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VERB PATTERNS

THERE ARE TWO FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE, THE FULL (TO +


VERB) AND BARE INFINITIVE (WITHOUT TO)
WE USE THE FULL INFINITIVE
1. AFTER VERBS SUCH AS : CHOOSE, DECIDE, FORGET,
PROMISE, MANAGE, NEED, HELP, HOPE, TRY, WANT, ADVISE,
AGREE, EXPECT, OFFER, REFUSE, SEEM, PLAN, ARRANGE,
LEARN, WOULD LIKE, WOULD LOVE
He refused to answer my question
My brother learned to drive when he was 15.
2. AFTER IT+ BE + ADJECTIVE SUCH AS NICE, DIFFICULT
It is difficult to explain

It is nice to see you again

3.
AFTER THE ADJECTIVES: AFRAID, SURPRISED, FREE,
HAPPY, READY, SORRY, PLEASED, GLAD.
I am surprised to hear that.

Are you afraid to ask him?

4. AFTER TOO + ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH


Its too cold to go outside

Joe isnt old enough to vote

5. TO EXPRESS PURPOSE
I went to the florist s to buy some flowers
6. AFTER QUESTIONS WORDS (WHO, HOW, WHAT, ETC) MOST
TIMES IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS.
Do you know how to get there? Can you show me how to use this
machine?
I dont know where to go.
WE USE THE BARE INFINITIVE
2. AFTER MODAL VERBS (CAN, MUST, COULD, WILL, WOULD,
SHOULD, MAY, MIGHT)
Will you stop talking? You must visit the doctor today.

You can go home now


3. AFTER THE VERBS LET AND MAKE (IN THE ACTIVE VOICE)
She makes me study all the time.

Dont let him go.

My parents let me have a party for my birthday last month.


ING FORMS
4. AFTE CERTAIN VERBS: LIKE, LOVE, ENJOY, HATE, FINISH,
STOP, PREFER, SUGGEST, REMEMBER, ETC
Helen likes watching old films on TV.
NOTE: WE OFTEN USE THE VERB GO + ING FOR SPORTS AND
ACTIVITIES.
I go swimming every day

I go shopping on weekends

2. AFTER CERTAIN EXPRESSIONS: ITS WORTH, HOW/ WHAT


ABOUT?
I LOOK FORWARD TO, I CANT STAND, I FEEL LIKE , DONT
MIND.
I look forward to seeing you. I feel like going to the movies

3. AFTER PREPOSITIONS:
I am interested in painting
every morning

I am tired of going to work by bus

5. AS A SUBJECT OF A VERB
Smoking is a bad habit

Walking is a good form of exercise.

FULL INFINITIVE OR THE ING FORM


AFTER THE VERBS START, BEGIN, CONTINUE, LIKE, LOVE,
PREFER AND HATE.
H e started to write / writing his speech last night
THE PASSIVE VOICE
The passive voice is formed with the verb TO BE
PARTICIPLE of the main verb.

PAST

USE:
1. When the person who carries out the action is unknown,
unimportant or obvious from context.
The bread is baked every morning. (it obvious that the baker bakes
the bread.)
2. When the action itself is more important than the person who
carries it out, as in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal
notices, instructions, advertisements, etc.
A man was attacked last night.
TO CHANGE A SENTENCE FROM THE ACTIVE TO THE PASSIVE
- The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the
passive sentence.
- The active verb remains in the same tense, but changes into a
passive form.
- The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent, and is
either introduced with the preposition by or is omitted.
Mary cleans the house
ACTIVE

PASSIVE

The house is cleaned by Mary

Subject

Verb

Object

Greg

built

a house

Subject

Verb

Agent

A house

was built

by Greg

PASSIVE VOICE IN THE PRESENT SIMPLE


Subject + am, is, are + past participle + agent (optional)
The letters

are

typed

by Sue.

PASSIVE VOICE IN THE PAST SIMPLE


Subject + was, were + past participle + agent (optional)
The letters

were

typed

by Sue

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Conditional sentences consists of two parts:
(Hypothesis) and the MAIN CLAUSE (Result)

the IF-CLAUSE

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1


IF + PRESENT SIMPLE, WILL, CAN, MUST, MAY, MIGHT + BARE
INFINITIVE
If you train hard, you may win the game
IF + PRESENT SIMPLE, IMPERATIVE
If you finish early, call me.
When the IF-CLAUSE comes before the MAIN CLAUSE, the two
clauses are separated with a comma.
If I have time today, I will answer my e-mails.
When the MAIN CLAUSE comes before the IF-CLAUSE, then no
comma is necessary.
I will answer my e-mails if I have time today.

IF vs WHEN
We use IF to say that something might happen.
If you phone Kevin, will you ask him for directions? (You might phone
Kevin).
We use WHEN to refer to the time that something will definitely
happen.
When you phone Kevin, will you ask him for directions? (It is certain
that you will phone him.)