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I.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research

One of the foreign languages which is studied and learnt in Indonesia is

English. Commonly, it is studied not only to help the students or learners to master

this language in oral and written but also to comprehend the books, magazines,

newspapers and other information sources which are written in English. Students

have to study this language because it has been a part of curriculum in school or

university. So that, one of problems faced by Indonesian students in studying English

is dealing with translation.

Although translation is very difficult to do, it is still done because of its

importance for human beings whose mother tongue is not English. Without

translation, the information, technology and so forth can’t be transferred into the

target language. Newmark (1988:vii) says that translation is an activity of enormous

importance in the modern world and it is a subject of interest not only to linguist,

professional and amateur translators and language teachers, but also to electronic

engineers and mathematicians.

Translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they

may be, the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual

communication vehicle among peoples, and also most translation theorists agreed

that translation is understood as a transfer process from a foreign language – or a

second language – to the mother tongue. However, market requirements are

increasingly demanding that translators transfer texts to a target language that is not

their mother tongue, but a foreign language.

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The difficulties of teaching translation were mostly discussed and described

in terms of stylistic, namely, how to be “true” or “faithful” to the original text.

Richard (2002:19) stresses: “Different views of language teaching lead to different

views as to what the essential skills of teaching are, and to different approaches to

the preparation of teachers”. Sumardi (1975:20) also states that the success of failure

of the teaching language program is often evaluated from the method used by

teacher, because it is the method that determines that material and the way of

teaching a language.

The above statements emphasize that the using of method is an important key

toward a successful teaching. I have chosen to discuss one aspect of English

teaching-learning that deals with translation. That is using demonstration as a

technique in improving the students’ ability in translating from English into

Indonesia. And it is hoped that the result of this investigation can help teachers and

students of English.

Jacobson (2005:34) says that:

“Demonstration method uses the demonstration or “doing” method


to teach skills. Demonstrate, step-by-step, the procedures in a job
task, using the exact physical procedures if possible. While
demonstrating, explain the reason for and the significance of each step.
To be effective, plan the demonstration so that you will be sure to show
the steps in the proper sequence and to include all steps. If you must
give the demonstration before a large group or if the trainees might
have trouble seeing because of the size of the equipment
involved, use enlarged devices or training aids. When practical,
allow trainees to repeat the procedure in a “hands on” practice session
to reinforce the learning process. By immediately correcting
the trainees’ mistakes and reinforcing proper procedures, you can help
them learn the task more quickly. The direct demonstration
approach is a very effective method of instruction, especially when
trainees have the opportunity to repeat the procedures”.
The demonstration technique in teaching translation gives the advantages for

it appeals to more sense including the sense of sight. When the teacher demonstrates

an action he may express the verb and this action appeals to the students ears. The

translation taught in this way will hopefully make the students motivated and

interesting in studying English translation.

1.2 The Problem of the Research

The problems of this research are in the following:

1. Can the third year students of SMP N 2 Peusangan improve their

ability in translation when the teacher uses demonstration as a

technique in the teaching and learning process?

2. What are the advantages of using demonstration as a technique in the

teaching and learning process translation to the third year students of

SMP N 2 Peusangan?

1.3 The Purpose of the Research

The purposes of this research based on the problem of this research are as

follows:

1. To know if the third year students of SMP N 2 Peusangan can improve their

translation ability when the teacher uses demonstration as a technique in the

teaching and learning process.

2. To find out the advantages of using demonstration as a technique in teaching

and learning process translation to the third year students of SMP N 2

Peusangan.

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1.4 The Significance of the Study

This study is hope can give meaningful knowledge both for theoretical and

practical concerns. Theoretically, the study will give reasonable benefit in describing

the mastering of translation ability through demonstration as a technique, especially

to the third year students of SMP N 2 Peusangan. Practically, the finding of the

research is expected to the teacher can give a priority measures in teaching

translation. Meanwhile for the students, they are hoped to be able to improve their

translation ability through demonstration as a technique so that they can translate any

text in English into Indonesian.

