm
2

Cross section area of one shaft

Partial safety factor

Eq. (3.3)

380 mm

1.2

1.5

3.2 Pull-out failure


If the concrete strength is too low or the load bearing area of the headed stud is too
small, pull-out failure might occur.
N

p f

d2h
4

12 30
35
1.5
4

22

279.4 kN
DM I

where
Factor considering the head pressing
Partial safety factor
3.3 Concrete cone failure


150

12 fck

1.5

Eq. (3.31)

A pure concrete cone failure should not occur because of the reinforcement, but this
failure load has to be calculated so that the resistance may be combined with the
resistance of the stirrups.
N

k h

A
N
N

A
A

2 c

30

147.4 kN

DM I
Ch. 3.1.2

2 1.5 h

1.3

147.4 1.3 1.0 1.0

12.7 165

319 275
245 025

2 1.5 165

245 025 mm2

191.6 kN

DM I

127.7 kN

where
Effective anchorage depth
Factor for close edge
Factor for small reinforcement spacing
Actual projected area
A,
Partial safety factor

Eq. (3.7)
Eq. (3.8)

h
h
t
k 165 mm
1.0
,
1.0
,
2 1.5 h 2 1.5 h
s
2 1.5 165 2 1.5 165 150

1.5

Eq. (3.9)


319 275 mm2

Eq. (3.11)
Eq. (3.12)

3.4 Concrete cone failure with reinforcement


With reinforcement one of the three below described failure modes will occur.
3.5 Concrete failure
N

N
,

, ,

2.26 191.6

433.0
1.5

288.7 kN

where
Factor for support of reinforcement

433.0 kN

DM I

2.5

Distance between the anchor axis and the crack on the surface
d,
d
d ,
40 mm
x
2
tan35
Distance of hanger reinforcement to the face of the anchor shaft
d
d
d,
5
9 mm
2 2
Distance axis of the reinforcement to the concrete surface
d
d,
10 14 mm
2

1.5
Partial safety factor

2.26

Ch. 3.2.4

DM I
Eq. (3.47)

3.6 Yielding of reinforcement


N
N

N ,,
174.8

N ,
127.7

, , k ,
0.642 49.1 271.0 kN

DM I
Ch. 3.2.4

where
Normal force of hanger reinforcement

151

, ,

f,

8
4

500
1.15

DM I

174.8 kN

Eq. (3.17)

Deformation of reinforcement at yielding


2 A

2 174.8 10
12100 30 8 2 4

nn

Stiffness concrete break out


k ,
f h ,
Partial safety factor

0.642 mm

DM I
Eq. (3.16)

537 30 165 1.3 1.0 1.0

49.1 kN/mm
DM I

1.15

Eq. (3.13)

3.7 Anchorage failure of the reinforcement


N

147.7

, ,

127.7

, ,

0.459 49.1

252.8 kN

where
Anchorage force of all hanger legs

DM I

N
N

Anchorage length of the hanger

nn

, ,

l d

Eq. (3.49)

2 4 120 8
.
147.7 kN
,
h d
d,
165

10

, ,

25

14

120 mm
Dist. hanger reinforcement to the face
of the anchor shaft:
d
Dist. axis of the reinforcement to the
concrete surface
d
Bond strength

9 mm

5
10

2.25

DM I
Eq.(3.21)

14 mm
2.25 1 1

3.0 N/mm

where 1 is coefficient of bond conditions, 1 1.0 for vertical stirrups and 0.7 for
horizontal stirrups, 2 1.0 for dimension 32 mm and (132 - dimension)/100 for
dimension 32 mm
Hook

0.49

Def. of the reinforcement at bond failure


2 N , ,
2 147.7 10
, ,
12100 30 8 2 4
nn
f d ,
Partial safety factor
1.5

0.459 mm

The decisive component of the three failure modes of the concrete cone failure with
reinforcement is the anchorage failure of the reinforcement. The anchors have a
N , ,
252.8 kN
tension resistance of N ,
Step 4 Evaluation of the shear resistance
4.1 Steel failure of the fasteners

152

EN1992-1-1

0.6 f

DM I

22
2 0.6 470
2
1.25

171.5 kN

Eq.(3.20)

4.2 Pry-out failure


V

k N

2 184.9

, ,

where
Min. component concrete failure

369.9 kN

N
min N , ; N , , ; N , , ; N , , ,

min 288.7 kN; 271.0 kN; 252.8 kN, 184.9 kN
1.5

Partial safety factor

According to the Technical Specifications the factor k3 is taken as 2.0. There are not
yet made examinations how the resistance V , may be calculated taking account of
the reinforcement. Therefore N , ,
is determined as the minimum value of the
concrete cone failure with reinforcement (N , ,
, N , , , N , ) and the concrete
cone failure of the whole anchor group without considering additional reinforcement
(N , , ). N , , is calculated in the following.
N

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

A
A

,
,

461175
147.4
1.0 1.0 1.0 277.4 kN
245025
N , ,
277.4 kN
184.9 kN
1.5

N1993-1-8
Cl 3.6.1

where
N ,
k f . h .
Effective anchorage depth
Factor for close edge
Factor for small reinforcement spacing
Factor for eccentricity of loading
Reference projected area
Actual projected area

12.7 30 . 165 . 10
147.4 kN
h
h
t
150 10 25 165mm
1.0
,
,
1.0
,
1.0
s
495
245025 mm
A ,
A,
s
s s
s
495 220 495 150
461175 mm

Step 5 Verification of interaction conditions


5.1 Interaction of tension and shear for steel failure
Shear load in the headed studs on the non-loaded side is
V

180

190.1

20.8

31.0 kN

All loads is taken by the front anchor. No load for the back anchor and
N
N

,
,

104.0
238.1

V
V

DM I
,

0
171.5

Eq.(3.54)

1
0.19

DM I
(5.16)

153

5.2 Interaction of tension and shear for concrete failure


Shear load in the headed studs on the non-loaded side is
V
N
N

V
/

,
/

20
2

104.0
252.8

180

V
V
V

80
184.9

80 kN
DM I

(5.15)

0.57

Note
Without the additional reinforcement there would be a brittle failure of the anchor in
tension in concrete. The resistance of pure concrete cone failure with reinforcement is
nearly two times the size of the resistance without reinforcement. With the additional
reinforcement there is a ductile failure mode with reserve capacity.


154

9.6

Moment resistant steel to concrete joint

The steel-to-concrete connection is illustrated in Fig. 9.27. It represents the moment-resistant


support of a steel-concrete-composite beam system consisting of a hot rolled or welded steel
profile and a concrete slab, which can either be added in situ or by casting semi-finished
precast elements. Beam and slab are connected by studs and are designed to act together.
Whereas the advantage of the combined section is mostly seen for positive moments, where
compression is concentrated in the slab and tension in the steel beam, it may be useful to use
the hogging moment capacity of the negative moment range either as a continuous beam, or
as a moment resistant connection. In this case, the reinforcement of the slab is used to raise
the inner lever arm of the joint. The composite beam is made of a steel profile IPE 300 and a
reinforced concrete slab with a thickness of 160 mm and a width of 700 mm. The concrete
wall has a thickness of 300 mm and a width of 1 450 mm. The system is subjected to a hogging
bending moment ME,d = 150 kNm. Tabs 9.1 and 9.2 summarize data for the steel-to-concrete
joint.

Fig. 9.27: Geometry of the moment resisting joint


Tab. 9.1 Geometry for the steel-to-concrete joint
RC wall
t [mm]
b [mm]
h [mm]
Reinforcement
v [mm]
nv
sv [mm]
h [mm]
nh
sh [mm]
Console 1
t [mm]
b [mm]
h [mm]
Shear Studs
d [mm]
hcs [mm]
Nf
s [mm]
a [mm]
hc [mm]

300
1450
1600
12
15
150
12
21
150

20
200
150
22
100
9
140
270
90

Geometry
RC Slab
t [mm]
160
b [mm]
700
l [mm]
1550
Reinforcement
l [mm]
16
nl
6
sl [mm]
120
t [mm]
10
nt
14
st [mm]
100
ctens,bars [mm]
30
rhook [mm]
160
Console 2
t [mm]
10
b [mm]
170
h [mm]
140
Steel beam
IPE 300
h [mm]
300
b [mm]
150
tf [mm]
10.7
tw [mm]
7.1
As [mm2]
5381

Anchors
d [mm]
dh [mm]
la [mm]
hef [mm]
nv
e1 [mm]
p1 [mm]
nh
e2 [mm]
p2 [mm]

22
35
200
215
2
50
200
2
50
200

Anchor plate
tap [mm]
15
bap [mm]
300
lap [mm]
300
Contact Plate
t [mm]
10
bcp [mm]
200
lcp [mm]
30
e1,cp [mm]
35
eb,cp [mm]
235
bap [mm]
300

155

The part of the semi-continuous joint configuration, within the reinforced concrete wall,
adjacent to the connection, is analyzed in this example. This has been denominated as Joint
Link. The main objective is to introduce the behaviour of this component in the global analysis
of the joint which is commonly disregarded.
Tab. 9.2 Material of the steel-to-concrete joint
Concrete wall
fck,cube [Mpa]
fck,cyl [Mpa]
E [GPa]
fctm [Mpa]
Rebars Slab
fsyk [Mpa]
fu [Mpa]
sry []
sru

Concrete slab
Rebars wall
fck,cube [Mpa]
37
fsyk [MPa]
fck,cyl [Mpa]
30
fu [Mpa]
E [GPa]
33
fctm [Mpa]
2.87
Steel Plates
Anchors
400
fsyk [Mpa]
440
fsyk [Mpa]
540
fu [Mpa]
550
fu [Mpa]
Steel Profile
Shear Studs
2
75
fsyk [Mpa]
355
fsyk [Mpa]
fu [Mpa]
540
fu [Mpa]
The design value of the modulus of elasticity of steel Es may be assumed to be 200 GPa.
50
40
36
3.51

500
650

440
550
440
550

Fig. 9.28 Activated joint components


In order to evaluate the joint behaviour, the following basic components are identified, as
shown in Fig. 9.28:
-

longitudinal steel reinforcement in the slab, component 1


slip of the composite beam, component 2;
beam web and flange, component 3;
steel contact plate, component 4;
components activated in the anchor plate connection, components 5 to 10 and 13 to 15;
the joint link, component 11.

Step 1 Component longitudinal reinforcement in tension


In this semi-continuous joint configuration, the longitudinal steel reinforcement bar is the only
component that is able to transfer tension forces from the beam to the wall. In addition, the
experimental investigations carried (Kuhlmann et al., 2012) revealed the importance of this
component on the joint response. For this reason, the accuracy of the model to predict the
joint response will much depend on the level of accuracy introduced in the modelling of this
component. According to ECCS Publication N 109 (1999), the behaviour of the longitudinal
steel reinforcement in tension is illustrated in Fig. 9.29.

156

stress of the embedded steel at the first crack

strain of the embedded steel at the first crack

stress of the embedded steel at the last crack

strain of the embedded steel at the last crack

yielding stress of the bare bar

strain at yield strength of the bare bar

strain at yield strength of the embedded bar

ultimate stress of the bare steel

strain of the bare bar at ultimate strength

strain at ultimate strength of the embedded bar

Fig. 9.29 Stress-strain curve for steel reinforcement in tension


The resistance of the component may then be determined as follows
F

A , f

Since concrete grades of wall and slab are different it is possible to evaluate separately the
stress-strain curve of the two elements. While the concrete is uncracked, the stiffness of
the longitudinal reinforcement is considerably higher when compared with bare steel.
Cracks form in the concrete when mean tensile strength of the concrete fctm is achieved.
The stress in the reinforcement at the beginning of cracking (sr1) is determined as follows.

, ,

, ,

97.1 Nmm-2
f

k
1

118.7 Nmm-2

E
E

2.87 0.39
1
1.15 0.010
E
E

3.51 0.39
1
1.15 0.010

ECCS
(1999)

0.010 6.06

0.010 6.06

where: fctm is the tensile strength of the concrete; Es and Ec are the elastic modulus of the
steel reinforcement bar and concrete, kc is a factor which allows using the properties of the
steel beam section and is the ratio between the area of steel reinforcement and the area
of concrete flange expressed as follows:
1
t
2z

k
1

A
A,

1
0.39
160
1
2 51.8
n 4
1 206.4
700 160
t
b ,

ECCS
(1999)

0.010

where: Ac,slab is the area of the effective concrete slab; As,r is the area of the longitudinal
reinforcement within the effective slab width (in this example the width of the slab is fully
effective); tslab is the thickness of the concrete flange and z0 is the vertical distance between
the centroid of the uncracked concrete flange and uncracked unreinforced composite
section, calculated using the modular ration for short-term effects, Es/Ec.
z

t
,

E
t
E

t
t

E
E

2
A

t
2

51.8 mm

CEB-FIB
Model
Code
(1990)

157

where
x , is the dimension of the component concrete block in compression.
According to CEB-FIB Model Code (1990), the stress srn,d and the increment of the
reinforcement strain sr are given by

f , k
0.00045
E
, ,
,
3.0 10
E

, ,

1.3

126.2Nmm2

, ,

4.9 10

k
0.00056
E
, ,
,
3.6 10
E

, ,

1.3

154.3Nmm2

, ,

ECCS
(1999)

5.9 10

The yield stress and strain, fsyk and smy are given by
f

347.8Nmm2

, ,

, ,

1.6 10

,
,

1.6 10

ECCS
(1999)

The ultimate strain


is determined as follows, where the tension stiffening is also
taken into account. The factor t 0.4 takes into account the short-term loading; and for
high-ductility bars, is taken equal to 0.8.

, ,

, ,

4.4 10
4.0 10

where: sy and f , are the yield strain and stress of the bare steel reinforcement bars,
respectively; su is the ultimate strain of the bare steel reinforcement bars.
Assuming the area of reinforcement constant, the force-deformation curve is derived from
the stress-strain curve, where the reinforcement deformation should be evaluated as
described above.

The elongation length (l) to consider is equal to sum of the Lt (related to the slab) with hc
(related to the wall). Only in the determination of the ultimate deformation capacity, the
length of the reinforcement bar is considered higher than this value, as expressed in the
following:
0.8 %

2L
0.8 % and a L

h
L

h
L
a L
0.8 % and a L
where is
L

k f
4

0.39 2.87 16
4 5.16 0.01

81 mm

In the above expression, Lt is defined as the transmission length and represents the length
of the reinforcement from the wall face up to the first crack zone which should form close
to the joint. The parameter a is the distance of the first shear connector to the joint and hc


158

CEB-FIB
Model
Code
(1990)

is the length of the reinforcement up to the beginning of the bend. sm is the average bond
stress, given by

1.8 f

Forces can be evaluated considering minimum values of tensions found for slab and wall.
Table 9.3 summarizes the results for the stress-strain and force-displacement curves.
Tab. 9.3 Force-displacement relation for longitudinal reinforcement in tension
SL
[-]
3.0 10-5
4.9 10-4
1.6 10-3
4.4 10-2

SL
[N/mm2]
97.1
126.2
347.8
469.5

WA
[-]
3.6 10-5
5.9 10-4
1.6 10-3
4.0 10-2

WA
[N/mm2]
118.7
154.3
347.8
469.5

F
[kN]
117.1
152.3
419.6
566.5

[mm]
0.0
0.1
0.3
5.7

Step 2 Component slip of composite beam


The slip of composite beam is not directly related to the resistance of the joint; however,
the level of interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam defines the maximum
load acting on the longitudinal reinforcement bar. In EN 1994-1-1: 2010, the slip of
composite beam component is not evaluated in terms of resistance of the joint, but the
level of interaction is considered on the resistance of the composite beam. However, the
influence of the slip of the composite beam is taken into account on the evaluation of the
stiffness and rotation capacity of the joint. The stiffness coefficient of the longitudinal
reinforcement should be affected by a reduction factor kslip determined according to Chap.
3.7.
According to (Aribert, 1995) the slip resistance may be obtained from the level of interaction
as expressed in the following. Note that the shear connectors were assumed to be ductile
allowing redistribution of the slab-beam interaction load.
F

NP

Where: N is the real number of shear connectors; and PRK is characteristic resistance of the EN1994-11:2010
shear connectors that can be determined according to EN1994-1-1:2010 as follows
P

min

0.8 f d 0.29 d
;
4

with
3

4
4

0.2

where fu is the ultimate strength of the steel shear stud; d is the diameter of the shear stud;
fck is the characteristic concrete cylinder resistance; Ecm is the secant modulus of elasticity
of the concrete; hsc is the height of the shear connector including the head; is the partial
factor for design shear resistance of a headed stud.
P
F

min

0.8 540 22 0.29 1 22 30 33


;
1.25 4
1.25

9 111.0

min 486.5; 111.0

111.0 kN

999.0 kN

Concerning the deformation of the component, assuming an uniform shear load distribution
along the beam, an equal distribution of the load amongst the shear studs is expected.

159

The stiffness of the component is obtained as a function of the number of shear studs and
of the stiffness of a single row of shear studs, as follows
k

Nk

900 kN/mm

where the stiffness of one shear connector ksc may be considered equal to 100 kN/mm,
see cl A.3(4) in EN 1994-1-1:2010.
Step 3 Component beam web and flange in compression
According to EN1993-1-8:2006, the resistance can be evaluated as follows
M

, ,

W f

628 400 355


1.0

223 000
300 10.7

223.0 kN

771.1 kN

The stiffness of this component may be neglected.


Step 4 Component steel contact plate in compression
According to EN1994-1-1:2010, the resistance can be evaluated as follows and the
stiffness is infinitely rigid compared to rest of the connection.
F

440 200 30

2 640 kN

Step 5 Component T-stub in compression


According to EC 1993-1-8:2006, the bearing width c can be calculated using the hypothesis
of cantilever beam for all directions. It is an iterative process as the bearing width and the
concrete bearing strength f are mutually dependent.
t

F
b l

3f

f
A

A
A

f k

where is the foundation joint material coefficient and F


is the concentrated design
resistance force. Assuming an uniform distribution of stresses under the equivalent rigid
plate and equal to the bearing strength of the concrete, the design compression resistance
of a T-stub should be determined as follows
F

f b

where b
A
and f

and l

min 2c

are the effective width and length of the T-stub flange, given by
b ;b

min c; e

69.4 239.4

16625.9 mm2

is the design bearing strength of the joint.

Thus, c = 19.7 mm; fjd = 84.9 MPa; leff = 69.4mm; beff = 239.4 mm; Fc = 1411.0 kN
The initial stiffness Sini,j may be evaluated as follows
E A
S ,
1.275
c is given by c 1.25 t
and b and l are given by
min 2.5 t
A
16 031 mm2


160

b ;b

1.25 t

min 1.25 t , e

= 67.5 237.5

Thus, c 18.7 mm; leff 67.5 mm; beff 237.5 mm and S

3 575.0 kN/mm

This value of the initial stiffness could be used for the calculation of the component of
displacement related to the T-stub in compression.
Step 6 Joint Link
In the proposed model based on the STM principles, the properties of this diagonal spring
are determined as follows:
-

The resistance is obtained based on the strut and nodes dimension and admissible
stresses within these elements, given in Tab. 3.2.
The deformation of the diagonal spring is obtained by assuming a non-linear stressstrain relation for the concrete under compression, as defined in (Henriques, 2013).

In terms of resistance, the model is characterized by the resistance of the nodes at the
edge of the diagonal strut. Accordingly, the maximum admissible stresses, see Tab. 3.2,
and the geometry of these nodes define the joint link load capacity. It is recalled that failure
is governed by the nodal regions and disregarded within the strut. Hence, the resistance
of the nodes is obtained as follows.
6a)
Node N1
The geometry of the node is defined in one direction by the bend radius of the longitudinal
reinforcement and by the strut angle with the dimension a Fig. 9.30. In the other direction
(along the width of the wall), assuming the distance between the outer longitudinal
overestimates the resistance of this node, since the analytical approach assumes that the
stresses are constant within the dimension brb and the stress field under the hook and
along this dimension is non-uniform.

Fig. 9.30 Definition of the width of node N1


According to Henriques (2013), in order to obtain a more accurate approach, an analytical
expression was derived to estimate an effective width under each reinforcement bar
where constant stresses can be assumed. The basis of this analytical expression was a
parametrical study performed by means of numerical calculations.
In order to obtain an expression which could approximate the effective width with sufficient
accuracy, a regression analysis, using the data produced in the parametric study, was
performed The effective width beff,rb of the reinforcement is calculated as a function of the Henriques
(2013)
reinforcement bar diameter drb, the spacing of bars srb and strut angle as follows
s

80 mm

80 mm

b
b

n 2.62 d
n 2.62 d

cos

cos

s
80

As in this case srb 80 mm

161

z
b

arctan

2r

arctan
300

Cos

1.06 rad
30 2

2 160 Cos 1.06


.

6 2.62 d

406.65
16 10
2
2

cos

155.97 mm

478.054 mm

The node dimensions are determined from


b

2 r cos

where A is the cross-section area of the diagonal concrete strut at node N1. Finally, the
resistance of the node is given by
f ,
A 0.75 f
1 252.7kN
F,
0.84
1
250
6b)
Node N2
The geometry of the node, on the concrete strut edge, is defined by the projection of the
dimensions of the equivalent rigid plate, representing the anchor plate subjected to
compression, in the direction of the concrete strut, see Fig. 9.31.
The node dimensions are determined from
l
b
cos

35 041.3 mm

where: AN2 is the cross-section area of the diagonal concrete strut at node N2 where the
admissible stresses have to be verified; leff and beff are the dimensions of the equivalent
rigid plate determined according to the effective T-stub in compression. Considering the
admissible stresses and the node dimensions, the resistance of the node is obtained
F

3f

2 354 kN

Fig. 9.31 Definition of the width of node N2


6c)
Joint link properties
The minimum resistance of the two nodes, N1 and N2, gives the resistance of the joint
link in the direction of the binary force generated by the bending moment applied to the
joint. Projecting the resistance in the horizontal direction, yields
F

cos

610.6 kN

According to (Henriques 2013), the deformation of the joint link is given by


162

6.48 10

7.47 10

cos

Thus, considering 10 load steps, Tab. 9.4 summarizes the force-displacement curve.
Tab. 9.4 Force-displacement for the Joint Link component
Fh [kN]
0.0
61.1
122.1
183.2
244.2
305.3
366.3
427.4
488.5
549.5
610.6

h [mm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03

Step 7 Assembly of joint


The simplified mechanical model represented in Fig. 9.32 consists of two rows, one row
for the tensile components and another for the compression components. It combines the
tension and compression components into a single equivalent spring per row.

Fig. 9.32: Simplified joint model with assembly of components per row
The properties of the equivalent components/springs are calculated, for resistance, Feq,t
and Feq,c, and deformation, eq,t and eq,c, as follows
F

min F to F

where index i to n represents all relevant components, either in tension or in compression,


depending on the row under consideration.
According to the joint configuration, it is assumed that the lever arm is the distance between
the centroid of the longitudinal steel reinforcement bar and the middle plane of the bottom
flange of the steel beam. The centroid of the steel contact plate is assumed aligned with
this reference point of the steel beam. Hence, the bending moment and the corresponding
rotation follow from
M

min F

;F

;F

Thus
Ft,max =
Fc,max =

566.5 kN
610.6 kN

Longitudinal rebar
Joint link

163

Feq =
hr =
Mj =

566.5 kN
406.65 mm
230.36 KNm

Table 9.5 summarizes the main results in order to calculate the moment rotation curve,
where r is the displacement of the longitudinal steel reinforcement, slip is related to the
slip of composite beam through to the coefficient kslip, T-stub is the displacement of the Tstub in compression and JL is the displacement of the joint link.
Tab. 9.5 Synthesis of results
F
[kN]

r
[mm]

slip
[mm]

0.0
117.1
152.3
419.6
566.5

0.00
0.01
0.09
0.27
5.68

0.00
0.13
0.17
0.47
0.63

Tstub
[mm]

JL
[mm]

t
[mm]


[mrad]

Mj
[kNm]

0.00
0.03
0.04
0.12
0.16

0.00
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03

0.00
0.17
0.30
0.88
6.36

0.00
0.40
0.73
2.06
15.53

0.00
47.64
61.93
170.63
230.36

Note
The resulting moment-rotation behaviour is shown in Fig. 9.33. The system is able to resist
the applied load.

Fig. 9.33 Joint bending moment-rotation curve Mj j


164

9.7

Portal frame

This example illustrates the design of a portal frame designed of columns with cross section
HEB 180 and of a rafter with cross section IPE 270, as illustrated in Fig. 9.33. The stiffness of
the connections and column bases is considered under design. The steel grade is S235JR,
fy = 235 N/mm and the profiles are class 1 sections. Safety factors are considered as M0 = 1.0
and M1 = 1.1.
Fig. 9.34 highlights position of loads and Tab. 9.2 synthetizes the loads values, while load case
combinations are summarized in Tab. 9.3.

Fig. 9.33 Designed portal frame

Fig. 9.34 Acting loads

165

Tab. 9.2 Applied loads


Self-weight + dead loads
gF = 0.55.3 2.7 kN/m
g = 4.8 kN/m
s = 5.0 kN/m
q1 = 3.0 kN/m. b = 2.6m (equipment)
Q1 = 9.8 kN
wD = 0.8 kN/m
wS = -3.9 kN/m
Imperfection r2 = 0.85, n = 2

Wind
hw.D = 0.80.655.3 = 2.7 kN/m
Hw.D = 0.40.80.655.3 = 1.1 kN
hw.S = 0.50.655.3 = 1.7 kN/m
Impact load (EN1991-1-7:2006)
Fd.x = 100 kN (h=1.45m)
max QStab (48+58) 0.85/200 < 0.5 kN
(added in the wind load case)

Tab. 9.3 Load case combinations


LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4
LC 5
LC 6
LC 7
LC 8
LC 9

g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

1.35
1.35 + s 1.5
1.35 + s1.5 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.5+ (w+wD) 1.50.6 + q1 1.50.7
1.35 + s1.50.5+ (w+wD) 1.5 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.5 - (w+wD) 1.50.6 + q11.50.7
1.35 + s1.50.5 -(w+wD) 1.5 + q1 1.50.7
1.0+ (w wS) 1.5
1.0 + q1 1.0 + truck + s0.2 (exceptional combination impact load)

The main steps in order to verify a steel portal frame are the following:
Step 1
Global analysis of the steel structure, with fully restrained column bases.
Provide internal forces and moments and the corresponding displacements
under several loading condition.
Step 2
Verification of single elements
Step 3
Verification of the column-beam joint, in terms of stiffness and resistance.
Step 4
Verification of column base joint, taking into account an impact load
Step 5
Updating of internal forces and moments of the system considering the effective
stiffness of the restraints
Step 1 Global analysis
From a 1st order elastic analysis the internal force diagrams envelope due to vertical and
horizontal loads, Fig. 9.35 to 9.36 are obtained. Fig. 9.37 illustrates the structural
displacement in case di wind load, in direction x. For each combination is necessary to
check whether 2nd order effects should be taken into account in the structural analysis by
the following simplified expression for beam-and-column type plane frames
H
h
EN 1993-1-1

cl 5.2.1
V
,
where:
is the total horizontal reaction at the of the storey
H
is the total vertical reaction at the bottom of the storey
V
is
the relative horizontal displacement of the top storey
,
is the height of the storey
h
In this case, is always greater than 10 and thus the first order analysis is enough.


166

Fig. 9.35 System with max bending


moment from all combinations [kNm]

Fig. 9.36 System with min bending


moment from all combinations [kNm]

Fig. 9.37 System with min axial force


from all combinations [kN]

Fig. 9.38 Deformation


for wind in x-direction [mm]

Maximal deformation under variable load is 17 mm at the top.


Step 2 Verification of elements
Verifications are performed using the EC3 Steel Member Calculator for iPhone.
Column HEB 180 is verified as
Acting forces
Critical section
from LC 6
resistance

Buckling
resistance

Nmin,d = -80 kN

Nc,Rd = -1533 kN

Nb,y,Rd = -1394 kN

MAy,d = 51 kNm
MBy,d = 45 kNm

MyAy,c,Rd = 113.1 kNm


Vc,Rd = 274 kN

Nb,z,Rd = 581 kN
Mb,Rd = 102.8 kNm

Beam IPE 270 is verified as


Acting force
Critical cection
from LC 4
resistance
Nmin,d = -19 kN

Nc,Rd = 1079.7 kN

MEy,d = 61 kNm
MBy,d = -51 kNm

My,c,Rd = 113.7 kNm


Vc,Rd = 300.4 kN

Verification
N My V 1
0.477
Mb Nby (6.61)) 1
0.265

Buckling
resistance

Verification

Mb,Rd = 103,4 kNm

N My V 1
0.536
Mb Nby (6,61)) 1
0.265

167

Step 3 Design of beam to column joint


The connection is illustrated in Fig. Fig. 9.39. The end plate has a height of 310 mm, a
thickness of 30 mm and a width of 150 mm with 4 bolts M20 10.9.
Design Values
My,Rd = -70.7 kNm > -54.5 kNm (at x = 0.09 of supports axis)
Vz,Rd = 194 kN

Fig. 9.39 Design of beam-to-column joint


The verification is performed using the ACOP software. The resulting bending moment
rotation curve is represented in Fig. 9.40.

