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PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH RICE HUSK ASH (RHA) AS

FILLER IN ASPHALT CONCRETE DESIGN

BY

UZOMA HENRY ONYEIWU


U09CV2003

A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING,


AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA-NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
(B. ENG) IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

FEBRUARY, 2014
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the content of this project written by me is purely a record of my
research work, under the supervision of Engr. A.A. Murana. All quotations and literatures
cited from other sources have been duly acknowledged.

__________________________________
______________________
Uzoma Henry Onyeiwu

Date

CERTIFICATION
The project entitled Partial Replacement of Cement with Rice Husk Ash as Filler in Asphalt
Concrete by Uzoma Henry Onyeiwu meets the regulations governing the award of the
degree of Bachelor of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and is approved for its contribution to the knowledge and
literary presentation.

______________________________
__________________
Engr A. A Murana

Date

Project Supervisor

______________________________
__________________
Dr I. Abubakar

Date

Head of Department

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to Almighty God for His goodness, mercy and grace all through also
to my parents, siblings and friends for their prayers, support and encouragement during this
pursuit.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All gratitude goes to God almighty that in His love, guidance and protection has used several
individuals to contribute greatly to my educational career. I am highly indebted to my
supervisor, Engr. A. A. Murana for his time to supervise; give suggestions and advice during
the course of this research work despite his losses during the period may God reward you and
your family. My appreciation goes to all the lecturers of the Department of Civil Engineering
for their support, may God bless you all. To my lovely parents Mr. Emmanuel I. Onyeiwu and
Mrs. Veronica N. Onyeiwu, thanks for your prayers, care and love may God continue to
strengthen and grant you long life, good health and prosperity in all you do. I love you both.
My appreciation also goes to my Uncle Engr. Eric C. Onyeiwu and his family for their
support, may God continue to increase you.
Lastly, I sincerely appreciate my Siblings, my friends: Tolu, Samuel, Dorathy and Wisdom,
my Roommates, course mates, members of Quintessence theatre, G.O.D ministry, F.C.S and
the entire staff of ECO project services ltd. for their contribution. May God be with you all
and continue to bind us in love, good health and protection. Thank you all.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Content

Page

Title page

Declaration

ii

Certification

iii

Dedication

iv

Acknowledgement

Table of content

vi

Appendices

xii

List of tables

xiii

List of figures

xv

Abstract

xvi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

1.1.2 Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs)

1.1.3 Rice Hush

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Research

1.2.1Aim

1.2.2Objectives

3
6

1.3 Statement of the Problem

1.4 Justification for the Study

1.5 Scope of Research

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Bituminous Pavement Structure

2.2 Desirable Properties of a Bituminous Mix

2.3 Rice Husk Ash

2.4 Use of RHA as supplementary cementitious material in Portland cement concrete

2.4.1 Temperature Effect

2.4.2 Workability

2.4.3 Setting Time

2.4.4 Compressive Strength

10

2.5 Effect of Rice Husk Ash as Cement Admixture

11

2.6 RHA as A Tundish Powder in Steel Casting Industries

12

2.7 RHA as an Active Pozzolan

13

2.8 Manufacturing Refractory Bricks

14

2.9 RHA as Silicon Chips

14

2.10 RHA as Adsorbent for Gold- Thiourea Complex

15

2.11 RHA as Vulcanizing Rubber

15
7

2.12 RHA as Soil Ameliorant

15

2.13 RHA used in production of Asphalt

15

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

16

3.1 Materials

16

3.2 Properties Considered In Mix Design

16

3.3 Test on Materials

16

3.3.1 Test on Coarse Aggregate

16

3.3.1.1 Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregates

16

3.3.1.2 Specific Gravity

17

3.3.1.3 Bulk Density and Void of Coarse Aggregate

18

3.3.1.4 Aggregate Impact Value

18

3.3.1.5 Aggregate Crushing Value

19

3.3.2 Tests on Fine Aggregates

19

3.3.2.1 Sieve Analysis of fine Aggregates

19

3.3.2.2 Specific gravity of fine aggregate

20

3.3.2.3 Bulk Density and Void of Fine Aggregate

21

3.3.3 Preliminary Tests on Bitumen

22

3.3.3.1 Penetration Test

22

3.3.3.2 Ductility Test

22
8

3.3.3.3 Solubility Test

23

3.3.3.4 Flash and Fire Point Test

23

3.3.3.5 Viscosity Test

23

3.3.3.6 Softening Point (Ring and Ball) Test.

23

3.4Preliminary Tests on Filler Materials

24

3.4.1Test on Cement and RHA (OPC)

24

3.4.1.1 Consistency Tests

24

3.4.2Chemical Analysis of RHA and Cement

25

3.5 Marshall Method of Asphalt-Concrete Mix Design

26

3.5.1 Marshall Method of Mix Design

27

3.5.1.1 Preparation of test specimens

27

3.5.1.2 Bulk density of the compacted specimen

28

3.5.1.3 Stability test

28

3.5.2 Analysis of Results from Marshall Test

29

3.5.2.1 Bulk specific gravity of aggregate (Gbam)

29

3.5.2.2 Maximum specific gravity of aggregate mixture (

Gmp

3.5.2.3 Percent voids in compacted mineral aggregate (VMA)

30
30

3.5.2.4 Percent air voids in compacted mixture (

Pav

31
3.5.3 Determination of Optimum Binder Content

31

3.5.4 Evaluation and Adjustment of mix Design

32

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

34

4.1Tests on pure bitumen

34

4.1.1 Penetration Test

35

4.1.2 Viscosity Test

35

4.1.3 Flash and Fire Point Test

35

4.1.4 Solubility Test

35

4.1.5 Ductility Test

36

4.2 Tests on RHA

36

4.3 Test on cement

37

4.3.1 Setting Times

37

4.3.2 Soundness

38

4.4 Tests on Coarse and Fine Aggregate

38

4.4.1 Sieve Analysis Test

38

4.5 Marshall Test Result

40

4.5.1 Optimum Bitumen Content

45
10

4.5.2 Determination of Optimum RHA Percentage

45

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION

49

5.1 Conclusion

49

5.2 Recommendation

49

REFERNCE

51

APPENDICES
Appendix A

57

Plate 1: Students carrying out preliminary and laboratory tests on materials.

57

Plate 2: Marshall Stability & Flow Test Setup

58

Plate 3: Marshall Specimen Extractor

59

Appendix B

60

Table: Stability Correlation Ratio

60

11

LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
3.1: Sieve analysis of 3000g of coarse aggregate

17

3.2: Specific Gravity Test results for coarse Aggregate

18

3.3: Bulk Density for Coarse Aggregate

18

3.4: Sieve analysis 1000g fine aggregate

20

3.5: Specific Gravity Test for Fine Aggregate

21

3.6: Bulk Density for fine Aggregate

21

3.7 Test results on Aggregate

22

3.8 Test Results on Bitumen

24
12

3.9: Initial and Final Setting Times of Cement and RHA

25

3.10: Chemical Analysis of RHA and Cement (Weight %).

25

3.11 Summary of Marshall Analysis At 0% RHA/ 100% OPC

33

3.12 Summary of Marshall Analysis At 5.5% Optimum Bitumen Content

33

4.1: Result of preliminary tests on bitumen

34

4.2: Comparison of test on rice husk ash with standard

36

4.3: Comparison of Test Result on the Cement with Standard

37

4.4: Comparison of Test Results on Aggregates with Standards

40

4.5: Typical Marshall Mixture Design Criteria

41

4.6: Typical Marshal Mix Minimum VMA

44

13

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Page

3.1 Test Specimen Preparations

28

4.1: Graph showing the graduation curve of coarse aggregate

39

4.2: Graph showing the graduation curve of fine aggregate

39

4.3: Graph of Stability against Bitumen Content

42

4.4: Graph of Flow against Bitumen Content

42

4.5: Graph of CDM against Bitumen Content

43

4.6: Graph of VIM against Bitumen Content

43

4.7: Graph of VMA against Bitumen Content

44

4.8: Graph of VFB against Bitumen Content

45

4.9: Graph of Stability against Percentage RHA at 5.5% Bitumen Content

45

4.10: Graph of Flow against Percentage RHA at 5.5% Bitumen Content

46

4.11: Graph of CDM against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content

46

4.12: Graph of VIM against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content

47

4.13 Graph of VMA against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content

47

4.14: Graph of VFB (%) against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content

48

ABSTRACT

14

This research work is based on the use of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as filler in Asphalt concrete
pavement. Asphalt mix design was carried out using Marshall Stability method to test the
performance of the material in terms of its known engineering properties. Several trial mixes
with bitumen contents of 4.5%, 5.5%, 6.5% and 7.5% were produced in order to obtain the
optimum bitumen content. This investigation focuses on the partial replacement of cement
with Rice Husk Ash in the obtained optimum bitumen content in the following order 0%
(control), 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, and 25%. A total of 42 mix
specimens were produced for this experiment, 12 of these mix specimens were compacted
with each percentage of bitumen content, to determine the optimum bitumen content, and 30
specimens were produced to determine the optimum Rice Husk Ash content in terms of the
asphalt concrete strength. From the Marshall Stability-flow test and density-void analysis,
results obtained show that the performance of mix containing 0% of RHA (control), have
Stability, flow, Compacted density of mix (CDM), Void in Mix (VIM), Void in Mineral
Aggregate (VMA), and Void filled with Bitumen (VFB) as 6.7KN, 3.0mm, 1.49g/cm,
39.4%, 47.27% and 16.63% respectively at an optimum bitumen content of 5.5%. The sample
prepared with 10% RHA as filler have Stability, flow, CDM, VIM, VMA, and VFB of 7.63%,
2.19mm, 1.78g/cm, 28.23%, 36.77%, and 23.23% respectively at an optimum bitumen
content of 5.5% which satisfied the provision in the Standard Specification requirement of
Marshall Criteria by Asphalt Institute (1979). Thus for maximum strength, 10% RHA is
recommended as partial replacement of cement as filler in Asphalt Concrete mix.

