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Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908 Penghargaan Nobel dalam Kimia 1908

Biography Biografi
Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand, the fourth
child and second son in a family of seven sons and five daughters. Ernest Rutherford
lahir pada 30 Agustus 1871, di Nelson, Selandia Baru, anak keempat dan putra kedua
dalam sebuah keluarga dengan tujuh anak laki-laki dan lima anak. His father James
Rutherford, a Scottish wheelwright, emigrated to New Zealand with Ernest's grandfather
and the whole family in 1842. Ayahnya James Rutherford, Skotlandia tukang roda,
beremigrasi ke Selandia Baru dengan Ernest kakek dan seluruh keluarga pada tahun
1842. His mother, née Martha Thompson, was an English schoolteacher, who, with her
widowed mother, also went to live there in 1855. Ibunya, née Martha Thompson, adalah
seorang guru sekolah Inggris, yang, dengan ibu janda, juga pergi untuk tinggal di sana
pada tahun 1855.

Ernest received his early education in Government schools and at the age of 16 entered
Nelson Collegiate School. Ernest menerima pendidikan awal
di sekolah-sekolah pemerintah dan pada usia 16 memasuki
Nelson Collegiate School. In 1889 he was awarded a
University scholarship and he proceeded to the University of
New Zealand, Wellington, where he entered Canterbury
College * . Pada tahun 1889 ia mendapat beasiswa Universitas
dan ia pindah ke Universitas di Selandia Baru, Wellington, di
mana ia masuk Canterbury College *. He graduated MA in
1893 with a double first in Mathematics and Physical Science
and he continued with research work at the College for a
short time, receiving the B.Sc. Ia lulus MA pada tahun 1893
dengan ganda pertama di Matematika dan Ilmu Fisik dan dia
melanjutkan dengan penelitian di College untuk waktu yang
singkat, menerima B.Sc. degree the following year. gelar tahun berikutnya. That same
year, 1894, he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Science Scholarship, enabling him to go
to Trinity College, Cambridge, as a research student at the Cavendish Laboratory under
JJ Thomson . Pada tahun yang sama, 1894, ia dianugerahi Beasiswa 1851 Pameran Sains,
memungkinkan dia pergi ke Trinity College, Cambridge, sebagai mahasiswa riset di
Cavendish Laboratory di bawah JJ Thomson. In 1897 he was awarded the BA Research
Degree and the Coutts-Trotter Studentship of Trinity College. Pada tahun 1897 ia
dianugerahi gelar BA Penelitian dan Kesiswaan Trotter Coutts-Trinity College. An
opportunity came when the Macdonald Chair of Physics at McGill University, Montreal,
became vacant, and in 1898 he left for Canada to take up the post. Kesempatan datang
ketika Ketua Macdonald Fisika di McGill University, Montreal, menjadi kosong, dan
pada 1898 ia berangkat ke Kanada untuk mengambil pos.
Rutherford returned to England in 1907 to become Langworthy Professor of Physics in
the University of Manchester, succeeding Sir Arthur Schuster, and in 1919 he accepted
an invitation to succeed Sir Joseph Thomson as Cavendish Professor of Physics at
Cambridge. Rutherford kembali ke Inggris pada tahun 1907 menjadi Langworthy
Profesor Fisika di Universitas Manchester, menggantikan Sir Arthur Schuster, dan pada
1919 ia menerima undangan untuk sukses Sir Joseph Thomson sebagai Profesor Fisika
Cavendish di Cambridge. He also became Chairman of the Advisory Council, HM
Government, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research; Professor of Natural
Philosophy, Royal Institution, London; and Director of the Royal Society Mond
Laboratory, Cambridge. Dia juga menjadi Ketua Dewan Penasehat, HM Pemerintah,
Departemen Penelitian Ilmiah dan Industri; Profesor Filsafat Alam, Royal Institution,
London; dan Direktur Laboratorium Mond Royal Society, Cambridge.