Fig. 9.40 The bending moment to rotation curve Mj j


Step 4 Verification of the column base joint
Main Data
Base plate of 360 x 360 x 30 mm, S235
Concrete block of size 600 x 600 x 800 mm, C30/37
Welds aw,Fl = 7 mm, aw,St = 5 mm
The support with base plate is in a 200 mm deep of the foundation.
Design Values
Characteristic
LC
My,d [kNm]
Nx,d [kN]
6
-80
51
Nmin
9
-31.6
95.6
Mmax


168

Fig. 9.41 represents the designed column base. In the verification procedure, the
following step are accomplished:
a) calculation of the resistance of component base plate in bending and anchor bolts in
tension;
b) evaluation of the area of concrete in compression,
c) calculation of the strip c around the column cross section,
d) calculation of moment resistant of column base,
e) check of the end of column,
f) evaluation of the bending stiffness component stiffness;,
g) evaluation of the stiffness of tension part, bolts and T stub,
h) evaluation of the bending stiffness.

Fig. 9.41 Designed column base


4a)
Resistance of component base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension
For anchor bolt lever arm, for fillet weld awf = 7 mm, it is
m 60 0.8 a 2 60 0.8 7 2 52.1 mm
The T - stub length, in base plates are the prying forces not taken into account, is
4 m 1.25 e
4 52.1 1.25 30 245.9
4 m 4 52.1 654.7
0.5 b 0.5 360 180
0.5 p 2 52.1 0.625 30 0.5 240 243
min 2 m 0.625 e
l ,
2 m 0.625 e
e
2 52.1 0.625 30 60 183
2 52.1 4 60 567.4
2m 4e
2 m 2 p 2 52.1 2 240 807.4
180 mm
l ,
The effective length of anchor bolt Lb is taken as
8 d t 8 20 30 190 mm
L
The resistance of T - stub with two anchor bolts is
2L , t f
2 180 30 235
365.4 10 N
F , ,
4 m
4 52.1 1
while the tension resistance of two anchor bolts M 20 for the area of threaded part of bolt
A
314 mm
0.9 f A
0.9 360 314
F , ,
2B,
2
162.8 10 N
1.25

4b)To evaluate the compressed part resistance is calculated the connection concentration
factor as

DM I
Fig. 4.4

EN1993-1-8
6.4.6.5

DM I
Fig. 4.1
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.4.1

169

a
a

min

2a
3a
a h

360 2 120 600


3 360 1 080
360 800 116

EN1992-1-1
Fig. 3.6

600 mm

and
a
b
600 mm max a, b
The above condition is fulfilled and

EN1993-1-8
Eq. (3.65)

a b
600 600
1.67
360 360
ab
The grout is not influencing the concrete bearing resistance because
0.2 min a; b
0.2 min 360; 360
72 mm 30 mm t
EN1991-1-8
cl 6.2.5
The concrete bearing resistance is calculated as
2 k f
2 1.67 30

22.3 MPa
f,
3
3
1.5
A f F , ,
for each load case, from the force equilibrium in the vertical direction F
is calculated the area of concrete in compression Aeff in case of the full resistance of tension
part.
F
80 10
F ,
365.4 10
19 973.1 mm
A
f
22.3
F
31.6 10
F ,
365.4 10
A
17 802.7 mm
f
22.3
4c)
The flexible base plate is transferred into a rigid plate of equivalent area.
The width of the strip c around the column cross section, see Fig. 9.40, is calculated from
k

f
3f

30

235
3 22.3 1

EN1991-1-8
cl 6.2.5

56.2 mm
180
c bc=200

c tw=9 c

tf =15
14

c
c

hc=200
180
14 c
tf =15
c

rt
b eff r
c

Fig. 9.42 The effective area under the base plate


4d)

The active effective width is calculated from known area in compression


A
19 937.1
b
68.3 mm t
2 c 14 2 56.2 126.4 mm
b
2 c 180 2 57.2
A
17 802.7
b
60.9 mm t
2 c 14 2 56.2 126.4 mm
b
2 c 180 2 57.2
The lever arms of concrete to the column axes of symmetry is calculated as
h
b
180
68.3
r
c
56.2
112.1 mm
2
2
2
2
h
b
180
60.9
r
c
56.2
115.8 mm
2
2
2
2
Moment resistances of column base are
F , , r
A
f r
104.7 kNm
M

170

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5

, ,

100.8 kNm

f r

4e)The end of column needs to be checked. The design resistance in pure compression is
Af
6 525 235
N ,
1 533.4 kN
1.0

and column bending resistance


W f
481 10 235
M ,
113.1 kNm

1.0
The interaction of normal force changes moment resistance
80
N
1
1
N ,
1 533.4
M ,
M ,
113.0
120.9 kNm
A 2bt
6 525 2 180 14
1 0.5
1 0.5
A
6 525
4f) To evaluate the bending stiffness the particular component stiffness is calculated
A
314
k
2.0
2.0
3.3 mm
190
L
0.425 L
0.425 180 30
t
14.6 mm
k
m
52.1

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.4
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.5
EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.9

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

tf =15
14
t
aeq

180
b c =200

Fig. 9.43 The T stub in compression


The concrete block stiffness is evaluated based on T-stub in compression, see Fig. 9.43
a
t
2.5 t 14 2.5 30 89 mm
E
33 000
a b
89 180 15.6 mm
k
1.275 210000
1.275 E

EN1993-1-8
6.3

4g) The lever arm of component in tension zt and in compression zc to the column base
neutral axes is
h
180
r
e
60 150 mm
2
2
h
t
180 14
z
83 mm
2
2
2 2
The stiffness of tension part, bolts and T stub, is calculated as
1
1
2.7 mm
k
EN1993-1-8
1
1
1
1
6.3
k
3.3 14.6
k
4h) For the calculation of the initial stiffness of column base is evaluated the lever arm
r r
z
150 83 233 mm
and
15.6 83 2.7 150
k r
k r
43.26 mm
a
15.6 2.7
k
k
The bending stiffness is calculated for particular constant eccentricity
M
104.7 10
1 308.8 mm
e
F
80.0 10

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.2.9

171

M
F

100.8 10
31.6 10

3 189.9 mm

as
e

E r
1 308.8
210 000 233

25 301 kNm/rad
1
a 1 1 308.8 3 189.9 1 1
2.7 15.6
k
e
E r
3 189.9
210 000 233

25 846 kNm/rad
S,
1
1
e
a
3 189.9 3 189.9 1 1
2.7 15.6
k
These values of stiffness do not satisfy the condition about the rigid base
45 538 kNm/rad
S , 30 E I /L
S,

Step 5 Updating of internal forces and moments


Steps 1 to 4 should be evaluated again considering internal forces obtained from a
structural analysis taking into account the stiffness of column base, see Fig. 9.44. Tab. 9.4
summarizes results of the structural analysis of the two meaning full combinations Nmin and
Mmax.
B

Fig. 9.44 Structural system with rotational springs


Tab. 9.4 Comparison of internal forces between the model with rigid column base joint and
the model with the actual stiffness
Load
case
6
9

Column base
stiffness
Rigid
Semi-rigid
Rigid
Semi-rigid

Point A
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
-57.0
1.6

Point B
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
-54.0
27.7

Point C
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
-56.0
49.3

Point D
N
M
[kN]
[kNm]
-80.0
51.0

-56.9
-31.6
-30.5

-53.3
-29
-27.9

-57.1
-29.0
-30.9

-80.8
-47.0
-48.4

3.1
95.6
87.3

24.3
-18.7
-17.7

-40.7
-36.0
-40.6

48.4
32.6
34.7

For the LC6 has been implemented a structural model with two rotational springs equal to
25 301 kNm/rad. For the LC9 the adopted rotational stiffness was equal to 25 846 kNm/rad.
Due to the proximity of the stiffness value calculated in Step 4. it was reasonable to
assumed in a simplified manner. The lower value of the stiffness in order to update the
internal forces of the system.
As shown in the above table, the differences in terms of internal forces are negligible and
therefore the single elements and the beam to column joint is considered verified. Tab. 9.4
synthetizes the updated properties of the column base joint.

172

EN1993-1-8
cl 6.3

EN1993-1-8
cl 5.2

Tab. 9.4 Updated properties of the column base joint


Load
case
6
9

Column base
stiffness
Rigid
Semi-rigid
Rigid
Semi-rigid

Aeff
[mm2]
19 973.1
20 008.0
17 802.7
17 757.0

beff
[mm]
68.3
68.4
60.9
60.7

rc
[mm]
112.1
112.0
115.8
115.8

Mrd
[kNm]
104.7
104.8
100.8
100.7

S.
[kNm/rad
25 301
25 268
25 846
25 344

The designed column base fulfils the asked requirements as shown in the Tab. 9.4.

173

10 SUMMARY
This design manual summarises the reached knowledge in the RFCS Project RFSR-CT-200700051 New Market Chances for Steel Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between
Steel and Concrete (INFASO). The material was prepared in cooperation of two teams of
researchers one targeting on fastening technique modelling and others focusing to steel joint
design from Institute of Structural Design and Institute of Construction Materials, Universitt
Stuttgart, Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Czech Technical University in Prague,
and practitioners Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda., Coimbra,
Goldbeck West GmbH, Bielefeld, stahl+verbundbau GmbH, Dreieich and European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Bruxelles.
The model of three types of steel to concrete connections with the headed studs on anchor
plate are introduced. There are based on component method and enable the design of steel
to concrete joints in vertical position, e.g. beam to column or to wall connections, and horizontal
ones, base plates. The behaviour of components in terms of resistance, stiffness, and
deformation capacity is summed up for components in concrete and steel parts: header studs,
stirrups, concrete in compression, concrete panel in shear, steel reinforcement, steel plate in
bending, threaded studs, anchor plate in tension, beam web and flange in compression and
steel contact plate.
In the Chapters 5 and 6 are described the possibility of assembly of components behaviour
into the whole joint behaviour for resistance and stiffness separately. The presented assembly
enables the interaction of normal forces, bending moments and shear forces acting in the joint.
The global analyses in Chapter 7 is taken into account the joint behaviour. The connection
design is sensitive to tolerances, which are recapitulated for beam to column connections and
base plates in Chapter 8. The worked examples in Chapter 9 demonstrates the application of
theory to design of pinned and moment resistant base plates, pinned and moment resistance
beam to column connections and the use of predicted values into the global analyses.


174

References
Standards and guidelines
CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Comit Euro-International du Bton, Lausanne, 1993.
CEN/TS1992-4-1, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 4-2, Headed fasteners
Technical Specification, CEN, Brussels, 2009.
EN1090-2, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures, Part 2, Technical
requirements for steel structures. CEN, Brussels, 2008.
EN13670, Execution of concrete structures, CEN, Brussels, 2011.
EN1990, Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design, CEN, Brussels, 2002.
EN1991-1-1, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.1, General actions, Densities, selfweight, imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2002.
EN1991-1-1, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.7, General actions, Densities, selfweight, imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2006.
EN1992-1-1, Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-7, General actions Accidental actions, CEN, Brussels, 2004.
EN1993-1-1, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1-1, General rules and rules for
buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2010.
EN1993-1-8, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1-8, Design of joints, CEN,
Brussels, 2006.
EN1994-1-1, Eurocode 4, Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Part 1-1,
General rules and rules for buildings, CEN, 2010.
EN206-1, Concrete - Part 1, Specification, performance, production and conformity, CEN,
Brussels, 2000.
FIB Bulletin 58, Design of anchorages in concrete, Guide to good practice, International
federation for structural concrete, Lausanne, 2011.
Textbooks and publications
Aribert, J. M., Influence of Slip on Joint Behaviour, Connections in Steel Structures III,
Behaviour, Strength and Design, Third International Workshop, Trento, 1995.
Astaneh A. et al., Behaviour and design of base plates for gravity, wind and seismic loads, In
AISC, National Steel Construction Conference, Las Vegas, 1992.
Bouwman L.P., Gresnigt A.M., Romeijn A., Research into the connection of steel base plates
to concrete foundations, TU-Delft Stevin Laboratory report 25.6.89.05/c6, Delft.
Bravery P.N.R., Cardington Large Building Test Facility, Construction details for the first
building. Building Research Establishment, Internal paper, Watford (1993) 158.
British Steel plc, The behaviour of multi-storey steel framed buildings in fire, European Joint
Research Programme, Swinden Technology Centre, South Yorkshire, 1999.
Demonceau J., Steel and composite building frames: Sway-response under conventional
loading and development of membrane effects in beam further to an exceptional
actions. PhD Thesis, University of Liege, Liege, 2008.
Demonceau J.F., Huvelle C., Comeliau L., Hoang L.V., Jaspart J.P., Fang C. et al,
Robustness of car parks against localised fire,European Comission, Final Report
RFSR-CT-2008-00036, Brussels, 2012.
Da Silva L. Simoes, Towards a consistent design approach for steel joints undergeneralized

175

loading, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64 (2008) 10591075.


De Wolf J. T., Sarisle, E. F., Column base plates with axial loads and moments, Journal of
Structural Division ASCE, 106 (1980) 2167-2184.
Di Sarno L, Pecce M.R., Fabbrocino G., Inelastic response of composite steel and concrete
base column connections, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 63 (2007) 819
832.
ECCS, European Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Design of Composite Joints for
Buildings. Publication 109, TC11, Composite Structures, Belgium, 1999.
Ermopoulos J. Ch., Stamatopoulos G. N., Mathematical Modelling of Column Base Plate
Connections, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 36 (1996) 79-100.
Gresnigt N., Romeijn A., Wald F., Steenhuis M., Column Bases in Shear and Normal Force,
Heron (2008) 87-108.
Heinisuo M., Perttola H., Ronni H., Joints between circular tubes, Steel Construction, 5(2)
(2012) 101-107.
Henriques J., Behaviour of joints: simple and efficient steel-to-concrete joints, PhD Thesis,
University of Coimbra, 2013.
Hofmann J. Behaviour and design of anchorages under arbitrary shear load direction in
uncracked concrete, (Tragverhalten und Bemessung von Befestigungen unter
beliebiger Querbelastung in ungerissenem Beton), PhD Thesis, IWB, University of
Stuttgart, 2005.
Horov K., Wald F., Sokol Z., Design of Circular Hollow Section Base Plates, in Eurosteel
2011 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures. Brussels, 2011 (1)
249-254.
Huber G., Tschemmernegg F., Modeling of Beam-to- Column Joints: Test evaluation and
practical application, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 45 (1998) 119-216.
Jaspart J.P., Design of structural joints in building frames, Prog. Struct. Engng Mater., 4
(2002) 1834.
Jaspart J.P., Recent advances in the field of steel joints - column bases and further
configurations for beam-to-column joints and beam splices, Professorship Thesis,
Department MSM, University of Liege, Belgium, 1997.
Johansen K. W., Pladeformler, Kobenhavn, Pol. Forening, 1949.
Kuhlmann U. , Hofman J., Wald F., da Silva L., Krimpmann M., Sauerborn N. et al, New
market chances for steel structures by innovative fastening solutions between steel and
concrete INFASO, Final report EUR 25100 EN, European Commission, 2012.
Malle R., Silva J. F., Anchorage in Concrete Construction, Ernst and Sohn Verlag,
Darmstadt, 2006, ISBN 978-433-01143-0.
Maquoi R., Chabrolin B., Frame Design Including Joint Behaviour, ECSC, Report 18563.
Luxembourg. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998.
Melchers R. E., Column-base response under applied moment, Journal of Constructional
Steel Research 23 (1992) 127-143.
Metric studs, Nelson stud welding specification, 2009, http://www.nelsonstud.com.
Metric studs, Nelson stud welding stud and ferrule catalog, 2013, http://www.nelsonstud.com.
Moore D.B. Steel fire tests on a building framed. Building Research Establishment, No.
PD220/95, Watford (1995) 13.
Nakashima S., Experimental behaviour of steel column-base connections, Report, Osaka
Institute of Technology, 1996.

176

Nakashima S., Mechanical Characteristics of Exposed Portions of Anchor Bolts in Steel


Column Bases under Combined Tension and Shear. Journal of Constructional Steel
Research, 46, (1998) 206-277.
Pallars l., Hajjar J. F., Headed Steel Stud Anchors in Composite Structures: Part I Shear,
Part II Tension and Interaction, The Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory,
NSEL-013, April 2009.
Penserini P., Colson A., Ultimate limit strength of column-base connections, Journal of
Constructional Steel Research 14 (1989) 301-320.
Pertold J, Xiao R.Y, Wald F, Embedded steel column bases: I. Experiments and numerical
simulation, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 56 (3) 2000, 253-270.
Pertold J, Xiao R.Y, Wald F, Embedded steel column bases: II. Design model proposal,
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 56 (3) 2000, 271-286.
Pitrakkos T., Tizani W., Experimental behaviour of a novel anchored blind-bolt in tension
Engineering Structures, 49, 2013, 905-919.
Romeijn A., The fatigue behaviour of multiplanar tubular joints, Heron 39 (1994) 3-14.
Simoes da Silva L., Simoes R., Gervasio H., Design of Steel Structures, Eurocode 3: Design
of steel structures, Part 1-1 General rules and rules for buildings. ECCS Eurocode
Design Manuals, 2010.
Steenhuis M., Wald F., Sokol Z., Stark J.W.B., Concrete in Compression and Base Plate in
Bending, Heron 53 (2008) 51-68.
Thambiratnam, D. P., Paramasivam P., Base plates under axial load and moment, Journal of
Structural Engineering 112 (1986) 1166-1181.
Wald F., Bouguin V., Sokol Z., Muzeau J.P., Component Method for Base Plate of RHS,
Proceedings of the Conference Connections in Steel Structures IV: Steel Connections
in the New Millenium, October 22-25, Roanoke 2000, s. IV/8- IV/816.
Wald F., Sokol Z., Jaspart J.P., Base Plate in Bending and Anchor Bolts in Tension, Heron 53
(2008) 21-50.
Wald F., Sokol Z., Steenhuis M. and Jaspart, J.P., Component Method for Steel Column
Bases, Heron 53 (2008) 3-20.
Weynand K., Jaspart J.-P. Steenhuis M., The stiffness model of revised Annex J of Eurocode
3, in Connections in Steel Structures III, Pergamon, New York, 1996, 441-452.
Wilkinson T., Ranzi G., Williams P., Edwards M. Bolt prying in hollow section base plate
connections, in Sixth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures and
Progress in Structural Stability and Dynamics, Hong Kong, 2009, ISBN 978-988-991405-9.
Software
Abaqus 6.11, Theory Manual and Users Manuals. Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp., 2011.
ACOP software, http://amsections.arcelormittal.com.
EC3 Steel Member Calculator for iPhone, CMM, Associacao Portuguesa de Construcao
Metalica e Mista, https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/ec3-steel-member-calculator.
Sources
This Design manual I was prepared based on Final report (Kuhlmann et al, 2012). The
following Figs were worked up according the Eurocodes and its background materials:
EN1090-2:2008 Figs 8.1-8.3, EN1992-1-1:2004 Fig. 3.5, CEB-FIP:1990 Fig. 4.11, (Gresnight
et al, 2008) Fig. 4.20, (Steenhuis et al, 2008) Figs 3.6-3.9, (Wald et al, 2008) Figs 4.1-4.8.

177

List of partners working on the dissemination project RFS2-CT-2012-00022 Valorisation of knowledge for innovative
fastening solution between steel and concrete:
Ulrike Kuhlmann, Jakob Ruopp
Institute of Structural Design
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Jan Hofmann, Akanshu Sharma
Institute of Construction Materials
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 4
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Frantiek Wald, rka Bekov, Ivo Schwarz
Czech Technical University in Prague
Department of Steel and Timber Structures
Thkurova 7
16629 Praha
Czech Republic
Luis Simes da Silva, Helena Gervsio, Filippo Gentili
GIPAC Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda.
Trav. Padre Manuel da Nbrega 17
3000-323 Coimbra
Portugal
Markus Krimpmann
Goldbeck West GmbH
Ummelner Str. 4-6
33649 Bielefeld
Germany
Jrg van Kann
stahl+verbundbau GmbH
Im Steingrund 8
63303 Dreieich
Germany
Vronique Dehan
ECCS - European Convention for Constructional Steel work
AVENUE DES OMBRAGES 32
1200 Bruxelles
Belgium

ISBN 978-92-9147-119-5

Frantiek Wald, Jan Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhlmann,


rka Bekov, Filippo Gentili, Helena Gervsio, Jos Henriques,
Markus Krimpmann, Ana Obolt, Jakob Ruopp, Ivo Schwarz,
Akanshu Sharma, Luis Simoes da Silva, and Jrg van Kann
Design of steel-to-concrete joints, Design manual I
Printing by European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
February 2014
178 pages, 138 figures, 32 tables
Deliverable of a project carried out with a financial grant from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) of the European Community


178

Design of SteeltoConcrete Joints



Design Manual II










Deliverable of a project carried out with a financial grant
from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community_

Infaso+Handbook II

Design of SteeltoConcrete Joints



Although all care has been taken to ensure the integrity and quality of this publication and the information herein, no liability is as
sumed by the project partners and the publisher for any damage to property or persons as a result of the use of this publication and
the information contained herein.

Reproduction for noncommercial purpose is authorised provided the source is acknowledged and notice is given to the project co
ordinator. Publicly available distribution of this publication through other sources than the web sites given below requires the prior
permission of the project partners. Requests should be addressed to the project coordinator:

Universitt Stuttgart, Institut fr Konstruktion und Entwurf / Institute for Structural Design
Pfaffenwaldring 7
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Phone: +49(0)71168566245
Fax: +49(0)71168566236
Email: sekretariat@ke.unistuttgart.de

The present document and others related to the research project INFASO RFSRCT200700051 New Market Chances for Steel
Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete and the successive dissemination project RFS2CT2012
00022 Valorisation of Knowledge for Innovative Fastening Solution between Steel and Concrete, which have been cofunded by the
Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) of the European Community, can be accessed for free on the following project partners web
sites:
Czech:

steel.fsv.cvut.cz/infaso

Germany:

www.unistuttgart.de/ke/

Germany:

www.iwb.unistuttgart.de/

Portugal:

www.steelconstruct.com/site/

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se


m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

List of Partners
List of partners working on the dissemination project RFS2CT201200022 Valorization of knowledge for
innovative fastening solution between steel and concrete:

Ulrike Kuhlmann, Jakob Ruopp
Institute of Structural Design
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
70569 Stuttgart
Germany

Jan Hofmann, Akanshu Sharma
Institute of Construction Materials
University Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 4
70569 Stuttgart
Germany

Frantiek Wald, rka Bekov, Ivo Schwarz
Czech Technical University in Prague
Department of Steel and Timber Structures
Thkurova 7
16629 Praha
Czech Republic

Luis Simes da Silva, Helena Gervsio, Filippo Gentili
GIPAC Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda.
Trav. Padre Manuel da Nbrega 17
3000323 Coimbra
Portugal

Markus Krimpmann
Goldbeck West GmbH
Ummelner Str. 46
33649 Bielefeld
Germany

Jrg van Kann
stahl+verbundbau GmbH
Im Steingrund 8
63303 Dreieich
Germany

Vronique Dehan
ECCS European Convention for Constructional Steel work
AVENUE DES OMBRAGES 32
1200 Bruxelles
Belgium

Infaso+Handbook II

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

Contents
LIST OF PARTNERS ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 9
1.1

Introduction and structure of the document .......................................................................................................... 9


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................... 11

2.1

Restrained connection of composite beams ........................................................................................................ 11

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11
Program structure ...................................................................................................................................................... 11
Input and output data and input data cells ..................................................................................................... 12
Calculation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Results of evaluation of individual components ........................................................................................... 17
Global Results ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.2

Slim anchor plate with headed studs bending joints .................................................................................... 22

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Program structure and static model .................................................................................................................. 22
EXCELWorksheets / VBAProgram ................................................................................................................... 27
Components .................................................................................................................................................................. 28
Safety factors ................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Boundary conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 28
Input mask ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 33
Optimization of the joint .......................................................................................................................................... 36
2.3

Rigid anchor plate with headed studs simple joint ....................................................................................... 37

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 37
Program structure and static model .................................................................................................................. 37
EXCEL Worksheets / VBA program .................................................................................................................... 37
Components .................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Safety factors ................................................................................................................................................................ 38
Boundary condition ................................................................................................................................................... 39
Input mask ..................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Output mask .................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Optimization of the joint .......................................................................................................................................... 40
3

DESIGN EXAMPLES .......................................................................................................................................... 42


5

Infaso+Handbook II

3.1

Composite beam of a standard office structure connected to reinforced concrete wall .................. 42

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 42
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 43
Structural analysis of the joint .............................................................................................................................. 44
Conducting ..................................................................................................................................................................... 49
3.2

Column base as connection of a safety fence on a car parking deck to a reinforced concrete slab
50

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 50
Conducting and assessment ................................................................................................................................... 55
3.3
Connection of a balcony construction on an insulated exterior reinforced concrete wall as simple
connection ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 56

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Execution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 57
Conducting and Assessment .................................................................................................................................. 60
4

PARAMETER STUDIES .................................................................................................................................... 62


4.1

General .................................................................................................................................................................................. 62

4.2

Parameter study on concrete components ........................................................................................................... 62

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 62
Example considered .................................................................................................................................................. 62
Parameter studied and methodology followed ............................................................................................. 62
Sensitivity to Concrete Strength, fck .................................................................................................................... 63
Sensitivity to parameter c ..................................................................................................................................... 64
Sensitivity to effective embedment depth hef ................................................................................................. 65
Sensitivity to shoulder with a ................................................................................................................................ 66
Sensitivity to pressing relation m ........................................................................................................................ 66
Sensitivity to design bond strength fbd .............................................................................................................. 67

4.3

Sensitivity to diameter of supplementary reinforcement ds,re .......................................................... 67

Sensitivity to descending anchor stiffness due to concrete, kp,de ..................................................... 68

Summary of sensitivity of anchorage stiffness to various parameters ......................................... 68

Parameter study on simple steeltoconcrete joints ........................................................................................ 70

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 70
Validation of the model ............................................................................................................................................ 70
Sensitivity study of major parameters .............................................................................................................. 72
Limits of the model and recommendations .................................................................................................... 78
4.4

Parameter study on column bases ........................................................................................................................... 81

Validation of the model ............................................................................................................................................ 81


6

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Sensitivity study of major parameters .............................................................................................................. 83


Limits of the model .................................................................................................................................................... 89
Recommendation for design values ................................................................................................................... 90
4.5

Parameter study on composite joints ..................................................................................................................... 99

General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 99
Parameters Studied and methodology followed ........................................................................................... 99
Failure Mechanism .................................................................................................................................................. 100
Valorization of slab reinforcement properties ........................................................................................... 100
Variation of angle ................................................................................................................................................. 102
Variation of wall concrete grade ....................................................................................................................... 104
Interaction between wall thickness and concrete grade ....................................................................... 105
Summary, Predesign charts for ductile behaviour ................................................................................... 107
5

SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 111

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 112

Infaso+Handbook II

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berschrift 1.

1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction and structure of the document
The mixed building technology allows to utilise the best performance of all structural materials available
such as steel, concrete, timber and glass. Therefore the building are nowadays seldom designed from only
one structural material. Engineers of steel structures in practice are often faced with the question of eco
nomical design of steeltoconcrete joints, because some structural elements, such as foundations, stair
cases and fire protection walls, are optimal of concrete. A gap in knowledge between the design of fastenings
in concrete and steel design was abridged by standardized joint solutions developed in the INFASO project,
which profit from the advantage of steel as a very flexible and applicable material and allow an intelligent
connection between steel and concrete building elements. The requirements for such joint solutions are
easy fabrication, quick erection, applicability in existing structures, high loading capacity and sufficient de
formation capacity. One joint solution is the use of anchor plates with welded headed studs or other fasten
ers such as postinstalled anchors. Thereby a steel beam can be connected by butt straps, cams or a beam
end plate connected by threaded bolts on the steel plate encased in concrete. Examples of typical joint so
lutions for simple steeltoconcrete joints, column bases and composite joints are shown in Fig. 1.1.