1.5 The Scope of the Research

The scope of the study is on teaching translation through demonstration as a

technique at SMP N 2 Peusangan. The writer wants to know whether the

demonstration technique has the better effect in mastering translation, especially

translating English into Indonesian. The writer will focus on noun and verb in the

text that can be demonstrated. The texts on which the writer chooses are based on the

students’ textbook of the third grade of Junior High School.

1.6 The Definition of the Key Terms

In this thesis, the writer gives some explanation about a few key terms. These

key terms’ function is to make the reader understand exactly about a few words or

phrases.
1. Demonstration Technique

“Demonstration Technique” is an activity that needs special skill in which the

instructor gives an oral presentation or subject matter while showing object,

action, and demonstration implies action or physical and process” (Donn Byrn,

1992:188).

2. Translation

“Translation” is the process of putting something written or spoken into a

different language. (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 2003: 460). In this

research, it means the process of translating the English written text into

Indonesian.

3. Classroom Action Research

“Classroom Action Research” is a form of reflective research that is conducted by

teacher which its result can be used as a tool to improve the teaching and learning

(McNiff, 1992:1 in Asrori, 2008:4).

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II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

As we know translation theory derives from comparative linguistics, and

within linguistics, it is mainly an aspect of semantics, all questions of semantics

relate to translation theory. Socio-linguistics, which investigates the social registers

of language and the problems of languages in contact in the same or neighboring

countries, has a continuous bearing of translation theory. A translator requires

knowledge of literary and non-literary textual criticism, since he has to access the

quality of a text before he decides how to interpret and translate it. All kinds of false

distinctions have been made between literary and technical translation (Newmark,

1988:5).

Translation is defined as a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written

massage and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in

another language (Nida, 1988:7). In addition, Leonard in Martin (1978: 1) defines

“Translation as the transference of the content of a text from one language into

another, bearing in mind that we cannot always dissociate the content from the

form”. Furthermore, Martin (1978:vii) says that “Translation is to change into

another language, retaining in the sense”. Each exercise involves some kind of loss

of meaning, due to a claim of each language. The basic loss is on a continuum

between over-translation and under-translation.

Consider the problem a text to be translated is like a particle in an electric

field attracted by the opposing forces of the two cultures and the norms of two

languages, the idiosyncrasies of one writer (who may in fringe all the norms of two
language), and the different requirements of its readers, the prejudices of a translator

who may be possibly of its publisher. Further the text is the mercy of a translator

who may be deficient in several essential qualifications: accuracy, resourcefulness,

flexibility, elegance, and sensitivity in the use of his own language, which may save

him from failing in two other respects: knowledge of the text’s subject mater and

knowledge of the source language (SL).

Translation theory’s main concern is to determine appropriate methods for

the widest possible range of texts or text categories. Further, it provides a framework

of principles, restricted rules and hints for translating text and criticizing translation,

a background of problem solving (Newmark, 1988:19). Thus, an institutional term or

a metaphor or synonym in collocation may be each be translated in many ways, if it

is out of context; in these areas, the theory demonstrates the possible translation

procedures and the various arguments for and against the use of one translation rather

than another in a particular context. Note that translation theory is concerned with

choices and decisions, not with the mechanic of either the source language or the

target language. When we gives a lists of words that are grammatically singular in

one language and plural in another, we may be helping the students to translate, we

are illustrating contrastive linguistics but we are not contributing to translation

theory.

Lastly, translation theory attempts to gives some approaching into the relation

between thought, meaning language; the universal, cultural and individual aspect of

language and behavior, the understanding of cultures, the interpretation of text that

may be explained and even supplemented by way of translation. Someone could

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translate one language, oral and spoken, into another as clear as they would like.

III. METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

The methodology of this research will be done through the following

explanation below.

