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Minimizing Capacitor Bank Outage

Time Through Fault Location


Joseph Schaefer
Florida Power & Light Company

Satish Samineni, Casper Labuschagne,


Steven Chase, and Dereje Jada Hawaz
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

Copyright FPL and SEL 2013

Capacitor Bank Configuration

Units in
Series

Units in Parallel

Capacitor
Element

Problem Statement
Unit or element failures result in
overvoltages
Unbalance protection usually trips bank if
overvoltages are too high
Locating faulty unit is time-consuming
process, resulting in long outage time

Steps to Put Bank Back in Service


Take bank out of service
Isolate and ground bank

Disconnect each unit


Measure capacitance across each unit
Replace faulty unit
Balance bank
Energize bank

Fault Location Technique


Unbalance protection provides primary
protection against unit or element failures in
capacitor banks
Unbalance protection methods

Phase voltage

Neutral voltage

Phase current

Neutral current

Fault Location Technique


Unbalance protection uses measured
quantities from instrument transformers to
calculate unbalance quantity
Unbalance quantity is phasor

Magnitude

Phase angle

Fault Location Technique


Phase and Section With Faulty Unit
Unbalance
Quantity

15

Reference
Quantity

Fault Location Technique


Supervised by alarm or trip for sensitivity
15 blinder applied for security

Affected by fusing method


Immune to inherent unbalance

Advantages of Proposed Fault


Location Technique
Minimal outage time by identifying phase
and section
Economical embedded in protection
Versatile can be applied to wide range of
bank configurations

Power System Modeled in RTDS


T1

G1
L1

Load

Capacitor
Bank

Phase Voltage Unbalance Protection


Single-Wye Bank
Bus

Tap
VBUSp
VTAPp

DVp = VBUSp Kp VTAPp

A
B
C

Fault Location Principle


Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless
Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused
2
1

ALARM
TRIP
Enable

DVpA

15 15

165 165

1
2

a
b

a
b

Phase p
Top Section

Phase p
Bottom Section

88 kV Bus

Capacitor Bank Model


Single Capacitor Unit
12

4 Top
Tap
3

4 Bottom

Fault in Phase A and Top Section

Fault in Phase A and Bottom Section

Neutral Voltage Unbalance Protection


Single-Wye Bank
Bus

A
B
C

VBUSp

N
VN

DVG = VBUSA + VBUSB + VBUSC 3 VN


(K1 (VBUSB VN) + K2 (VBUSC VN))

Fault Location Principle


ALARM
TRIP
1

Enable

DVGA

15 15

165 165

135 105

45 75

105 135

75 45

3
4

5
6

Phase A

Phase B

Phase C

Capacitor Bank Model


230 kV Bus

A
B
C

Single Capacitor Unit


1

Fault in Phase A

Fault in Phase C

Neutral Voltage Unbalance Protection


Double-Wye Bank
Bus

VBUSp

A
B
C
N

n
VNn

Left

Right

DVG = VNn Kn V1BUS

Fault Location Principle


ALARM
TRIP
Enable

15 15
DVGA

165 165

135 105

45 75

105 135

75 45

5
6

Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless


Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused
a
1
b
Phase A Left Section
2
a
2
b
Phase A Right Section
1
3
4
4
3
5
6
6
5

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Phase B Left Section

Phase B Right Section


Phase C Left Section
Phase C Right Section

Phase Current Unbalance Protection


H-Bridge Bank
Bus

ICAPA

IHA

A
B
C
ICAPB

ICAPC

IHB

IHC

60p = IHp Kp ICAPp

Fault Location Principle


Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless
Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused

ALARM
TRIP
Enable

60pA

15 15

165 165

1
2

2
1

a
b

Phase p
Top Left or
Bottom Right
Section

a
b

Phase p
Top Right or
Bottom Left
Section

Capacitor Bank Model


345 kV Bus

A
Single Capacitor Unit

2
11

Top
Right
6

Bottom
11
Right
2

Fault in Top Left Section of Phase A

Fault in Bottom Left Section of Phase A

ALARM
TRIP
Enable

60pA

15 15

165 165

ALARM
TRIP
Enable

DVpA

15 15

165 165

Phase Current
and Voltage
Unbalance
Protection
Fault Location
Principle

Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless


Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused
1
2
4
3
1
2
3
4

a
b
a
b

Phase p
Top Left
Section

a
b
a
b

2
1
4
3
2

Phase p
Bottom
Right
Section

1
3
4

a
b
a
b

Phase p
Top
Right
Section

a
b
a
b

Phase p
Bottom
Left
Section

Fault in Top Left Section of Phase A

Fault in Bottom Right Section of Phase A

Phase Current Unbalance Protection


Double-Wye Bank
Bus

ICA

IPA

A
B
C
ICB

IPB

ICC

IPC

Fault Location Principle

Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless


Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused

ALARM
TRIP
Enable

15 15
60A

165 165

1
2

1
2

2
1

a
b

a
b

Phase
Left Section

Phase
Right Section

Neutral Current Unbalance Protection


Double-Wye Bank
Bus

ICAPA

A
B
C
ICAPB

ICAPC

IN
Left

Right

60N = IN (K1 ICAPB + K2 ICAPC)

Fault Location Principle


ALARM
TRIP
Enable

15 15
60NA

165 165

135 105

45 75

105 135

75 45

5
6

Switch at Position a if Bank Is Fuseless


Switch at Position b if Bank Is Fused
a
1
b
Phase A Left Section
2
a
2
b
Phase A Right Section
1
3
4
4
3
5
6
6
5

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Phase B Left Section

Phase B Right Section


Phase C Left Section
Phase C Right Section

Capacitor Bank Model


33 kV Bus

A
B
C
Single Capacitor Unit
15

2
Left

Right

Fault in Left Section of Phase B

Fault in Right Section of Phase C

Conclusion
Locating faulty unit is time-consuming
Proposed fault location technique

Reduces investigating time by 50 to 92%

Minimizes capacitor bank outage time

Is embedded in unbalance protection,


making it economical

Can be applied to any bank configuration


and fusing method

Conclusion
Proposed fault location technique

Is not affected by inherent unbalance

Provides advanced alarms for planned


maintenance

Provides fuse savings in externally fused bank

Using multiple unbalance protection


methods improves protection reliability and
fault location

Questions?