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 1.1: Examples for steeltoconcrete joints: a) simple joint, b) composite joint, c) column bases
The Design Manual II "Application in practice" shows, how the results of the INFASO projects can be simply
applied with the help of the developed design programs. For this purpose the possibility of joint design with
new components will be pointed out by using practical examples and compared with the previous realiza
tions. A parametric study also indicates the effects of the change of individual components on the bearing
capacity of the entire group of components. A detailed technical description of the newly developed com
ponents, including the explanation of their theory, can be found in the Design Manual I "Design of steelto
concrete joints"[13].
Chapter 2 includes a description of the three design programs that have been developed for the connection
types shown in Fig. 1.1. Explanations for the application in practice, the handling of results and informations
on the program structure will be given as well as application limits and explanations of the selected static
system and the components. Practical examples, which have been calculated by using the newly developed
programs, are included in Chapter 3. These connections are compared in terms of handling, tolerances and
the behaviour under fire conditions to joints calculated by common design rules. The significant increase of
the bearing capacity of the "new" connections under tensile and / or bending stress result from the newly
developed components "pullout" and "concrete cone failure with additional reinforcement". Chapter 4 con
tains parameter studies in order to show the influence of the change of a single component on the entire
group of components, and hence to highlight their effectiveness.

Infaso+Handbook II

10

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2 Program description
2.1 Restrained connection of composite beams
General
In the following the Excel sheet Restrained connection of composite beams (Version 2.0 Draft) [21] is
presented. With this program the load bearing capacity (moment and shear) of a fully defined joint, com
posed of tensional reinforcement in slab and castin steel plate with headed studs and additional reinforce
ment at the lower flange of the steel section can be determined. The shear and the compression component,
derived from given bending moment, are acting on a welded steel bracket with a contact plate inbetween,
as the loading position on the anchor plate is exactly given. The tensional component derived from given
bending moment is transferred by the slab reinforcement, which is bent downwards into the adjacent wall.
Attention should be paid to this issue as at this state of modelling the influence of reduced distances to edges
is not considered. The wall with the castin steel plate is assumed to be infinite in elevation. In this program
only headed studs are considered. Post installed anchors or similar have to be taken in further considera
tion.

Program structure

11

Infaso+Handbook II

The Excel file is composed of two visible


Fig. 2.1: EXCEL input file
sheets. The top sheet contains full input, a
calculation button and the resulting load bearing capacity of the joint with utilization of bending moment
and shear (see Fig. 2.1). The second sheet gives the input data echo, with some additional calculated geom
etry parameters and the characteristic material properties. Subsequently it returns calculation values to
allow checking the calculation flow and intermediate data. Other sheets are not accessible to the user. One
contains data for cross sections (only hot rolled sections are considered), for headed studs and concrete.
The three other sheets are used to calculate tension in studs, shear resistance, anchor plate assessment and
stiffness values. Parameter and results are given in output echo (sheet 2). The user introduces data in cells
coloured in light yellow. All drawings presented are used to illustrate the considered dimensions and theory
used behind. They do neither change with input nor are drawn to scale. A check for plausibility will be exe
cuted for some input parameters, with warning but without abortion. The user has to interpret results on
own responsibility and risk. The majority of the calculations are performed introducing formulae in the
cells. However, when more complex calculation and iterative procedure is required, a macro is used to per
form these calculation. The user has to press the corresponding Calculation button. If any changes in the
parameters are made the macro calculation should be repeated. By opening the worksheet the accessible
input cells (in yellow) are preset with reasonable default values. They must be changed by the user. Hot
rolled steel sections, steel and concrete grades, type and length of studs/reinforcement are implemented
with the help of a dropdown menu to choose one of the given parameters. To model the stiffness according
to the developed theory some additional information must be given in the top (input) sheet. The effective
width and length of slab in tension, the reinforcement actually built in and the number and type of studs
connection slab and steel beam. These information do not influence the load capacity calculations.

Input and output data and input data cells


The user inserts data only into cells coloured in light yellow. The accessible input cells are not empty but
preset per default with reasonable values. They can be changed by the user. The units given in the input
cells must not be entered, they appear automatically to remind the correct input unit.
Choice of appropriate code whereas Eurocode EN 199211 [7] for design of reinforced concrete,
EN 199311 [8] for design of steel and EN 199411 [10] for steelconcrete composite structures are the
obligatory base for all users, the national annexes must be additionally considered. For purpose of design
of connections to concrete it can be chosen between EN 199211 [7] in its original version and the appro
priate (and possibly altered) values according to national annex for Germany, Czech Republic, Portugal, the
UK, France and Finland. The input procedure should be selfexplaining, in context with the model sketch on
top of first visible sheet. According to this principal sketch of the moment resisting joint there are nine com
ponents and their input parameters necessary to define characteristics and geometry.
1. + 2. Composite beam of a hot rolled section of any steel grade acc. to EN 199311 [8] and a reinforced
concrete slab of any concrete grade acc. to EN 199211 [7]. They are connected by studs and working as a
composite structure according to EN 199411 [10]. This composite behaviour is only subject of this calcu
lation because its flexibility due to slip influences the connection stiffness. Following selections can be
made:

Type of sections:
Steel grades:
Concrete grades:
Reinforcement grade:

Hot rolled sections IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM of any height


S 235, S275, S355 acc. to EN 199311 [8] (EN10025)
C20/25 until C50/60 acc. to EN 199211 [7]
BSt 500 ductility class B acc. to EN 199211 [7]

3. Concrete wall the shear and bending moment are to be transferred into the infinite concrete wall with
limited thickness. Per definition reinforcement and a castin steel plate are used. It can be chosen between:

Concrete grades:
C20/25 until C50/60 acc. to EN 199211 [7]
Reinforcement grade: Bst 500 ductility class B acc. to EN 199211 [7]

4. Anchor plate with studs at the bottom flange of the steel section an anchor plate is inserted into the
concrete wall. Welded studs on the rear side transfer tensional (if any) and/or shear forces from top of
12

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berschrift 1.

anchor plate into the concrete. The compression components are transferred directly by contact between
the steel plate and the concrete.

Geometry of plate:
[mm],

Type of studs:









Length of studs:



Distribution studs:


Thickness and 2Ddimensions and steel grade, single input values in


input check: thickness 8mm is deemed to be ok.
Kco resp. Nelson d19, d22, d25 regular or d19, d22 stainless steel, Peikko
d19, d20 regular or d20, d25 reinforcement bar with head all data
including steel grades from ETAapproval (e.g. the steel grades are
considered automatically according to approval).
75 until 525 mm (from ETAapproval), input check: length less than wall
thickness less coverage and plate thickness is deemed to be ok.
Number of studs (4,6,8) and inner distances, input check: distances to lay
within plate are deemed to be ok


5. Steel bracket is welded on top of the anchor plate and takes the shear force with small eccentricity and
transfers it into the anchor plate /concrete wall.

Geometry of plate:





Thickness and 2Ddimensions, nose thickness, input check: width and


height less than anchor plate is deemed to be ok. Position/eccentricity is
required in 6. Contact plate.

6. Contact plate the contact plate is inserted forcefit between the end of the steel section and the anchor
plate at lower flange level. The compression force component from negative (closing) bending moment is
transferred on top of anchor plate.

Geometry of plate:





Thickness and 2Ddimensions, eccentricity of plate position in relation to


anchor plate centre. Input check: width less than anchor plate and position
within anchor plate is deemed to be ok.

7. Reinforcement bars in the slab of the composite section. The tensional force component from negative
(closing) bending moment is transferred into the wall and bent down on the rear face of the wall and an
chored there. Whereas the necessary design reinforcement is calculated by the work sheet, for later use of
stiffness calculation, the existing reinforcement in the slab of the composite beam is required. The bar di
ameter should be chosen in a way that reasonable spacings within the effective width result and that the
bend can be installed within the wall. The length of tension zone is crucial for the stiffness evaluation and
depends on the structural system. It must be chosen in accordance with codes or independent calculation
results of the underlying model (Example: in case of beam simply supported and other side restrained it is
0,25 *length, in case of cantilever beam it is 1,0*length)

Bars:

steel area [cm], diameter and length of tension zone [cm], input check:
reinforcement must be minimum design reinf. area, spacing of bars should be
within interval 525 cm, bar curvature *20 must fit into wall.

8. Additional stirrups these optional stirrups are proposed as an effective means to improve the joint in
case of tension forces (if any, only in case of small moments and large shear force with large eccentricity) in
the stud. They are useful only in the upper row, and only under certain circumstances of the complete as
semblage. Further information can be found in the parameter study in Chapter 4. Generally there is always
a surface reinforcement in the front face of the wall. This may be optionally taken into account and will
improve the capacity of the joint under certain circumstances of the complete assemblage.

Reinforcement:





bardiameter of stirrups with legs each very close to studs (default: no


stirrup, input range 814 mm), and surface reinforcement bardiameter
(614 mm) and spacing (75250 mm)

13

Infaso+Handbook II

9. Slab studs these studs are welded at the upper flange of the steel cross section and are the connection
medium in the joint between steel and concrete sections to work as a composite structure according to
EN 199411 [10]. Only the composite behaviour is subject of the calculation because its flexibility due to
slip influences the connection stiffness.

Studs:




Distribution studs:


Diameter (16 25 mm) and length of studs (75525 mm) of any kind,
input check: length less than slab thickness less coverage.
Number of studs < 27 within length of tension zone, input check:
spacing of studs should be within limits of EN 199411 [10].

10. Loads a combination of shear force and bending moment must be given by overwriting the preset
starting values. Design Forces with partial safety factors according to current codes are required. An evalu
ation of capacity of composite beam section is not executed at that point and must be done separately by
the user!

Loading:

Shear force Ved [kN] and bending moment Med [kNm] from external
member calculation.

Calculation
As it is the characteristic of worksheet programming the calculation has to be updated any time if the user
changes input parameters. This program does the same, starting with the preset values and recalculates any
time the content of a cell (if necessary for the mechanical model) is changed, so any result is up to date. Due
to the nonlinear characteristic of the compressed anchor plate on the top of the wall concrete at bottom of
top sheet a calculation button is placed, which starts the complex update of the effective geometry (via
Macroprogramming). After any change of input parameters this button must be pushed for updating the
complex evaluation of anchor plate behaviour. Even if differences often can be small, only the calculation
starting with the calculation button yields the correct result regarding the presented model. Detailed results
are given on second sheet. If the anchor plate is assumed to be rigid, the original dimensions can be used
for further calculation. In case of a thin and flexible anchor plate reduced dimensions are returned and used
for further calculation.

Output mask
The user inserts data only into cells coloured in light yellow. Any other cell is automatically (or by using the
Calculate button) updated with result data. At the bottom of top sheet (see Fig. 2.2) the load bearing capac
ity and utilization of the joint assemblage for tension and shear is given in terms of VR,d and MR,d, resp.
VS,d/VR,d and MS,d/MR,d. The minimum tensional reinforcement (design) in the slab is given as information.
On top of the second sheet (see Fig. 2.2) the input data from page one together with some additionally cal
culated geometry parameters and characteristic material properties are given. These are:

14

Steel section of the composite beam, with characteristics geometric and steel grade values. The sec
tion is restricted to common hot rolled sections as available in Europe. Three predefined steel
grades are available according to EN 199311 [8]. Attention should be paid, that these steel grades
are only used for assessment of the composite beam and not for the anchoring of the joint.
Contact plate the contact plate is an interface between lower flange of the steel section and the
anchor plate. Per definition the gravity centre is in one line with the centroid axis of the flange. By
input of distance between upper edge of the anchor plate to upper edge of the contact plate the
loading position is defined.
Steel bracket this bracket is the interface to carry the shear load. The position is defined exactly
by input of contact plate because of direct contact. The eccentricity of shear loading, i.e. the position
of vertical support of section flange is defined by subtracting half contact area (tsb2 or ax) from total
thickness (tsb) of the bracket.
The rectangular steel plate is defined by three parameters. It is assumed to be flush with surface of
concrete wall, where it is embedded. Three predefined steel grades are available according to EN
199311 [8]. The given steel grade applies for contact plate and steel bracket as well.

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The parameters of headed studs are:

The thickness and the steel grade with characteristic tensional resp. yield strength acc. to the Eu
ropean approvals of the stud types, the number of rows and columns with their corresponding dis
tances of axis.

The parameters of the concrete parts are:

Slab section concrete grade with characteristic (cylindrical) strength according to


EN 199211 [7], thickness together with distance of reinforcement (fixed to 40 mm), width of slab
and area of reinforcement (given) are returned from input.
Wall section concrete grade with characteristic (cylindrical) strength according to EN 199211,
wall thickness together with the distance of the reinforcement (fixed to 40 mm at both sides) are
returned from input. The wall is assumed to be infinite, as close to edge anchoring is not considered.
Two possible types can be built in as supplementary reinforcement. The orthogonal surface rein
forcement of given diameter and spacing (distance to surface 40mm) and the supplementary rein
forcement close to the stud in tension to clearly enhance the capacity of the stud in concrete. These
stirrups may be defined by arbitrary diameter, whereas the number of legs in that case is fixed to
four in this program (i.e. two stirrups very close to each stud, positioned orthogonal to the wall
surface).

Joint loading echo:

Beneath the given external moment and shear loading (design forces) the resulting external design
components tension in slab reinforcement (Td) and compression on contact plate (Cd) are returned
these forces are equal in absence of external axial forces, as it is assumed in that model.
The eccentricity of the shear force is calculated with geometric components of bracket, anchor plate
thickness and following common practice the stud diameter. This yields a local moment acting
on the anchor plate which is returned.

15

Infaso+Handbook II


Fig. 2.2: EXCEL output file 1

16

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berschrift 1.

Fig. 2.3: EXCEL output file 2

Fig. 2.4: EXCEL output file 3

Results of evaluation of individual components


2.1.6.1

General

In the following the results of evaluation of individual components are presented. In this specific joint con
stellation of moment resisting composite joint with closing, negative bending moment, generally concrete
is in compression and the anchor plate is in bending. The calculation model relies on consideration of the
activated components illustrated in the following Fig. 2.5. The Excel sheet evaluates the following compo
nents.

Number

Component

Slab reinforcement in tension

Beam web and flange in compression

Contact plate in compression

Bracket in bending (rotational spring)

Anchor in tension

Concrete in compression with anchor plate


in bending

Concrete strut in compression.

Fig. 2.5: Components for joints with negative bending moment


17

Infaso+Handbook II

18

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berschrift 1.

2.1.6.2

Anchor plate in compression and bending

Any result of this component is derived from the nonlinear evaluation of combined compression force from
negative bending moment and moment due to the eccentricity of shear force at the anchor plate. First the
minimum thickness required to consider the anchor plate as rigid is determined. By comparing the mini
mum thickness previously calculated with the actual thickness of the anchor plate, the type of the plate
under consideration is determined. If the plate is rigid, the real dimensions of the plate are used in the fol
lowing calculations. If flexible, an equivalent rigid and smaller plate is determined. An iterative procedure
using a macro is implemented. This macro will be started by pushing the CALCULATE button at top sheet.
Subsequently two extreme cases are considered:

Maximum axial load under compression together with a given eccentricity moment from shear
force X eccentricity.
Maximum bending moment together with a given axial load under compression.

The given values are the same as in cells D/36 and D/33 respectively, the calculated values define the cor
responding forces the anchor plate configuration can bear additionally. The fictive effective size of the plate
is returned as well.
2.1.6.3

Tensional resistance of the upper row of anchors

In this part the resistance of the upper row of anchors, which possibly may be in tension, is evaluated. Dif
ferent failure modes are possible. Tension resistance of studs is equal to the minimum resistance value of
the five following components:
Steel failure
Steel failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.2.3 [2].
Pullout failure
Pull out failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.2.4 [2]. Cracked concrete is assumed, though
uncracked concrete of the wall is possible due to vertical loading in the wall; this must be separately as
sessed in case the parameter may be 1,4 for uncracked concrete.
Concrete cone failure without supplementary reinforcement (modified standard model)
Cracked concrete is assumed, though uncracked concrete of the wall is possible due to vertical loading in
the wall; this must be separately assessed in case the parameter may be 1,4 for uncracked concrete.
Concrete cone failure with supplementary hanger reinforcement
If supplementary stirrups are used with a di
ameter according to the input on the top sheet
and per definition with 2+2 legs, an additional
resistance component can be evaluated, as
suming the stirrup bar axis being 40 mm be
low the surface (see Fig. 2.6).This concrete
cone failure mode depends fully on the behav
iour of the stirrups. If steel yielding or steel
bond failure occurs before reaching the con
crete cone resistance, the resistance force will
be the yielding or anchorage force instead.


Fig. 2.6: Definition of distance x

Yielding of stirrups
Anchoring failure of stirrups

19

Infaso+Handbook II

Splitting failure
Due to the fact, that the wall per definition is indefinite only the minimum wall thickness must be checked.
For long studs with large cones splitting is generally possible and must be assessed. The existence of a min
imum surface reinforcement is sufficient to avoid splitting failure. This reinforcement should be determined
in each orthogonal direction according to Eq. (2.1). The material safety factor used with reinforcement bars
is s = 1,15. If this conditions is not fulfilled, the resistance force for splitting failure will be calculated.
A
2.1.6.4

0,5

N
f /

(2.1)

Diagonal concrete strut

Regarding the concrete part of the wall, for the bending moment a
simple single diagonal compression strut has been assumed. In Fig.
2.7this strut is represented by a dashed line.
2.1.6.5

Longitudinal steel reinforcement in tension

The longitudinal reinforcement of the concrete slab is the only ele


ment considered in the tension zone. Concrete is ignored. The ten
sion force is calculated using a twopointsection with reinforce
ment in slab and compression point in the middle of lower flange,
fulfilling equilibrium. The resistance of this first component is eval
uated according to EN 199411, Cl. 4.4 [10] and is restricted to re
inforcement within the effective width according to Cl. 4.2.


Fig. 2.7: Strut and tie model

2.1.6.6

Shear components

In this part the shear resistance of the anchors is evaluated. Three resistance components can be deter
mined for shear: friction, steel failure of the anchors and pryout failure. Shear resistance of studs is equal
to the minimum resistance value of the three components mentioned above.
Friction
In the compressed area a friction component acting opposite to the shear force is possible. Nevertheless the
coefficient at that stage is set to zero, i.e. no friction.
Steel failure
Steel failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.3.3 [2].
Pryout failure
Pryout failure is calculated according to EN 199242, Cl. 6.3.4 [2].
Resulting shear resistance
The shear force which can be applied to the concrete wall is restricted by two mechanism the minimum
of these two will be the relevant design force under given geometrical circumstances.

20

Pure shear: the shear resistance is derived from the fore mentioned considerations. This value
is governed under usual circumstances, as found in real structures. This force is called VRd,V.
Shear force with small eccentricity: the shear force can be limited as well by the resistance of
the anchor plate. The maximum moment derived from eccentricity under a given compression
force is evaluated in 2.1.6.2 cell D/36. Divided by the lever arm of the bracket the shear force
called VRd,M is defined.

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2.1.6.7

Other steel components

In this part other steel components on top of the anchor plate might be assessed that should not fail even if
they are not part of the model anchor plate with headed studs. Under consideration are: steel contact
plate, beam web and flange in compression and steel bracket. The first two are calculated using
EN 199411 [10] and EN 199318 [9], respectively. The steel bracket is analysed comparing the acting
bending moment with resisting bending moment, at the crosssection in contact with the anchor plate. Ad
ditionally one must assess the welding seams of the bracket as well. The assessment of these components
is returning OK or NOT OK. The user has to decide what actions to be taken (e.g. changing geometry or
material grades) to fulfil the requirements.

Global Results
2.1.7.1

Utilisation in terms of overall bending moment and shear

At the bottom of second sheet the load bearing capacity and utilization of the joint assemblage for tension
and shear is given in terms of VR,d and MR,d, resp VS,d/VR,d and MS,d/MR,d. These values are transferred to bot
tom of top sheet (see 2.1.5).
2.1.7.2

Interaction

In case of tension and shear in the stud additionally the combined action of both components must be as
sessed. As it is a rare situation due the governing compression force from closing moments, usually there is
no limitation. If tension and shear forces have to be considered, Eq (2.2) can be applied according to
EN 199242, Cl. 6.4.1 [10].
V
V

,
,

T,
T,

(2.2)

As Exponent = 2,0 is taken in case of steel failure acc. to Cl. 6.4.1.1 or = 1,5 in case of other failure modes
acc. to Cl. 6.4.1.2. In case of supplementary reinforcement which is designed for both failure modes tension
and shear, the same can be applied. For simplification, and according to the current status of European
approvals for headed studs, the value = 1,5 is used.
2.1.7.3

Stiffness and ductility

Due to the character of the joint, the stiffness of the moment resisting joint (i.e. relation of overall bending
moment to rotation) depends mainly on the nonlinear flexibility of steel/concrete bond, the slip of studs in
slab and the behaviour of concrete shear panel in the wall which is activated by the bend of reinforcement,
whereas the compression strain in the anchor plate is inferior. This approximate joint stiffness by M*lever
arm/horizontal displacement in axis of reinforcement is given with two parameters:

Sini = initial stiffness in unit [MNm/rad] gives the relation between bending moment and rotation
of the connection in the very beginning. The incline represents the maximum elastic behaviour.
Ssec = Secant stiffness in unit [MNm/rad] gives the relation between the effective bending moment
and the according, possibly nonlinear rotation of the connection. The incline is always equal (in
case of small bending moment and elastic behaviour) or typically smaller than Sini.

The term ductility is usually used in connections with energy consuming behaviour due to plasticity, if there
is displacement which will not reset but will remain in case of load removal. So even if the descent of stiff
ness Ssec points to nonlinearity it mostly will be a nonlinear elastic effect, which yields no ductility factor. In
that case the cell will give the information elastic.
2.1.7.4

Anchor plate and minimum tensional reinforcement

The type of anchor plate behaviour is given as information (rigid/flexible) and represents cell B45 of this
sheet and the minimum tensional reinforcement (design) in the slab is given as information.
21

Infaso+Handbook II

2.2 Slim anchor plate with headed studs bending joints


General
With the program slim anchor plates with headed studs bending joints (Version 2.0) [22] load carrying
capacities of joints with minimum four and maximum six headed studs can be proved. The headed studs
therefore have to be placed in two rows and the loading only can be considered in one direction (see Fig.
2.8). In the progress of the calculation the deformation behaviour of the anchor plate up to a kinematic chain
is taken into consideration. At the end a momentrotation curve can be obtained. The load carrying capacity
of the tensional component can be increased by taking the supplementary reinforcement which is placed
next to the headed studs into account. Compared to pure concrete cone failure the capacity of this compo
nent can be highly increased due to supplementary reinforcement. Within anchor plates, where the load
carrying capacity of the tensional, bending or combined components is not governed due to failure of the
steel components (anchor plate in bending, headed studs in tension) high increases in loading of the joint
are possible. Additional the knowledge of the deformation behaviour of the joint can be used in the global
analysis.


Fig. 2.8: Geometry of the joint with slim anchor plate

Program structure and static model


2.2.2.1

General

The design software is based on the EXCEL table calculation program with the integrated programming
language VBA. Within the EXCEL file ten different spreadsheets for the in and output, for the design of the
different components, for the consideration of the joint in the global analysis and for a summary of the joint
properties. Due to physical nonlinear behaviour of the anchor plate under bending forces and the geomet
ric nonlinear effects based on the development of cinematic chains, the design approach is done iteratively
with consideration of changes in the system. The geometric nonlinear effect occurs due to the activation of
the anchor plate due to tension forces and additional nonlinear loaddeformation behaviour of the single
components. This is implemented in the VBAprogram, which is accessing the input data from the different
spreadsheets.
22

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berschrift 1.

2.2.2.2

Loadtransfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moment M static model at the beginning
of the calculation process

The first model for the load transfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moments M is a continuous
beam supported on single springs. The anchor plate is therefore modeled as a twodimensional system. As
the connected profile stiffens the anchor plate, this sections is modeled with rigid members. Springs for
compression are placed at the nodes 1 to 8 to reflect the behaviour of the concrete under compression. If
the anchor plate is not in contact with the concrete surface and no compression forces in this place might
occur, the springs can be neglected. Nonlinear tensional springs are reflecting the load carrying behaviour
of the headed stud with the supplementary reinforcement. Depending on the geometry of the anchor plate
the tensional springs can be only placed on the nodes 2 and 7, 3 and 6 or 4 and 5. They are only activated if
the distance between the anchor plate and the concrete surfaces increases. If not a spring which is simulat
ing the compression forces of the concrete is placed at the same node. There are no hinges in the continuous
beam at the beginning of the calculation, but within the calculation process plastic hinges might occur at the
nodes 2, 3, 6 and 7. After each load step the boundary conditions of the supporting springs are adopted. The
prying forces of the anchor plate are considered by the compression springs in the external nodes 1 and 8
(see Fig. 2.9).


Fig. 2.9: Design model for vertical loads and bending moments
The calculation will be done by displacement method. Nonlinear (physical) effects will be considered by an
iterative calculation with continuous increase of load steps. For every load step the support conditions and
the appearance of plastic hinges will be checked. In case of changing support conditions or appearance of
plastic hinges the corresponding elements of the total stiffness matrix K, the kinematic transformation ma
trix a and the vector of the external nodal forces P will be manipulated. In case of bending loads without
tension forces (N 0) the row of headed studs near to the compression zone is not considered as support
spring for tension loads (cs=0). Internal forces and global node deformations caused by bending moments
and normal forces will be determined by using the displacement method, (Krtzig [18]).

kv

a V

(2.3)

(2.4)
(2.5)

a s

a k aV

kaV

KV

(2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)
23

Infaso+Handbook II

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berschrift 1.

With:
s
v
P
V
k
a

Vector of internal element end forces;


Vector of internal element end displacements;
Vector of external nodal forces;
Vector of external nodal displacements;
Reduced stiffness matrix of all elements;
Kinematic transformation matrix;
Vector of internal rigidboundary element forces.

Nonlinear material effects will be considered by manipulating the total stiffness matrix K, the kinematic
transformation Matrix a and the vector of the external nodal forces P.
K
With:
Ksing
Kbound

(2.9)

Stiffness matrix without boundary conditions and hinges at node 2, 3, 6 and 7;


Stiffness matrix considering boundary conditions and reducing 0Elements at the main diagonal caused by
reducing hinges.

P
With:
P
P
a

(2.10)

Nodal forces caused by external loads;


Nodal forces caused by nonlinear support springs and plastic hinges;
Varying some values to reduce the number of degrees of freedom at the nodes 2, 3, 6 and 7 in case of no plastic
hinges.

The bearing reactions will be determined by multiplying the diagonal elements of Kbound by the correspond
ing deformations of V plus the nodal forces of P.
C
C

P
P

20x1

V
V

4EI 2EI
l
l
2EI 4EI
l
l

2x2

P ;; C

20x1

(2.11)

P
K

M
M

M
M
4EI
l
2EI
l

14x1

2EI
l
4EI
l

14x1

(2.12)

4EI
l
2EI
l

14x14

2EI
l
4EI
l

25

Infaso+Handbook II

1
l
1
1
l1

0
a
0

1
l1
1
l1
1

l2
1

l2
0
0

1
l2
1
l2
1

l3
1

l3

1
l3
1
l3
1

l4
1

l4

1
l4
1
l4
1

l5
1

l5

1
l5
1
l5
1

l6
1

l6

1
l6
1
l6
1

l7
1

l7

0
0
1
l7
1

l7

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(14x20)

In case of no hinge at node 2, 3, 6 or 7 the marked values of the corresponding lines will be changed.
K

(2.13)

a k a 20x20
K
0

0
0 0

0 0
0

0
0
0 0

0 K
0 0

20x20

20x20

(2.14)

(2.15)

The loading that has been implemented by the engineer in the input worksheet is subdivided into 100 load
steps and applied gradually to the system. After 100 load steps the entire load is applied to the statical
system. It might happen, that a kinematic chain due to plastic hinges will occur and the beam series will fail
before reaching the last sub step (singular stiffness matrix). In this cases the iteration will continue with a
different system, which is described in the following.
2.2.2.3

Loadtransfer of the vertical loads N and the bending moment M static model after formation of
a plastic chain

The anchor plate can be considered as a tension member after the formation of a plastic chain (see Fig. 2.10.)
As a simplification the whole resultant tension force is assigned to the bar with the higher inclination. For
each new load step the increase in loading of the normal force in the deformed system is determined. In the
next step the elongation of the tensional bar and the entire deformation of the anchor plate is calculated. In
general the load carrying capacity is limited due to the component resistance of the supports (headed
studs). Due to the relatively low deformation of the anchor plate extreme horizontal forces will act at the
supports of the membrane system.
26

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Fig. 2.10: Model of the baseplate under tension and simplified calculation model
For the load transfer of the horizontal forces V the friction forces between concrete and the anchor plate
are considered on all joints with compression springs (see Fig. 2.11). The remaining forces as difference
between friction part and applied shear load will be distributed among the headed studs according to the
stiffness of the spring.