3.1 The Design of the Research

The design of the research is Collaborative Classroom Action Research. As it

explained by Asrory, (2008:45) that Collaborative Classroom Action Research is

kind of a Classroom Action Research that involves some people like the principal,

teacher, lectures, or etc simultaneously. It aims to improve teaching practical quality,

contribute teaching theoretical development or educational and teacher career

progression. This kind of research is usually designed by a team which consists of

teacher, researcher from educational university and principal of school.

The relationship between of researcher and the teacher are considered as

coworkers. Through the cooperative working in doing the research, they can obtain

the satisfied goal of the research. Therefore, in this research the writer together with

the assistance of another related teacher and the principal of the school will do the

research in team work. The writer adds that they will be very pleasant and supportive

helping the writer in doing this research.

Action research is done through many repeated cycles and there are at least

two cycles in action research. Each cycle consists of four steps; planning, action,

observation and reflection (Asrory, 2008:90). The activities that will be done in each

step of the cycles will be based on Stephen Kemmis dan Robin Mc Taggert as said

by Arikunto, (2005:54). The activities are described in the following:


1. Planning

In this step the team will prepare everything for the completion of the action

in the class like designing a lesson plan, verifying the schedule, and etc.

2. Action

In this step, the team will choose a proper teacher to do the action which has

been prepared by the team the planning step.

3. Observation

In this step, the writer will observe students’ motivation and behavior, the

classroom atmosphere, the advantageous of applying interview activity in teaching

speaking and etc during the action process.

REFLECTING ON THE
4. ACTION Reflection

lected data In this step, the writer together with the team will reflect on the effects
ther the action is successful or unsuccessful
of the above steps as a basis for further planning, subsequent action and so on,

through a succession of cycles.


Successful Unsuccessful
The procedures employed are adapted from Kemmis and

McTaggert’s Action Research Model. The visual illustration of the


Revised Plan
steps is shown in figure 3.1.

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Conclusion
ANALYSIS AND FINDING

The students have low ability in translation.


The strategic used in the teaching and learning process are not varied and uninteresting.

IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN PLANNING THE ACTION


hing and learningaprocess
Designing based
lesson plan foronteaching
the lesson plan.
translation by using demonstration as a technique.
Preparing instrument, field notes and criteria of success.

OBSERVING

he data about the effect of implementations of the action.

REFLECTING ON THE ACTION

lected data
ther the action is successful or unsuccessful

Successful Unsuccessful

Revised Plan

1.8.2. The Population and


Report
.1 Classroom Action Research Procedure (adapted from Kemmis & Taggart, 1998)

3.2 The Setting and the Subject of the Research

The setting of this research is at SMP N 2 Peusangan. The subject of this

research is the third year students of SMP N 2 Peusangan. Since there are five third

classes in the school. The writer does not take all the classes to be the subject of the

research. Therefore the researcher decides to take only one class as the subject of this

research to make the writer easier in collecting the data. The sample class consists of

40 students. The reason why the writer takes one class is because the sample in

Classroom Action Research is only one class (Asrori, 2008:5).

3.3 The Technique of the Data Collecting

In collecting the data, the writer will ask the sample of this research to answer

the pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is done at the beginning of each cycle right before

action step is implemented and post-test is done at the end of the cycle before

reflection step.

Furthermore, the writer also use observation sheets as an instrument in

collecting the data. Its functions are the following:

1. To assess the students’ motivation during the learning process.

2. To check the students’ speaking improvement during the class.

3. To find out the advantages of using demonstration as a technique in

teaching translation.

4. To check the students’ attitude while participating in the action of

learning process.

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For the completion of research methodology will be explained further in

detail in chapter III of the thesis.

3.4 The Schedule of the Research.

The research will be done in four months and started immediately after this

proposal approved by the supervisors or the authorized lecturers of Al Muslim

University. To be more detail, the writer also draws it in a simple table as follows:

January February March April


Preparing doing Implementing the Implementing the Implementing the third
first cycle first cycle second cycle cycle (if it is
considered essential to
be done)