CHAPTER ONE
15

INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background

A pavement could be defined as a hard surface constructed over the natural soil for the
purpose of providing a stable, safe and smooth transportation medium for the vehicles
(Merriam, 2013).
Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a generic term that includes many different types of mixtures of
aggregate and asphalt cement (binder) produced at elevated temperatures (generally between
300-350F) in an asphalt plant. Typically, HMA mixtures are divided into three mixture
categories: dense-graded; open-graded; and gap-graded as a function of the aggregate
gradation used in the mix (Griffiths and Thom, 2011).
1.1.2

Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs)

Supplementary cementitious materials are often incorporated in Asphalt concrete mix to


reduce cement contents, improve workability, increase strength and enhance durability.
The use of SCMs dates back to the ancient Greeks who incorporated volcanic ash with
hydraulic lime to create a cementing mortar. The Greeks passed this knowledge on to the
Romans, who constructed such engineering marvels as the Roman aqueducts and the
coliseum, which still stands today. Early SCMs consisted of natural, readily available
materials such as volcanic ash or diatomaceous earth. More recently, strict air-pollution
controls and regulations have produced an abundance of industrial by-products that can be
used as supplementary cementitious materials such as flyash, silica fume and blast furnace
slag. The use of such by-products in concrete construction not only prevents these products
from being land-filled but also enhances the properties of concrete in the fresh and hydrated
states. SCMs can be divided into two categories based on their type of reaction: hydraulic or
pozzolanic. Hydraulic materials react directly with water to form cementitious compounds,
while pozzolanic materials chemically react with calcium hydroxide (CH), a soluble reaction
16

product, in the presence of moisture to form compounds possessing cementing properties.


The word pozzolan was actually derived from a large deposit of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic ash
located near the town of Pozzuoli, Italy. Pozzolanic SCMs can be used either as an addition to
the cement or as a replacement for a portion of the cement. Most often an SCM will be used
to replace a portion of the cement content for economical or property-enhancement reasons.
Here is a brief overview of one of the more common pozzolans used in the manufactured
concrete products industry (Neuwald, 2010)
1.1.3

Rice husk

Rice husk is an agricultural residue which accounts for 20% of the 649.7 million tons of rice
produced annually worldwide. The produced partially burnt husk from the milling plants
when used as a fuel also contributes to pollution, and efforts are being made to overcome this
environmental issue by utilizing this material as a supplementary cementitious material.
The chemical composition of rice husk is found to vary from one sample to another due to the
differences in the type of paddy, crop year, climate and geographical conditions. Rice husk is
one of the most widely available agricultural wastes in many rice producing countries around
the world. Globally, approximately 600 million tons of rice paddy is produced each year. On
average 20% of the rice paddy is husk, giving an annual total production of 120 million
tonnes. In majority of rice producing countries much of the husk produced from processing
of rice is either burnt or dumped as waste. Burning of RH in ambient atmosphere leaves a
residue, called rice husk ash. For every 1000kg of paddy milled, about 220kg (22 %) of husk
is produced, and when this husk is burnt in the boilers, about 55kg (25 %) of RHA is
generated. The non-crystalline silica and high specific surface area of the RHA are
responsible for its high pozzolanic reactivity (Miyagawa and Gaweesh, 2001).
A pozzolanic reaction occurs when a siliceous or aluminous material get in touch with
calcium hydroxide in the presence of humidity to form compounds exhibiting cementitious
17

properties (Papadakis et al., 2009). Data from reaction results between RHA and CH
indicates that the amount of CH by 30% RHA in cement paste begins to decrease after 3 days,
and by 91 days it reaches nearly zero, while in the control paste, it is considerably enlarged
with hydration time (Yu et al., 1999).
1.2

Aim and Objectives of the research

1.2.1

Aim

The aim of this research work is the partial replacement of cement with rice husk ash (RHA)
using Marshall Stability Method.
1.2.2

1.3

Objectives

i.

To carry out preliminary tests on rice husk ash and all other asphalt concrete

ii.

constituents, to determine its physical and chemical composition.


Preparation of trail mix by varying aggregates, ordinary Portland cement, rice

iii.

husk ash, with predetermined percentages of bitumen content.


To determine the engineering properties of the specimen mix, using Marshall

iv.

Stability method.
Determination of optimum rice husk ash conten for Asphalt concrete.
Statement of the problem

The safe disposal of waste materials is an increasingly economic and environmental concern
in the several parts of the world (Ahmed and Lovell, 2003). The volume of waste materials
generated continues to increase even though the importance of recycling is being
acknowledged. Many of these wastes produced will remain in the environment for hundreds,
perhaps thousands, of years. The production of non-degradable waste materials, combined
with a growing consumer population, has resulted in a waste disposal crisis. One solution to
this crisis lies in the recycling of the waste materials into useful by-products (Kandhal, 2002).

18

Recently, there have been several reported uses of crop waste material for pavement
construction. One of which is an investigation of the potential use of rice husk ash as a
supplemental cementing material for the replacement of Portland cement in PCC mixtures
(NAPA Special Report 152, 2001).
The replacement of cement up to 20% with an equal amount of the rice husk ash contributed
with an initial (1 to 3 days) increase in compressive strength, but as time passed the strength
was reduced due to effect of alkali aggregate reactivity (Mehta, 2002). It has also been
discovered that rice husk ash is efficient as a pozzolanic material; it is rich in amorphous
silica (88.32%) (Mahmud, 2009).
Since RHA has been proven to be an efficient pozzolanic material when tested in Portland
cement concrete (PCC) mixtures, this research will go a long way in helping us know its
behaviour when used as a supplementary cementitious material in asphalt concrete.
1.4

Justification for study

Several recent researches have focused on the need for producing durable and cost effective
concrete by using pozzolana as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland cement
(Muhammad, 2010). According to Muhammad, the use of RHA significantly improves the
mortar strength at the 20% replacement level and at the later age. Also research has shown
that RHA has been used in lime pozzolana mixes and could be a suitable partly replacement
for Portland cement ( Nicole et al., 2000; Sakr 2006; Sata etal., 2007; etc).
Thus the use of agricultural waste (such as Rice Husk Ash) will considerably reduce the cost
of construction and as well reducing the environmental hazards they cause, this ultimately
suggests this research work.
1.5

Scope of Research

19

This study is limited to the evaluation of compressive strength of asphalt concrete having its
filler been supplemented with rice husk ash. This will be achieved by carrying out
preliminary studies on the constituents of asphalt concrete, and the use of Marshall Stability
test in determining the mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete mix.

20

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Aside from the use of rice husk ash (RHA) as supplementary material in concrete several
other uses of RHA which will be of importance in determining its characteristics are
discussed in this chapter. Asphalt concrete is one of the most important construction
materials, study of its constituents are essential for preparing desired mix design so as to
develop required strength necessary for structures. The durability of the structure depends on
the care with which ingredients of asphalt concrete are selected, mixed, placed and
compacted.
2.1

Bituminous pavement structure

Asphalt concrete pavements are flexible pavements. Flexible pavements are so named
because of the total pavement structure deflects, or flexes, under loading. A flexible pavement
structure is typically composed of several materials. Each layer receives the load from the
above layer, spreads them out, and then passes on the loads to the next layer below. Thus the
further down in the pavement structure a particular layer is, the less load it must carry
(Washington Asphalt Pavement Association (WAPA), 2010).
In order to take maximum advantage of this property, material layers are usually arranged in
order of descending load bearing capacity with the highest load bearing capacity material on
the

top

and

the

lowest

load

bearing

capacity

material

on

the

bottom

[http//:www.asphaltwa.com/2010/09/17/pavementstucture].
Many factors affect the ability of a bituminous paving mixture to meet these requirements.
Mixture design, construction practices, properties of component materials, and the use of
additives all play important roles in the resulting structural characteristics of a pavement.
21

Factors affecting design include;


I.
II.
III.

Volume and composition of traffic.