Fig. 2.11: Design model for horizontal (shear) loads

EXCELWorksheets / VBAProgram
The whole design tool contains ten Microsoft Excel worksheets and one Microsoft Visual Basic program
part. Visible for the user are only the worksheets Input + Output and Design output. The following sched
ule gives a short overview about the function of the different worksheets (see Tab. 2.1 and Tab. 2.2).
Tab. 2.1: Overview of all worksheets
Name (Worksheet)
Function
Input + Output
Chapter 2.2.7
Design output
Chapter 2.2.8
Headed studs tension
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent headed studs in tension (considering additional reinforcement)
Headed studs shear
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent headed studs in shear
HS interaction tension Determination of the load bearing capacity of headed studs under tension and shear
shear
loads
Concrete member com Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
pression
ponent Concrete member under compression loads
Steel plate bending
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the com
ponent Steel plate under bending moments
Calculation core anchor Calculation of internal forces and bearing reactions by displacement method for every
plate
load step
Data
Data schedule for fixed values (materials, dimensions, partial factors, internal control
parameters)
Data temp
Data schedule for temporary values (nodal displacements of every load step); nodal
displacements are used to create the momentrotation curve in Design output
Tab. 2.2: VBASubroutine
Program (Subroutine)
Function

27

Infaso+Handbook II

NL_Berechnung

Iterative calculation of internal forces and bearing reactions by using the worksheet
Calculation core anchor plate for 100 load steps; change of support conditions or in
troducing plastic hinges depending of the bearing reactions or the internal forces for
the current load step; system change after reaching a kinematic structure

Components
The following components are implemented in the program. Detailed explanations of this components can
be found in Handbook I in the specific sections. The load deformation behaviour of the anchor plate is con
sidered within the iterative calculation of the load steps.
Tab. 2.3: Components implemented in the calculation program for slim anchor plate
Component

Concrete
breakout in
tension

Headed stud
in tension

Stirrups in ten
sion

Pullout fail
ure of the
headed stud

Headed stud in shear

Figure

Component


Friction

Concrete in compression


Threaded studs in tension/
shear

Figure

Safety factors
Tab. 2.4: Ultimate limit state (CEN/TS 199241:2009 4.4.3.1.1 [1])
Steel
Anchors tension
Ms

Anchors shear

Reinforcement

Ms

Ms=1,2*fuk/fykMs1,4)

Ms,re

Ms=1,0*fuk/fyk Ms1,25 (fuk800 N/mm and fyk/fuk0,8))

1,15

Ms=1,25 (fuk>800 N/mm or fyk/fuk>0,8)


Tab. 2.6: Ultimate limit state (CEN/TS 19924
1:2009 4.4.3.1.2 [1])

Tab. 2.5: Ultimate limit state (EN 199318 [9])



Steel
Steelplate

Ma

1,00
(no stability failure)

Concrete
Cone fail Pryout
ure
failure
Mc

Mc

1,5

1,5

Pull out fail Anchor. fail


ure
ure
Mp

1,5

Mc

1,5

Boundary conditions
Anchor plates with headed studs at the concrete side and a welded steel profile at the airside do have com
plex three dimensional load transfer. Under compression forces all sections of the anchor plate are sup
ported in places, where a gap might occur (except in the area of the headed studs) under tensional forces.
The web and the flange of the welded steel sections do have a stiffening effect on the anchor plate. Inde
pendently from the thickness of the anchor plat the anchor plate is assumed in the stiffened sections as
almost completely rigid. Due to this reason the system is assumed as two dimensional continuous beam. In
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the midsection of the beam the normal and shear forces and the bending moments are acting. Between line
2 and line 3 (see Fig. 2.12) the anchor plate is assumed to be rigid and discretized by a rigid bar. The geo
metrical cross section of all other bars is formed by the effective width bm and the thickness of the anchor
plate tAP. As lower limit the effective width bm is assumed with bPR + 5 * tAP , as upper limit the entire width
of the anchor plate is possible. If plastic hinges in the anchor plate occur the yielding lines are assumed as
continuous and perpendicular to the axis of the discretized bar (see Fig. 2.12). If this plastic resistance of
the anchor plate is larger as if the yielding lines would be locally limited due to a triangular shape of the
yielding lines (see Fig. 2.13). The effective width of the anchor plate is reduced accordingly without falling
below the resistance of the lower limit.
Rolled I sections


Buttstrup



Fig. 2.12: Static model of the anchor plate yielding
lines with yielding lines over the whole width

Fig. 2.13: Local rotating yielding lines for cases


where bHS > bPR

The tensional resistance in cases of straight yielding lines (see Fig. 2.12) can be calculated with Equa
tions (2.16) to (2.18).
Z

m
Z

b
m
b

2
a
f

2

b

(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.18)

The tensional resistance for local rotating yielding lines (see Fig. 2.14) can be calculated with Equations
(2.19) to (2.22).

29

Infaso+Handbook II


Fig. 2.14: Geometry for local rotating yielding lines
l

l
s
s
s
s

c
a

b
l
l
b

2 d
d /
a
c
d /

b
s
l sin with sin
d/l
l / tan with tan
d / a b
s
s
l tan with tan
b /d
l tan with sin
s /l

(2.20)

/s

tan
/s

tan
/s
tan
/l
/s
tan ,
/l

tan ,
tan
/s
/s

(2.21)

(2.19)

2l
2l
l ,
m , f

Z
2l
2l
l ,
,

2l
(2.22)

2 l /

If flocal < fbar the effective width of the bar is calculated with Eq. (2.23).
b

/f

(2.23)

The design calculations for the connection between the steel profile and the anchor plate are not covered
by the design program and have to be done in spate calculations. If steel profiles are not directly welded to
the anchor plate and connected by threaded studs and an endplate the dimensions lAP and bAP have to be
defined analogous independent from the actual dimensions of the steel profile (for example with the dis
tances of the threaded studs lAP and bAP). The new components that are used in the program are based on
test with large edge distances of the headed studs. Due to this reason the edge distances of Fig. 4.22 are
required (see Chapter 4.3.4.2).
If the supplementary reinforcement is located with too large distance from the headed stud or from the
concrete surface the anchorage length of the reinforcement within the concrete cone can be too small (see
Fig. 2.15). In the worst case the contribution due to the supplementary reinforcement can be neglected. The
distances X and Y in Fig. 2.15 have to be minimized.

30

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Values X and Y as small as possible
Fig. 2.15: Arrangement of the hanger reinforcement

Input mask
The input sheet Input + Output shows on
top a sketch of the connection labeling the
most important input parameters. In the
second part of the worksheet the dimen
sions, materials and loads on the anchor
plate can be entered into the program. With
the CalculationButton on the right bot
tom of the worksheet the nonlinear deter
mination of internal forces and the compo
nent design will be started. Left beside the
CalculationButton the degree of utiliza
tion of the main components is shown. In
the following the input data is described in
particular.
Steel profile (1. line): Input of the length
lPR [mm] and the width bPR [mm] of the con
nected profile or steel element to deter
mine the rigid plate area. In case of connec
tions of steel profiles with head plates by
threaded studs welded on the anchor plate
directly the outer distances of the threaded
studs in both directions have to be used for
lPR and bPR.
Anchor plate (2. line): Input of the length
lAP [mm], the width bAP [mm] and the thick
ness tAP [mm] of the anchor plate; the num
ber of headed studs per row (2 or 3); the
material of the steel plate (acc. to EN 1993
11 Chyba! Nenalezen zdroj odkaz. and
EN 10025 [4]).

Fig. 2.16: Excel worksheet Input + Output page 1/1


Headed studs (3. line): Input of the dis
tances of the headed studs in longitudinal direction lHS [mm], in cross direction bHS [mm]; the shaft diameter
[mm]; the length of the studs hn [mm]; the material of the headed studs (acc. to EN 10025 and EN 10088).
In case of lHS lPR the distance bHS of the headed studs has to be equal or smaller than the width bPR plus five
times tAP (bHSbPR+5*tAP).

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Infaso+Handbook II

Reinforcement (4. line): Input of the diameter dS [mm] and the material (acc. to DIN 488 [3]) of the rein
forcement stirrups. The reinforcement stirrups have to be formed as loops with the smallest admissible
bending role diameter. They have to be grouped in pairs close to the shafts of the headed studs with mini
mum distance to the bottom side of the anchor plate (maximum possible overlapping length of stirrup leg
and headed stud).
Concrete member (5. line): Input of the thickness hC [mm] and the material type (acc. to EN 199211 [7])
of the concrete member.
Loads (last line): Input of the bending moment MEd [kNm], the normal force NEd [kN] and the shear force
VEd [kN] as design loads (ultimate limit state). Design loads have to be determined by the user. Partial factors
will not be considered at the load side by the program!

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Output mask
The output sheet Design output is divided into four parts. The first part gives information about the struc
tural system and the nonlinear support conditions (spring models). Results of the nonlinear determination
of internal forces are shown in the second part. In part 3 the main verifications of the components are given.
The last part shows the momentrotation behaviour of the joint.


Fig. 2.17: Excel worksheet Design output page 1/3
33

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Fig. 2.18: Excel worksheet Design output page 2/3

34

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Fig. 2.19: Excel worksheet Design output page 2/3

35

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Optimization of the joint


Following methods can be applied for increase in loading capacity of the joint. Which one of the following
changes should be taken is linked to the individual properties of the joint. Additionally the different methods
are interdependent and the optimization of the joint is an iterative process. Within this process the specific
component has to be changed until sufficient load carrying capacity is reached, see Chapter 4.4.
For large bending moments M and / or large tensional forces N:

(M1) Arrangement of supplementary reinforcement next to the tensional loaded headed stud row.
(M2) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs lHS in the transversal direction.
(M3) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs up to bHS = 3 * hef.
(M4) Enlargement of the effective height of the headed studs.
(M5) Enlargement of the diameter of the headed studs.
(M6) Enlargement of the number of headed suds per row.
(M7) Choice of different steel properties for the headed studs.
(M8) Choice of higher concrete strength.
(M9) Enlargement of the thickness of the anchor plate.
(M10) Choice of different steel properties for the anchor plate.

For large shear forces V:

(M2a) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs lHS = 3 * hef.
(M3) Enlargement of the distance between the headed studs bHS = 3 * hef .
(M4) Enlargement of the effective height of the headed studs.
(M5) Enlargement of the diameter of the headed studs.
(M6) Enlargement of the number of headed suds per row.
(M7) Choice of different steel properties for the headed studs.
(M8) Choice of higher concrete strength.

For bending and shear forces the methods as described above might be combined. The following table
shows possibilities for optimization of joints for different objectives (see Tab. 2.7).
Tab. 2.7: Optimization of the slim anchor plate with headed studs
Objectives
Small thickness of the anchor plate

Method
For bending: Arrangement of the headed studs at the edges of the con
nected steel profile
For bending: Configuration of the components of the joint in a way that
the plastic chain becomes the decisive component of the anchor plate.
Choice of a ductile steel material of the anchor plate.
For bending: Methods M1, M2, M3, M5, M6, (M7), M8, M9, M10;
For shear: Methods M2a, M3, M5, M6, (M7), M8
For bending: Methods M2 till M8, (M9), (M10)

High ductility

Small length of the headed studs


No supplementary reinforcement

36

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2.3 Rigid anchor plate with headed studs simple joint


General
With the program Rigid anchor plate
with headed studs simple joint (Ver
sion 2.0) [23] the load carrying capaci
ties of anchor plates with minimum four
and maximum six headed studs in two
rows under loading in one direction can
be calculated (see Fig. 2.20). It is re
quired, that the point of load transfer
into the simple joint is defined in the
static system as hinged. As this point
can`t be assumed directly located at the
concrete surface, the eccentricity has to
be taken into consideration. As the
shear load is applied with some eccen
tricity also bending moments in the an
chor plate have to be considered beside
normal and shear forces. In order to in
crease the tensional resistance of the
Fig. 2.20: Geometry of the joint with rigid anchor plate
component of the headed stud, supple
mentary reinforcement can be used next to the studs. With the supplementary reinforcement high increases
in loading of the joint are possible as the load carrying capacity of pure concrete cone failure can be in
creased by taking the reinforcement into account. The anchor plate is assumed to be rigid without any plas
tic reserves.

Program structure and static model


The design software is based on the EXCEL table calculation program with the integrated programming
language VBA. Within the EXCEL file ten different spreadsheets for the in and output, for the design of the
different components, for the consideration of the joint in the global analysis and for a summary of the joint
properties. In a first step the height of the compression zone is assumed. Based on this assumption all un
known forces in Fig. 4.11 can be calculated. Based on moment equilibrium and equilibrium in the vertical
direction the assumption can be verified. The shear force VEd is carried by a frictional part and the two shear
components of the headed studs, see Eq. (2.24) .
V

(2.24)

With the equilibrium of moments at the intersection point of the action lines of the concrete force CEd and
the shear components of the headed studs VEd,2 and VEd,1 the formulations in Eq. (2.25) can be obtained for
the calculation of the applied normal force in the second stud row. By a vertical equilibrium of forces the
assumed height of the compression zone can be verified. In the program the effective compressive height is
determined iteratively. For further information see Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints",
Chapter 5.2.2 [13] and for the calculation of the deformations see Chapter 4.2 and Chapter 4.3.
V

e
z

t d

d

(2.25)

EXCEL Worksheets / VBA program


The whole design tool contains 10 Microsoft Excel worksheets. Visible for the user are only the worksheets
Input + Output CM and Design output CM. The following schedule gives a short overview about the func
tion of the different worksheets (see Tab. 2.8).


37

Infaso+Handbook II

Tab. 2.8: Overview about the different worksheets


Name (Worksheet)
Input + Output CM
Design output CM
Headed studs tension
Headed studs shear
Headed studs interaction ten
sionshear
Concrete member under com
pression
Steel plate bending CM
Calculation core CM
Data
Data temp

Function
Chapter 2.3.7
Chapter 2.3.8
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component headed studs in tension (considering additional reinforcement)
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component headed studs in shear
Determination of the load bearing capacity of headed studs under tension and
shear loads
Determination of the deformation behaviour and the load bearing capacity of the
component Concrete member under compression loads
Design of the anchor plate under bending moments
Calculation of internal forces by equilibrium of forces and moments; iterative
determination of the compression zones length
Data schedule for fixed values (materials, dimensions, partial factors, internal
control parameters)
Data schedule for temporary values (nodal displacements of every load step);
nodal displacements are used to create the momentrotation curve in Design
output

Components
The following components are implemented in the program (see Tab. 2.9). Detailed explanations of this
components can be found in Handbook I in the specific sections. The load deformation behaviour of the
anchor plate is considered within the iterative calculation of the load steps.
Tab. 2.9: Components implemented in the calculation program for a rigid anchor plate
Component

Concrete
breakout in
tension

Headed stud
in tension

Stirrups in ten
sion

Pullout fail
ure of the
headed stud

Headed stud in shear

Figure

Component

Concrete in compres
sion

Friction

Threaded studs in
tension/ shear


Anchor plate in
bending and ten
sion

Figure

Safety factors
See Chapter 2.2.5

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Boundary condition
The calculation of the design resistance of the connection between the steel element and the anchor plate
is not covered by the program and has to be done separately by the engineer. If the steel elements or the
steel profiles are not directly welded to the anchor plate and connected by threaded studs and an endplate
the dimensions lAP and bAP have to be defined analogous independent from the actual dimensions of the
steel profile (for example with the distances of the threaded studs lAP and bAP). The new components that
are used in the program are based on test with large edge distances of the headed studs. Due to this reason
the edge distances described in Chapter 2.2.6 are required. Also requirements for the exact location of the
supplementary reinforcement are given there.

Input mask
The input sheet Input + Output shows on
top a sketch of the connection labeling the
most important input parameters (see Fig.
2.21). In the second part of the worksheet
the dimensions, materials and loads on the
anchor plate can be fed into the program.
With the CalculationButton on the right
bottom of the worksheet the determination
of internal forces and the component de
sign will be started. Left beside the Calcu
lationButton the degree of utilization of
the main components is shown. In the fol
lowing the input data is described in partic
ular.
Steel profile (1. line): Input of the length
lPR [mm] and the width bPR [mm] of the con
nected butt strap.
Anchor plate (2. line):Input of the length
lAP [mm], the width bAP [mm] and the thick
ness tAP [mm] of the anchor plate; the num
ber of headed studs per row (2 or 3); the
material of the steel plate (acc. to EN 1993
11 [8] and EN 10025 [4]).
Headed studs (3. line):Input of the dis
tances of the headed studs in longitudinal
direction lHS [mm], in cross direction bHS
[mm]; the shaft diameter [mm]; the length
of the studs hn [mm]; the material of the
headed studs (acc. to EN 10025 [4]).


Fig. 2.21: Excel worksheet Input + Output CM page 1/1

Reinforcement (4. line): Input of the diameter dS [mm] and the material (acc. to DIN 488 [3]) of the rein
forcement stirrups. The reinforcement stirrups have to be formed as loops with the smallest admissible
bending role diameter. They have to be grouped in pairs close to the shafts of the headed studs with mini
mum distance to the bottom side of the anchor plate (maximum possible overlapping length of stirrup leg
and headed stud).
Concrete member (5. line): Input of the thickness hC [mm] and the material type (acc. to EN 199211 [7])
of the concrete member.

39

Infaso+Handbook II

Loads (last line): Input of the shear force VEd [kN] and their eccentricity to the anchor plates surface in
[cm]. Design loads have to be determined by the user. Partial factors will not be considered at the load side
by the program!

Output mask
The output sheet Design output is divided into three parts. The first part gives information about the
structural system (see Fig. 2.21). Results of the static calculation of internal forces are shown in the second
part (see Fig. 2.23). In part 3 the main verifications of the components are given (see Fig. 2.23).

Fig. 2.22: Excel worksheet Design output CM


page 1/2

Fig. 2.23: Excel worksheet Design output CM


page 2/2

Optimization of the joint


The optimization of the joint can be done according to the optimization of the connection of the slim anchor
plate (see Chapter 2.2.9) more information about optimization of simple joints is given in the parameter
study for simple joints in Chapter 4.3.

40

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3 Design examples
3.1 Composite beam of a standard office structure connected to reinforced con
crete wall
General
3.1.1.1

Depiction of the situation

Multistory office building structures often


have a floor modulus of n 1,35 m by approx.
7,8 m, which results from the room depth
plus corridor. Beneath several variation of
concrete slabs with or without beams con
crete steel composite beams made of a hot
rolled cross section IPE 300 with a semifin
ished concrete slab connected by studs can
be used to reduce the height of the construc
tion and by this means the total height of
each floor. One possibility to design a con
struction of minimum height properly can be
the moment resistant constraint in the wall.
The knowledge of rotational behaviour of the
connection allows to optimize the connec
tion on behalf of reinforcement and to evalu
ate the redistribution of forces.
3.1.1.2


Fig. 3.1: Structural system

Overall structural system

The example shows a concrete steel composite beam made of a hot rolled cross section IPE 300 with a semi
finished concrete slab (total 14 cm) connected by studs. The lateral distance of the beams is 2 1,35 m
2,70m, the span is 7,8 m. The inner support can be at a reinforced concrete (RC) wall of the building core,
the outer support is a faade column (see Fig. 3.1).
Semifinished slab (6cm precast concrete) + cast insitu of altogether 14 cm, continuous system,
span 2,70 m each.
Hot rolled beam IPE 300 S355 JR, L = 7,8 m; uniformly distributed loading with headed studs.
Support faade: Steel column spaced 2,7 m.
Support inner core: Reinforced concrete wall with fully restraint connection by reinforcement and
steel/concrete compression contact.
3.1.1.3

Loads

Own weight slab


Own weight slab
Dead load screed
Dead load suspended ceiling + installation
Dead load (total)

Live load (B2,C1 acc. DIN 199111 NA [5])

42

g
g1
g2
g3
g

q

=
=
=
=
=

=

1,6 kN/m
3,5 kN/m
1,6 kN/m
0,4 kN/m
5,50 kN/m

3,00 kN/m

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Execution options
3.1.2.1

Previous realization

To provide a moment resistant connection of composite structures to a concrete wall is not new at all, as it
isnt the separation of tensile forces into the slabs reinforcement and compression into lower beam flange
resp. anchor plate. Nevertheless there have been bolted solutions with fin plates for the shear forces or
endplates as an adaption of common steel constructions, which were more costly in terms of manufacturing
costs. These solutions with their more complex mechanisms were as well difficult to design effectively and
to predict their rotational behaviour. Therefore a larger range of maximum and minimum forces has to be
covered, as the redistribution of forces is unknown.
3.1.2.2

Improved implementation

The presented connection of a moment resistant connection of composite structures to a concrete wall pro
vides a solution that is simple feasible on site, because the vertical and horizontal tolerances are relatively
high, and the necessary parts are minimized. Forces are strictly separated and transferred by easy mecha
nisms. Due to this reason the knowledge of the connection behaviour has grown since any of these single
shares have been explored further on and the characteristics have been put in a simple component (spring)
model. The component method is implemented in Eurocodes, but has been improved by detail research
throughout this project. So the stressstrain model of the slabs reinforcement has been developed with
additive tensile stresses in concrete, the displacement of the anchor plate, the slip of the slab studs can now
be considered and the contribution of the nonlinear behaviour of the shear panel in the connecting concrete
wall has been added.
length slab in tension

hc

xr

reinforcing bars
3
2
20

1
V

M
steel section

hz dz

lz

ez

8
contact plate

6
5

steel bracket

anchor plate

ax
tap
tcp
tc,wall

x
y
z

tsb

1. Composite beam (steel section)


3. Concrete wall


5. Steel bracket


7. Reinforcing bars (tension component)
9. Studs in slab's tensile zone


2. Concrete slab
4. Anchor plate
6. Contact plate
8. Additional stirrups

43

Infaso+Handbook II

Fig. 3.2: Geometry of the composite joint

Structural analysis of the joint


3.1.3.1

Modelling

The member forces of the structure generally can be calculated with any software which is able to consider
ranges of different beam stiffness and rotational springs. As the structure is statically indeterminate the
different stiffness of the positive and negative moment range must be taken into account to properly calcu
late the member and support forces. For this example the software KRASTA [21] for spatial frame analysis
has been used. Prior to any calculation we can do a reliable prediction concerning the quality of moment
distribution. There will be a maximum negative moment at the moment resistant support, the moment will
then be reduced and will cross the zeroline. Afterwards it will drop down to its positive maximum at ap
prox. 5/8 of the span and ending at zero at the hinged support at the end of the beam. The negative range is
assumed for the first quarter of span, the positive is set for the rest of span. According to EN 199411
Cl. 5.4.1.2 [10] the effective width can be calculated with Eq. (3.1).
b

(3.1)

b ,

In case of equally spaced beams these equation can be calculated in the negative range with Eq. (3.2) and in
the positive range with Eq. (3.3) each of them less as the spacing between adjacent beams (270 cm). This
means that necessary reinforcement bars in the negative range of the slab must be arranged within the
effective width.
b
b

15

15

2 780 0,25/8
2 780 0,75/8

63,8 cm

(3.2)

161,25 cm

(3.3)

The different moments of inertia Ipos are calculated in accordance to common values of creep influence (see
Eq. (3.4) to (3.5). In this example the relation between stiffness shortly after erection and after 12 years
(means T=) is approximately . The effect of shrinking (eccentricity of tensional force in slab) is not con
sidered. The moment of inertia for T= will be used with dead load and value for T=0 will be used with life
load. This will yield the maximum restraint moment and force at support A.
I

Negative range:
Positive range:
3.1.3.2

18360

15,5 30/2

Ipos, t=0 30200 cm4

15

18000 cm

Ipos, t= 22500 cm4

(3.4)
(3.5)

Calculation of forces

Using the previous mentioned


characteristics in the first iteration
of forces, the rotation stiffness of
the connection is set to infinite, i.e.
complete moment resistant re
straint. The resultant internal
forces for characteristic points of
the beam are shown in Fig. 3.3.
The next step will be an assess
ment of the moment restraint con
nection and the evaluation of rota
tion to define a rotational spring
characteristic.

44

Fig. 3.3: Mind: these are independently calculated input values for

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The structural design and the evaluation of the connection stiffness will be done by using the program "Re
strained connection of composite beams ".The model data of the parts which contribute to the connection
must be defined in detail. These are geometric data like size, position and thickness of plates with headed
studs, the beams cross section, reinforcement in the slab and in the wall. As the rotational characteristics
are largely dependent of the slab reinforcement, a contribution of stud slip, the concrete shear panel behav
iour and the compressed anchor plate is considered as well. Therefore the user is asked for parameters,
which are not important for the connection design but might have influence on the horizontal displacement
of the slab. By starting the Excel worksheet all parameters are set by default with a valid set of input data,
where an obviously rational result is obtained. It will never the less be a duty for the user to ensure, that all
parameters are reasonable, at least under geometrical aspects (spacing of reinforcement and slab studs,
enough reinforcement, studs inside plate etc.). These validation results will show up on the right of the input
mask.
The slab reinforcement is set to a
value a little higher than the mini
mum that is due to the assessment
of the shear panel resistance, which
is amongst others affected by the
amount of reinforcement. This area
must be built in within the effective
width of the negative moment range
of 64 cm. The number of studs over
the length of tensile action in the slab
is chosen as 13, spacing approx.
15 cm.
Though the calculation is executed
with an Excel sheet and is therefore
directly updating most of the values
upon any changed cell input value,
there is a VisualBasicMacro imple
mented to iterate depending on the
used model. To update all of these
characteristics the calculation must
be started with pushing the calcu
late button in the lower region of
the page. Any changes connected
with the anchor plate, beginning
with wall concrete and reinforce
ment parameters and the geometry
of plate and studs need the use of this
updated macro.
After all geometry data and forces
have been inserted into the mask, the
two main results will be the utiliza
tion of the connection, the relation
between given force and the re
Fig. 3.4: Excel sheet, Input+Short OutputMask
sistance of the connection, and sec
ondly the stiffness of the restrained cross section at the edge of wall to generate a new, updated rotational
spring. In the Fig. 3.4 see the completely filled input mask and resulting utilization of the connection. In the
following figures (see Fig. 3.5 to Fig. 3.7) the complete detailed output with intermediate results of compo
nents and the resulting stiffness of the actual constellation is shown.
45

Infaso+Handbook II


Fig. 3.5: Output file with intermediate results (1)

46

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.


Fig. 3.6: Output file with intermediate results (2)

Fig. 3.7: Output file with intermediate results (3)

The rotational stiffness of the connection will be given as a result of the connection assessment, with a se
cant stiffness of C 93 MNm/rad. If the secant stiffness of C is taken as a rotational stiffness of the support
internal forces can be obtained (see Fig. 3.8).


Fig. 3.8: Internal forces by taking into account the secant stiffness C at the support A

47

Infaso+Handbook II

These values will be approximately very close to convergence and are those values to be assessed finally,
and in this case of statically indeterminant systems. The reduced moment and shear force acting in the con
nection will increase the resulting stiffness output to approximately C 94 MNm/rad, which is no remark
able difference to the value considered. Generally with decreasing moments the stiffness value converges
to a maximum, the so called initial stiffness, which is 135 MN/rad and cannot be exceeded. This limit is
connected to steel strain with uncracked concrete contribution. Due to the a possible reduction of the rein
forcement grade the resulting stiffness will decrease to 89 MNm/rad. As there is no underestimation of
stiffness, higher forces don`t have to be expected in the connection and the connection can be considered
safe.
3.1.3.3

Structural analysis

The structural analysis will be done by using the program "Restrained connection of composite beams "(see
Fig. 3.9). As mentioned above, the reinforcement grade is possibly reduced according to the moment reduc
tion.


