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Shape Descriptors Survey

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Techniques

Fred Park

Outline

1. Overview and Shape Representation

2. Shape Descriptors: Shape Parameters

3. Shape Descriptors as 1D Functions

(Dimension Reducing Signatures of shape)

properties such as:

identifiability: shapes which are found perceptually similar by human have the same

features that are different from the others.

translation, rotation and scale invariance: the location, the rotation and the scaling

changing of the shape must not affect the extracted features.

affine invariance: the affine transform performs a linear mapping from coordinates

system to other coordinates system that preserves the "straightness" and "parallelism" of

lines. Affine transform can be constructed using sequences of translations, scales, flips,

rotations and shears. The extracted features must be as invariant as possible with affine

transforms.

noise resistance: features must be as robust as possible against noise, i.e., they must be

the same whichever be the strength of the noise in a give range that affects the pattern.

occultation invariance: when some parts of a shape are occulted by other objects, the

feature of the remaining part must not change compared to the original shape.

statistically independent: two features must be statistically independent. This

represents compactness of the representation.

reliability: as long as one deals with the same pattern, the extracted features must

remain the same.

Overview of Descriptors

Measure similarity bet. Shapes by measuring simil. bet.

Their features

In General, simple geom. features cannot discriminate

shapes with large distances e.g. rectangle vs ellipse

Usual combine with other complimentary shape

descriptors and also used to avoid false hits in image

retrieval for ex.

Shapes can be described by many aspects we call shape

parameters:

center of gravity/centroid, axis of least inertia, digital

bending energy, eccentricity, circularity ratios, elliptic

variance, rectangularity, convexity, solidity, Euler number,

profiles, and hole area ratio.

Shape Representation

View as a binary function

Value 1

20

40

60

Value 0

80

100

120

20

40

60

80

100

120

View in Parametric form

(i) = ((x(i),y(i))

2

4

(j) = ((x(j),y(j))

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

2

10

12

14

16

18

20

Center of Gravity/Centroid

Fixed in relation to shape

In general for polygons centroid C is:

P

Ci Ai

1 X ~xi + ~xi+1 (xi yi+1 xi+1 yi )

P

=

(

)

Ai

A

3

2

~xi = (xi ; yi )

Centroid

of triangle

Area of

triangle

2D Centroid Formula

P

Ci Ai

1 X ~xi + ~xi+1 (xi yi+1 xi+1 yi )

P

=

(

)

Ai

A

3

2

~xi = (xi ; yi )

Centroid

of triangle

Area of

triangle

distribution

ALI: unique ref. line preserving orientation of shape

Passes through centroid

Line where shape has easiest way of rotating about

distance from it to the boundary of shape

: Denotes centroid

ALI dened by:

I(; S) =

RR

r2 (x; y; )dxdy

Here, r(x; y; ) is the perpendicular distance from the pt (x; y) to the line given

by X sin Y cos =0.

We assume that the coordinate (0; 0) is the location of the centroid.

The Average Bending Energy is dened as

BE =

1

N

PN1

s=0

K(s)2

of the shape parametrized by arclength

One can prove that the circle is the shape with the minimum Bending Energy

General Def'n. of Curvature

For Plane Curve (t) = (x(t); y(t))

Eccentricity

Eccentricity is the measure of aspect ratio

Its ratio of length of major axis to minor axis (think ellipse for example)

Calculated by principal axes method or minimum bounding rectangular box

Principal Axes of a shape is uniquely defd as:

two segments of lines that cross each other perpendicularly through the centroid

representing directions with zero cross correlation

Covariance Matrix C

of a contour:

eigenvalues 1 and 2 of the Covariance Matrix C

Lengths of the two principal axes equal the

eigenvalues 1 and 2 of the Covariance Matrix C

circle?

Eccentricity

Minimum bounding rectangle (minimum bounding box):

Smallest rectangle containg every pt. in the shape

Eccentricity: E = L/W

L: length of bounding box

W: width of bounding box

Elongation: Elo = 1 - W/L

Elo 2 [0,1]

Circle of square (symmetric): Elo = 0

Shape w/ large aspect ratio: Elo close to 1

Circularity Ratio

Circularity ratio: How similar to a circle is the shape

3 definitions:

Circularity ratio 1: C1 = As/Ac = (Area of a shape)/(Area of circle)

where circle has the same perimeter

s

Ac = p2 =4 thus C1 = 4A

2

p

since 4 is a constant, C2 =

As

p2

Area to squared perimeter ratio.

R

Circularity ratio 3: Cva = R

R : mean of radial dist. from centroid to shape bndry pts

R : standard deviation of radial dist. from centroid to bndry pts

Ellipse Variance

Ellipse Variance Eva:

Mapping error of shape to t an ellipse

with same covariance matrix as shape: Cellipse = Cshape

(Here C = Cshape )

di: info about shape and

ellipse variance of radial

distances

Rectangularity

Convexity

above definition?

Solidity

and less than one? Can you create a shape

with solidity = ?

Euler Number

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