Environment and strength of the sub grade soil over which the road is to be built.
Selecting the most economically available materials for use and thickness of the layer.

It is therefore important to note that the design of new road pavement involves two
considerations, which are; Pavement Design and Mix Design Method.
2.2

Desirable properties of a bituminous mix


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

2.3

Stability to meet traffic demand


Bitumen content to ensure proper binding and water proofing
Voids to accommodate compaction due to traffic
Flexibility to meet traffic loads, especially in cold season
Sufficient workability for construction
Economical mix
Rice husk ash

Rice Husk is an agricultural waste obtained from milling of rice. About 10 8 tonnes of rice
husk is generated annually in the world. In Nigeria, about 2.0 million tonnes of rice is
produced annually, while in Niger state, about 96,600 tones of rice grains is produced in 2000
[5]. Meanwhile, the ash has been categorized under pozzolana, with about 67-70% silica and
about 4.9% and 0.95% Alumina and iron oxides, respectively [5]. The silica is substantially
contained in amorphous form, which can react with the CaOH librated during the hardening
of cement to further form cementations compounds (Aziz et al, 2005).
Rice plant is one of the plants that absorbs silica from the soil and assimilates it into its
structure during the growth (Smith et al., 1986). Rice husk is the outer covering of the grain
of rice plant with a high concentration of silica, generally more than 80-85% (Siddique,
2008). It is responsible for approximately 30% of the gross weight of a rice kernel and
normally contains 80% of organic and 20% of inorganic substances. Rice husk is produced in

22

millions of tons per year as a waste material in agricultural and industrial processes. It can
contribute about 20% of its weight to Rice Husk Ash (RHA) after incineration (Anwar et al.,
2001). RHA is a highly pozzolanic material (Tashima et al., 2004). The non-crystalline silica
and high specific surface area of the RHA are responsible for its high pozzolanic reactivity.
RHA has been used in lime pozzolana mixes and could be a suitable partly replacement for
Portland cement (Smith et al., 1986; Zhang et al., 1996; Nicole et al., 2000; Sakr 2006; Sata
et al., 2007; etc).
2.4

Use of RHA as supplementary cementitious material in Portland cement concrete

Recently there are considerable efforts worldwide of utilizing indigenous and waste,
materials in concrete. One of such materials is the rice husk which under controlled burning,
and if sufficiently ground, the ash that is produced can be used as a cement replacement
material in concrete (Anwar et al, 2001). As a consequence of this characteristic, RHA is an
extremely reactive pozzolanic substance appropriate for use in lime-pozzolan mixes and for
Portland cement substitution. The reactivity of RHA associated to lime depends on a
combination of two factors: namely the non-crystalline silica content and its specific surface
(Dakroury et al., 2008). Cement replacement by rice husk ash accelerates the early hydration
of C3S. The increase in the early hydration rate of C3S is attributed to the high specific
surface area of the rice husk ash (Feng et al., 2004). This phenomenon specially takes place
with fine particles of RHA.

2.4.1

Temperature effect

Cement blended with pozzolanic materials usually has decreased heat of hydration compared
to pure cement during the period of C3S hydration (Mostafa et al., 2005). The rate of

23

hydration heat of the cement added with pozzolanic material mainly depends on three factors,
C3S hydration, aluminate hydration and pozzolanic reaction (Hewlet, 1998). Likewise, RHA
demonstrate increase of hydration heat behaviour (positive values) during the first 12 h. The
increase in the hydration heat of cement blended with rice husk ash is due to (1) the
acceleration of the early hydration of C3S ascribed to the high specific surface area of the rice
husk ash ( Feng et al., 2004) and (2) pozzolanic reaction.
2.4.2

Workability

Studies by Owen (1979) and Jiang et al. (2000) have indicated that with high volume fly ash
concrete mixtures, up to 20% reduction in water requirements can be achieved. However,
there is the possibility of water reduction higher than 20% in the presence of RHA. This is
because fine particles of rice husk ash get absorbed on the oppositely charged surfaces of
cement particles and prevent them from flocculation. The cement particles are thus
effectively dispersed and will trap large amounts of water meaning that the system will have a
reduced water requirement to achieve a given consistency. The particle packing effect is also
responsible for the reduced water demand in plasticizing the system (Mehta, 2004).
2.4.3

Setting time

Initial and final setting time tests were shown to yield different results on plain cement paste
and pastes having rice husk ash (Dakroury et al., 2008). The studies by Ganesan et al. (2008),
and Bhanumathidas et al. (2004) showed that RHA increases the setting time of pastes. Just
like other hydraulic cement, the reactivity of rice husk ash cement depends very much upon
the specific surface area or particle size. The rice husk ash cement with finer particles
exhibits superior setting time behaviour.
2.4.4

Compressive strength

24

Inclusion of RHA as partial replacement of cement enhances the compressive strength of


concrete, but the optimum replacement level of OPC by RHA to give maximum long term
strength enhancement has been reported between 10% up to 30%. All these replacement
levels of RHA are in percentage by weight of the total binder material. Mahmud et al. (1996)
reported 15% cement replacement by RHA as an optimal level for achieving maximum
strength. Zhang et al. (1996) suggested 10% RHA replacement exhibited upper strength than
control OPC at all ages. Ganesan et al. (2008) concluded that concrete containing 15% of
RHA showed an utmost compressive strength and loss at elevated content more than 15%.
Dakroury et al. (2008) reported that using 30% RHA as a replacement of part of cement could
be considered optimum for all content of W/C ratios in investigated mortars because of its
high value of compressive strength. Zhang et al. (1996) reported that achieving higher
compressive strength and decrease of permeability in RHA blended concrete is perhaps
caused by the reduced porosity, reduced calcium hydroxide content and reduced width of the
interfacial zone between the paste and the aggregate. According to Rodriguez (2006) the
RHA concrete had higher compressive strength at 91 days in comparison to that of the
concrete without RHA. The increase in compressive strength of concretes with residual RHA
may also be justified by the filler (physical) effect. It is concluded that RHA can provide a
positive effect on the compressive strength of concrete at early ages.
In summary, the use of RHA in concrete has been associated with the following essential
assets:
Increased compressive and flexural strengths (Zhang et al., 1996; Ismaila 1996;
Rodriguez 2006)
Reduced permeability (Zhang et al., 1996; Ganesan et al., 2007)
Increased resistance to chemical attack (Chindaprasirt et al., 2007)
25

Increased durability (Coutinho 2002)


Reduced effects of alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) (Nicole et al., 2000)
Reduced shrinkage due to particle packing, making concrete denser (Habeeb et al., 2009)
Enhanced workability of concrete (Coutinho 2002; Habeeb et al., 2009; Mahmud et al.,
2009)
Reduced heat gain through the walls of buildings (Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2009)
Reduced amount of super plasticizer (Sata et al., 2007)
Reduced potential for efflorescence due to reduced calcium hydracids (Chindaprasirt et
al., 2007)
2.5

Effect of Rice Husk Ash as Cement Admixture

Rice husk ash is one of the promising pozzolanic materials that can be blended with Portland
cement for the production of durable concrete and at the same time it is a value added
product. Addition of rice husk ash to Portland cement does not only improve the early
strength of concrete, but also forms a calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel around the cement
particles which is highly dense and less porous, and may increase the strength of concrete
against cracking (Saraswathy and Ha- Won, 2007).
Many countries have the problem of shortage of conventional cementing materials. Recently
there are considerable efforts worldwide of utilizing indigenous and waste, materials in
concrete. One of such materials is the rice husk which under controlled burning, and if
sufficiently ground, the ash that is produced can be used as a cement replacement material in
concrete (Anwar et al, 2001). In the preparation of mortar cubes, 555g of standard sand, 185g
of cement sample and a certain volume of distilled water were mixed thoroughly. Similarly,
26

cement, rice husk ash (RHA) and sand, with percentage of cement replaced by RHA were
mixed together, until a homogeneous mixture was obtained (Table 1). The measured quantity
of water was then sprayed on to the mixture. The mixture was further mixed until a paste of
the required workability was obtained (Oyetola and Abdullahi, 2006).
Compressive strength tests were carried out on six mortar cubes with cement replaced by rice
husk ash (RHA) at five levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%). After the curing age of 3, 7, 14 and
28 days, the compressive strengths of the cubes at 10% replacement were 12.60, 14.20,
22.10, 28.50 and 36.30 N/mm2 respectively and increased with age of curing but decreased
with increase in RHA content for all mixes. The chemical analysis of the rice husk ash
revealed high amount of silica (68.12%), alumina (1.01%) and oxides such as calcium oxide
(1.01%) and iron oxide (0.78%) responsible for strength, soundness and setting of the
concrete. It also contained high amount of magnesia (1.31%) which is responsible for the
unsoundness. This result, therefore, indicated that RHA can be used as cement substitute at
10% and 20% replacement and 14 and 28 day curing age (Dabai et al, 2002).
2.6