Fig. 3.9: Structural analysis of the restrained connection
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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

The bending diameter of the reinforcement in the wall has a significant influence on the model. Even gen
erally allowed with a value of minimum 10 s (with higher edge distances) it is strongly recommended to
take a value of 20 s , because the curvature influences the diagonal concrete strut in size. The larger the
diameter of bending is, the larger is the effective concrete area which resists the tensile force within the
slabs reinforcement bars. Definitely this can be the component which limits the resistance of the entire
joint. Using the minimum bending diameter one will experience a limitation in the concrete shear panel
behaviour which is not appropriate. The increase in the amount of reinforcement or the concrete grade is
not a useful option as consequence. In case of statically determined systems the iteration step can obviously
be skipped, as the internal forces are not related to the changes of the stiffness in the model.

Conducting
3.1.4.1

Installation

The anchor plate can be installed easily at the inner surface of the formwork because the relatively small
headed studs can easily installed onsite within the crosswise placed external reinforcement layer of the
concrete wall. The loopshaped hanger reinforcement will be fixed at the inner reinforcement layer. These
must be adjusted after installing the anchor plate, if the distance to the headed studs are too large. The
reinforcement in the slab transferring the tensile forces into the wall will be easily mounted by using a rebar
splicing system. The screwed joint will be fixed at the formwork. The bar has to have a large bending diam
eter of 20 s as a recommendation to optimize the transfer of the diagonal compression force in the shear
panel zone. After removal of formwork the steel bracket will be welded on the anchor plate. In a next step
the steel profiles can be mounted, adjusted and the contact element of the formwork for the slab (or semi
finished panels) will be placed and the reinforcement can be screwed into the couplers. After having all
reinforcement placed properly the concrete slab can be poured.
3.1.4.2

Tolerances

Deviations of the anchor plate regarding to the longitudinal axis of the beam in horizontal and vertical di
rection can easily be compensated, because the steel bracket is welded to the anchor plate onsite. If larger
tolerances in longitudinal direction of the beam have to be taken into consideration, the beam has to be
produced after measurement of the exact distances between supports. Small deviations can be bridged by
adapting the steel contact element. The reinforcement connectors placed in the concrete wall may have
vertical or horizontal deviations, as far they can be cast in the slab with the necessary concrete cover. The
concrete cover should be taken into account sufficiently large not to overrate the inner lever arm of forces.
3.1.4.3

Fire protection

For the structure shown in this example usually the fire resistance R90 has to be fulfilled. The steel structure
including its connections must be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels. As there
is no required space for installation within the cross section chambers during erection, the chamber can be
filled with concrete as a fire protection. The open bracket at lower flange must nevertheless be protected
additionally. This can be assessed by a fire protection expertise. The reinforcement is protected by concrete
covert and can be assessed by considering codes.
3.1.4.4

Costs

The ability to calculate the stiffness of the connection with deeper understanding and less uncertainties and
therefore getting a more realistic force distribution helps to reduce overall costs of the steel construction.
The connection itself can be easily installed by placing the beam on the steel bracket without using any bolts.
The use of screwed reinforcement connectors is nevertheless necessary.

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Infaso+Handbook II

3.2 Column base as connection of a safety fence on a car parking deck to a rein
forced concrete slab
General
3.2.1.1

Depiction of the situation

A safety fence, consisting of a horizontal beam barrier of two connected hollow sections on vertical
columns of rolled sections, is connected at the column bases to a 300 mm thick reinforced concrete
slab. Embedded anchor plates with headed studs and welded threaded studs are used to connect
the columns base plates with the concrete deck. The distance between the steel columns varies
from 1,50 m up to 2,00 m and the centre of the beam barrier is 0,50 m above the concrete surface.
The whole construction has to be protected against corrosion, for example by galvanization.
3.2.1.2

Overall structural system

Horizontal beam barrier:


Single span beam L = 1,50 m up to 2,00 m; loaded by a horizontal vehicle impact force.
Vertical column:
Cantilever beam (vertical) L = 0,50 m; loaded by a horizontal vehicle impact force (directly or indirectly by the beam
barrier)

3.2.1.3

Loads

Impact passenger car (EN 199117, Cl. 4.3.1 [6])


(Load application 0,50 m above street surface)

3.2.1.4

Fdx

50,00 kN

=
=

50,00 kN
25,00 kNm

Joint loads

Design load

VEd = Fdx
MEd = 50,00 * 0,50

Execution options
3.2.2.1

Previous realization


Fig. 3.10: Conventional joint solution of the safety fence

50

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

In the conventional joint solution the columns base plate is directly bolted to the anchor plate by threaded
studs which are welded on the embedded steel plate (see Fig. 3.10). In order to reduce the headed studs
tension forces caused by bending, the distance of the studs in load direction and therewith the length of the
embedded steel plate have to be large. For this reason the distance between the threaded bolts and headed
studs is quite large and high bending moments in the anchor plate are resulting. The anchor plates is de
signed as thick and rigid in order to consider an elastic approach in the calculation. The dimensions of the
anchor plate are given in the following.
Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs

3.2.2.2

200 / 200 / 20 mm S 235


20 mm fub = 500 N/mm
150 / 150 mm
350 / 350 / 30 mm
22 / 175 mm S 235
270 / 270 mm

Improved realization Version 1


Fig. 3.11: Improved realization Version 1
Within this modified joint solution the new components of the INFASO [12] project are considered. In this
solution the columns base plate is directly bolted to the anchor plate by threaded studs which are welded
on the embedded steel plate (see Fig. 3.11). The choice of a quite small anchor plate generates high tension
forces in the headed studs caused by external bending moment. So additional hanger reinforcement is fixed
very close to the headed studs loaded by tension forces. The distance of the headed studs in load direction
is small. Due to the fact that the headed studs and the threaded studs are spaced very close, low bending
moments in the anchor plate are resulting. A plastic design of the anchor plate is possible. Thin steel plates
can be used. The complete embedded plate is covered by the columns base plate. The dimensions of the
anchor plate are given in the following.
Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs

200 / 200 / 20 mm S 235


20 mm fub = 500 N/mm
150 / 150 mm
200 / 200 / 12 mm
22 / 175 mm S 235
150 / 150 mm

51

Infaso+Handbook II

The structural design will be done by using the program "Slim anchor plate with headed studs"(see Fig. 3.12
and Fig. 3.13).


Fig. 3.12: Excel sheet, Input+Outputmask for version 1

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

53

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Fig. 3.13: Excel sheet, Design output for version 1


3.2.2.3

Improved realizationVersion 2

Description of a modified joint solution considering


the new components of WP 1
Within this modified joint solution the new components
of the INFASO [12] project are considered. The columns
base plate is directly bolted to the anchor plate by
threaded studs which are welded on the embedded
steel plate. Except that the anchor plate has only a thick
ness of 12 mm the construction is the same as shown by
structure of the previous realization. The embedded
steel plate cannot take the total bending moment. The
behaviour of the joint is comparable with a kind of plas
tic hinge. The joint will be designed by transformation
of kinetic energy into plastic deformation energy. The
dimensions of the anchor plate are given in the follow
ing.
Fig. 3.14: Improved Version 2

Base plate
Threaded bolts
Distance threaded bolts
Anchor plate
Headed studs
Distance headed studs

200 / 200 / 20 mm S 235


20 mm fub = 500 N/mm
150 / 150 mm
350 / 350 / 12 mm
22 / 175 mm S 235
270 / 270 mm

For structural design information about the


bending moment resistance and the defor
mation behaviour of the joint is needed. The
bending moment resistance will be obtained by
using the program Slim anchor plate with
headed studs with stepwise increase of the ex
ternal forces (see Chapter 2.3). After the last
step the momentrotation curve of the sheet
Design output can be used (see Fig. 3.15). The
verification will be done according to EN 1991
17 Annex C 2.2 [6].


54

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

Fig. 3.15: Momentrotation curve of the joint

Fig. 3.16: Excel sheet, Input+Outputmask for ver


sion 2


The moment resistance, the kinetic energy the deformation energy and the deformation of the
joint can be calculated with the Equations (3.6) to (3.9)
M

17,0 kNm M
V
34,0 kN
V t
d
18,0 kNm
11,0 kNm 17/18 10,40 kNm

M
M
E

1/2 m v

1/2 1500 kg 10/3,6 m/s

E
10,4

17
E

5787 Nm

(3.6)

5,787KNm

10,4/2 2,1/1000 0,011 KNm


10,4 /2 13,2 2,1 /1000 0,152 KNm
17
17

5,787

0,011 0,152 /17


0,33 rad
18,9

0,33 rad

(3.7)

(3.8)

(3.9)

Note 1 The required rotation of 18,9 induces extremely large stretching at the locations with plastic
hinges. It has to be checked that the admissible elongation is not exceeded.
Note 2 The component Headed studs in tension is high exploited. So the installation of additional hanger
reinforcement is advised to ensure that the component Anchor plate in bending is the decisive
component.
Due to the extremly deviation of the necessary rotation from the calutated diagram range, the execution of
this version can not be recommended!

Conducting and assessment


3.2.3.1

Installation

In each of both cases the embedded plates can be installed easily. The anchor plate of the previous realiza
tion is large and heavy and thus it is not so easy to handle during installation. Much more compact and light
is the solution of the improved realization, but additional reinforcement is needed.
3.2.3.2

Tolerances

Deviations of the anchor plates centre in any horizontal direction could only be settled by oversized holes,
in vertical direction by using filler plates. Normally for more or less rude constructions like guide boards
low tolerances are needed.
3.2.3.3

Fire protection

For the structure shown in this example, no requirements relating to fire protection have to be fulfilled. If
the classification in a particular fire resistance class should be required in other cases, the steel structure
including its connections shall be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels.
3.2.3.4

Costs

For the improved construction lower material costs can be expected. The advantage of the smallest weight
of the anchor plate of the improved realization is a bit compensated by the installation costs of the needed
additional reinforcement.

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Infaso+Handbook II

3.3 Connection of a balcony construction on an insulated exterior reinforced con


crete wall as simple connection
General
3.3.1.1

Depiction of the situation

Continuous, 3.00 m wide balconies are connected to a thermally insulated reinforced concrete wall, sup
ported at their outer edge at a distance of 6.50 m (see Fig. 3.17). The walkin area is realized as a 14 cm thick
precast concrete slab with surrounding up stand. Paving slabs laid in a gravel bed are laid on top. The load
bearing reinforced concrete plates are supported at their ends and arranged parallel to steel girders of
6,50 meters length. These are connected to interception beams running perpendicular to the wall plane and
which are connected to the external wall and the steel columns. Embedded anchor plates are used to fasten
the steel girders on the concrete wall. Due to the 22 cm thick thermal insulation composite system of the
buildings external wall a joint eccentricity of 30 cm between steel beam and anchor plate has to be consid
ered. Within the insulation, a thermal separation is provided. In order to fulfil the plastering practical and
professionally, the intersection of the plaster layer should be done only by simple steel plate. All weathered
external components must be galvanized.


Fig. 3.17: Conventional solution and structural system

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

3.3.1.2

Overall structural system

Precast concrete slab:


Single span slab L = 3,00 m (uniaxial load transfer) with uniformly distributed load
Ceiling beams:
Single span beams L = 6,50 m with uniformly distributed loading
Interception beams:
Single span beams L = 3,00 m (connection eccentricity to the steel column and the anchor plate); single loads F close
to the supports (see figure))
Connection adapter anchor plate to interception beam:
Cantilevers L = 0,30 m

3.3.1.3

Loads

Dead load beam construction


Dead load flooring (gravel and paving slabs)
Dead load precast concrete slab
Dead load (total)

Live load

3.3.1.4

g1
g2
g3
g

q

=
=
=
=

=

0,40 kN/m
2,00 kN/m
3,50 kN/m
5,90 kN/m

4,00 kN/m

=
=

=

57,53 kN
39,00 kN

136,17 kN

Joint loads

Dead load
Dead load

Design load

Fg,k = 5,90 kN/m * 3,00 m / 2 * 6,50 m


Fq,k = 4,00 kN/m * 3,00 m / 2 * 6,50 m

FEd = 1,35 * 57,53 + 1,50 * 39,00

Execution options
3.3.2.1

Previous realization


Fig. 3.18: Conventional joint solution of the balcony construction
The conventional joint solution consists of two parts with an end plate connection, where the inner part
made of a rolled profile segment (IPE 220) is welded directly to the anchor plate. At the other end of the
57

Infaso+Handbook II

profile, a welded end plate for a rigid joint to the end plate of the outer connector part is located. This outer
part consists of a vertical butt strap for a hinged connection to the web of the interception beam. A com
pressionproof bearing plate for the thermal separation of the two parts will be placed between the two end
plates. Depending on the type and thickness of the separating layer a projecting plate to transfer the shear
force without bolts in bending must be welded under the connectors internal part. The weathered external
adapter segment is galvanized. As just the inner part to the anchor plate is welded only coating is planned.
The concretecasted part of the joint consists of an anchor plate with welded reinforcement and a welded
on rolled section. The centrally arranged steel profile is designed to carry the vertical shear force. The loca
tion of the load resultant can be assumed approximately in the middle of the shear section. Bending mo
ments caused by outer eccentricity (30 cm) and inner eccentricity (outer edge of the anchor plate up to the
mid of the shear section) are taken by a couple of horizontal forces. The pressure force is transferred by
contact, the tension force is taken by the welded on reinforcement bars. Due to the relatively low wall thick
ness, the tensile reinforcement is turned down with large bending roll diameter and overlapping with the
vertical reinforcement layer of the walls inner side. The horizontal part of the diagonal, from the point of
deflection to the anchor plates lower pressure point leading strut is at equilibrium with the lower pressure
force transferred by contact. The location and size of welded steel profiles have decisive influence on the
stiffness of the anchor plate. As the end plate is stiffened by the welded steel profiles, pure bending has to
be taken into consideration only in the external sections.
3.3.2.2

Improved realization


Fig. 3.19: Improved joint solution of the balcony construction
The steel connection of this version is identical to the previously described solution. The concretecasted
part consists of a 25 mm thick anchor plate with four headed studs 22/150 mm (see Fig. 3.9). Closed to the
tensional loaded headed studs two reinforcing loops 8 mm are installed. A welding of reinforcement to
the anchor plate is not required. The hanger reinforcement is placed next to the reinforcement at the inner
side of the wall. The supplementary reinforcement has a large bending roll diameter and overlaps with the
vertical reinforcement on the inside of the wall. All four studs are involved in the load transfer of the verti
cally acting shear force, where only the top couple of headed studs will also be used for carrying the hori
zontal tensile force resulting from the eccentricity moment. The concrete cone failure mode is positively
influenced by the slope reinforcement arranged directly parallel to the headed studs. The anchor plate is
also stiffened in this connection by the welded steel profile of the docking adapter. The structural design
will be done by using the program "Rigid anchor plate with headed studs"(see Fig. 3.20 to Fig. 3.21).

58

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.


Fig. 3.20: Excel sheet, Input+Outputmask of the improved realization of the balcony construction


Fig. 3.21: Excel sheet, Design output of the improved realization of the balcony construction

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Infaso+Handbook II

Conducting and Assessment


3.3.3.1

Installation

In the improved realization the anchor plate can be installed easily because the relatively small headed
studs have a minimal impact on the crosswise running external reinforcement layer of the concrete wall.
The loopshaped hanger reinforcement can be fixed first on the inner reinforcement layer. These must be
adjusted yet after installing the anchor plate, if the distance to the headed studs is too large. Due to welded
bars on shear connection in the previous realization and reinforcement the anchor plate is unhandy and the
walls reinforcement and their order of installation have to be coordinated to the plates anchors.
3.3.3.2

Tolerances

Deviations of the anchor plates centre to the longitudinal axis of the docking adapter in horizontal and
vertical direction inside the walls plane can easily be absorbed, because the adapter is welded to the anchor
plate onsite. If tolerances in longitudinal direction of the adapter have to be taken, the port adapters have
to be either manufactured extralong to be cut to the appropriate size onsite or produced after measure
ment of the exact location of the anchor plates.
3.3.3.3

Fire protection

For the structure shown in this example, no requirements relating to fire protection have to be fulfilled. If
the classification in a particular fire resistance class should be required in other cases, the steel structure
including its connections shall be protected with approved coating systems or plateshaped panels.
3.3.3.4

Costs

The cost advantage of the "improved realization" to the anchor plate with shear section and welded rein
forcement mainly results by the simpler manufacturing and installation. The studs are fixed by drawn arc
stud welding on the fitting steel plate. This process takes a very short time. Concerning the shear section
variant, the steel and the rebar in their position must be fixed first and then circumferential welded by hand.
This process takes considerably more time. The same applies also for the installation of the anchor plate,
because the relatively large shear section and the welded reinforcement have influence on the assembly of
the walls reinforcement and some reinforcing bars can be inserted only after the installation of the anchor
plate.

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4 Parameter studies
4.1 General
In this parameter studies the three steeltoconcrete connections of the Design Manual I "Design of steelto
concrete joints" [13] are under examination (see Fig. 1.1). In the parameter study for concrete components
in Chapter 4.2 experimentally determined prefactors are taken into consideration. Their influence on the
stiffness of the concrete component is shown. In Chapter 4.3 parameters for geometry and material are
changed in order to show their influence on the loaddeformation and moment rotational behavior of the
simple steeltoconcrete joints. Changes in the thickness of the anchor plate and in steel grade for column
bases are explained in Chapter 4.4 where especially this two parameters have a high influence on the struc
tural behavior for this type of connection. Also recommendations for design values are given in this Chapter.
In the last parameter study the focus is on composite joints in Chapter 4.5.

4.2 Parameter study on concrete components


General
As discussed in Chapter 3 on concrete components in the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete
joints" [13], the stiffness of an anchorage group is determined by several parameters. Out of these parame
ters, certain parameters are known with high degree of confidence at the time of analysis such as dimen
sions of studs, dimensions of reinforcement and further parameters. Certain other parameters, such as con
crete material properties, bond strength etc. are known within the statistical range of distribution normally
occurring in practice. Certain parameters are used to define the stiffness and are based on empirical studies,
which are not known with a high certainty. In this chapter, the sensitivity of the stiffness values towards
different parameters has been investigated.

Example considered
A basic example of a single headed stud with supplementary reinforcement subjected to tensile loads is
considered in this parameter study. The stud is considered to be far from the edges. All the components are
considered while evaluating the stiffness of the anchor. The variation of secant stiffness as a function of
anchor displacement is evaluated and plotted. Though the plots are given in terms of absolute values for the
anchor stiffness and displacement, the objective of this study is to relatively compare the stiffness variation
and verify, principally, the influence of different parameters.

Parameter studied and methodology followed


The stiffness of the anchorage system as a function of anchor displacement was evaluated using the formu
lations given in Chapter 3 of the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13] and a parameter
study was performed to investigate the influence of various parameters on the stiffness of the system. While
evaluating the influence of a given parameter, all other parameters were kept constant. These parameters
are considered as independent and uncorrelated for this study. The parameters considered for the param
eter study along with the range of study are tabulated in Tab. 4.1. This assumption of no correlation between
the parameters is valid for all the parameters except the concrete compressive strength and the bond
strength between concrete and reinforcement. Therefore, for these two parameters, the dependence of
bond strength on concrete compressive strength is considered in this study. As can be seen from Tab. 4.1, a
sufficiently wide range is considered for the parameter studies.

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Tab. 4.1: Parameters considered for the parameter study


Parameter

Symbol

Concrete Strength

fck

Factor for concrete breakout in tension


Embedment depth
Shoulder width
Pressing relation

c
hef
a
m

Design bond strength

fbd

Diameter of supplementary reinforce


ment
Descending anchor stiffness for compo
nent P

Units
N/mm2
(MPa)

mm
mm

N/mm2
(MPa)

Recommended
value in DM


537


9

250 1000 (negative)


50 400
0.25 4.0
7 12

0 5

Range of study
25 65

ds,re

mm

6 20

kp,de

N/mm

10000

5000 20000 (negative)

Sensitivity to Concrete Strength, fck


The concrete strength influences the concrete cone failure and the pull out failure. The influence of concrete
strength, fck is studied for the cases if supplementary reinforcement is considered or not. In case of plain
concrete (no supplementary reinforcement), the concrete strength governs the failure load corresponding
to concrete cone failure through Eq. (4.1):
N

k h

(4.1)

The stiffness of the ascending branch of the loaddeflection curve is considered as infinite and the failure
load is assumed to occur at zero displacement. After the peak load is reached, a linearly degrading softening
branch is considered. The concrete strength, fck, governs the stiffness of this descending branch, kc,de through
Eq. (4.2) for a single anchor far from edge influences.
,

No particular value of fck is recom


mended in the design manual. Con
sidering the concrete class in normal
strength range, in this study, the sen
sitivity of stiffness to concrete
strength is evaluated for cylindrical
concrete strength, fck within the
range of 25 MPa to 65 MPa. Fig. 4.1
shows the influence of concrete
strength on the stiffness of the an
chorage system in concrete without
supplementary reinforcement as a
function of displacement. It may be
noted that the secant stiffness plot
ted in Fig. 4.1 is the overall stiffness
of the system considering all compo
nents and not only the concrete cone
component.

N/mm

(4.2)

16000

20

14000

Stiffness (N/mm)

25

12000

35

10000

45
55

8000

65

6000
4000
2000
0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.1: Influence of Concrete Strength fck on stiffness of anchor


age without supplementary reinforcement

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Infaso+Handbook II

16000

20

14000

25

Stiffness (N/mm)

The secant stiffness gradually reduces with


increasing displacement. As expected, a
clear but reasonable sensitivity is obtained
to concrete strength. At higher displace
ments, the band of stiffness values gets nar
rower. For the given range of concrete
strength that can be expected in practice
from the same concrete mix, the sensitivity
to concrete strength can be considered
through material safety factor. Therefore,
the sensitivity of stiffness on concrete
strength can be reasonably considered in
the analysis. In case of anchorage with sup
plementary reinforcement, the ascending
stiffness of the component stirrups in ten
sion depends on the concrete strength
through Eq. (4.3) up to the failure load:

12000

35

10000

45
55

8000

65

6000
4000
2000
0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.2: Influence of Concrete Strength, fck on stiffness of


anchorage with supplementary reinforcement

n f
2

N/mm

(4.3)

Thus, the stiffness of both concrete component and the stirrup component are dependent on concrete
strength, fck. Fig. 4.2 shows the influence of concrete strength on the stiffness of anchorage system with
supplementary reinforcement. Again, a similar shaped curve as that obtained for anchorage in plain con
crete is obtained. The secant stiffness gradually reduces with increasing displacement and at higher dis
placements the band of stiffness values gets narrower. Based on the results of calculations, it can be said
that the sensitivity of the evaluated stiffness of the anchorage to the concrete compressive strength is rea
sonable. For the given range of concrete strength that can be expected in practice from the same concrete
mix, the sensitivity to concrete strength can be considered through material safety factor. Therefore, the
sensitivity of stiffness on concrete strength can be reasonably considered in the analysis.

Sensitivity to parameter c
The parameter, c, is used to determine the stiffness of the linear descending branch in case of concrete
breakout in tension (see Eq. (4.2)). Currently, a value of 537 is assigned to the factor c. In this study, the
influence of variation of this parameter on the secant stiffness of the anchor is considered for c in the range
of 250 to 1000. The influence of the factor c on stiffness of the anchorage is displayed in Fig. 4.3. During
initial displacement range, the secant stiffness is almost independent of c. This is because the stiffness dur
ing initial displacements is governed by components other than component C and the factor c governs only
the descending stiffness of the component C.

64

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Stiffness (N/mm)

However, at higher displacements, the


descending stiffness of the concrete
12000
breakout in tension becomes dominating
-250
and as seen in Fig. 4.3, the stiffness of the
10000
-400
anchorage system becomes sensitive to
-500
8000
the parameter c. The sensitivity is high
-600
est in the range of displacements be
-700
6000
tween 2 to 4 mm. On further increasing
-1000
of the displacements, the stiffness of the
4000
system again becomes less sensitive to
the parameter ac (Fig. 4.3). This is be
2000
cause after certain value of displacement
equal to the concrete cone failure load,
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
NRk,c divided by descending stiffness,
Displacement (mm)
kc,de, the component C does not contrib
ute anymore to the anchorage. However,
the stiffness variation in the middle Fig. 4.3: Influence of parameter, c on stiffness of anchorage
range of displacements (2 4 mm) is not
very high and can be considered through material safety factors.

Sensitivity to effective embedment depth hef


For concrete component (component C), the effective embedment depth, hef, is the most important factor,
which significantly affects the peak failure load (see Eq. (4.1)) as well as the stiffness (see Eq. (4.2)) of the
anchorage system. Further, the effective embedment depth also influences the component RB (bond failure
of the stirrups) since the effective bond length, l1 of the stirrups is dependent on hef (see Fig. 4.4). The failure
load corresponding to the bond failure of stirrups is given as
N

l d , f

, ,

(4.4)

There is no recommended value of hef given in the design manual, however considering the most used sizes
in practice, in this study, a range of hef from 50 mm to 400 mm is considered. As expected, the stiffness of
the anchorage system is strongly influenced by the effective embedment depth, hef for low displacement
levels (see Fig. 4.5).
20000

50
100

l1
hef
Theoretical fail
ure cone

Stiffness (N/mm)

16000

150
200

12000

250
400

8000

4000

0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.4: Definition of effective bond length, l1 of


stirrups and its dependence on the effective
embedment depth, hef

Fig. 4.5: Influence of effective embedment depth, hef


on stiffness of anchorage

65

Infaso+Handbook II

However, as the displacement level increases and concrete cone breakout occurs and the influence of hef
reduces. Nevertheless, in reality, the effective embedment depth of the headed stud is known a priori almost
accurately and therefore, the stiffness can also be estimated with reasonable confidence.

Sensitivity to shoulder with a


The shoulder width of the headed stud given as a = 0.5(dh ds), where dh is the head diameter and ds is
the shaft diameter, is an important parameter influencing the stiffness of the anchorage. The stud dimen
sions and hence the shoulder width is normally well known at the time of the analysis. As the bearing area
of the headed stud is proportional to the square of the shoulder width, this factor dominates the stiffness of
the component P. The loaddeflection response for the component P is given by Eq. (4.5) up to the point of
failure load corresponding to concrete cone failure and Eq. (4.6) beyond that:

, ,

N ,
A f n
N ,
2k
A f n
k

, ,

mm

, ,

mm

(4.5)
(4.6)

In expressions (4.5) and (4.6), the shoulder width appears indirectly in the bearing area of the head, Ah as
well as through the factor kp. The factor kp is given by Eq. (4.7).
k

k k
k

(4.7)

In Eq. (4.7), the shoulder width appears indirectly in the expression for ka (see Eq. (4.8)) and kA (see
Eq. (4.9)).
k
k

0,5 d

5/a

m d

(4.8)
0,5 d

(4.9)

Stiffness (N/mm)

Thus, based on Eq. (4.5) through Eq. (4.9),


16000
a significant dependence of the component
0.25
P on the parameter, a, should be expected.
14000
0.5
No value of the shoulder width is recom
12000
1
mended in the design manual, however,
2
10000
considering the normal range of shoulder
3
widths that may be encountered in prac
8000
4
tice, in this study, the shoulder width is var
6000
ied between 0.25 mm to 4.0 mm. Fig. 4.6
4000
summarizes the influence of shoulder
2000
width on the stiffness of anchorage. As ex
pected, a very high sensitivity of the secant
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
stiffness is obtained on the shoulder width,
Displacement (mm)
a, especially at lower displacements. How
ever, since the bolt dimensions are known
Fig. 4.6: Influence of shoulder width, a, on stiffness of an
with quite high accuracy while performing
chorage
the analysis, the estimated stiffness values
are not expected to vary significantly from its real value due to shoulder width.

Sensitivity to pressing relation m


Pressing relation, m, appears in the equation for evaluating stiffness for component P (see Eq. (4.9)). The
value of this factor may not be known exactly and a value of 9 is currently recommended in the design
manual. The parameter variation from in the range of 7 to 12 displays little sensitivity of stiffness on this
parameter (see Fig. 4.7). Therefore, a value of 9 is reasonable.

