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You are on page 1of 75

System Concepts

Slide 2

S = V I

S t

Systems

1

S

f.d.p=P/S

f.d.p:Cantidad de energa

convertida en trabajo

LN

= 3 S

3 V

LL

= P + jQ

que se aprovecha como

trabajo.

Q:Es la que genera los

campos magnticos

(cargas inductivas)

retraso

Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

adelanto

L

Lagging

i Power

P

Factor

F t

L di Power

Leading

P

Factor

F t

C

Current

t and

dV

Voltage

lt

(adelanto)

(atraso)

Cargas capacitivas,(condensadores)

Cargas inductivas (motores, transformadores)

Dependiendo de la craga el cos puede estar adelantado, retrasado o igual a 1 (ejm. cargas resistivas donde la

tension y corriente estan en fase),

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 3

F t

Factors

(Retraso +)

(Adelanto -)

ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors

as negative

negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

percent

Q

j

Lagging

Power

Factor

Leading

Power

Factor

P - jQ

P + jQ

Slide 4

kVA B

IB =

3kVB

(kVB ) 2

ZB =

MVA B

S = 3VI

V = 3ZI

SB

I

=

B

3VB

2

V

Z = B

B SB

Then you may calculate the other two

by using the relationships enclosed in

b k t The

brackets.

Th diff

differentt bases

b

are:

IB (Base Current)

ZB (Base Impedance)

VB (Base Voltage)

SB (Base Power)

I actual

I pu = t l

IB

Vactual

Vpu = t l

VB

Zactual

Z pu =

ZB

Sactual

Spu =

SB

selects

ects for

o LF:

ETAP se

100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the

entire system.

g of reference p

point is

The kV rating

used along with the transformer turn

ratios are applied to determine the

base voltage for different parts of the

y

system.

Slide 5

Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch

impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show

the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31

and

d th

the X/R = 12.14

12 14

Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is

used by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different

parts of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting

f

from

the

th utility

tilit kV rating.

ti

kVB1

N1

kV =

kVB2

N2

1

B

kVB2

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X pu

X

Z pu

R

=

2

X

1+

R

R pu

x pu

=

X

R

Slide 6

X pu =

0.065(12.14)

1 + (12.14) 2

= 0.06478

R pu =

0.06478

= 0.005336

12.14

The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the

following relation must be used, where n stands for new and o stands for old.

o

n

o VB

Zpu = Zpu n

VB

SnB

13.8 100

o = (5.33103 + j0.06478)

= (0.1115+ j1.3538)

13.5 5

SB

2

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base

impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

kVutility 13.5

VB =

=

= 4.0695

N1 3.31

N2

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

VB2

(4.0695) 2

ZB =

=

= 0.165608

MVA

100

Slide 7

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base

impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain

the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Zpu =

=

= (0.6038+ j6.0382)

0.1656

ZB

% Z = 100 Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8

The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values

in 100 MVA base

Slide 8

Slide 9

Given

Load Power Consumption

p

at all buses

Configuration

Power Production at each generator

Basic

B i R

Requirement

i

t

Power Flow in each line and transformer

Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

Slide 10

ESTABLE

Voltage Profile

Power Flows

Current Flows

Power Factors

Transformer LTC Settings

Voltage Drops Caidas de tension

Generators Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)

Total Generation & Power Demand

Steady State Stability Limits

MW & Mvar Losses

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 11

E i

Equipment

t & Parameters

P

t

Cable / Feeder Capacity

Capacitor Size

g ((Turn Ratios))

Transformer MVA & kV Ratings

Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting

Imp.

Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp

MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings

Generator

G

t Operating

O

ti Mode

M d (Isochronous

(I

h

/ Droop)

D

)

Generators Mvar Demand

Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 12

Optimize Operating

C diti

Conditions

estn dentro

Bus Voltages

g are Within Acceptable

p

Limits

Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits

off Equipment

E i

t

Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the

Maximum Ratings

perdidas son determinadas

Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 13

Calculation Process

Non-Linear System

Calculated Iteratively

Assume the Load

V lt

Voltage

(I

(Initial

iti l C

Conditions)

diti

)

Calculate the Current I

Based on the Current,

Calculate Voltage Drop Vd

Assume VR

C l I = Sload / VR

Calc:

Calc: Vd = I * Z

Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

Re-use Load Voltage

g as initial condition until the

results are within the specified precision.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 14

M th d

Methods

1.

2.

b t slow

but

l

iin speed.

d

3.

Fast-Decoupled Method

power voltage angle,

reactive power voltage magnitude.

Newton-Raphson Method

initial values.

precision.

calculation.