RHA as a Tundish Powder in Steel Casting Industries

RHA is used by the steel industry in the production of high quality flat steel. It is in
continuous casting that RHA plays a role. RHA is an excellent insulator, having low thermal
conductivity, high melting point, low bulk density and high porosity. It is this insulating
properly that makes it an excellent tundish powder. Tundish powders are used to insulate
the tundish, prevent rapid cooling of the steel and ensure uniform solidification (Harold,
2002).
2.7

RHA as an Active Pozzolan

27

Portland cement produces an excess of lime. Adding a pozzolan, such as RHA, combines
with lime in the presence of water, results in a stable and more amorphous hydrate (Calcium
Silicate). It is stronger, less permeable and more resistant to chemical attack (Chaiyanena,
1992). The potential for good but inexpensive housing in developing countries is especially
great. Studies have been carried out all over the world, such as in Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia,
and Guyana on the use of low cost building blocks (RHA Market Study, 2003). Ordinary
Portland Cement (OPC) is expensive and unaffordable to produce low strength concrete
block. Generally around 7Mpa strength is achieved at 14 days with mix proportion of 20:80
ratio of lime: RHA as binder. A study showed that replacing 50% of Portland cement with
RHA was effective and the resultant concrete cost 25% less (Tuts, 1994).
After vehicle and utility emissions cement manufacturing is the largest industrial producer of
CO2 and accounts for over 50% of all industrial CO2 emissions; for every ton of cement
produced 1 to 1.25 tons of CO2 are produced (Muga et al., 2005). The potential economic
savings (U.S.dollars) and reduction of CO2 emissions(tons) if rice husk ash is utilized on a
global basis in the construction of either spring - boxes or gravity fed water systems for the
1billion people worldwide that do not have access to safe drinking water, $141 to $451
million could be saved while the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions could decrease from
0.95 million to 3.8 million tons if rice husk ash were substituted for Portland Cement at a
25% level (Muga et al., 2005).

2.8

Manufacturing Refractory Bricks

One of the potentially major profitable uses of RHA is in the in the manufacture of refractory
bricks (Adylov, et al., 2005) .Due to the insulating properties, RHA has been used in the
manufacture of refractory bricks. Refractory bricks are used in furnaces which are exposed to
28

extreme temperatures, such an in blast furnaces used for producing molten iron and in the
production of cement clinker. Bricks from RHA were reported to be good heat insulators up
to extreme temperatures, such as 1450C, and have a low thermal conductivity of about
0.3Kcal/m hr C and good resistance to compression. Such bricks normally contain 80-98%
ash and 2-20% CaO+MgO (Gidde et al., 2007).
2.9

RHA as Silicon Chips

The first step in semiconductor manufacture is the production of a wafer, a thin round slice of
semiconductor material, which is usually silicon. Purified polycrystalline silicon
(traditionally created from sand) is heated to a molten liquid and a small piece of silicon seed
placed in the molten liquid. As the seed is from the melt the liquid cools to form a single
crystal ingot which is then grand and sliced to form wafers that form the starting material for
manufacturing integrated circuits (RHA Market Study, 2003).Silicon dioxide though naturally
generated from sand is extracted after a fusion of high temperature whose procedure requires
energy and investment intensive driving the cost of silica higher. It is therefore worthwhile
extracting purer silica from rice husk ash with minimal cost which also contributes to the
practice of waste management engineering (Omatola, 2009).
The Indian Space Research Organization has successfully developed technology for
producing high purity precipitated silica from RHA that has a potential use in the computer
industry. A Consortium of American and Brazilian Scientists have also developed ways to
extract and purify silicon with the aim of using it in semiconductor manufacture (Science
News, 1994). A company in Michigan is purifying RHA into silica for silicon chip
manufacture.
2.10

RHA as Adsorbent for a Gold-Thiourea Complex.

29

Gold is often in nature as a compound with other elements. One way it is extracted is to leach
it by pumping suitable fluids through the gold bearing strata. RHA produced by heating rice
husks at 300C has been shown to adsorb more gold thiourea than the conventional used
activated carbon (RHA Market Study, 2003).
2.11

RHA as Vulcanizing Rubber

White RHA can be used as filler for natural rubber compounds (Siriwandena et al., 2001).
White RHA increases mechanical properties such as, tensile strength, tear strength, resilience
and hardness, if used as a partial replacement of silica as a bonding agent.
2.12

RHA as Soil Ameliorant

There are reports of RHA being used as a soil ameliorant to help break up clay soils and
improve soil structure (Confidential Report, 1998).Its porous nature also assists with water
distribution in the soil. Research in USA has also been carried out on using it as a potting
substrate for bedding plants .It has also been found to increase the pH of the soil, so was
recommended for use with plants that require alkaline soil.
2.13

RHA used in the Production of Asphalt

Rice husk ash and palm oil fiber have been used as filler for stone mastic asphalt. The
physical characteristics of stone asphalt with rice husk ash and palm oil fiber were favourable
for surfacing in road construction. The result of asphalt with RHA and palm oil fiber as filler
and binder passed standard specifications (Jeffrey et al., 2002).
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1

Materials
30

Materials used are the constituent materials of asphalt concrete; bitumen, aggregate (fine and
coarse) and filler material (cement and rice husk ash).
3.2

Properties considered in Mix Design

Good asphalt concrete pavement function well because they are designed, produced and
placed in such a way as to give them certain desirable properties. These are several properties
that contribute to the quality of asphalt concrete pavements. They include stability, durability,
impermeability, workability, flexibility, fatigue resistance and skid resistance (Asphalt
Institute, 1983).
3.3

Tests on material

Tests to determine the engineering properties of bitumen and aggregates, chemical


composition of RHA and ordinary Portland cement were conducted.
3.3.1

Tests on Coarse Aggregate

The following tests were carried out on aggregate in order to determine its suitability for use
in the asphalt concrete;
3.3.1.1

Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregates

Aggregate grading affects the strength of concrete mainly indirectly, through its important
effect on the water/cement ratio required for a given workability. A badly graded aggregate
requires a higher water/cement ratio and hence results in a weak concrete. This practical is
aimed at determining the grading of coarse aggregate and their zones.
Sieve Analysis Test Result:

percentage retained

mass retained
= total mass of sample

31

100 3.1

Table 3.1: Sieve analysis of 3000g of coarse aggregate


Sieve size
(mm)

Weight retained
(g)

Percentage retained
(%)

Percentage passing
(%)

53.00

0.00

100

37.60

0.00

100

25.40

138

4.60

95.4

19.00
12.70

1456
589

48.53
19.63

46.87
27.24

9.52
6.30

621
141

20.70
4.70

6.54
1.84

pan

55

1.83

0.00

3.3.1.2

Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of an aggregate is the ratio between the weight of a given volume of
the aggregate and the weight of an equal volume of water. Specific gravity provides a
means of expressing the weight-volume characteristics of materials. Specific gravity of an
aggregate considered as a measure of the quality of material in terms of strength.

Table3.2:

Specific Gravity Test results for coarse Aggregate

Test number
Weight of gravel (B)
Weight of gas jar (P)
Weight of gas jar + water + gravel (Ps)
B
Specific gravity (S.G) = P+ BPS

Test 1
1000g
2520g
3135g
2.60

32

Test 2
1000g
2520g
3163g
2.80

sample 1+ sample 2
`
2

Average specific gravity =

3.3.1.3

2.70

Bulk Density and Void of Coarse Aggregate

Aim: To determine the bulk density and void ratio of fine and coarse aggregate
Bulk density =

Table 3.3:

weight of sample
volume of water

3.2

Bulk Density for Coarse Aggregate

Sample
number

W1

W2

W3

Ww

Ws

Volume of
cylinder
(m3)

Bulk
density
(Kgm-3)

1
2

9.72
9.72

19.65
19.65

15.30
15.20

9.93
9.93

5.58
5.48

0.01
0.01

558
548

Void Ratio = 1 ((

3.3.1.4

bulk density
specific gravity ) 1000)

= 1 ((

553
2.7 ) 1000)