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14000

Stiffness (N/mm)

12000

8
9

10000

10

8000

11
12

6000
4000
2000
0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.7: Influence of pressing relation, m on stiffness of anchorage


Sensitivity to design bond strength fbd


For the case of anchorage with supplementary reinforcement, the design bond strength of stirrups, fbd in
fluences the stiffness of the anchorage system. The failure load for the reinforcement due to bond is given
by Eq. (4.4). The value of the design bond strength is directly dependent on the concrete strength, fck. No
particular value of the design bond strength is recommended in the design manual. For the grades of con
crete considered in this study (fck = 25 65 MPa), the typical value of the design bond strength may vary
approximately between 2 to 5 MPa. In this work, the influence of the design bond strength on the stiffness
is evaluated for a range of 0 to 5 MPa. It is observed that the stiffness of the anchorage is not affected by the
bond strength at low displacements as shown in Fig. 4.8. Though at higher displacement levels, the esti
mated stiffness value depends on the fbd value, the variation is within reasonable range that can be ac
counted for through material safety factor.
14000

Stiffness (N/mm)

12000

1
2

10000

8000

4
5

6000
4000
2000
0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.8: Influence of design bond strength, fbd on stiffness of anchorage

Sensitivity to diameter of supplementary reinforcement ds,re


The diameter of supplementary reinforcement, ds,re influences the components RS and RB. The failure load
corresponding to bond failure of stirrups is given by Eq. (4.4), while the failure load corresponding to the
yielding of stirrups in tension is given by Eq. (4.10).

67

Infaso+Handbook II

, ,

(4.10)

The loaddisplacement relationship of the anchorage corresponding to the failure of supplementary rein
forcement is given by Eq. (4.11).

, ,

2N
d

(4.11)

mm

Stiffness (N/mm)

In Eq. (4.11), NRd,re is equal to the min


20000
imum of NRd,b,re and NRd,s,re (minimum
6
of steel failure and bond failure load of
8
16000
supplementary reinforcement). No
10
particular value of the diameter is rec
12
12000
ommended for stirrups in the design
16
manual. Considering the normal range
20
8000
of diameters used in practice, the re
sults of the parametric study per
4000
formed on the anchorage by varying
the stirrup diameter in the range of
0
6 mm to 20 mm are displayed in Fig.
0
1
2
3
4
5
Displacement (mm)
4.9. It can be observed that the stiff

ness of the anchorage is insensitive to
the diameter of supplementary rein Fig. 4.9: Influence of diameter of supplementary reinforcement,
ds,re on stiffness of anchorage
forcement at low displacement levels
but the variation slightly increases at higher displacement levels. Nevertheless, the diameter of the stirrups
is also generally known with good accuracy and therefore the stiffness of the anchorage system can be rea
sonably accurately estimated.

Sensitivity to descending anchor stiffness due to concrete, kp,de

12000

-5000
10000

Stiffness (N/mm)

The stiffness of the descending branch,


kp,de in case of pullout failure of the stud
(component P) depends on the failure
mode. If the supplementary reinforce
ment fails by yielding (NRd,s,re < NRd,p) the
recommended value of kp,de is 104
N/mm (negative due to descending
branch). In this parametric study, the
value of kp,de is varied between 5000 to
20,000 N/mm2. As shown in Fig. 4.10,
the stiffness of the anchorage system is
insensitive to this parameter and there
fore the value of 10000 can be used
with sufficient accuracy.

-7500
-10000

8000

-12500
-15000

6000

-20000

4000

2000

0
0

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.10: Influence of descending anchor stiffness due to con


crete, kc,de on stiffness of anchorage

Summary of sensitivity of anchorage stiffness to various parameters


In this study, the sensitivity of the stiffness of an anchorage with supplementary reinforcement towards
different parameters is investigated. Table 5.2.2 summarizes the statistical information on the sensitivity to
various parameters studied in this chapter. The table gives the values of secant stiffness (kN/mm) corre
sponding to peak load obtained for various values of parameters governing the stiffness of anchorage sys
tem. The values of the stiffness are first arranged in an ascending order in the table followed by the mean
and coefficient of variation.
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The stiffness of the anchorage is found to be most sensitive to the shoulder width a, followed by the em
bedment depth, hef. However, both these parameters are known quite accurately during design, therefore
the stiffness can be reasonably accurately determined. The next biggest variation comes through the con
crete strength with a reasonable coefficient of variation of 20%. For the given range of concrete strength
that can be expected in practice from the same concrete mix, the sensitivity to concrete strength can be
considered through material safety factor. The stiffness is sensitive to the parameter, c only in the mid
range of displacement (see Figure 5.2.3), while the initial stiffness and the stiffness at large displacements
are practically independent of this parameter. The variation in stiffness due to c can also be considered
through material safety factor. The stiffness is found to be practically insensitive to other parameters listed
in Tab. 4.2.
Tab. 4.2: Statistical information on parameter study
fck

kp,de

fbd

hef

ds,re

Min

3,29

1,49

3,3

3,48

2,88

3,5

4,5

3,3

3,704

2,29

3,3

3,38

3,01

3,4

3,3

3,96

3,29

3,3

3,3

3,3

3,3

3,3

3,3

4,64

4,21

3,3

3,22

3,54

3,2

2,87

3,3

4,95

5,1

3,3

3,15

3,78

3,1

2,56

3,2

Max

5,66

5,32

3,3

3,1

4,29

3,06

3,1

Mean

4,367

3,617

3,300

3,272

3,467

3,260

3,205

3,250

Stabw

0,878

1,539

0,000

0,143

0,522

0,172

0,927

0,084

Var Koeff

20%

43%

0%

4%

15%

5%

29%

3%

69

Infaso+Handbook II

4.3 Parameter study on simple steeltoconcrete joints


General
The following parameter study is carried out in order to describe the influence by varying different input
factors of the simple joint. With the variation of different parameters the load bearing capacity and the ro
tational stiffness of the whole joint can be influenced to a high extend. The optimization of the simple joint
will be aimed to achieve on one hand maximum strength with minimum costs and on the other hand a duc
tile behaviour of the whole joint. For the concrete component ductility exists if the load can be transferred
at the cracked level to other components such as stirrups, as a certain amount of deformation occurs at the
maximum level of load. Furthermore the parameter study will demonstrate a range of validity and will point
out the possible increase in loading of the joint by changing different parameters.

Validation of the model


Within the INFASO project a design approach based on the component method has been developed for the
simple steeltoconcrete joints [12]. Thereby the joint is subdivided into its different components and the
deformations can be calculated as each of the component is represented by a spring. The calculation of the
load carrying capacity mainly consists of the following procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Evaluation of the decisive tension component.


Verification of the influence of the compression zone on the tension component.
Calculation of the shear resistance of the joint out of the moment equilibrium, see Fig. 4.11.
Verification of interaction conditions.

In the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13] this approach is described in more detail
based on a flowchart and a worked example. In order to determine the momentrotation curve of the joint,
the deformation of the single components have to be calculated. Therefore loaddeformation curves of the
single steel and concrete components have been developed. A parameter study on the concrete components
and a detailed investigation on the unknown factors of the concrete components can be found in the previ
ous chapter. Fig. 4.11 shows the mechanical model and a simplified joint model if the tensional and the
compression components are assembled in one spring.


Fig. 4.11: Analytic model of the simple steeltoconcrete joint (left), loaddeformation of the tensional
component if supplementary reinforcement can be activated in best case (right)
The deformation of the tensional component can be determined in three ranges (see Fig. 4.11). In the first
range the deformations can be calculated according to [12] with Eq. (4.12). For this the deformation due to
pullout failure (see Eq. (4.5)) and the deformation due to elongation of the shaft of the headed stud are
added.

, ,

With:
, , Deformation due to pullout failure;
, Deformation due to yielding of the headed stud.

70

(4.12)

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At the end of the first range first cracks might develop from the head of the headed stud into the direction
of the concrete surface. If the load carrying capacity at concrete cone failure is reached, the supplementary
reinforcement can be activated. In this case the deformations can be calculated up to the ultimate load with
Eq. (4.13).

With:
, ,
,
,

, ,

(4.13)

Deformation due to pullout failure;


Deformation due to yielding of the headed stud;
Deformation of the supplementary reinforcement in interaction with concrete cone failure.

The deformations in the third range depend on the failure mode of the ultimate load. If yielding of the sup
plementary reinforcement occurs, a ductile behaviour can be observed in the third range. The deformations
in the third range can be calculated with Eq. (4.14).

With:
k ,
k

N
k

(4.14)

Stiffness of the descending branch see Eq. (4.2);

10000
0

If yielding of the supplementary reinforcement occurs;

If the failure mode concrete failure and anchorage failure of the stirrups occurs;
Characteristic load carrying capacity of the supplementary reinforcement in interaction
with concrete cone failure;

Ultimate load carrying capacity.

It has to be considered, that the supplementary reinforcement can only be activated in the optimum case.
As the failure modes like, pullout failure of the headed studs, concrete cone failure between the supple
mentary reinforcement and steel failure of the headed stud can also occur, scenario distinctions have to be
made in all ranges. Within the following parameter study this issue will be highlighted and explained. The
rotation of the joint can be determined with Eq. (4.15) according to the spring model of Fig. 4.12.

With:

(4.15)

Deformation of the tensional component;


Deformation of the compression component according to Design
Manual I Design of steeltoconcrete joints [13] Eq. (3.75).

For the calculation of the full momentrotation curve of the joint the interac
tion conditions for steel failure (see Eq. (4.16)) and for concrete failure (see
Eq. (4.17)) have to be considered as tension forces and shear forces are acting
simultaneously on the simple steeltoconcrete joint.

Concrete failure
With:
N , , /V
N , /V

, ,
,

Steel failure

N
N

, ,

Fig. 4.12: Spring model

(4.16)

, ,

V
V

(4.17)

Characteristic load carrying capacity due to steelfailure of the headed stud;


Characteristic load carrying capacity due to concrete failure modes.

In Fig. 4.13 the validation of the model is shown for the different test specimens [12]. In this figures the
momentrotation curves are compared with the calculated curves according to the developed mechanical
joint model. It can be seen, that the model curves fit well to the test curves.
71

Infaso+Handbook II


Momentrotationcurve for test B1BS

Momentrotationcurve for test B1BR


Momentrotationcurve for test R1C

Momentrotationcurve for test B2CR

Fig. 4.13: Validation of the INFASO model without supplementary reinforcement (left),
with supplementary reinforcement (right)
Within the first section the momentrotational behaviour of the joint is described up to concrete cone fail
ure. Test specimens without additional reinforcement reach their ultimate resistance up to this point. If
additional reinforcement is placed next to the stirrups, the load carrying capacity of the tensional compo
nent can be increased (see 2nd range for B1BR and B2CR in Fig. 4.13). In these cases the additional rein
forcement is activated and the ultimate load can be increased. In the following parameter study configura
tions will be shown, where the supplementary reinforcement can be activated and a ductile failure mode
can be obtained.

Sensitivity study of major parameters


4.3.3.1

General

Based on the worked example on simple joints of Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13]
the different parameters were defined and varied in particular in the following. The worked example is used
thereby as reference version. Safety factors weren`t considered in this parameter study. Furthermore the
absolute terms in the equations for pullout failure and concrete cone failure were assumed as 12 and 15.5
to reproduce the real loadcarrying capacity. Values for application may be taken from the relevant Euro
pean Technical Specification of the specific headed studs.
4.3.3.2

Overview of the major parameters

The loadcarrying capacity and the rotational stiffness depends on different parameters and boundary con
ditions. The examined parameters are listed in Table 4.1.

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Tab. 4.3: Overview of the examined parameters and their influence on the model
Parameter

Influence

Effective height

++

Eccentricity

++

Diameter headed studs

+++

Diameter stirrups

++

Number of stirrups

++

Concrete strength

+++

4.3.3.3

Remarks and brief description


Influences the ultimate load carrying capacity as well as
the load carrying capacity of the concrete cone failure NRk,c
Can have high influence on the moment resistance of the
joint within high utilization factors of the interaction equa
tions
High influence on the ductility of the joint.
Diameter of the stirrups can increase the overall loadcar
rying capacity
If the number of stirrups is increases brittle failure modes
can be avoided.
Concrete strength has influence on all concrete compo
nents

Chapter
4.3.3.3
4.3.3.5
4.3.3.3
4.3.3.6
4.3.3.6
4.3.3.7

Effective height

The effective height (see Fig. 4.4) can either be varied by changing the thickness of the anchor plate, the
overall length of the headed stud or the head height of the anchor. In this study only the anchor length has
been modified as this factor has the biggest influence on the final result, see Tab. 4.4.
Tab. 4.4: Analyzed effective heights
Case 3

Case 4

100

Reference ver
sion
150

200

250

115

165

215

265

Parameter

Case 1

Case 2

Anchor length [mm]

50

Effective height [mm]

65

Fig. 4.14 shows the loaddisplacement curve of the tensile component. The desired behaviour of the simple
joint can be monitored, if an effective height of 165 mm is used. By selecting this effective height all three
sections Range1, Range2 and Range3 in Fig. 4.14 are clearly evident. By the end of the first section Range1 the
ultimate load of the concrete cone failure without considering supplementary reinforcement NRk,c = 190 kN
is reached for the reference version (see Tab. 4.4). By further increase of the load, the hanger reinforcement
is activated and the smallest resistance of steel yielding of the stirrups NRk,re,1, anchorage failure of the stir
rups NRk,re,2 or the small concrete cone failure NRk,cs can be decisive. In the third range Range3 the inclination
of the loaddisplacementcurve depends whether brittle failure modes like concrete cone failure or anchor
age failure or steel failure becomes crucial. According to Fig. 4.14 ductile behaviour occurs if longer headed
studs are used. The headed stud is yielding before other failure modes can be recognized. Fig. 4.14 indicates
that the selection of longer headed studs does not increase the load carrying capacity of the tensional com
ponent of the joint. In this cases steel failure of the headed studs becomes the decisive failure mode. If
headed studs with smaller effective heights are used, brittle failure modes might occur. For effective height
of 115 mm concrete cone failure between the supplementary reinforcement with approx. NRk,cs = 250 kN is
decisive and for an effective height of 65 mm with approx. NRk,cs = 105 kN is the governing failure mode. In
Fig. 4.15 the momentrotation curve by varying the effective length of the headed stud is shown. By changing
the effective height the rotational behavior of the joint can be influenced less as if the diameter of the heads
stud is changed. Changes of the diameter of the headed stud have higher influence on the stiffness EA of this
component (see Eq.(4.12)).

73

Infaso+Handbook II

Load-displacement curve
400
350

Load [kN]

300
250
200
hn = 50 mm

150

hn = 100 mm
100

hn = 150 mm
hn = 200 mm

50

hn = 250 mm
0
0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50

4,00

4,50

5,00

Displacement [mm]

Fig. 4.14: Loaddisplacement curve of the tensional component for variation of the effective height

Moment-rotation curve
1,20

1,00

Mref/Mx [-]

0,80

0,60

hn = 50 mm
hn = 100 mm
hn = 150 mm

0,40

hn = 200 mm
hn = 250 mm

0,20

0,00
0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

8,00

Rotation [mrad]

9,00

10,00

Fig. 4.15: Momentrotation curve for variation of the effective height


4.3.3.4

Diameter of the headed studs

In Fig. 4.16 the loaddisplacement curves of the tensional component for different diameters of the headed
stud is shown. The diameters of the headed studs are varied according to Tab. 4.5. By using a diameter of
22 mm in the reference version the supplementary reinforcement can be activated. This can be seen in Fig.
4.16 as the load can be increased from approx. NRk,u,c = 190 kN up to NRk,u = 350 kN (for definition see Fig.
4.11, right). The overall load carrying capacity cannot be increased by selecting even a higher diameter of
the headed stud. As yielding of the supplementary reinforcement becomes the decisive component with
NRk,re,1 = 350 kN a larger diameter is not more advantageous. If the diameter is reduced, the increase in
74

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loading due to the supplementary reinforcement cannot be taken into account fully. In this case a diameter
of 16 mm is too small as the load level of concrete cone failure, NRk,c = 190 kN, cannot be reached. In Fig.
4.17 the momentrotation curves of this simple steeltoconcrete joint by varying the diameter of the headed
stud are shown. The variation of the diameter has also an influence on the interaction equations of the joint.
Steel failure might become the decisive interaction equation.
Tab. 4.5: Diameter of the headed studs
Parameter
Diameter headed studs
[mm]

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Reference version

Case 4

13

16

19

22

25

Load-displacement curve
400
350

Load [kN]

300
250
200
150

ds,nom = 16 mm
ds,nom = 19 mm

100

ds,nom = 22 mm
50
0
0,00

ds,nom = 25 mm
2,00

4,00

6,00

8,00

10,00

12,00

14,00

16,00

18,00

20,00

Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.16: Loaddisplacement curve of the tensional component for variation of the diameter of the
headed studs

Moment-rotation curve
1,40
1,20

Mref/Mx [-]

1,00

ds,nom = 16 mm
ds,nom = 19 mm

0,80

ds,nom = 22 mm
0,60

ds,nom = 25 mm

0,40
0,20
0,00
0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

Rotaition [mrad]

Fig. 4.17: Momentrotation curve of the simple steeltoconcrete joint for variation of the diameter of
the headed studs
75

Infaso+Handbook II

4.3.3.5

Eccentricity

According to Tab. 4.6 five different cases are considered in order to determine the influence of the eccen
tricity on the rotational behavior of the joint. Originally there shouldn`t be any effect to the loadcarrying
capacity of the simple joint since there is no direct relation between the eccentricity and the tensile compo
nent. But changes in the eccentricity have influence on the overall loadcarrying capacity. As interaction
equations (see Eq. (4.16) to (4.17)) have to be considered, increases of the eccentricity can have an influence
on the moment resistance of the joint. Either steel failure or concrete failure can be decisive. If joints are
designed with higher eccentricities, increases of the tensional components of the joint have to be consid
ered. By varying the eccentricity in this example the interaction equation is not overstepped as the re
sistances due to friction also increases due to higher normal forces in the joint (see Fig. 4.19). As the normal
forces are getting larger the load capacity of the friction component rises and the shear resistance of the
headed studs is exceeded. Smaller shear forces are transferred to the second anchor row and possible nor
mal forces can be raised in this row. The particular application must be investigated therefore on caseby
case basis.
Tab. 4.6: Analyzed eccentricities
Parameter

Case 1

Case 2

Eccentricity [mm]

50

75

Reference ver
sion
100

Case 3

Case 4

200

250

Moment-rotation curve
2,50

2,00

Mref/Mx [-]

hn = 250 mm
hn = 200 mm

1,50

hn = 150 mm
hn = 100 mm
1,00

hn = 50 mm

0,50

0,00
0,00

2,00

4,00

6,00

8,00

10,00

12,00

14,00

16,00

Rotaition [mrad]

18,00

20,00

Fig. 4.18: Momentrotation curve for variation of the eccentricity


4.3.3.6

Diameter and number of the stirrups

The parameters of the diameter and the number of stirrups have been changed according to Tab. 4.7. If the
load carrying capacity of concrete cone failure is reached, further load increases depend on the supplemen
tary reinforcement. Two different failure modes have to be considered if the supplementary reinforcement
can be activated. Bond failure according to Chapter 4.2.9 or yielding of the supplementary reinforcement
might occur. By increasing the diameter of the stirrup the ultimate resistance of the tensile component can
only be increased slightly (see Fig. 4.19). By increasing the diameter of the headed stud, steel failure of the
headed studs becomes the decisive component with approx. NRk,s = 350 kN. As this is the crucial component
increases in the diameter of the supplementary reinforcement are not more advantageous. In a further pa
rameter study the number of stirrups has been varied. If the number of stirrups is reduced brittle failure
modes might occur, as the surface area of the supplementary reinforcement is reduced (see Fig. 4.20).
76

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Tab. 4.7: Analyzed diameter of stirrups and analyzed number of stirrups


Parameter

Case 1

Reference version

Case 2

Case 3

Case 4

12

14

Case 1

Case 2

10

Reference
version
4

Diameter of stirrups [mm]



Parameter
Number of stirrups [mm]

Load-displacement curve
400
350

Load [kN]

300
250
200
ds,re= 14 mm
ds,re= 12 mm
ds,re= 10 mm
ds,re= 8 mm
ds,re= 6 mm

150
100
50
0
0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50

4,00

4,50

5,00

Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.19: Loaddisplacement curve for variation of the diameter of the supplementary reinforcement
Load-displacement curve
400
350

Load [kN]

300
250
200
150

nre= 1

100

nre= 2

50

nre= 4

0
0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50

4,00

4,50

5,00

Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4.20: Loaddisplacement curve for variation of the number of stirrups
4.3.3.7

Concrete strength

The concrete strength has an influence on all components and therefore a high influence on the loaddefor
mation behavior of the tensile components. The issue of the scattering of this parameter is described in
Chapter 4.2.4. In this parameter study this component is varied according to Tab. 4.8. If the concrete
strength is reduced the load carrying capacity of the concrete component without considering the additional
reinforcement (see Eq. (4.1)) decreases. The supplementary reinforcement cannot be activated fully in two

77

Infaso+Handbook II

cases as (Case 1 and Case 2) as pullout failure is the decisive component NRk,p = 280 kN (Case 1) in this
cases.
Tab. 4.8: Variation of concrete strength
Parameter

Case 1

Case 2

Concrete strength [N/mm]

C20/25

C25/30

Reference
version
C30/37

Case 3

Case 4

C35/45

C40/50

Load-displacement curve
400
350

Load [kN]

300
250
200

fck = 50 N/mm
fck = 45 N/mm
fck = 37 N/mm
fck = 30 N/mm
fck = 25 N/mm

150
100
50
0
0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

Displacement [mm]

3,50

4,00

4,50

Fig. 4.21: Loaddisplacement curve for variation of the concrete strength

Limits of the model and recommendations

78

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4.3.4.1

General

Fig. 4.22: Required edgedis


tances

In the parameter study above the sensitivity of simple steeltocon


crete joints to changes of different parameters is shown. The overall influence on the loadcarrying capacity
of the tensile components or the momentrotation curve of the whole joint depends strongly on the design,
e.g. geometry, size of anchors etc., of the simple steeltoconcrete joints in particular. Brittle failure modes
have to be prevented within case by case studies where the different parameters are changed carefully. A
very helpful tool in the design process of the joint can be the use of the design program for Rigid anchor
plate with headed studs simple joint (see Chapter 2.3). With the help of this program the failure modes
of the specific anchor plate can be determined. By varying the above mentioned parameters ductile behavior
of this joint can be achieved. Nevertheless limitations have to be made, if the newly developed INFASO
components are considered. These limitations are described in the following.
4.3.4.2

Edge distances

Within the INFASO project [11] a calculation approach for the tensile concrete components has been devel
oped. Tests with loading perpendicular toward a free edge under shear with consideration of the positive
contribution of the supplementary reinforcement have not yet been made. The additional reinforcement
can only be taken into account, if the geometric limitations in Fig. 4.22 are taken into consideration. These
limitations ensure that there are no edge effects which might lead to different failure modes. Further infor
mation will be given in Obolt [19]. Furthermore conservative calculation approaches for the calculation of
the shear resistance due to pryout failure have to be made, as the calculation of the resistance due to pry
out failure is based on the tensile resistance of the concrete components without considering the additional
reinforcement. In future further tests have to be done for this failure mode.
4.3.4.3

Number of headed studs

In the INFASO project [11] tests on anchor plates


of simple steeltoconcrete connections with dis
positions of 2x3 and 2x2 of the headed studs
have been made. Limitations for anchor plates
with a larger number of headed studs are given
in CEN/TS 199241 [1]. Anchor plates with
more than nine headed studs are not covered by
this standard. If the number of headed studs is
increased, according to the tests of the INFASO
project [11] further considerations have to be
made, if the supplementary reinforcement is
taken into account..
4.3.4.4


Fig. 4.23: Number of headed studs according to
CEN/TS 199241 [1]

Concrete strength

A relatively low concrete strength of C20/25 [7] has been used for all test specimens to achieve concrete
failure modes as lower bound of all failure mechanism. The developed INFASO models [11] are only valid
for normalstrength concrete and should not be transferred to highstrength concrete.
4.3.4.5

Number of stirrups

The model of the tensile components has been developed in the INFASO project [11] for one stud row. This
model is based on tests of headed studs under pure tension, where supplementary reinforcement is consid
ered. In the test specimens with consideration of supplementary reinforcement two stirrups have been
placed next to the headed stud. In total four legs have been considered within the concrete cone of one
headed stud. The model of this tensile component has been implemented in the model of the simple joint,
where the tensional forces have to be considered in the second row of headed studs (see Fig. 4.11). The
79

Infaso+Handbook II

model of this simple steeltoconcrete joint has been validated with good agreement against the test results
(see Fig. 4.13) with the exact constellation of supplementary reinforcement as in the component tests under
pure tension.
If the new INFASO design approach [11] is transferred to anchor
plates with more than two stud rows, the load distribution among
the supplementary reinforcement has to be considered in special. If
the model is assigned for two stud rows under tension, calculation
approaches are given in [16]. If the supplementary reinforcement is
placed next to the headed studs according to Fig. 4.24 the concrete
cone can be subdivided into the intermediate part with normal con
crete breakout and the right side and left side part where the factor
supp is considered. The failure load of this component can be calcu
lated with Eq. (4.18):
N

, ,
, ,

, ,
,

, ,

, ,
, ,

(4.18)


Further investigations no the subject of edge effects, number of stir
rups (see [19] and [14]) and number of heads studs (see [15])are on
the way but not yet in a status to be implemented in Eurocodes.

80

Fig. 4.24: Design approach for


more than one headed stud under
tension

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4.4 Parameter study on column bases


Validation of the model


Fig. 4.25: Geometry of tests with column base with anchor plate

The analytical component based model of column base with anchor plate was validated on experiments
prepared under the project, see Kuhlman et al. [12]. The specimen was consisted of two steel units, see Fig.
4.25. The thin steel anchor plate was tp1 = 10 mm with welded studs d = 22 mm, h = 150 mm and with
threaded studs d = 24 mm, h = 100 mm. The thick steel base plate tp2 = 25 mm was design under the column
HE180B, fillet weld aw = 6 mm. The concrete block was made from reinforced concrete
1 600 x 1 000 x 400 mm, see Tab. 4.9 The test results were published in Ph.D. thesis of ika, J. [20]
Tab. 4.9: Geometric dimensions of the tests
Column
HE180B

S355

fyk = 355 MPa

fuk = 510 MPa

Threaded studs
d = 24 mm; h = 100 mm
fyk = 355 MPa

Base plate

250x380x25
fyk = 355 MPa

Anchor plate
S355

fuk = 510 MPa

Headed studs
S355

fuk = 510 MPa

d = 22 mm; h = 150 mm
fy,exp = 444.8 MPa

350x560x10

S235

fy,exp = 270.1 MPa

fu,exp = 421.3

Foundation (cracked)
S355

fu,exp = 542.1

1600x1000x400
fck = 25 MPa

C25/30
fck,c = 30 MPa

M[kNm]

The analytical model is described in Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13]. For the calcu
lation were taken the measured values of material properties of steel. In the experiments S20, S25, and
S230 varies the thickness of the grout, form 0 mm, 5 mm and 30 mm. The experimental moment rotational
curves are summarized in Fig. 4.26.
50
40
30
20
S20
10

S25
S230

0
0,00

0,02

0,04

0,06

0,08

0,10
[rad]

Fig. 4.26: Momentrotation curves of three experiments with different position of headed and threaded
studs
81

Infaso+Handbook II

The differences of experimental results are reported to be due to changes of lever arm during the loading
at large deformations, see Fig. 4.27. The vertical deformations were measured at points 111, the horizontal
ones in 12 and 13, see Fig. 4.27. Results of each experiments were recalculated based on the measured actual
acting force, see Fig. 4.28 to Fig. 4.30. The eccentricity is recalculated to the column axes. The comparison
of the calculated and measured initial stiffness Sj,ini shows a good agreement. The difference is in between a
range of 5 %. The elasticplastic stage is affected to the material properties and the development of cracks
in concrete block. The modelling respects the engineering level of accuracy in prediction of resistance.

M[kNm]

Fig. 4.27: Measured values during the tests


50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
S20
Calculation
5
0
0,01 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10

[rad]

M[kNm]

Fig. 4.28: Comparison of predicted and measured moment rotational relation


for experiment S20, eccentricity 495 mm
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Calculation
5
S25
0
0,01 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10

[rad]

Fig. 4.29: Comparison of predicted and measured moment rotational relation


for experiment S25, eccentricity 354 mm
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berschrift 1.