Better for

f radial systems and

systems with long lines.

Slide 15

kWRated

HP 0.7457

kVARated =

=

PF Eff

PF Eff

kVARated

FLA3 =

3 kV

kVARated

R t d

FLA1 =

kV

Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %

loading conditions

PF =

kW

kVA

kVA

( 3 kV)

kVA

I1 = 1000

kV

I3 = 1000

Slide 16

synchronous and lump loads are treated

as constant power loads

loads.

if the input voltage changes (constant

)

kVA).

a constant power load for the specified %

motor load.

Slide 17

In Load Flow calculations Static Loads,

Loads Lump Loads

(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor

Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance

Loads.

The Input Power increases proportionally to the

square of the Input Voltage.

In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as

capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.

Correction

MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads

because of their operating characteristics.

Slide 18

The current remains constant even if the

voltage changes.

DC Constant current loads are used to test

Battery discharge capacity

capacity.

AC constant current loads may be used to test

UPS systems performance.

DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in

ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for

Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

Slide 19

Slide 20

Generic Loads

Exponential Load

Polynomial Load

Comprehensive

Load

Slide 21

Feedback Voltage

g

AVR: Automatic Voltage

Regulation

Fixed: Fixed Excitation

((no AVR action))

Slide 22

Isochronous: This governor setting allows the

generators power output to be adjusted based on

the system demand.

Droop: This governor setting allows the generator

to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is

fixed.

Slide 23

Isochronous Mode

Slide 24

Droop Mode

Slide 25

Droop Mode

Slide 26

Droop Mode

Slide 27

Slide 28

Adjusting Excitation

Slide 29

modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode

Governor is operating in

I

Isochronous

h

mode

d

Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control

Governor

G

is

i operating

ti

in

i

Droop Mode

Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control

M

C t l

Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR

action)

ti )

PF Control

Governor is operating in

D

Droop

M

Mode

d

AVR Adjusts to Power Factor

Setting

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 30

In

I the

th Swing

S i

Mode,

M d the

th voltage

lt

is

i kept

k t fixed.

fi d P & Q can vary

based on the Power Demand

In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q &

are varied

i d

In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V &

are varied

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

Slide 31

Slide 32

Slide 33

Slide 34

R

Reactive

ti P

Power

Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

Field Winding Heating Limit

Armature Winding Heating Limit

Slide 35

Field Winding

g

Heating Limit

Machine

M

hi Rating

R ti

(Power Factor

Point)

Slide 36

Generation Categories

Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

Load Flow Loading Page

10 Different Generation

Categories for Every

Generator or Power Grid

in the System

Slide 37

Power Flow

V1 = V1 1

V 2 = V2 2

S = V* I = P + jQ

V *V

= 1 2 *SIN ( 1 2 ) +

X

2

V1*V 2

V2

j

*COS ( 1 2 )

X

X

V1*V

V2

*SIN ( 1 2 )

X

2

V1*V 2

V2

Q=

*COS(

COS( 1 2 )

X

X

P=

Slide 38

connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0

/0 , V2 = 100 /30

/30 and X = 0 +j5

j5

determine the power flow in the system.

=

X

j5

I = 10 j2.68

I=

V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(10 + j2.68) = 1000 j268

| I |2 X = 10.352 5 = 536 var

Slide 39

The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This

machine behaves as a g

generator supplying

pp y g real p

power and

absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

( V E)

sin

X

( )

Power Flow

1

( V E)

V

cos

X

X

( )

2

2

Reactive Power Flow

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 40

Bus Voltage

ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways

kV value

Percent

P

t off Nominal

N i lB

Bus kV

For Bus4:

kVCalculated

V% =

100 = 97.83%

kVNo min al

For Bus5:

kVCalculated = 4.03

V% =

kVCalculated

100 = 96.85%

kVNo min al

Slide 41

Slide 42

L di

Loading

Slide 43

Transformer Impedance

Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation

tolerance

Reactor Impedance

Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

Overload Heater

Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

Adjust

djust Transmission

a s ss o Line

e Impedance

peda ce based o

on poss

possible

b e length

e gt

variation tolerance

Cable Length

Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 44

Adj t

Adjustment

t Page

P

Adjustments applied

Individual

Global

Temperature Correction

Cable Resistance

Transmission Line

Resistance

Slide 45

NEC and

d ANSI C84

C84.1

1

Slide 46

Part 1

Slide 47

Part 2

Slide 48

Slide 49

Bus Alerts

p

Cable

Reactor

Line

Transformer

f

O

UPS/Panel

Generator

Slide 50

Protective Devices

Monitored parameters %

Condition reported

OverLoad

OverLoad

Fuses

Rated Current

OverLoad

Contactors

OverLoad

OverLoad

Slide 51

feature is active, the

Alert View Window will

appear as soon as the

L d Fl

Load

Flow calculation

l l ti

has finished.