0.8

3.3

Aggregate Impact Value

Toughness is the property of a material to easiest impact. Due to moving loads the
aggregates are subjected to pounding action or impact and there is possibility of stones
breaking into smaller pieces. Therefore a test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones
i.e., the resistance of the stones to fracture under repeated impacts may be called Impact
test on aggregates. The aggregate Impact value indicates a relative measure of the
resistance of aggregate to a sudden shock or an Impact, which in some aggregates differs
from its resistance to a slope compressive load in crushing test. A modified Impact test is
33

also often carried out in the case of soft aggregates to find the wet Impact value after
soaking the test sample.
The maximum allowable aggregate Impact value for water bound Macadam; Sub-Base
coarse 50% where as cement concrete used in base course is 45%. WBM base course with
Bitumen surface in should be 40%. Bituminous Macadam base course should have A.I.V
of 35%. All the surface courses should possess an A.I.V below 30%.
3.3.1.5

Aggregate Crushing Value

This is one of the major Mechanical properties required in a road stone. The test evaluates
the ability of the Aggregates used in road construction to withstand the stresses induced by
moving vehicles in the form of crushing. With this the aggregates should also provide
sufficient resistance to crushing under the roller during construction and under rigid tyre
rims of heavily loaded animal drawn vehicles.
The aggregate crushing value of the coarse aggregates used for cement concrete pavement
at surface should not exceed 30% and aggregates used for concrete other than for wearing
surfaces, shall not exceed 45% as specified by Indian Standard (IS) and Indian Road
Congress (IRC).
3.3.2

Tests on Fine Aggregates

3.3.2.1

Sieve Analysis of fine Aggregates

Aggregate grading affects the strength of concrete mainly indirectly, through its important
effect on the water/cement ratio required for a given workability. A badly graded
aggregate requires a higher water/cement ratio and hence results in a weak concrete. This
practical is aimed at determining the grading of coarse aggregate and their zones.
Sieve Analysis Test Result:
34

percentage retained

Table3.4:

mass retained
= total mass of sample

100

3.4

Sieve analysis 1000g fine aggregate

Sieve size

Weight retained
(g)

Percentage retained
(%)

Percentage passing
(%)

5.00 mm
2.36 mm

15
48

1.5
4.8

98.5
93.7

1.18mm
600m
300m
150m
75m
Pan

210
489
170
39
11
18

21.0
48.9
17.0
3.9
1.1
1.8

72.7
23.8
6.8
2.9
1.8
0.0

3.3.2.2

Specific gravity of fine aggregate

The specific gravity of an aggregate is the ratio between the weight of a given volume of the
aggregate and the weight of an equal volume of water. Specific gravity provides a means of
expressing the weight-volume characteristics of materials. Specific gravity of an aggregate
considered as a measure of the quality of material in terms of strength.
Specific Gravity Test result
B
Specific gravity (S.G) = P+ BPS

Table3.5:

3.5

Specific Gravity Test for Fine Aggregate

Test number

Test 1

35

Test 2

Weight of sand (B)

500g

500g

Weight of pycnometer (P)

1600g

1600g

Weight of pycnometer + water + sand (Ps)

1908g

1915g

2.60

2.70

Specific gravity (S.G) =

B
P+ BPS

Average specific gravity =

3.3.2.3

sample 1+ sample 2
`
2

2.65

Bulk Density and Void of Fine Aggregate

Aim: To determine the bulk density and void ratio of fine and coarse aggregate
Bulk density =

Table3.6:

weight of sample
volume of water

3.6

Bulk Density for fine Aggregate

Sample
number

W1

W2

W3

Ww

Ws

Volume of
cylinder
(m3)

Bulk
density
(Kgm-3)

1.40

4.10

3.40

2.70

2.00

2.7010-3

740.74

1.40

4.05

3.50

2.65

2.10

2.6510-3

792.75

Void Ratio = 1 ((

bulk density
specific gravity ) 1000)

= 1 ((

767
2.7 ) 1000)

0.7

Table 3.7: Test results on Aggregate


36

3.7

PROPERTY

UNIT

TEST RESULTS

Aggregate Crushing Value


(ACV)
Aggregate Impact Value
(AIV)
Specific Gravity (Coarse
Aggregate)
Specific Gravity (Fine
Aggregate)
Bulk density/ Void ratio
(Coarse Aggregate)
Bulk density/Void ratio
(Fine Aggregate)

20.50

16.70

2.70

2.65

(Kgm

553/0.8

-3

(Kgm-3)

767/0.7

3.3.3 Preliminary Tests on Bitumen


3.3.3.1

Penetration Test

Penetration value below 20 is associated with bad cracking of road surfacing. While cracking
rarely occurs when the penetration exceeds 30 for normal road work 30 500 penetration
bitumen is in common use. Generally, higher penetration bitumen is preferred for use in cold
climate and smaller penetration bitumen is used in hot climate areas.
3.3.3.2

Ductility Test

The ductility test is a measure of the internal cohesion of bitumen. The ductility of
bituminous material is measured by the distance in centimetre to which it will elongate before
breaking when a standard briquette specimen of the material is pulled apart at a specified
speed and a specified temperature. Bitumen possessing high ductility is normally
cementitious and adheres well to aggregates.

3.3.3.3

Solubility Test

37

Determines the purity of bitumen in relation to the possibility of contamination by foreign


materials. A solubility of 99.5% in carbon disulphide (CS2) is found in all British
specifications. For refinery bitumen, (CS2) is highly inflammable, hence the safer is carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) or methylene chloride can be used for normal solubility tests without
significant loss of accuracy .And for tars, we use toluene.
3.3.3.4

Flash and Fire Point Test

Flash and fire point is safety related which suitable caution should be taken to eliminate fire
hazards during heating and manipulation of bitumen. Flash point is the temperature of the
flame application that causes a bright flash. The point at which the material gets ignite band
continues to burn for five seconds is the fire point.
3.3.3.5

Viscosity Test

It determines in a large measure how the material will function when used, such as the
readiness to flow at a given temperature required for correct application.
3.3.3.6

Softening Point (Ring and Ball) Test.

This is in order that specifications of many bituminous binders for the particular purposes are
often with or without softening point requirements. It is used to specify hand bitumen and it
helps characterise its rate of setting. It may indicate the adequacy to flow in service.

Table 3.8 Test Results on Bitumen

38

TEST

UNIT

TEST RESULTS

Penetration at 25 C

mm

105

Viscosity at 60 C

mm/s

121.83

Flash and Fire point

259

%
cm

96
>100

Solubility
Ductility

3.4

Preliminary Tests on Filler Materials

3.4.1

Test on Cement and RHA (OPC)

Dangote brand of ordinary Portland cement was used in the experiment. Some preliminary
tests like setting times and soundness tests were carried out. The initial and final setting times
were considered using cement and different percentages of rice husk (RHA).
3.4.1.1

Consistency Tests

The setting time is determined by observing the penetration of a needle into cement paste of
Standard Consistence until it reaches a specified value.
The soundness is determined by observing the volume expansion of cement paste of Standard
Consistence as indicated by the relative movement of two needles.
Cement paste of standard consistence has a specified resistance to penetration by a standard
plunger. The water required for such a paste is determined by trial penetrations of pastes with
different water contents.

39

Table 3.9: Initial and Final Setting Times of Cement and RHA
Cement (%)

RHA (%)

100
90
80
70
60
50

0
10
20
30
40
50

Initial Setting Time


(Mins)
122
136
154
165
213
281

Final Setting Time


(Mins)
183
227
255
275
350
402

3.4.2 Chemical Analysis of RHA and Cement

The chemical analysis of the samples was conducted at the centre for energy research and
training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, using minipal which is a compact energy
dispersive X-ray spectrometer designed for the elemental analysis of a wide range of samples.
The results of the analysis are shown below in comparison with the chemical composition of
cement, and will be discussed in subsequent chapter.
Table 3.10: Chemical Analysis of RHA and Cement (Weight %).
Constituents
SiO2

Concentration Unit in RHA


68.12

Concentration Unit in OPC


23.43

CaO

1.01

64.40

Al2O3

1.06

4.84

Fe2O3

0.78

4.08

K2O

21.23

0.29

SO3

0.137

2.79

LOI

18.25

5.68

Free Lime

1.50

40

3.5

Marshall Method of Asphalt-Concrete Mix Design

Bituminous mixes (sometimes called asphalt mixes) are used in the surface layer of road and
airfield pavements. The mix is composed usually of aggregate and asphalt cements. Some
types of bituminous mixes are also used in base-coarse. The design of asphalt paving mix, as
with the design of other engineering materials is largely a matter of selecting and
proportioning constituent materials to obtain the desired properties in the finished pavement
structure.
The desirable properties of Asphalt mixes are:
1. Resistance to permanent deformation: The mix should not distort or be displaced when
subjected to traffic loads. The resistance to permanent deformation is more important at high
temperatures.
2. Fatigue resistance: the mix should not crack when subjected to repeated loads over a period
of time.
3. Resistance to low temperature cracking. This mix property is important in cold regions.
4. Durability: the mix should contain sufficient asphalt cement to ensure an adequate film
thickness around the aggregate particles. The compacted mix should not have very high air
voids, which accelerates the aging process.
5. Resistance to moisture-induced damage.
6. Skid resistance.
7. Workability: the mix must be capable of being placed and compacted with reasonable
effort.
41