M[kNm]

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Calculation
5
S230
0
0,01 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10

[rad]

Fig. 4.30: Comparison of predicted and measured moment rotational relation


for experiment S230, eccentricity 504 mm

Sensitivity study of major parameters

Normalforce[kN]

The bending resistance of the base plate with anchor plate is assembled from the tensile and compression
resistance of its components. The additional component is the anchor plate in bending and in tension. The
procedure for evaluation of the resistance is the same in all connections loaded by bending moment and
normal force. The influence of parameters like the base plate thickness, the anchor plate thickness, and the
distance between the headed and threaded studs is studied. The study is prepared for column of cross sec
tion HE180B, for all plates and cross sections of steel S355 (if not mentioned for all plates and cross sections
S235), concrete C25/30, threaded studs M 24, steel S355, and headed studs M22, steel S355. In each normal
force moment interaction diagram are marked the important points e. g. the resistance in tension, in maxi
mal bending, in pure bending, and in maximal compression. The Fig. 4.31 and Fig. 4.32 demonstrate the
influence of the base plate thickness tp2 for steel S355 and S235.
3250
3000

tp2 =40mm

2750

30mm

2500

25mm

2250
2000

20mm

1750

15mm

1500
1250
1000
750
500
250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]

Fig. 4.31: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different base plate
thickness tp2 and steel S355

83

Normalforce[kN]

Infaso+Handbook II

3000
2750

tp2 =40mm

2500

30mm

2250

25mm

2000

20mm

1750

15mm

1500
1250
1000
750
500
250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.32: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different base plate
thickness tp2 and steel S235

Normalforce[kN]

The parameter study of the anchor plate thickness tp1 is influenced by the interaction of acting developed
forces in headed studs in shear and in tension. The selected value of effective height of the headed stud is
included for each anchor plate thickness. Fig. 4.33 to Fig. 4.36 show the influence of the anchor plate thick
ness to the column base resistance for two material properties. For headed studs with the effective height
150 mm, only the anchor plate with thickness 10 mm is not affected by the headed studs resistance.
2750

tp1 =10mm

2500
2250

tp1 =8mm

2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500

heff =150mm

250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.33: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud length heff = 150 mm

84

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berschrift 1.

Normalforce[kN]

3000
2750

tp1 =20mm

tp1 =10mm

2500
2250

tp1 =8mm

2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500

heff =150mm

250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]

M[kNm]

Fig. 4.34: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud length heff = 150 mm
160

tp1 =8,10 mm;heff =200 mm;d1 =22mm


tp1 =15,20 mm;heff =350 mm;d1 =30mm

tp2 =20mm

140
120
100

15mm

80
60

10mm

40

8mm

20
0
0,00

0,01

0,02

0,03

0,04

0,05

0,06

[rad]
Fig. 4.35: Moment rotation diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 350 mm

85

M[kNm]

Infaso+Handbook II

120

tp1 =8,10,15mm;heff =200 mm;d1 =22mm


tp1 =20 mm;heff =300 mm;d1 =30mm

tp2 =20mm
100

80

60

15mm

40

10mm
8mm

20

0
0,00

0,01

0,02

0,03

0,04

0,05

0,06

[rad]
Fig. 4.36: Moment rotation interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 300 mm

Normalforce[kN]

The influence of the effective length of the headed stud 200 and 350 mm, for steel S355, the plate thickness
25 mm is summarized in a moment normal force interaction diagram in Fig. 4.37 and Fig. 4.38.
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
250
500
750

tp1 =8,10 mm;heff =200 mm;d1 =22mm


tp1 =15,20 mm;heff =350 mm;d1 =30mm

tp1 =20mm
15mm
10mm
8mm

Columnendresistance
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Moment[kNm]

Fig. 4.37: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S355, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 350 mm

86

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Normalforce[kN]

3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
250
500

15mm
10mm

tp1 =8,10,15mm;heff =200 mm;d1 =22mm


tp1 =20 mm;heff =300 mm;d1 =30mm

tp1 =20mm

8mm

Columnendresistance
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]

Fig. 4.38: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different anchor plate thickness tp1,
for the anchor plate steel S235, and the headed stud lengths heff = 200 mm and 300 mm

Normalforce[kN]

Different distance between the headed and threaded studs of the anchor plates and their influence on the
moment resistance are shown in Fig. 4.39 to Fig. 4.42 for the anchor plate thickness 10 mm, base plate
thickness 25 mm, and steels S355 and S235. The pure bending resistance decreases till the distance between
the headed and threaded studs 200 mm, where the base plate resistance is changed.
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250

m1 =200mm
m1 =150mm
m1 =120mm
m1 =100mm
m1 =80mm
m1 =50mm

1000
750
500
250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]
Fig. 4.39: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different distances between the headed and
threaded studs m1, for the anchor plate steel S355

87

Infaso+Handbook II

Normalforce[kN]

2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250

m1 =200mm
m1 =150mm
m1 =120mm
m1 =100mm
m1 =80mm
m1 =50mm

1000
750
500
250

Columnend
resistance

0
250
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Moment[kNm]

M[kNm]

Fig. 4.40: Moment normal force interaction diagram for different distances between the headed and
threaded studs m1, for the anchor plate steel S235
50
45
40
35
30

m1 =50mm
60mm
70mm
80mm
90mm
100mm
110mm
120mm

25
20

150mm
200mm

15
10
5
0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20 0,22 0,24 0,26 0,28 0,30 0,32

[rad]
Fig. 4.41: Moment rotation diagram for different distances between the headed and threaded studs
m1, for the anchor plate steel S355

88

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berschrift 1.

M[kNm]

35

m1 =50mm
60mm
70mm
80mm
90mm
100mm
110mm
120mm

30
25
20
15

150mm

200mm

10
5
0
0,00

0,02

0,04

0,06

0,08

0,10

0,12

0,14

0,16

0,18

0,20

0,22

[rad]
Fig. 4.42: Moment rotation diagram for different distances between the headed and threaded studs
m1, for the anchor plate steel S235

Limits of the model


The analytical design model by component based method of a base plate with an anchor plate offers free
dom in selection of material properties and geometries of the threaded and headed studs, the base and
anchor plates and the concrete foundation. The limits follows the recommended values in Chapter 2.2. In
formation about positioning of holes for bolts and rivets is given in EN 199318 [9]. The symbols used are
summarized in Fig. 4.43. These limits may be interpreted for a base plate with an anchor plate in terms of
p

min 2.5 d

(4.19)

min 1.2 d

(4.20)

a 2

(4.21)

min 1.2 d

With:
p2
d10
d20
eb1
eb2
m2

min 1.2 d

(4.22)

min 1.2 d

(4.23)

is distance between the threaded studs


is diameters of headed stud including weld to the anchor plate
is diameters of threaded stud including weld to the anchor plate
is the edge distance the headed stud
is the edge distance the threaded stud
is distance between the threaded stud and column cross section

89

Infaso+Handbook II

The presented model was validated/verified in


limited range of geometry and materials S235 to
S355 for:
tp1 = 6 to 20 mm
d1 = 20 to 40 mm
d2 = min d1
heff = min 150 mm


Fig. 4.43: Scheme of base plate with anchor plate

where
tp1
tp2
d1
d2
heff

is thickness of the anchor plate


is thickness of the base plate
is diameters of headed stud
is diameters of threaded stud
is the effective height of the headed stud

For very thin anchor plates tp1 < 6 mm and huge headed and threaded studs d1 > 40 mm too rough simplifi
cation of changes in the geometry in the model might occur. The prediction of the tensile resistance of the
component anchor plate in bending and in tension should be modelled by iteration, which is described in
ika, J. [20].
For ductile behaviour of the base plate with anchor plate it is necessary to avoid a brittle failure of the con
crete components. The concrete cone failure without or with reinforcement, the pullout failure of headed
studs, the pryout failure of headed stud, and its interaction. The steel failure of the threaded stud in tension
is unacceptable brittle for design of steel structures. In column bases it is approved, that the failure of the
anchor bolts is for predominantly static loading of column bases ductile enough. The headed studs with
embedded length of at least 8 d1 may be expected to present ductile behaviour. The deformation capacity
of headed studs with shorter embedded length in the reinforced concrete block should be checked by pre
sented method in Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13].
Under serviceability limit state the elastic plastic behaviour without any membrane actions is expected in
connections. Column bases with base plate and anchor plate develop the plastic hinge mechanism and the
anchor plate due to a tensile bar. This behaviour is ductile but creates large deformations. Hence this
method is recommended to limit the serviceability limit state by the creation of the full plastic mechanism
only.

Recommendation for design values


The column base with base plate in pure compression is not limited by the size of the concrete block for
ac = min 3 ap2 and bc = min 3 bp2. Full resistance of the steel part may be developed, where ac and bc is the
concrete width/length, and ap2 and bp2 is the base plate width/length.
The resistance of column base with anchor plate in pure bending is mostly limited by interaction of tension
and shear of headed studs be creating the tensile bar behaviour of the anchor plate. The longer headed studs
of higher diameter and better material properties of stirrups allows the development of this ductile behav
iour. The contribution of the tensile resistance of the component the anchor plate in bending and in tension
is expected t1 max 0,5 t2, where t1 is the anchor plate thickness and t2 is the base plate thickness. For typical
column cross sections recommended sizes of the column base with anchor plate are summarized in Tab.
4.10. to Tab. 4.15. The table is prepared for all plates and cross sections of steel S355, concrete C25/30,
threaded studs M 24, steel S355, and headed studs M22 of effective length heff =200 mm, steel S355. Stirrups
have diameter 8 mm, steel B500A, 4 legs for stud. The influence of the weld size on tension part resistance
is not taken into account.

90

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se


m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

The distance between the threaded and headed studs m1 is expected in one direction along the base plate
only. For distances in both direction the real distance m1 should be taken into account. The threaded and
headed studs deviation from the specified location is expected in the calculations as 6 mm. The stud devi
ation is taken into consideration reducing the lever arm as:
m1
m

4 mm
2 mm

Due to loading of the of column base with plastic mechanism in the anchor plate internal vertical and hori
zontal forces in the headed studs from changed geometry have to be considered. In the presented tables this
is dissipated till 20 % of the horizontal resistance of headed studs. The remaining 80 % may carry the acting
external shear forces. The symbols used are summarized in Fig. 4.43. By utilization of tables the linear tran
sition for different normal force / bending moment ratio is recommended. The geometry of the column base
is defined by following values:
ap2
d1
d2
eb1
eb2
m1
m2
p1
p2
tp2
tp1

is width of the base plate


is diameters of threaded stud
is diameters of headed stud
is the edge distance the threaded stud
is the edge distance the headed stud
is distance between the threaded and headed studs
is distance between the threaded stud and column cross section
is distance between the threaded studs
is distance between the headed studs
is thickness of the base plate
is thickness of the anchor plate

Tabularized are values for:


MN=0,pl is the bending design re
sistance of column base under poor
bending for SLS, under plastic bend
ing of the anchor plate, see Fig. 4.44.

Normal force, kN
M=0
NM=0

MN=0,mem is the bending design re


sistance of column base under poor
bending for ULS, the anchor plate
acts as anchor plate
M1 is the specific design bending re
sistance of column base for acting
normal force N1 for effective cross
section under one flange in compres
sion only
M2, is the maximal design bending
resistance of column base for acting
normal force N2 for onehalf of effec
tive cross section is in compression

M3
N3

M2
N2

Moment, kNm
M N=0
N=0

M1
N1

Fig. 4.44: Tabulated points at the moment normal force


M3 is the specific design bending re
interaction diagram in Tab. 4.10. to Tab. 4.15
sistance of column base for acting normal force N3 for effective cross section under the column web and one
flange in compression
NM=0 is the design compression resistance of column base under poor compression
The column bases are classified based on its relative stiffness compared to the column stiffness in the terms
of column length. Shorter columns with this column base may be design with a rigid connection in bending.

91

Infaso+Handbook II

The tables contain the limiting length of columns for the rigid column bases for frames where
Lcb = 8 E Ic / Sj.ini and for other frames as Lco = 25 E Ic / Sj.ini.

92

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.

Tab. 4.10: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE160B
Column
HE160B

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
700 x 1200 x 850

Base plate
P25 200 x 360

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 100 mm

C20/25 eb2 = 50 mm

m2 = 50 mm

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.6
4.8
3.8
84.8
44.1
21.4




34
48
65
29
39
58

awf = 6 mm

Lco

M1

N 1

Sj,ini

tp1

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5

Lco

M2

S355

Foundation

N 2

Sj,ini

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


9.4
95 700
13939
9.5
100 742
13826
9.6
108 806
13669
20.8
86 767
6301
16.2
98 756
8093
13.2
114 756
9917
244.2
84 784
536
140.7
94 785
930
73.5
112 775
1780

Lcb

Lco

[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5

M3

N 3

Sj,ini

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


9.4
95 700
13939
9.5
100 742
13826
9.6
108 806
13669
20.8
86 767
6301
16.2
98 756
8093
13.2
114 756
9917
244.2
84 784
536
140.7
94 785
930
73.5
112 775
1780

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
3.0
3.0
3.1
6.6
5.2
4.2
78.1
45.0
23.5

[m]
9.4
9.5
9.6
20.8
16.2
13.2
244.2
140.7
73.5

[kN]
1804
1887
1926
1804
1887
1926
1804
1887
1926

Base plate
P30 200 x 360

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 100 mm

700 x 1200 x 850

C20/25 eb2 = 50 mm

m2 = 50 mm

MN=0,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
2.5
2.6
2.6
6.3
4.6
3.6
84.9
44.0
21.3

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 240 x (380 + 2m1)

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

S355

p1 = 100 mm

eb1 = 70 mm

Varying
m 1

Lcb

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


8.6
95 700
13939
8.7
100 742
13826
8.8
108 806
13669
20.5
86 767
6301
15.1
98 756
8093
11.9
114 756
9917
265.0
84 784
536
137.7
94 785
930
67.0
112 775
1780

Column
HE160B

Threaded studs
24 mm
S355

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
53
15133
0
12
54
15045
15
55
14913
10
31
6380
50
12
45
8683
15
65
10958
10
24
494
12
35
950
100
15
54
1953

S355

p1 = 100 mm

eb1 = 70 mm

Varying
m 1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 240 x (380 + 2m1)

S355

Threaded studs
24 mm
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Sj,ini,pl

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
55
16445
0
12
56
16338
15
57
16177
10
33
6623
50
12
47
9103
15
67
11589
10
25
493
12
36
952
100
15
56
1968




36
49
67
30
41
60

Lco

M1

N 1

Sj,ini

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


8.0
105 762
15214
8.0
110 805
15090
8.1
119 871
14916
19.8
96 830
6616
14.4
108 820
8540
11.3
125 822
10519
265.4
94 847
544
137.4
105 850
943
66.5
123 841
1803

Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2

Lco

M2

N 2

Sj,ini

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


8.6
105 762
15214
8.7
110 805
15090
8.8
119 871
14916
19.8
96 830
6616
15.3
108 820
8540
12.4
125 822
10519
240.3
94 847
544
138.7
105 850
943
72.6
123 841
1803

Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2

Lco

M3

N 3

Sj,ini

[m] [kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]


8.6
105 762
15214
8.7
110 805
15090
8.8
119 871
14916
19.8
96 830
6616
15.3
108 820
8540
12.4
125 822
10519
240.3
94 847
544
138.7
105 850
943
72.6
123 841
1803

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.3
4.9
4.0
76.9
44.4
23.2

[m]
8.6
8.7
8.8
19.8
15.3
12.4
240.3
138.7
72.6

[kN]
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926

93

Infaso+Handbuch Teil I

Tab. 4.11: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE180B
Column
HE180B

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
800 x 1200 x 850

Base plate
P25 220 x 380

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 100 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm

m2 = 50 mm

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
3.5
3.5
3.5
7.9
5.9
4.7
97.6
50.7
24.8




39
55
74
33
45
66

awf = 6 mm

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
10.8
127
10.9
134
11.0
145
24.8
117
18.4
131
14.7
149
305.1
114
158.5
126
77.4
148

N 1

Sj,ini

tp1

S355

Foundation

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 100 mm

800 x 1200 x 850

C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm

m2 = 50 mm

MN=0,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

94

heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

[m]
3.9
3.9
4.0
8.3
6.6
5.5
92.3
54.1
29.0

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
12.1
127
12.3
134
12.6
145
25.8
117
20.5
131
17.3
149
288.4
114
169.0
127
90.5
148

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
989
16342
1054
16160
1151
15911
1069
7668
1077
9701
1117
11631
1089
685
1110
1177
1126
2220

Lcb

Lco

[m]
3.9
4.0
4.0
8.4
6.6
5.5
94.0
54.7
29.0

M3

[m] [kNm]
12.3
127
12.4
134
12.6
145
26.2
116
20.7
131
17.3
149
293.8
113
171.0
126
90.6
148

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1036
16088
1085
16009
1154
15897
1116
7522
1107
9600
1120
11620
1135
670
1141
1162
1129
2217

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
4.0
4.0
4.0
8.6
6.7
5.5
96.1
55.4
29.0

[m]
12.5
12.6
12.7
26.7
21.0
17.3
300.3
173.1
90.7

[kN]
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316

[kNm]

[m]
3.2
3.2
3.3
7.7
5.6
4.5
97.7
50.6
24.6

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 260 x (400 + 2m1)

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

S355

p1 = 100 mm

eb1 = 80 mm

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Sj,ini,pl

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
65
20062
0
12
66
19928
15
67
19728
10
37
8401
50
12
54
11456
15
77
14458
10
28
659
12
41
1272
100
15
64
2621

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm

Base plate
P30 220 x 380

Varying
m 1

Lcb

[kN] [kNm/rad]
942
16566
1023
16299
1148
15925
1022
7795
1046
9795
1114
11642
1042
697
1080
1190
1123
2222

Column
HE180B

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
63
18604
0
12
63
18493
15
65
18325
10
36
8107
50
12
52
10958
15
74
13710
10
27
659
12
40
1269
100
15
62
2600

S355

p1 = 100 mm

eb1 = 80 mm

Varying
m 1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 260 x (400 + 2m1)

S355




40
56
77
34
46
68

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
10.0
140
10.1
147
10.2
158
23.9
129
17.6
144
13.9
163
305.3
126
158.1
139
76.7
161

N 1

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1093
17608
1150
17448
1231
17255
1173
7984
1174
10173
1197
12328
1193
691
1208
1188
1208
2254

Lcb
[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.2
54.2
28.6

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
11.4
140
11.5
147
11.7
158
25.2
129
19.8
144
16.3
163
291.3
126
169.2
139
89.2
161

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1096
17593
1150
17448
1231
17255
1177
7976
1174
10173
1197
12328
1196
690
1208
1188
1208
2254

Lcb
[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.3
54.2
28.6

Lco

M3

[m] [kNm]
11.4
140
11.5
147
11.7
158
25.2
129
19.8
144
16.3
163
291.6
126
169.2
139
89.2
161

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1099
17577
1150
17448
1231
17255
1180
7967
1174
10173
1197
12328
1200
689
1208
1188
1208
2254

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
3.7
3.7
3.7
8.1
6.3
5.2
93.4
54.2
28.6

[m]
11.4
11.5
11.7
25.2
19.8
16.3
292.0
169.2
89.2

[kN]
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316
2316

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.

Tab. 4.12: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE200B
HE200B

Column
awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
800 x 1300 x 900

Base plate
P25 240 x 400

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 120 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm

m2 = 50 mm

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

Lco

awf = 6 mm

M1

N 1

Sj,ini

tp1

Lco

Foundation

N 2


Base plate

S355

M2

P30 240 x 400

S355

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 120 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 60 mm

m2 = 50 mm

MN=0,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

N 3

Sj,ini

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
3.4
3.5
3.5
7.4
5.8
4.8
82.9
47.8
25.1

[m]
10.8
10.8
10.9
23.1
18.1
14.9
259.1
149.4
78.3

[kN]
2725
2772
2772
2725
2772
2772
2725
2772
2772


S355

p1 = 120 mm

eb1 = 80 mm

M3

Threaded studs

P(tp1) 280 x (420 + 2m1)


ea1 = 60 mm

Lco

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]
10.4
148 1220
18664
10.6
157 1279
18588
10.7
171 1363
18483
22.3
135 1308
8696
17.6
153 1310
11117
14.7
175 1335
13514
248.2
132 1328
776
144.8
148 1344
1346
77.0
173 1349
2567

Anchor plate

800 x 1300 x 900

Sj,ini

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
10.2
152 1131
19257 3.3
10.4
160 1203
19043 3.4
10.6
172 1311
18748 3.4
21.6
139 1219
9036 7.1
17.2
155 1235
11421 5.6
14.5
176 1284
13721 4.7
240.3
136 1240
810 79.4
141.2
150 1270
1389 46.3
75.9
174 1298
2612 24.6

Varying
m 1

Lcb

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
9.1
152 1041
19735 3.3
9.2
160 1127
19423 3.3
9.2
172 1260
18985 3.4
21.4
139 1131
9302 6.9
15.6
155 1160
11676 5.5
12.3
176 1232
13907 4.6
266.0
135 1152
837 76.9
136.6
150 1195
1424 45.2
65.8
174 1248
2651 24.3

Column
HE200B

Threaded studs
Headed studs
Stirrups
M24
S355 22 mm
S355 8 mm

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad] [kNm] [m]


10
69
22107
2.9
0
12
70
21967
2.9
15
71
21758
3.0
10
38
9400
42 6.8
50
12
55
12865
58 5.0
15
80
16297
80 3.9
10
29
756
35 85.1
12
42
1472
47 43.7
100
15
66
3058
70 21.0

S355

p1 = 120 mm

eb1 = 80 mm

Varying
m 1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 280 x (420 + 2m1)

M24

Headed studs

S355 22 mm

Stirrups

S355 8 mm

heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Sj,ini,pl

Lcb

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad] [kNm] [m]


10
71
23682
2.7
0
12
72
23518
2.7
15
74
23274
2.8
10
39
9709
43 6.6
50
12
57
13398
60 4.8
15
82
17112
82 3.8
10
30
756
35 85.2
12
43
1476
48 43.6
100
15
67
3081
72 20.9

Lco

M1

N 1

Sj,ini

Lcb

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
8.5
167 1205
20840 3.1
8.6
175 1293
20524 3.1
8.6
187 1430
20077 3.2
20.7
154 1294
9508 6.8
15.0
170 1326
12005 5.4
11.8
192 1402
14392 4.5
266.2
151 1315
830 77.6
136.3
165 1361
1412 45.6
65.3
189 1418
2633 24.4

Lco

M2

N 2

Sj,ini

Lcb

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad] [m]
9.7
167 1256
20579 3.1
9.8
175 1326
20367 3.2
10.0
187 1431
20071 3.2
21.2
154 1345
9366 6.9
16.8
170 1358
11901 5.4
14.0
192 1403
14388 4.5
242.4
151 1366
816 78.9
142.4
165 1393
1398 46.0
76.4
189 1419
2633 24.4

Lco

M3

N 3

Sj,ini

[m]
[kNm] [kN] [kNm/rad]
9.8
166 1307
20286
9.9
174 1359
20198
10.0
187 1432
20066
21.5
153 1396
9206
16.9
170 1391
11790
14.0
192 1404
14384
246.5
150 1416
800
143.8
165 1425
1383
76.4
189 1420
2632

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
3.2
3.2
3.2
7.0
5.5
4.5
80.4
46.5
24.5

[m]
9.9
10.0
10.0
21.8
17.1
14.0
251.3
145.4
76.4

[kN]
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772
2772

95

Infaso+Handbuch Teil I

Tab. 4.13: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE220B
Column
HE220B

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000

Base plate
P25 260 x 420

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 120 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm

m2 = 50 mm

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
2.5
2.5
2.5
6.0
4.3
3.4
75.3
38.3
18.2




44
62
85
36
49
74

awf = 6 mm

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
7.8
177
7.9
186
8.0
201
18.7
161
13.5
179
10.6
203
235.3
157
119.5
173
56.8
199

N 1

Sj,ini

tp1

S355

Foundation

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 120 mm

900 x 1400 x 1000

C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm

m2 = 50 mm

MN=0,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

96

heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

[m]
2.8
2.8
2.9
5.9
4.7
3.9
64.9
38.2
20.6

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
8.7
177
8.8
186
9.0
201
18.3
161
14.6
179
12.3
203
202.8
158
119.4
173
64.3
200

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1411
21614
1470
21509
1560
21351
1468
10175
1470
12962
1498
15742
1489
913
1506
1575
1517
2987

Lcb

Lco

[m]
3.0
3.0
3.0
6.3
5.0
4.1
70.5
40.9
21.5

M3

[m] [kNm]
9.3
162
9.4
175
9.4
194
19.8
148
15.5
169
12.8
197
220.3
145
127.7
164
67.3
194

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1672
19614
1700
19909
1740
20258
1714
9108
1685
11958
1665
14953
1734
807
1719
1437
1681
2821

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
3.3
3.2
3.2
7.1
5.4
4.3
79.7
44.8
22.8

[m]
10.3
10.1
9.9
22.1
16.8
13.5
249.1
140.0
71.3

[kN]
3232
3232
3232
3220
3232
3232
3220
3232
3232

[kNm]

[m]
2.3
2.4
2.4
5.8
4.2
3.2
75.4
38.2
18.1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 300 x (440 + 2m1)

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

S355

p1 = 120 mm

eb1 = 90 mm

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Sj,ini,pl

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
76
27392
0
12
77
27194
15
78
26901
10
42
11057
50
12
60
15426
15
88
19931
10
31
854
12
45
1686
100
15
71
3563

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm

Base plate
P30 260 x 420

Varying
m 1

Lcb

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1149
23107
1240
22751
1380
22250
1221
10963
1256
13750
1331
16407
1243
992
1291
1685
1352
3128

Column
HE220B

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
74
25718
0
12
75
25547
15
76
25291
10
41
10735
50
12
59
14863
15
85
19056
10
30
855
12
44
1683
100
15
69
3539

S355

p1 = 120 mm

eb1 = 90 mm

Varying
m 1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 300 x (440 + 2m1)

S355




45
63
88
37
51
75

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
7.3
195
7.4
204
7.5
219
18.2
179
13.0
197
10.1
221
235.5
175
119.3
191
56.5
218

N 1

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1325
24272
1418
23913
1562
23405
1395
11184
1432
14102
1511
16924
1417
984
1468
1672
1532
3108

Lcb
[m]
2.7
2.7
2.7
5.8
4.6
3.8
65.4
38.5
20.7

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
8.3
195
8.4
204
8.6
219
18.0
179
14.3
197
11.9
221
204.4
175
120.3
191
64.7
218

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1498
23316
1559
23178
1651
22973
1555
10702
1559
13658
1588
16630
1577
937
1595
1612
1608
3048

Lcb
[m]
2.8
2.8
2.8
6.0
4.7
3.9
68.7
39.9
21.1

Lco

M3

[m] [kNm]
8.6
188
8.7
200
8.8
217
18.8
173
14.7
193
12.1
220
214.6
170
124.8
188
66.0
217

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1672
22155
1700
22319
1740
22498
1716
10113
1687
13145
1665
16312
1736
880
1721
1543
1684
2983

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
2.9
2.9
2.9
6.4
4.9
3.9
73.1
41.7
21.6

[m]
9.1
9.0
8.9
19.9
15.3
12.3
228.5
130.3
67.4

[kN]
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom
pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1.