Rutherford's first researches, in New Zealand, were concerned with the magnetic
properties of iron exposed to high-frequency oscillations, and his thesis was entitled
Magnetization of Iron by High-Frequency Discharges . Rutherford penelitian pertama, di
Selandia Baru, adalah berkaitan dengan sifat-sifat magnetik dari besi terpapar osilasi
frekuensi tinggi, dan tesis berjudul magnetisasi dari Besi oleh High-Frekuensi kotoran-
kotoran. He was one of the first to design highly original experiments with high-
frequency, alternating currents. Dia adalah salah satu yang pertama untuk desain
eksperimen sangat asli dengan frekuensi tinggi, arus bolak-balik. His second paper,
Magnetic Viscosity , was published in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute
(1896) and contains a description of a time-apparatus capable of measuring time intervals
of a hundred-thousandth of a second. Kertas kedua, Magnetic Viscosity, diterbitkan dalam
Transaksi Selandia Baru Institute (1896) dan berisi deskripsi suatu waktu-aparat mampu
mengukur interval waktu seratus-seperseribu detik.

On his arrival at Cambridge his talents were quickly recognized by Professor Thomson.
Pada kedatangannya di Cambridge bakatnya dengan cepat diakui oleh Profesor Thomson.
During his first spell at the Cavendish Laboratory, he invented a detector for
electromagnetic waves, an essential feature being an ingenious magnetizing coil
containing tiny bundles of magnetized iron wire. Selama mantra pertamanya di
Laboratorium Cavendish, ia menemukan sebuah detektor untuk gelombang
elektromagnetik, suatu fitur penting yang magnetizing kumparan yang cerdik kecil berisi
kumpulan kawat besi magnet. He worked jointly with Thomson on the behaviour of the
ions observed in gases which had been treated with X-rays, and also, in 1897, on the
mobility of ions in relation to the strength of the electric field, and on related topics such
as the photoelectric effect. Dia bekerja bersama-sama dengan Thomson pada perilaku
ion-ion yang diamati dalam gas yang telah diobati dengan sinar-X, dan juga, pada tahun
1897, pada mobilitas ion dalam hubungannya dengan kekuatan medan listrik, dan pada
topik terkait seperti efek fotolistrik. In 1898 he reported the existence of alpha and beta
rays in uranium radiation and indicated some of their properties. Pada tahun 1898 ia
melaporkan adanya sinar alfa dan beta pada radiasi uranium dan mengindikasikan
beberapa properti mereka.

In Montreal, there were ample opportunities for research at McGill, and his work on
radioactive bodies, particularly on the emission of alpha rays, was continued in the
Macdonald Laboratory. Di Montreal, ada banyak kesempatan untuk riset di McGill, dan
karyanya pada tubuh radioaktif, terutama pada emisi sinar alfa, dilanjutkan di
Laboratorium Macdonald. With RB Owens he studied the "emanation" of thorium and
discovered a new noble gas, an isotope of radon, which was later to be known as thoron.
Frederick Soddy arrived at McGill in 1900 from Oxford, and he collaborated with
Rutherford in creating the "disintegration theory" of radioactivity which regards
radioactive phenomena as atomic - not molecular - processes. Dengan RB Owens ia
mempelajari "emanasi" dari thorium dan menemukan gas mulia baru, sebuah isotop
radioaktif, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai thoron. Frederick Soddy tiba di McGill pada
1900 dari Oxford, dan ia bekerja sama dengan Rutherford dalam menciptakan "teori
disintegrasi" radioaktivitas yang menganggap fenomena radioaktif sebagai atom - tidak
molekuler - proses. The theory was supported by a large amount of experimental
evidence, a number of new radioactive substances were discovered and their position in
the series of transformations was fixed. Otto Hahn , who later discovered atomic fission,
worked under Rutherford at the Montreal Laboratory in 1905-06. Teori ini didukung oleh
sejumlah besar bukti eksperimental, sejumlah zat radioaktif baru ditemukan dan posisi
mereka dalam serangkaian transformasi telah ditetapkan. Otto Hahn, yang kemudian
ditemukan atom fisi, bekerja di bawah Rutherford di Montreal Laboratorium pada tahun
1905 -- 06.