8. Low noise and good drainage properties: If the mix is to be used for the surface (wearing)
layer of the pavement structure.
3.5.1

Marshall Method of Mix Design

In this method, the resistance to plastic deformation of a compacted cylindrical specimen of


bituminous mixture is measured when the specimen is loaded diametrically at a deformation
rate 53 of 50 mm per minute. There are two major features of the Marshall method of mix
design. (i) density-voids analysis and (ii) stability-flow tests. The Marshall stability of the
mix is defined as the maximum load carried by the specimen at a standard test temperature of
60C. The flow value is the deformation that the test specimen undergoes during loading upto
the maximum load. Flow is measured in 0.25 mm units. In this test, an attempt is made to
obtain optimum binder content for the type of aggregate mix used and the expected traffic
intensity.
3.5.1.1

Preparation of test specimens

The coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and the filler material should be proportioned so as to
fulfil the requirements of the relevant standards. The required quantity of the mix is taken so
as to produce compacted bituminous mix specimens of thickness 63.5 mm approximately.
1200 gm of aggregates and filler are required to produce the desired thickness. The
aggregates are heated to a temperature of 175 to 190C the compaction mould assembly and
rammer are cleaned and kept pre-heated to a temperature of 100C to 145C. The bitumen is
heated to a temperature of 121C to 138C and the required amount of first trial of bitumen is
added to the heated aggregate and thoroughly mixed. The mix is placed in a mould and
compacted with number of blows specified. The sample is taken out of the mould after few

42

minutes

using

sample

extractor.

Figure 3.1 Test Specimen Preparations


3.5.1.2

Bulk density of the compacted specimen

The bulk density of the sample is usually determined by weighting the sample in air and in
water. It may be necessary to coat samples with paraffin before determining density. The
specific gravity Gb(cm) of the specimen is given by

Gb (cm)=

Wa
WaWw

3.8

Where,
Wa

= weight of sample in air (g)

43

Ww

= weight of sample in water (g)

3.5.1.3

Stability test

In conducting the stability test, the specimen is immersed in a bath of water at a temperature
of 60 1C for a period of 30 minutes. It is then placed in the Marshall Stability testing
machine and loaded at a constant rate of deformation of 5 mm per minute until failure. The
total maximum in kN (that causes failure of the specimen) is taken as Marshall Stability. The
stability value so obtained is corrected for volume. The total amount of deformation is units
of 0.25 mm that occurs at maximum load is recorded as Flow Value. The total time between
removing the specimen from the bath and completion of the test should not exceed 30
seconds.
3.5.2

Analysis of Results from Marshall Test

Following results and analysis is performed on the data obtained from the experiments.
3.5.2.1

Bulk specific gravity of aggregate (Gbam)

Since the aggregate mixture consists of different fractions of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate,
and mineral filler with different specific gravities, the bulk specific gravity of the total
aggregate in the paving mixture is given as

Gbam=

P ca + Pfa + Pmf
Pca Pfa P mf
+
+
Gbca Gbca Gbca

3.9

Where,
Gbam

= bulk specific gravity of aggregates in paving mixtures.

44

Pca , P fa , Pmf

= percent by weight of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and mineral

filler in paving mixture.


Gbca , G bfa , Gbmf

= bulk specific gravities of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and mineral

filler, respectively.

3.5.2.2

Maximum specific gravity of aggregate mixture (

Gmp

The maximum specific gravity of aggregate mixture should be obtained as per ASTM D2041,
however because of the difficulty in conducting this experiment an alternative procedure
could be utilized to obtain the maximum specific gravity using the following equation:

Gbam=

P ca + Pfa + Pmf
Pca Pfa P mf
+
+
Gbca Gbca Gbca

3.10

Where,
Gmp = maximum specific gravity of paving mixtures.
Pca , P fa , Pmf

= percent by weight of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and mineral

filler in paving mixture.

45

Gbca , G bfa , Gbmf

= bulk specific gravities of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and mineral

filler, respectively.
3.5.2.3

Percent voids in compacted mineral aggregate (VMA)

The percent voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) is the percentage of void spaces between the
granular particles in the compacted paving mixture, including the air voids and the volume
occupied by the effective asphalt content

VMA = 100 -

Gbcm P
Gbam

ta

3.11
Where,
VMA = percent voids in mineral aggregates.
Gbcm

= bulk specific gravity of compacted specimen

Gbam

= bulk specific gravity of aggregate.

Pta

= aggregate percent by weight of total paving mixture.

3.5.2.4

Percent air voids in compacted mixture (

Pav

Percent air voids is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) between the volume of the air voids
between the coated particles and the total volume of the mixture.

Pav =100

GmpG
Gmp

bcm

3.12

46

Where,
Pav = percent air voids in compacted mixture
Gmp = maximum specific gravity of the compacted paving mixture
Gbcm = bulk specific gravity of the compacted mixtures

3.5.3

Determination of Optimum Binder Content

Five separate smooth curves are drawn (Figure 11.4) with percent of asphalt on x-axis and the
following on y-axis

unit weight
Marshall stability
Flow
VMA

Voids in total mix (

Pav

Optimum binder content is selected as the average binder content for maximum density,
maximum stability and specified percent air voids in the total mix. Thus

B 0=

B 1+ B2 +B3
3

3.13
Where,
B 0 = optimum Bitumen content.
B 1 = % asphalt content at maximum unit weight.

47

B 2 = % asphalt content at maximum stability.


B 3 = % asphalt content at specified percent air voids in the total mix.

3.5.4

Evaluation and Adjustment of mix Design

The overall objective of the mix design is to determine an optimum blend of different
components that will satisfy the requirements of the given specifications (Table 11.3). This
mixture should have:
1. Adequate amount of asphalt to ensure a durable pavement.
2. Adequate mix stability to prevent unacceptable distortion and displacement when traffic
load is applied.
3. Adequate voids in the total compacted mixture to permit a small amount of compaction
when traffic load is applied without bleeding and loss of stability.
4. Adequate workability to facilitate placement of the mix without segregation.
If the mix design for the optimum binder content does not satisfy all the requirements of
specifications (table 11.3) it is necessary to adjust the original blend of aggregates. The trial
mixes can be adjusted by using the following guidelines.
1. If low voids: The voids can be increased by adding more coarse aggregates.
2. If high voids: Increase the amount of mineral filler in the mix.
3. If low stability: This condition suggests low quality of aggregates. The quality of
aggregates should be improved. (Use different aggregate or use cement coated aggregate)
Table 3.11 Summary of Marshall Analysis At 0% RHA/ 100% OPC
48

Bitumen
content (%)
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5

Stability
(kN)
3.97
6.70
2.73
3.81
2.96

Flow
(mm)
2.43
3.0
5.64
3.56
4.1

CDM
(g/cm)
1.78
1.49
1.53
1.55
1.65

VIM (%)

VMA (%)

VFB (%)

28.51
39.40
36.78
35.15
30.08

36.22
47.27
46.33
46.75
43.88

21.31
16.63
20.61
24.81
31.45

Table 3.12 Summary of Marshall Analysis At 5.5% Optimum Bitumen Content


RHA content
(%)
0.0

Stability
(kN)
6.70

Flow
(0.25mm)
3.0

CDM
(g/cm)
1.49

VIM (%)

VMA (%)

VFB (%)

39.40

47.27

16.63

5.0

5.75

3.06

1.80

27.13

35.93

24.49

7.5

7.27

2.73

1.77

28.63

37.17

22.98

10.0

7.63

2.19

1.78

28.23

36.77

23.23

12.5
15.0

5.02
4.46

2.56
3.06

1.79
1.78

27.82
28.23

35.40
36.75

23.57
23.19

17.5

5.30

2.19

1.79

27.82

36.38

23.53

20.0

4.56

2.54

1.80

27.13

35.79

24.20

22.5

5.85

2.08

1.81

36.46

45.23

19.39

25.0

3.45

2.19

1.81

36.46

45.07

19.10

49

CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1

Tests on pure bitumen

From the table presented in chapter three on the various preliminary tests on bitumen, the
results obtained are now compared with the standard code of practice to assess for its quality
for usage. The results obtained in the test conducted are within the limits of code
specifications, therefore the bitumen can be judge as good for usage. The table below
interprets the results obtained
Table 4.1: Result of preliminary tests on bitumen
Test

Test
Method
(ASTM)

Specification by codes for


penetration Grade*
40/50

60/70

80/100

Penetration at 25C
(mm)

D5

40-50

60-70

80-100

98

Flash point and fire


point (C) Min.