Tab. 4.14: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE240B
Column
HE240B

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000

Base plate
P25 280 x 440

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 140 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm

m2 = 50 mm

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
2.2
2.2
2.2
5.3
3.8
2.9
67.4
33.9
15.9




47
65
91
38
52
78

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
900 x 1400 x 1000

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
6.8
206
6.8
216
6.9
233
16.6
183
11.9
202
9.2
229
210.7
179
106.0
196
49.8
224

N 1

Sj,ini

Lcb

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1251
26832
1347
26425
1495
25853
1292
12783
1329
16025
1407
19151
1314
1162
1366
1971
1433
3653

[m]
2.4
2.4
2.5
5.0
4.0
3.4
55.4
32.7
17.6

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
7.5
206
7.6
216
7.8
233
15.7
183
12.6
202
10.5
229
173.1
179
102.0
196
55.1
225

Column
HE240B

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
81
29714
0
12
82
29509
15
83
29205
10
43
12106
50
12
62
16942
15
91
21975
10
32
955
12
46
1898
100
15
73
4040

S355

p1 = 140 mm

eb1 = 90 mm

Varying
m 1

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 320 x (460 + 2m1)

S355

Sj,ini

Lcb

Lco

[m]
2.5
2.5
2.6
5.3
4.2
3.5
58.3
34.1
18.2

M3

[m] [kNm]
7.8
193
7.9
205
8.0
225
16.5
172
13.1
193
10.8
222
182.2
168
106.7
187
57.0
219

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1601
24068
1679
24010
1791
23934
1605
11359
1621
14560
1663
17821
1626
1019
1657
1768
1685
3372

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
2.7
2.7
2.7
5.7
4.4
3.6
63.1
36.4
19.1

[m]
8.4
8.4
8.4
17.7
13.8
11.3
197.3
113.8
59.6

[kN]
3328
3502
3763
3176
3341
3588
3176
3341
3588

Base plate
P30 280 x 440

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 140 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 70 mm

m2 = 50 mm

Varying
m 1
tp1
MN=0,pl
Sj,ini,pl
MN=0,mem
[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad] [kNm]
10
83
31486

0
12
84
31253

15
86
30907

10
44
12436
48
50
12
64
17530
67
15
93
22905
93
10
33
954
39
12
47
1901
53
100
15
74
4064
79

N 2

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1426
25704
1513
25420
1643
25031
1448
12204
1476
15408
1535
18567
1470
1104
1512
1886
1559
3529

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 320 x (460 + 2m1)

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

S355

p1 = 140 mm

eb1 = 90 mm

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Lcb
[m]
2.0
2.1
2.1
5.2
3.7
2.8
67.5
33.9
15.8

Lco
M1
[m] [kNm]
6.4
227
6.4
238
6.5
254
16.2
203
11.5
223
8.8
250
210.9
199
105.8
216
49.5
245

N 1
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1439
28047
1538
27640
1690
27062
1473
13017
1514
16396
1594
19694
1496
1153
1550
1957
1621
3631

Lcb
[m]
2.3
2.3
2.4
4.9
3.9
3.3
55.8
32.9
17.7

Lco
M2
[m] [kNm]
7.2
227
7.3
238
7.4
254
15.5
203
12.3
223
10.2
250
174.4
199
102.8
217
55.4
246

N 2
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1587
27147
1672
26870
1799
26484
1601
12582
1626
15954
1681
19320
1623
1111
1662
1897
1706
3554

Lcb
[m]
2.4
2.4
2.4
5.1
4.0
3.3
57.9
33.9
18.1

Lco
M3
[m] [kNm]
7.4
218
7.5
231
7.6
251
16.0
197
12.6
218
10.4
247
181.0
193
106.0
212
56.6
243

N 3
Sj,ini
[kN] [kNm/rad]
1735
25948
1806
25880
1908
25779
1728
12007
1738
15401
1769
18885
1750
1055
1774
1823
1792
3465

Lcb
[m]
2.5
2.5
2.5
5.4
4.2
3.4
61.0
35.3
18.6

Lco
[m]
7.8
7.8
7.8
16.8
13.1
10.7
190.6
110.3
58.0

NM=0
[kN]
3651
3763
3763
3481
3641
3763
3481
3641
3763

97

Infaso+Handbuch Teil I

Tab. 4.15: Recommended geometry of the column base with anchor plate, its design resistances, stiffness and limiting length for HE260B
Column
HE260B

Base plate

awf = 6 mm

S355

Foundation
100 x 1500 x 1050

P25 300 x 460

Anchor plate

p2 = 140 mm

C25/30 eb2 = 80 mm

m2 = 50 mm

ea1 = 60 mm

tp1

MN=0,pl

Sj,ini,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

[kNm]

[m]
1.9
1.9
1.9
4.8
3.4
2.6
60.9
30.4
14.1




49
69
97
40
55
81

awf = 6 mm

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
6.0
235
6.0
247
6.1
266
14.9
204
10.5
225
8.0
255
190.4
200
94.9
218
44.1
249

N 1

Sj,ini

tp1

S355

Foundation

ea2 = 50 mm

p2 = 140 mm

100 x 1500 x 1050

C25/30 eb2 = 80 mm

m2 = 50 mm

MN=0,pl

MN=0,mem

Lcb

98

S355

22 mm

S355 8 mm

heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

[m]
2.1
2.1
2.2
4.4
3.5
2.9
47.7
28.1
15.2

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
6.5
235
6.6
247
6.8
266
13.6
204
10.9
225
9.1
255
149.0
200
87.9
219
47.5
250

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1576
29258
1670
28938
1811
28498
1531
14019
1563
17694
1625
21346
1554
1273
1600
2172
1654
4059

Lcb

Lco

[m]
2.2
2.2
2.3
4.6
3.6
3.0
50.5
29.6
15.9

M3

[m] [kNm]
6.9
215
7.0
229
7.1
251
14.3
189
11.4
212
9.4
244
157.9
185
92.6
206
49.6
240

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1796
26868
1883
26826
2010
26774
1716
12847
1738
16489
1786
20242
1738
1156
1774
2005
1811
3827

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
2.4
2.4
2.4
5.0
3.9
3.2
55.7
32.1
16.8

[m]
7.5
7.5
7.5
15.7
12.2
9.9
174.0
100.3
52.6

[kN]
3627
3816
4099
3339
3511
3769
3339
3511
3769

[kNm]

[m]
1.8
1.8
1.8
4.6
3.3
2.5
61.0
30.3
14.0

Anchor plate
P(tp1) 340 x (480 + 2m1)

S355

ea1 = 60 mm

S355

p1 = 140 mm

eb1 = 100 mm

Threaded studs
M24
S355

Headed studs
Stirrups
22 mm
S355 8 mm
heff = 200 mm

B500A

4 legs for stud

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length


Sj,ini,pl

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
88
35615
0
12
89
35342
15
90
34940
10
46
13855
50
12
67
19720
15
99
26050
10
34
1056
12
50
2123
100
15
78
4588

Stirrups

Base plate
P30 300 x 460

Varying
m 1

Lcb

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1355
30797
1457
30340
1613
29698
1346
14783
1386
18528
1465
22170
1369
1350
1424
2287
1495
4232

Column
HE260B

M24

Headed studs

Resistance / Stiffness / Limiting length

[mm] [mm] [kNm] [kNm/rad]


10
86
33765
0
12
87
33523
15
88
33164
10
45
13518
50
12
66
19111
15
97
25071
10
34
1057
12
48
2120
100
15
76
4563

S355

p1 = 140 mm

eb1 = 100 mm

Varying
m 1

P(tp1) 340 x (480 + 2m1)

S355

ea2 = 50 mm

Threaded studs




50
71
99
41
56
83

Lco

M1

[m] [kNm]
5.6
259
5.7
272
5.8
291
14.5
227
10.2
248
7.7
278
190.5
223
94.8
242
43.8
273

N 1

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1556
32062
1660
31606
1820
30960
1534
15027
1577
18914
1659
22735
1557
1340
1615
2271
1689
4207

Lcb
[m]
2.0
2.0
2.1
4.3
3.4
2.8
48.0
28.3
15.3

Lco

M2

[m] [kNm]
6.3
259
6.4
272
6.5
291
13.4
227
10.6
248
8.8
278
150.0
223
88.6
242
47.8
273

N 2

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1755
30753
1847
30442
1986
30008
1694
14420
1724
18271
1782
22141
1717
1281
1761
2185
1811
4086

Lcb
[m]
2.1
2.1
2.1
4.5
3.5
2.9
50.2
29.5
15.8

Lco

M3

[m] [kNm]
6.5
245
6.6
260
6.7
282
13.9
217
11.0
240
9.1
273
157.0
213
92.0
234
49.2
268

N 3

Sj,ini

[kN] [kNm/rad]
1954
28875
2035
28824
2152
28750
1854
13571
1870
17420
1906
21409
1876
1198
1906
2071
1933
3936

Lcb

Lco

NM=0

[m]
2.2
2.2
2.2
4.7
3.7
3.0
53.7
31.1
16.4

[m]
7.0
7.0
7.0
14.8
11.5
9.4
167.8
97.1
51.1

[kN]
3987
4171
4203
3665
3832
4083
3665
3832
4083

Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se


m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

4.5 Parameter study on composite joints


General
Composite joint behaviour depends on the characteristics of several active components. The hogging mo
ment capacity can be calculated with the hypothesis of failure of the weakest of them, while the total dis
placement (and relative rotation) can be found considering the contribution of all of them. The following
basic components are identified in Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13]: i) longitudinal
steel reinforcement in the slab; ii) slip of the composite beam; ii) beam web and flange; iv) steel contact
plate; v) components activated in the anchor plate connection; vi) the joint link. Among them, the longitu
dinal steel reinforcement transfers the tension force; the others contribute to the transmission of the com
pression force. Failure that depends on the steel reinforcement behaviour is ductile, while failure of con
crete components is brittle and should be avoided. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the failure
mechanism of the joint in order to ensure a ductile failure. For this reason, a parametric study followed by
sensitivity analysis is carried out, taking into account the variation of some parameters that determine the
behaviour of basic components.

Parameters Studied and methodology followed


The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour of steel reinforcement and the joint link. The force in the
reinforcement is a function of the steel grade and of bars layout. The first aspect concerns the yield strength
(fsyk), the coefficient between the ultimate and yield strength (k) and ductility (s,u).The second one is char
acterized by number and diameter of bars and number of layers. In the analysis three values of fsyk, four
values of k, three s,u values and four reinforcement layouts are considered. The possibility of development
of the strut&tie mechanism in the concrete panel depends on the angle . This geometrical quantity is cal
culated through the ratio between the sum of beam height and slab thickness on the thickness of the wall.
In the analysis, six beam profiles, four wall thickness twall and three slab thickness sslab are considered. Wall
concrete properties, i.e. the characteristic compressive cylinder (fck,cyl) and cubic (fck,cube) strength, and se
cant modulus of elasticity (Ecm), affect as well the joint link behaviour. In the analysis five concrete grades
for wall are considered. The sensitivity analysis compared by 51840 combinations. Tab. 4.16 summarizes
the parameters considered for the parameter study.
Tab. 4.16: Parameters considered for parameter study
Element
Parameter
Yield strength
fsyk[MPa]
400
Coefficient fu/fsyk
k []
1.05
Ductility
Reinforcement
s,u []
25
Bar layout
Case A

1
N layers []
6
N bars []
12
Diameter bars [mm]
Thickness
Slab
tslab [mm]
120
Thickness
twall [mm]
160
Wall

Beam

Concrete grade
fck,cyl[MPa]
fck,cube[MPa]
Ecm[MPa]
Profile
IPE 240
IPE 270

20
25
30

500

600

1.15

1.25

1.35

50

75

Case D
2
6
16

Case C
1
6
16

Case B
1
6
14
160

200

200

240

300

30
37
33

40
50
35

50
60
37

60
75
39

IPE 300

IPE 330

IPE 360

IPE 400

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Failure Mechanism
Considering the simultaneous variation of all parameters, the most common failure type is the joint link
(34149 cases of 51840, 65.87%); only in 14493 cases (27.96) a slab reinforcement failure occurs; in few
cases (3198, 6.17%) the failure depends on the behaviour of beam. Fig. 4.45 summarizes found failure types
in the sensitivity analysis.
6.17
Beam Web and Flange
27.96
Joint Link

65.87

Reinforcement


Fig. 4.45: Failure type

Valorization of slab reinforcement properties


The role of slab reinforcement layout is studied, taking into account four bars configurations, according to
Tab. 4.16. Fig. 4.46 illustrates the influence. Increasing the reinforcement area, incidence of joint link failure
grows significantly, while reinforcement failure decreases. The trend is reversed considering the reinforce
ments on two layers (Case D). Beam failure is almost absent for low values of steel area, but it assumes a
quite relevant rate in Case D.
100.00
80.49

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

73.56
62.43

60.00
47.01
40.00

37.57

33.77
25.79
19.21

14.70

20.00
0.00

0.65

Case A

Case B

4.81

0.00
Case C

Case D

Bar Layout [-]


Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.46: Influence of rebar layout


As expected, one of the most influential parameter is the steel grade (see Fig. 4.47).Here, increasing the yield
strength, the percentage of joint link failure switches from 49.65 to 75.67, while cases with ductile failure
decrease. Variation of ductility of the bar does not lead to changes in failure type distribution.

100

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100.00

75.67

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00
65.25
60.00

40.00

49.65
49.26
28.94
15.21

20.00
5.81

1.09

9.12

0.00
400

500

600

fsyk [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.47: Influence of yield strength of slab reinforcement


The coefficient k influence is highlighted in Fig. 4.48. Increasing k, joint link failures number rises, while
cases of reinforcement failure are approximately halved.
100.00

75.67

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00
65.25
60.00

40.00

49.65
49.26
28.94
15.21

20.00
5.81

1.09

9.12

0.00
400

500

600

fsyk [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.48: Influence of coefficient k


The interaction between the yield and ultimate strength is evaluated in Fig. 4.49. A change of the main fail
ure type is visible for yield strength equal to 400MPa. While the joint link is crucial for high values of k (61%
of failures), the longitudinal reinforcement becomes the most important component for a lower value of k
(57% of failures). The number of cases with joint link failure grows significantly (+20%) with increasing k
for a steel with a low value of yield strength (fsyk= 400 MPa). The same trend is visible for a steel with greater
yield strength (fsyk =600 MPa), but the increase is lower (10%).

101

Infaso+Handbook II

100

82.22

79.72
80

76.04

75.07

Failure Mechanism [%]

71.25

70.63
65.63
61.46

59.51
60

56.32
57.15
50.21
42.85

49.79

40.42

40

33.89
27.29

27.29
22.29

21.67
20

7.08

15.42

14.44

3.26
0.00
1.05

10.76

9.51

11.81
9.51

9.51
7.08

7.08

5.97
4.65

3.26

0.00
1.15

1.25

1.35

k [-]
Beam fsyk 600 MPa

Joint Link fsyk 600 MPa

Reinforcement fsyk 600 MPa

Beam fsyk 500 MPa

Joint Link fsyk 500 MPa

Reinforcement fsyk 500 MPa

Beam fsyk 400 MPa

Joint Link fsyk 400 MPa

Reinforcement fsyk 400 MPa

Fig. 4.49: Interaction between yield and ultimate strength

Variation of angle
In order to assess the role of the angle theta, the influence of the individual parameters (twall, tslab and hbeam)
is studied. In addition, the total height (slab + beam) has been considered. The main parameter that affects
the development of the failure mechanism is the wall thickness. For a thickness of 160 mm in 93.45% of
cases the failure occurs in the concrete panel. The number of cases of brittle failure drops to 76.04 for a
thickness of 200 mm (Fig. 4.50). The ductile failure becomes the main type of failure only for a thickness of
300 mm.

102

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100.00
93.45

76.04

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

56.94

60.00

53.24
37.06

35.51

40.00
18.87
20.00
4.21
0.00

9.70

7.55

5.09

2.34
160

200

240

300

twall [mm]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement


Fig. 4.50: Influence of twall
The influence of the slab thickness is shown in Fig. 4.51. For the three values considered (120, 160, 200),
structural failure happens in the concrete panel in most of the cases (variation between 55.09% and
67.34%). The percentage of beam failure does not vary appreciably. The increase in the height of the beam
determines a clear trend, as seen in Fig. 4.52. For a height of 240 mm, in about 50% of cases the failure
happens for the concrete panel. Here, the number of cases with beam failure is not negligible (22%). With
the increase of the height, the possibility of a failure in the beam decreases significantly, increasing sharply
the percentage of the failure in the concrete panel. The consideration of the total height (slab + beam) leads
to a less clear trend for low values (Fig. 4.53).
100.00

80.00
67.34

Failure Mechanism [%]

61.74
60.00

55.09
39.58

40.00

33.59

28.68

20.00
5.32

4.68

3.98

160

200

0.00
120

tslab [mm]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.51: Influence of tslab


103

Infaso+Handbook II

100.00

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

78.29

78.3

21.71

21.7

69.76

65.14
58.85
60.00

49.34

40.00

31.25

27.81
20.00

31.11

29.72

9.90

22.85

3.75

0.52

300

330

360

400

0.00
240

270

hbeam [mm]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.52: Influence of hbeam


100.00

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00
64.17 65.63 65.73
58.96 58.85
60.00

51.98

35.21

31.15

27.60

20.00 26.46 11.56

82.08

56.67

36.88

36.46
31.88

78.85

49.69

41.67
40.00

68.75 70.10 70.83

73.96 75.00

30.42

23.96

10.00
22.71 4.17
19.38

0.63

3.96

26.15

31.25 29.38

26.04 26.04 24.58

8.13
0.00 0.52

3.13

21.15

17.92

0.00 0.42 0.00 0.00

0.00
360

390

400

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

500

520

530

560

600

hbeam [mm]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.53: Influence of total height


Initial beam failure peaks (26.46%, 22.7% and 19.38%) are due to the presence of IPE240. However, joint
link represents always the main failure type and the possibility of brittle crisis doubles, moving from a
height of 360 mm (41.67%) to 600 mm (82.08).

Variation of wall concrete grade


The concrete grade is an important parameter. Fig. 4.54 shows the variation of number of case for each
mechanism failure type. For concrete grade C20/25, joint link behaviour represents the limit condition in
almost all of the cases (97.25%). The variation is evident. This percentage drops to 36.86 % for concrete
C60/75. Brittle failure is the most probable event for fck,wall is smaller than 40MPa.

104

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100.00
97.25

83.97

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00
63.74
60.00

53.22
47.80
36.86

40.00

20.00

12.24
1.59

0.00

43.20

29.31

3.79

6.94

9.00

9.92

50

60

1.16
20

29.6

40

fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam Web and Flange

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.54: Influence of wall concrete grade

Interaction between wall thickness and concrete grade


The interaction between geometrical properties and material of the wall is studied. For a thickness of 160
mm, joint link determines the failure for all types of concrete considered (Fig. 4.54).
100.00
100.00

99.88

96.06
89.35

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

81.94

60.00

twall = 160 mm
40.00

20.00

0.00

12.96
0.00 0.00
20.00

2.78

6.37

1.62
0.00

2.31

29.6

40

5.09
4.28
50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.55: Influence of wall concrete grade for twall = 160 mm


The percentage drops from 100% (C20/25) to 81.94% (C60/75). The decrease in the percentage of brittle
failure is more pronounced for a thickness of 200 mm (Fig. 4.56). In this case for C60/75, ductile failure is
more probable than a brittle failure (44.68%).

105

Infaso+Handbook II

100.00
100.00
94.91

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00
79.17
60.00

63.89

twall = 200 mm

45.83
44.68

40.00
28.36
14.93

20.00
0.00

7.75

9.49

50

60

2.78
5.9

0.00

29.6 2.31

20.00

40

fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.56: Influence of wall concrete grade for twall = 200 mm


With a wall thickness of 240mm (Fig. 4.57), the increase of reinforcement failure is evident. It represents
0.96% of the cases for fck,Wall equal to 20 MPa and becomes 70.37 % when fck,Wall is 60 MPa. Reduction of joint
link failures is noteworthy. From 97.92% (C20/25) to 17.59% (C60/75). Considering a wall thickness of
300 mm (Fig. 4.58), the inversion of most probable failure type (from brittle to ductile) occurs for concrete
grade C40/50. A strong change in the trend is visible between C20/25 and C40/50, where brittle failure
switches from 91.09 to 25.54 and reinforcement failure switches from 5.44 to 64.12. After this, the change
is less marked.
100.00
97.92

82.52

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

70.37
57.29

55.21

60.00

twall = 240 mm
36.57

40.00

31.48
17.59

20.00

12.38

11.23

8.22
5.09

1.16
0.93

12.04

0.00
20.00

29.6

40

50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.57: Influence of wall concrete grade for twall = 240 mm


106

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berschrift 1.
100.00
83.8

Failure Mechanism [%]

80.00

91.09

72.57
64.12
57.75

60.00

twall = 300 mm
34.49

40.00

24.54
20.00
5.44
0.00

14.7

11.34

7.75

13.19
3.01

12.73

3.47
20.00

29.6

40

50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
Beam

Joint Link

Reinforcement

Fig. 4.58: Influence of wall concrete grade for twall = 300 mm

Summary, Predesign charts for ductile behaviour


The above sensitivity analysis shows the main parameters that affect the failure mode:
Yield strength: cases with brittle failure rises from 49.65% (for fsyk = 400 MPa) to 75.67% (for fsyk = 600
MPa).
Wall thickness: the concrete panel failure occurs in 93.45% of cases for a thickness of 160mm and in
37.06% for a thickness of 300 m.
Total height of the composite beam: for the lowest value (360mm) a ductile failure happens in 59.33%
cases, while for the highest height, 19.72% of cases show this failure.
Concrete grade: for C20/25, there are 97.25% cases of brittle behaviour, and this percentage drops to
36.86 % for concrete C60/75.
For these considerations, a pre design chart (Fig. 4.59, Fig. 4.60 and Fig. 4.61) can be a useful tool in order
to lead to a ductile failure. Here, the wall thickness (on the ordinate) is related to the concrete grade (on the
abscissa). Separation curves between ductile (topright) and brittle (bottomleft) failure can be built for
nine steel grades (3 fsyk and 3 k). To take into account the total height of the composite beam, three charts
are drawn: Fig. 4.59 represents the pre design chart for a total height between 360mm and 440mm; Fig.
4.60 refers to a range between 440mm and 520mm; finally Fig. 4.61 concerns the behaviour for a total
height between 520mm and 600mm. In these figures, black lines refer to fsyk = 400 MPa, dark grey to fsyk =
500 MPa and light grey fsyk = 600 MPa; solid lines refer to k = 1.05, dash lines to k = 1.15, long dash lines to
k = 1.25, dashdotdot lines to k = 1.35. Curves stretches found for regression are shown dotted.
For example, for a total height of 390mm, a wall thickness of 160mm and a concrete characteristic compres
sive cylinder equal to 50 MPa, the steel yield strength that ensure a ductile behaviour is equal to 400MPa
with a k = 1.05, according to Fig. 4.59.

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Infaso+Handbook II

Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 360 and 440 mm
300

280

260

D
B

twall
[mm]

D
B

240

220

200

180

160
20

30

40

50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 500 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 500 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 600 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 600 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.35

Fig. 4.59: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
360 and 440 mm

108

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berschrift 1.

Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 440 and 520 mm
300

D
B

280

D
B

260

D
B

twall
[mm]

D
B

240

220

200

180

160
20

30

40

50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 500 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 500 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 600 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 600 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.35

Fig. 4.60: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
440 and 520 mm

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Infaso+Handbook II

Pre design chart for ductile behavior in case of total depth of the composite beam
between 520 and 600 mm
300

D
B

280

D
B

260

twall
[mm]

240

220

D
B

200

180

160
20

30

40

50

60

fckcylWall [MPa]
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.05
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 400 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 500 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 500 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 500 MPa k 1.35

fsyk 600 MPa k 1.05


fsyk 600 MPa k 1.15
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.25
fsyk 600 MPa k 1.35

Fig. 4.61: Pre design chart for ductile behaviour in case of total depth of the composite beam between
520 and 600 mm

110

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berschrift 1.

5 Summary
This Design Manual II is based on the Design Manual I "Design of steeltoconcrete joints" [13] which sum
marizes the reached knowledge in the RFCS Project RFSRCT200700051 New market Chances for Steel
Structures by Innovative Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete (INFASO) [12].
Within the INFASO project design programs were developed for three different steeltoconcrete joints. This
programs have been revised and updated within INFASO+. In this design manual background information
about this design programs is given and the application of the programs is explained in detail (see Chap
ter 2). This includes following design programs:

Restrained connection of composite beams (Version 2.0) [21]


Slim anchor plates with headed studs bending joints (Version 2.0) [22]
Rigid anchor plate with headed studs simple joint (Version 2.0) [23]

Furthermore the transferability of the results to real life is shown within realistic design examples taken
from practice where the newly developed design rules are applied (see Chapter 3). In the worked examples
common solutions for steeltoconcrete connections are compared with the innovative developed solutions.
These connections are compared in terms of calculation approaches, handling, tolerances and behavior un
der fire conditions. Parameter studies of the components and analytic model of the three different steelto
concrete joints show the influence of each parameter. Furthermore recommendations for design values and
limits of the model are given (see Chapter 4).
The material was prepared in cooperation of two teams of researchers one targeting on fastening technique
modelling and other focusing to steel joints design from the Institute of Structural Design and Institute of
Construction Materials, University Stuttgart, Department of Steel and Timber structures, Czech Technical
University in Prague and practitioners Gabinete de Informtica e Projecto Assistido Computador Lda., Coim
bra, Goldbeck West GmbH, Bielefeld, stahl+verbundbau GmbH, Dreieich and European Convention for Con
structional Steelwork, Bruxelles.

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Infaso+Handbook II

6 References
Standards and guidelines
[1]

CEN/TS 199241, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 41, General, CEN, Brussels,
2009.

[2]

CEN/TS 199242, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 42, Headed fasteners Technical
Specification, CEN, Brussels, 2009.

[3]

DIN 4881, Reinforcing steels Part 1: Grades, properties, marking, CEN, Brussels, 2009.

[4]

DIN EN 100251, Designation systems for steels Part 1: Steel names, CEN, Brussels, 2005.

[5]

EN199111, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.1, General actions, Densities, selfweight,
imposed load for buildings, CEN, Brussels, 2002.

[6]

EN199117, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures, Part 1.7, General actions, Accidental actions, CEN,
Brussels, 2006.

[7]

EN199211, Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 17, General actions Accidental ac
tions, CEN, Brussels, 2004.

[8]

EN199311, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 11, General rules and rules for buildings,
CEN, Brussels, 2010.

[9]

EN199318, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 18, Design of joints, CEN, Brussels, 2006.

[10]

EN199411, Eurocode 4, Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Part 11, General
rules and rules for buildings, CEN, 2010.

[11]

Abaquus 6.11: Theory Manual and Users Manuals, Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp., 2011.

Textbooks and publications


[12]

KUHLMANN, U.; WALD, F.; DA SILVA, L et al: New Market Chances for Steel Structures by Innovative
Fastening Solutions between Steel and Concrete, INFASO Publishable Report, Project No. RFSRCT
200700051, Research Fund for Coal and Steel, European Comission, 2011.

[13]

KUHLMANN, U.; WALD, F.; DA SILVA, L et al: Valorisation of Knowledge for Innovative Fastening
Solutions between Steel and Concrete, INFASO+ Design Manual 1, Project No. RFSRCT201200022,
Research Fund for Coal and Steel, European Comission, 2013.

[14]

KUHLMANN, U,; OZBOLT, A.: Verbesserung der Tragfa higkeit von Ankerplatten mit angeschweiten
Kopfbolzen in stabfo rmigen Stahlbetonbauteilen. Schlussbericht, Forschungsvorhaben Aif/IGFNr.
17028 u ber den Deutschen Ausschuss fu r Stahlbau (DASt), 2013.

[15]

KURZ, W.; KUHLMANN, U: Groe Ankerplatten mit Kopfbolzen fu r hochbeanspruchte Konstruktio


nen im Industrie und Anlagenbau, Forschungsvorhaben Aif/IGFNr. 17654 u ber den Deutschen
Ausschuss fu r Stahlbau (DASt), geplant 2015.

[16]

INFASOIWB09: Determination of the Failure Load and LoadDisplacement. Behaviour of the Joints
with Supplementary Reinforcement under Tension Load, internal project document, RFSRCT
200700051, 2010.

[17]

INFASOKE50: Component Model for Pinned Steel to Concrete Joints, internal project document,
RFSRCT200700051, 2010.

[18]

KRATZIG, W.; Tragwerke 2 Theorie und Berechnungsmethoden statisch unbestimmter Stabtrag


werke. 1. Auflage. Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, 1990.

[19]

OZBOLT, A.: Bemessung von Kopfbolzenverankerungen in bewehrten Betonbauteilen, Dissertation,


Institut fu r Konstruktion und Entwurf, Universita t Stuttgart, Vero ffentlichung, geplant 2015.

[20]

ZIZKA, J.: Component method for column base with embedded plate, Ph.D. thesis, CVUT, Prague
2012.


112

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m zde zobrazit, styl berschrift 1. Chyba! Pomoc karty Dom pouijte u textu, kter se m zde zobrazit, styl
berschrift 1.

Software
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]

VAN KANN, J.: Restrained connection of composite beams (Version 2.0), (http://www.uni
stuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRIMPMANN, M.: Slim anchor plates with headed studs bending joints (Version 2.0),
(http://www.unistuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRIMPMANN, M.: Slim anchor plates with headed studs simple joints (Version 2.0),
(http://www.unistuttgart.de/ke/forschung/INFASOplus/index.html)
KRASTA Stabstatik fu r betriebsfestigkeitsrelevante und bewegte Strukturen, KUHNE BSB GmbH
Fo rdertechnik & Stahlbau.

113