At Manchester, Rutherford continued his research on the properties of the radium


emanation and of the alpha rays and, in conjunction with H. Geiger, a method of
detecting a single alpha particle and counting the number emitted from radium was
devised. In 1910, his investigations into the scattering of alpha rays and the nature of the
inner structure of the atom which caused such scattering led to the postulation of his
concept of the "nucleus", his greatest contribution to physics. Di Manchester, Rutherford
melanjutkan penelitian tentang sifat-sifat pancaran radium dan sinar alpha dan, bersama
dengan H. Geiger, sebuah metode untuk mendeteksi satu partikel alpha dan menghitung
jumlah radium yang dipancarkan dari disusun. Pada tahun 1910, dengan penyelidikan ke
dalam hamburan sinar alfa dan sifat struktur dalam atom yang menyebabkan penyebaran
tersebut menyebabkan postulation dari konsep "inti", dengan kontribusi terbesar fisika.
According to him practically the whole mass of the atom and at the same time all positive
charge of the atom is concentrated in a minute space at the centre. Menurut dia praktis
seluruh massa atom dan pada saat yang sama semua muatan positif dari atom
terkonsentrasi dalam ruang menit di pusat. In 1912 Niels Bohr joined him at Manchester
and he adapted Rutherford's nuclear structure to Max Planck 's quantum theory and so
obtained a theory of atomic structure which, with later improvements, mainly as a result
of Heisenberg's concepts, remains valid to this day. Pada tahun 1912 Niels Bohr
bergabung dengannya di Manchester dan ia mengadaptasi struktur nuklir Rutherford
untuk Max Planck 's teori kuantum dan teori yang diperoleh struktur atom yang, dengan
kemudian perbaikan, terutama sebagai akibat dari konsep Heisenberg, tetap berlaku
sampai hari ini. In 1913, together with HG Moseley, he used cathode rays to bombard
atoms of various elements and showed that the inner structures correspond with a group
of lines which characterize the elements. Each element could then be assigned an atomic
number and, more important, the properties of each element could be defined by this
number. Pada tahun 1913, bersama-sama dengan HG Moseley, ia menggunakan sinar
katoda untuk membombardir atom dari berbagai unsur dan menunjukkan bahwa struktur
dalam berhubungan dengan kelompok garis-garis yang mencirikan unsur-unsur. Setiap
elemen kemudian dapat ditetapkan nomor atom, dan yang lebih penting, properti dari
setiap elemen dapat didefinisikan oleh nomor ini. In 1919, during his last year at
Manchester, he discovered that the nuclei of certain light elements, such as nitrogen,
could be "disintegrated" by the impact of energetic alpha particles coming from some
radioactive source, and that during this process fast protons were emitted. Blackett later
proved, with the cloud chamber, that the nitrogen in this process was actually
transformed into an oxygen isotope, so that Rutherford was the first to deliberately
transmute one element into another. G. Pada tahun 1919, selama tahun lalu di
Manchester, ia menemukan bahwa inti elemen ringan tertentu, seperti nitrogen, dapat
"hancur" oleh dampak energik partikel alpha radioaktif yang berasal dari beberapa
sumber, dan bahwa selama proses ini cepat proton yang dipancarkan. Blackett kemudian
terbukti, dengan kamar awan, bahwa nitrogen dalam proses ini adalah benar-benar
berubah menjadi isotop oksigen, sehingga Rutherford adalah orang pertama yang sengaja
merubah satu unsur ke lain. G. de Hevesy was also one of Rutherford's collaborators at
Manchester. de Hevesy juga salah satu kolaborator Rutherford di Manchester.

An inspiring leader of the Cavendish Laboratory, he steered numerous future Nobel Prize
winners towards their great achievements: Chadwick , Blackett, Cockcroft and Walton ;
while other laureates worked with him at the Cavendish for shorter or longer periods: GP
Thomson , Appleton , Powell , and Aston . Seorang pemimpin inspirasi Laboratorium
Cavendish, ia menuntun banyak pemenang Hadiah Nobel di masa mendatang terhadap
prestasi besar mereka: Chadwick, Blackett, Cockcroft dan Walton, sedangkan Nobel lain
yang bekerja dengannya di Cavendish lebih pendek atau lebih periode: GP Thomson,
Appleton, Powell, dan Aston. CD Ellis, his co-author in 1919 and 1930, pointed out "that
the majority of the experiments at the Cavendish were really started by Rutherford's
direct or indirect suggestion". CD Ellis, rekan-rekan penulis pada tahun 1919 dan 1930,
menunjukkan "bahwa mayoritas eksperimen di Cavendish benar-benar dimulai oleh
Rutherford saran langsung atau tidak langsung". He remained active and working to the
very end of his life. Dia tetap aktif dan bekerja sampai akhir hidupnya.