D92

232

232

219

Solubility in carbon
tetrachloride
(CCl4) Min. (%).

D2042

99

99

99

240 and
259
respectively
.
99

Specific gravity at
25C Min.

D70

0.97-1.02

0.97-1.02

0.97-1.02

1.00

Ductility at 25C Min


(mm)

D113

50

75

100

Viscosity(mm/s)

D4402

220-400

120-250

75-150

138

50

Results
obtained

4.1.1

Penetration Test

Penetration is a measure of consistency of bitumen. It serves as a yardstick in classification of


bitumen into standard grades. It is used to classify bitumen for purchasing and identification
purposes.
From the result obtained (98mm), the penetration falls within penetration grade 80-100 which
is suitable for HMA design.
4.1.2

Viscosity Test

This test determines the readiness of bitumen to flow at a given temperature required for field
application or spray on site.
From the viscosity test carried out, the result obtained (138mm/sec) conforms to the
viscosity requirement (75-150mm/sec) for penetration grade of 80-100; it is therefore
suitable for HMA design.
4.1.3

Flash and Fire Point Test

This is a safety precaution test. It is used to determine the temperature at which the bitumen
material will ignite with fire when subjected to heat. From the flash and fire point carried out,
the result obtained (240C) conforms to the ASTM D92 requirement (219C) for penetration
grade of 80-100; it is therefore suitable for HMA design.
4.1.4

Solubility Test

Solubility test is a quality control test done to determine in relation to the possibility of
contamination with mineral matter or improperly refined. From the solubility test carried out,
the
51

Result obtained (99%) conforms to the ASTM D2042 requirement (99%) for penetration
grade of 80-100; it is therefore suitable for HMA design.
4.1.5

Ductility Test

This is a measure of the internal cohesion of bitumen. High ductility bitumen is normally
cementitious and adheres well to aggregates. Its also a measure of tensile property of
bitumen. High ductility bitumen has greater flexibility and tenacity. Conversely, low ductility
bitumen is more likely to crack under heavy load and severe changes in temperature.
From the ductility test carried out, the result obtained (100mm) conforms to the ASTM D113
requirement (75mm) for penetration grade of 80-100; it is therefore suitable for HMA design.
4.2

Tests on RHA

The test result obtained was compared with those specified by ASTM C 618-78 for use
admixture in concrete.
Table 4.2: Comparison of test on rice husk ash with standard

O2

Silicon dioxide (Si


aluminum oxide (
iron oxide (

Al 2 O3

Fe2 O3

Sulfur trioxide (

Mineral admixture class


N
F
70.0
70.0
), plus

Test result
C
50.0

69.96

5.0

0.14

), plus

) min, %

SO3

), max, %

4.0

5.0

From the table, it I observed that Rice husk ash is composed of several oxides and according
to ASTM C618-78 which specifies that a material having a combined weight of silica,
aluminium and iron oxides of a minimum value of 50% (for class C), 70%(for class N), 70%

52

(for class F) by weight of fraction is considered a pozzolana. The Rice husk ash used for this
research is of class C.
Thus from the result table, we have;

Silica (Si

O2

Aluminium (

Iron (

) = 68.12%

Al 2 O3

Fe2 O3

) =1.06%

) = 0.78%

Total weight = 69.96


Therefore, it can be said that rice husk ash is pozzolanic and can be used as mineral filler in
HMA design as a partial replacement of cement.
4.3

Test on cement

The following are the main properties of cement which are important to civil engineering:
fineness, consistency, setting times, soundness, crushing strength and heat of gyration. It is
these properties that the engineer uses to judge the suitability of cements.
Three out of these properties were tested on the sample of cement used for this project work,
which are; consistency, setting times and consistency of cement.
Table 4.3: Comparison of Test Result on the Cement with Standard
Property
Initial setting time

Unit
Min

Test results
122

Final setting time

Hr-min

3hrs 3mins

soundness

mm

4.2
53

Code used
BS EN 196 PART 3
(1995)
BS EN 196 PART 3
(1995)
BS EN 196 PART 3
(1995)

Code specification
>45mins
<10hrs
<10mm

Specific gravity
4.3.1

2.43

ASTM C188

3.15

Setting Times

Initial setting time is defined as the period elapsing between the time when water is added to
cement and the needle of 1mm square section fails to pierce the test block to a depth of about
5mm from the bottom of the mould. A period of 45 minutes is the minimum initial setting
time (specified by BS 12, 146 and AASHTO T-129, E-131) for ordinary Portland cement,
which agrees with the test result obtained.
Final setting time is defined as the period elapsing between the time when water is added to
the cement and the time at which the needle of 1mm square section with 5mm attachment
makes an impression on the test sample. A period of 600 minutes (10 hours) is the maximum
time specified for the final set for Portland cement. Therefore, since the standards are in
agreement with the test result obtained, it is then concluded that the cement used for this
study is an ordinary Portland cement.
4.3.2

Soundness

The test specifies that the increase in the distance between the indicator of the le-chatelier
mould, after the heating of the cement paste in the required manner (chapter 3), should not
exceed 10mm (BS 12, AASHTO- 129).
From the test conducted, the difference between the lengths was 4.2mm which is less than
10mm; therefore the cement is ordinary Portland cement and is suitable for engineering
purposes.
4.4

Tests on Coarse and Fine Aggregate

4.4.1

Sieve Analysis Test

54

Table in the previous chapter ,showed the result of the laboratory test (sieve analysis ) carried
out to obtain standard grading for fine and coarse aggregate as shown in table and graphs
plotted respectively. For fine aggregate fell within the limits of BS 882 zone 1, therefore the
aggregate is well graded and suitable for use in the concrete mix. While for coarse aggregate,
the grading curve fell within the specified unit by BS 882, this showed that the 20mm
maximum size aggregate is well graded and suitable for use in the asphalt concrete mix. The
graduation curve for both coarse and fine aggregates are shown in figures 4.1 and 4.2 below.

100
90
80
70
60
percentage passing (%)

50
40
30
20
10
0
1

10
sieve size (mm)

Figure 4.1: Graph showing the graduation curve of coarse aggregate

55

100

100
90
80
70
60
percentage passing (%)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0.01

0.1

10

sieve size (mm)

Figure 4.2: Graph showing the graduation curve of fine aggregate


The table below shows the strength properties which are measures of mechanical properties
(crushing and impact tests) of the aggregate and specific gravity is a measure of aggregate
density.
Table 4.4: Comparison of Test Results on Aggregates with Standards
Property
Aggregate crushing value
Aggregate impact value
Specific gravity (Coarse)
Specific gravity (Fine)

Unit
%
%

Test

Code used

Result
20.50
16.70
2.70
2.65

BS 882 PART112
BS 882 PART111
ASTM C136
ASTM C136

Code specification
<30
<30
2.6-2.9
2.6-2.9

The values obtained from the tests on aggregates are substantial typical value of Aggregate
Crushing Value (ACV), Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) and Specific Gravity (SG) for the
aggregate favourable to the quoted code of specifications as such the aggregate is suitable for
HMA design.
4.5

Marshall Test Result


56

The Marshall stability of the mix is defined as the maximum load carried by the specimen at
a standard test temperature of 60C. The flow value is the deformation that the test specimen
undergoes during loading up to the maximum load. Flow is measured in 0.25mm units. In this
test, an attempt is made to obtain optimum binder content for the type of aggregate mix used
and the expected traffic intensity.

Table 4.5: Typical Marshall Mixture Design Criteria

Description

Type I
Base course

Type II
Binder or
leveling course

Type III
Wearing course

Min.

Min.

Min.

Marshall
75
specimens
(ASTM D 1559)
No. of comp.
Blows, each end of
specimen
Stability, kN.
2224
Flow (0.25mm or 0.01 inch) 8
(mm)
[ 2]

Max.

16
[ 14]

Max.

75

75

3336
8
[ 2]

6672
8
[ 2]

16
[ 14]

VMA

13

14

Air voids, %

Aggregate voids

60

80

65

85

70

70

70

57

16
[14]

15

filled with
bitumen, %

Max.

70

6
85

Immersion
compression
specimen
(AASHTO T 165)
index of retained
strength, %
8
7
6
5
Stability (kN) 4
3
2
1
0
4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

Bitumen Content (%)

Figure 4.3: Graph of Stability against Bitumen Content


Stability is the maximum load developed during the test; it is an indication of strength in the
compacted material. The stability of the sample increased initially up to a bitumen content of
5.5%, and then began to fall with an increase of bitumen content, as shown in figure 4.3. The
stability of the sample was optimum at a bitumen content of 5.5% with a value of 6700N
which is greater than the minimum value of 6672N specified by the standard as given in table
4.5 for heavy traffic.