Slide 52

Advanced LF Topics

Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

Slide 53

Negative Impedance

Zero or Very Small Impedance

Widely Different Branch Impedance Values

Long Radial System Configurations

Bad

B dB

Bus V

Voltage

lt

IInitial

iti l V

Values

l

Slide 54

Voltage Control

Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be

fixed for proper equipment operation and

insulation ratings be met.

Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:

Transformer Replacement

Capacitor Addition

Transformer Tap

p Adjustment

j

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 55

Under-Voltage Example

Create Under Voltage

Condition

Method 2 - Shunt

Capacitor

(Info Page, Quantity Field)

Run LF

Voltage is improved

Voltage Condition)

Place LTC on Primary

y of T6

Select Bus8 for Control Bus

MVA will

MVA,

ill notice

ti slight

li ht

improvement on the Bus8 kV

Study Case

consuming

Bus Voltage

g Comes within

specified limits

Run LF

Slide 56

Mvar Control

Vars from Utility

Close Switch

Open Switch

Run LF

Utilit reduces

Utility

d

Method 1 Generator

Change Generator from

Voltage Control to Mvar

Control

Set Mvar Design Setting to 5

Mvars

Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA

Will notice decrease in the

contribution from the Utility

Slide 57

Panel Systems

y

Slide 58

Panel Boards

They are a collection of branch circuits

feeding system loads

Panel System is used for representing power

and lighting panels in electrical systems

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

Slide 59

Representation

A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as

an internal or external load

Advantages:

1. Easier Data Entry

2. Concise System

Representation

Slide 60

Pin Assignment

Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel

ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

Slide 61

Assumptions

Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)

Note that if a 1

1-Phase

Phase load is connected to a 3

3Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel

circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage

The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire

panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel

There are no losses in the feeders connecting a

load to the panel

Static loads are calculated based on their rated

voltage

lt

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 62

Line-Line Connections

Load Connected Between Two Phases of a

3-Phase System

A

B

C

B

C

IB = IBC

IBC

Load

IC = -IBC

LoadB

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C:

SBC = VBC.IBC

PBC = VBC.IBC.cos

QBC = VBC.IBC.sin

SB = VB.IB

PB = VB.IB.cos ( - 30)

QB = VB.IB.sin (

Q

( - 30))

And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC

PC = VC.IC.cos ( + 30)

QC = VC.IC.sin

C C

( + 30))

Slide 63

Info Page

NEC Selection

A, B, C from top to bottom or

left to right from the front of

the panel

Phase B shall be the highest

voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4wire delta connected system

(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1 Ph

1-Phase

3 Wi Panel

3-Wire

P

l

1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

Slide 64

Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation

If a 1-Phase p

panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus

having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the

default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732

=) 0.277 kV

For IEC, Enclosure Type

is Ingress Protection

(IPxy), where IP00 means

no protection or shielding

on the panel

B k

Breakers

or Fuses

F

from

f

Main Device Library

Slide 65

Schedule Page

Ci

Circuit

it Numbers

N b

with

ith

Standard Layout

C l

Column

L

Layoutt

Slide 66

Description Tab

Firstt 14 load

Fi

l d items

it

in

i the

th list

li t are based

b

d on NEC 1999

Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined

Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total

panel load

p

External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the

element type

For External links the load status is determined from the connected loads

demand factor status

Slide 67

Rating Tab

Amperes for this load

load.

For example, if total Watts

for a 3-phase load are

1200 enter W as 400

1200,

(=1200/3)

Slide 68

Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

For both internal and external loads, Amp values are

calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

Slide 69

Library Quick Pick LV Circuit Breaker

(Molded Case, with

Thermal Magnetic Trip

Device) or

Library Quick Pick

Fuse

will

appear

depending on the

Type of protective

device selected.

Slide 70

Feeder Tab

Slide 71

Action Buttons

Copy the content of the selected

row to clipboard. Circuit number,

Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link

and State are not copied.

copied

copied row) in the selected row.

This will work when the Link

Type is other than space or

unusable, and only for fields

which are not blocked.

selected row.

Slide 72

Summary Page

Continuous Load Per Phase and Total

Non-Continuous Load Per Phase and Total

Connected Load Per Phase and Total (Continuous + Non-Continuous Load)

Slide 73

Output Report

Slide 74

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999

Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors

Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done

for each types of load separately and then summed up

Slide 75

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