Rutherford published several books: Radioactivity (1904); Radioactive Transformations


(1906), being his Silliman Lectures at Yale University; Radiation from Radioactive
Substances , with James Chadwick and CD Ellis (1919, 1930) - a thoroughly documented
book which serves as a chronological list of his many papers to learned societies, etc.;
The Electrical Structure of Matter (1926); The Artificial Transmutation of the Elements
(1933); The Newer Alchemy (1937). Rutherford menerbitkan beberapa buku:
Radioaktivitas (1904); radioaktif Transformations (1906), menjadi dirinya yang Silliman
Kuliah di Yale University; Radiasi dari zat radioaktif, dengan James Chadwick dan CD
Ellis (1919, 1930) - sebuah buku yang didokumentasikan sepenuhnya berfungsi sebagai
kronologis daftar dari sekian banyak surat untuk belajar masyarakat, dan sebagainya;
Struktur Elektro Matter (1926); The Artificial Transmutasi Unsur (1933); The Newer
Alkimia (1937).
Rutherford was knighted in 1914; he was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1925, and in
1931 he was created First Baron Rutherford of Nelson, New Zealand, and Cambridge.
Rutherford diberi gelar kebangsawanan pada tahun 1914, ia diangkat menjadi Order of
Merit pada tahun 1925, dan pada tahun 1931 ia diciptakan Pertama Baron Rutherford of
Nelson, Selandia Baru, dan Cambridge. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in
1903 and was its President from 1925 to 1930. Ia terpilih Fellow dari Royal Society pada
tahun 1903 dan para Presiden 1925-1930. Amongst his many honours, he was awarded
the Rumford Medal (1905) and the Copley Medal (1922) of the Royal Society, the Bressa
Prize (1910) of the Turin Academy of Science, the Albert Medal (1928) of the Royal
Society of Arts, the Faraday Medal (1930) of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the
D.Sc. degree of the University of New Zealand, and honorary doctorates from the
Universities of Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, McGill, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Melbourne,
Yale, Glasgow, Giessen, Copenhagen, Cambridge, Dublin, Durham, Oxford, Liverpool,
Toronto, Bristol, Cape Town, London and Leeds. Di antara sekian banyak penghargaan,
ia dianugerahi Medali Rumford (1905) dan medali Copley (1922) dari Royal Society,
Bressa Prize (1910) dari Turin Academy of Science, Albert Medal (1928) dari Royal
Society of seni, Medali Faraday (1930) Lembaga of Electrical Engineers, di tingkat D. Sc
Universitas New Zealand, dan gelar doktor kehormatan dari Universitas Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, McGill, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Melbourne, Yale, Glasgow , Giessen,
Copenhagen, Cambridge, Dublin, Durham, Oxford, Liverpool, Toronto, Bristol, Cape
Town, London dan Leeds.

Rutherford married Mary Newton, only daughter of Arthur and Mary de Renzy Newton,
in 1900. Rutherford menikah dengan Mary Newton, hanya putri dari Arthur dan Maria de
Renzy Newton, pada tahun 1900. Their only child, Eileen, married the physicist RH
Fowler. Anak tunggal mereka, Eileen, menikah dengan fisikawan RH Fowler.
Rutherford's chief recreations were golf and motoring. Kepala Rutherford rekreasi itu
golf dan otomotif.

He died in Cambridge on October 19, 1937. Ia meninggal di Cambridge pada 19 Oktober


1937. His ashes were buried in the nave of Westminster Abbey, just west of Sir Isaac
Newton's tomb and by that of Lord Kelvin. Abunya dimakamkan di tengah gereja
Westminster Abbey, di barat Sir Isaac Newton's makam dan oleh Lord Kelvin.

From Nobel Lectures , Chemistry 1901-1921 , Elsevier Publishing Company,


Amsterdam, 1966 Dari Nobel Lectures, Kimia 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company,
Amsterdam, 1966

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in
the book series Les Prix Nobel . It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures . To
cite this document, always state the source as shown above. Ini otobiografi / biografi ini
ditulis pada saat penghargaan dan diterbitkan pertama kali dalam seri buku Les Prix
Nobel. Hal ini kemudian disunting dan diterbitkan ulang di Nobel Lectures. Untuk
mengutip dokumen ini, selalu negara sumber seperti yang ditunjukkan di atas.
* * Canterbury College (now Canterbury University) was located in Christchurch, but
was administered from the University of New Zealand, Wellington. Canterbury College
(sekarang Universitas Canterbury) terletak di Christchurch, tetapi dikelola dari
Universitas Selandia Baru, Wellington.

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1908 Copyright © 1908 The Nobel Foundation