58

6
5
4
Flow (0.25mm) 3
2
1
0
4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

Bitumen Content (%)

Figure 4.4: Graph of Flow against Bitumen Content


The flow is the deformation of the sample up to the moment when the maximum load occurs.
The flow of the sample increased with increase in bitumen content up to a bitumen content,
which is the conventional form, as shown in figure 4.4. The test yielded a maximum flow
value of 5.64mm, which falls within the range of 2-14mm as specified by standard as shown
in table 4.5 for a heavy traffic.
1.9
1.8
1.7
CDM (g/cm)

1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
4.5

5.5

6.5

Bitumen Content (%)

Figure 4.5: Graph of CDM against Bitumen Content

59

7.5

8.5

The compacted density of the mix is maximum at a bitumen content of 4.5%, and then it
began to fall with further increase in bitumen content, as shown in figure 4.5. The maximum
value was gotten to be 1.78g/cm.
50
40
30
VIM (%)

20
10
0
4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

Bitumen Content (%)

Figure 4.6: Graph of VIM against Bitumen Content


The volume of void in the mix obtained increased up to a bitumen content of 5.5%, and then
it began to fall with further increase in bitumen content as shown in figure 4.6. The value for
VIM at which stability is maximum was 36.78% and at a bitumen content of 5.5%.

60

50
45
40
VMA (%)

35
30
25
20
4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

Butimen Content (%)

Figure 4.7: Graph of VMA against Bitumen Content


The voids in mineral aggregates (VMA) increase with an increase in bitumen content, which
gave a maximum value of 47.27% of void in the mixed aggregate as shown in figure 4.7. The
value obtained is greater than the minimum value of 16% for a maximum aggregate size of
9.5 (used for the mix) as stated in table 4.6 below.
Table 4.6: Typical Marshal Mix Minimum VMA
Minimum VMA (%)
(mm)
63
50
37.5

(inch)
2.5
2.0
1.5

11
11.5
12
61

25
19
12.5
9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18

1.0
0.75
0.50
0.375
0.19
0.094
0.047

13
14
15
16
18
21
23.5

The maximum particle size used was 9.5mm; which implies that minimum VMA is 16%.
35
30
25
20
VFB (%) 15
10
5
0
4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

Bitumen Content (%)

Figure 4.8: Graph of VFB against Bitumen Content


The voids filled with bitumen continuously increased with an increase in bitumen content,
with a maximum value of 31.45% at a bitumen content of 8.5%, as shown in figure 4.8.
4.5.1

Optimum Bitumen Content

From the above analysis, the optimum binder content was calculated to be 5.5%, which has
been adopted for usage in subsequent analysis.

62

4.5.2

Determination

of

Optimum

RHA

Percentage

8
6
Stability (KN)

4
2
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.9: Graph of Stability against Percentage RHA at 5.5% Bitumen Content
From figure 4.9, the obtained stability is maximum at 10% RHA, with an optimum value of
7630N which is greater than the minimum stability specified according to ASTM D 1559,
shown in Table 4.5 above. It is also observed that at 0% RHA (i.e. 100% Ordinary Portland
Cement), the stability is 6700N which is also above the minimum specification.
3.5
3
flow (0.25mm)

2.5
2
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.10: Graph of Flow against Percentage RHA at 5.5% Bitumen Content

63

From figure 4.10, the maximum flow was obtained at 15% RHA to be 3.06 (12.24mm), and
the minimum flow at 22.5% RHA to be 2.08 (8.32mm) which falls between 2-14mm
specification for heavy traffic according to Table 4.5 above.
1.9
1.8
1.7
CDM (g/cm) 1.6
1.5
1.4
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.11: Graph of CDM against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content
From figure 4.11 above, the compacted density of the mix (CDM) was observed to be
maximum at 22.5% RHA with a value of 1.81, and minimum at 7.5% RHA with a value of
1.77. It was also observed that at 0% RHA (i.e. 100% Ordinary Portland cement), a minimum
CDM value of 1.49g/cm was obtained.
45
40
35
VIM (%)

30
25
20
15
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.12: Graph of VIM against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content

64

From figure 4.12 above, the percentage void in mix (VIM) was observed to be maximum at
0%. It then continued to maintain a constant range of values of 27-28% with increase in
RHA; it then increases to a value of 36.46% at 22.25% RHA.
50
45

VMA (%)

40
35
30
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.13 Graph of VMA against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content
As observed in figure 4.13, the void in mineral aggregate (VMA) continues to maintain a
steady range of values of 35-37%. It then increases to a maximum value of 45.23% at 22.5%
RHA. It was also observed that at 0% RHA, VMA had a value of 47.27%, which is more than
that obtained at optimum RHA.
30
25
VFB (%)

20
15
10
0

10

15

20

25

30

RHA (%)

Figure 4.14: Graph of VFB (%) against Percentage RHA At 5.5% Bitumen Content
65

From figure 4.14, the voids from bitumen (VFB %) is steady with increase in percentage
RHA values, with a constant value range of 22-24% it then decreases at 22.5% RHA to
19.39%. It was also observed that at 0% RHA, (VFB %) was minimum.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1

Conclusion

Based on the number of tests conducted, the following conclusions were reached;
The initial and final setting times of cement were determined to be 122 minutes and 3hours 3
minutes respectively, also the soundness of the cement was observed to be 4.2mm.
The Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV), Aggregate Impact value (AIV), Specific Gravity of
coarse aggregate (SG), specific gravity of fine aggregate (SG) were obtained as 20.50%
(ACV), 16.70% (AIV), 2.70 (SG coarse) and 2.65 (SG fine aggregate) respectively.
The RHA used in this research work is a pozzolana and conforms to the ASTM C618
requirement which has great potential use in concrete.

66

The value for the required properties of bitumen as a binder as regards its penetration,
viscosity, flash and fire point, durability and solubility are 80/100 penetration grade,
138mm/s viscosity, 240C and 259C flash and fire point, 100cm ductility, and 99%
solubility which all conform with those specified in ASTM standard specification of the
design of asphalt concrete.
The trial mix obtained using 10.0% RHA and 90% OPC meets the standard specified in terms
of stability, flow, VIM, and VMA, at an optimum bitumen content of 5.5%.
5.2

Recommendation

It is important that engineers and material scientists understand the basic principles behind
pozzolanas, so as to provide solutions to constructional problems.
In this study, one rice husk sample was used for the experiment. Future studies should use
more than one sample from various sources. It is important to study the different behaviours
of RHA in asphalt concrete from different rice husk, to look into the performance
contingency of the samples.
Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus should
be investigated in future research, as this will widen the application of RHA in asphalt
concrete.
While determining mechanical properties of asphalt concrete using Marshall Stability
method, crushing should be done immediately after curing, while cubes temperature is still
high, and the samples are still wet, as doing otherwise could lead to variation in results.

67

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Appendix A

Plate 1: Students carrying out preliminary and laboratory tests on materials.

74

Plate 2: Marshall Stability & Flow Test Setup

75

Plate 3: Marshall Specimen Extractor

76

Appendix B
Table: Stability Correlation Ratio
Volume of specimen,
cm3

Approximate thickness of specimen


mm
in.

Correlation ratio

200 to 213
214 to 225
226 to 237
238 to 250
251 to 264
265 to 276
277 to 289
290 to 301
302 to 316
317 to 328
329 to 340
341 to 353
354 to 367
368 to 379
380 to 392
393 to 405
406 to 420
421 to 431
432 to 443
444 to 456
457 to 470
471 to 482
483 to 495
496 to 508
509 to 522
523 to 535
536 to 546
547 to 559
560 to 573
574 to 585
586 to 598
599 to 610
611 to 625

25.4
27.0
28.6
30.2
31.8
33.3
34.9
36.5
38.1
39.7
41.3
42.9
44.4
46.0
47.6
49.2
50.8
52.4
54.0
55.6
57.2
58.7
60.3
61.9
63.5
64.0
65.1
66.7
68.3
71.4
73.0
74.6
76.2

5.56
5.00
4.55
4.17
3.85
3.57
3.33
3.03
2.78
2.50
2.27
2.08
1.92
1.79
1.67
1.56
1.47
1.39
1.32
1.25
1.19
1.14
1.09
1.04
1.00
0.96
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.83
0.81
0.78
0.76

1
1 1/16
1 1/8
1 3/16
1 1/4
1 5/16
1 3/8
1 7/16
1 1/2
1 9/16
1 5/8
1 11/16
1 3/4
1 13/16
1 7/8
1 15/16
2
2 1/16
2 1/8
2 3/16
2 1/4
2 5/16
2 3/8
2 7/16
2 1/2
2 9/16
2 5/8
2 11/16
2 3/4
2 13/16
2 7/8
2 15/16
3

77

78