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System Concepts

Slide 2

Power in Balanced 3-Phase

S = V I
S t
Systems
1

S
f.d.p=P/S
convertida en trabajo

LN

= 3 S

3 V

LL

= P + jQ

P:Es la potencia efectiva

que se aprovecha como
trabajo.
Q:Es la que genera los
campos magnticos
(cargas inductivas)

retraso

Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors. I esta retrasada en relacin a V

L
Lagging
i Power
P
Factor
F t

L di Power
P
Factor
F t

C
Current
t and
dV
Voltage
lt

(atraso)
Dependiendo de la craga el cos puede estar adelantado, retrasado o igual a 1 (ejm. cargas resistivas donde la
tension y corriente estan en fase),
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 3

F t
Factors
(Retraso +)

ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors
as negative
negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.
percent

Q
j

Lagging
Power
Factor

Power
Factor

P - jQ

P + jQ

Slide 4

kVA B
IB =
3kVB
(kVB ) 2
ZB =
MVA B

S = 3VI

V = 3ZI
SB

I
=
B
3VB

2
V
Z = B
B SB

If you have two bases:

Then you may calculate the other two
by using the relationships enclosed in
b k t The
brackets.
Th diff
differentt bases
b
are:
IB (Base Current)
ZB (Base Impedance)
VB (Base Voltage)
SB (Base Power)

I actual
I pu = t l
IB

Vactual
Vpu = t l
VB

Zactual
Z pu =
ZB

Sactual
Spu =
SB

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

selects
ects for
o LF:
ETAP se
100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the
entire system.
g of reference p
point is
The kV rating
used along with the transformer turn
ratios are applied to determine the
base voltage for different parts of the
y
system.

Slide 5

Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch
impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show
the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31
and
d th
the X/R = 12.14
12 14
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is
used by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different
parts of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting
f
from
the
th utility
tilit kV rating.
ti

kVB1

N1
kV =
kVB2
N2
1
B

kVB2

Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X pu

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

X
Z pu
R
=
2
X

1+
R

R pu

x pu
=
X
R
Slide 6

X pu =

0.065(12.14)
1 + (12.14) 2

= 0.06478

R pu =

0.06478
= 0.005336
12.14

The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where n stands for new and o stands for old.
o
n
o VB
Zpu = Zpu n
VB

SnB
13.8 100
o = (5.33103 + j0.06478)

= (0.1115+ j1.3538)
13.5 5
SB
2

% Z = 100 Z pu = 11.15 + j135.38

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

kVutility 13.5
VB =
=
= 4.0695
N1 3.31
N2
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

VB2
(4.0695) 2
ZB =
=
= 0.165608
MVA
100

Slide 7

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Zactual (0.1 + j1)

Zpu =
=
= (0.6038+ j6.0382)
0.1656
ZB
% Z = 100 Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values
in 100 MVA base

Slide 8

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 9

Given
p
at all buses
Configuration
Power Production at each generator

Basic
B i R
Requirement
i
t
Power Flow in each line and transformer
Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 10

ESTABLE

Voltage Profile
Power Flows
Current Flows
Power Factors
Transformer LTC Settings
Voltage Drops Caidas de tension
Generators Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
Total Generation & Power Demand
MW & Mvar Losses
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 11

Size & Determine System

E i
Equipment
t & Parameters
P
t
Cable / Feeder Capacity
Capacitor Size
g ((Turn Ratios))
Transformer MVA & kV Ratings
Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
Imp.
Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp
MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
Generator
G
t Operating
O
ti Mode
M d (Isochronous
(I
h
/ Droop)
D
)
Generators Mvar Demand
Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 12

Optimize Operating
C diti
Conditions
estn dentro

Bus Voltages
g are Within Acceptable
p
Limits
Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits
off Equipment
E i
t
Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the
Maximum Ratings

System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined

Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 13

Calculation Process
Non-Linear System
Calculated Iteratively
V lt
Voltage
(I
(Initial
iti l C
Conditions)
diti
)
Calculate the Current I
Based on the Current,
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd

Assume VR
C l I = Sload / VR
Calc:
Calc: Vd = I * Z
Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

g as initial condition until the
results are within the specified precision.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 14

M th d
Methods
1.

2.

Low Requirements on initial values,

b t slow
but
l
iin speed.
d

3.

Fast-Decoupled Method

Two sets of iteration equations: real

power voltage angle,
reactive power voltage magnitude.

Newton-Raphson Method

initial values.

precision.

First order derivative is used to speed up

calculation.

Better for
systems with long lines.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 15

kWRated
HP 0.7457
kVARated =
=
PF Eff
PF Eff
kVARated
FLA3 =
3 kV
kVARated
R t d
FLA1 =
kV
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %

PF =

kW
kVA

kVA
( 3 kV)
kVA
I1 = 1000
kV
I3 = 1000

Slide 16

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

synchronous and lump loads are treated

The power output remains constant even

if the input voltage changes (constant
)
kVA).

The lump load power output behaves like

a constant power load for the specified %

Slide 17

(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
The Input Power increases proportionally to the
square of the Input Voltage.
In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as
capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.
Correction
MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.

1996-2008 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 18

The current remains constant even if the
voltage changes.
DC Constant current loads are used to test
Battery discharge capacity
capacity.
AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

Slide 19

Slide 20

Comprehensive

Slide 21

Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage
g
AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
Fixed: Fixed Excitation
((no AVR action))

Slide 22

Governor Operating Modes

Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generators power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.

Slide 23

Isochronous Mode

Slide 24

Droop Mode

Slide 25

Droop Mode

Slide 26

Droop Mode

Slide 27

Slide 28

Slide 29

In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating

modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.
Swing Mode
Governor is operating in
I
Isochronous
h
mode
d
Automatic Voltage Regulator
Voltage Control
Governor
G
is
i operating
ti
in
i
Droop Mode
Automatic Voltage Regulator
Mvar Control
M
C t l
Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
action)
ti )
PF Control
Governor is operating in
D
Droop
M
Mode
d
Setting
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 30

In
I the
th Swing
S i
Mode,
M d the
th voltage
lt
is
i kept
k t fixed.
fi d P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand
In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q &
are varied
i d
In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V &
are varied

If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

Slide 31

Slide 32

Slide 33

Slide 34

Maximum & Minimum

R
Reactive
ti P
Power
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)
Field Winding Heating Limit

Armature Winding Heating Limit

Slide 35

Field Winding
g
Heating Limit

Machine
M
hi Rating
R ti
(Power Factor
Point)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 36

Generation Categories
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid
in the System

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 37

Power Flow
V1 = V1 1

V 2 = V2 2
S = V* I = P + jQ
V *V
= 1 2 *SIN ( 1 2 ) +
X

2
V1*V 2
V2
j
*COS ( 1 2 )

X
X

V1*V
V2
*SIN ( 1 2 )
X
2
V1*V 2
V2
Q=
*COS(
COS( 1 2 )
X
X
P=

Slide 38

Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are

connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0
/0 , V2 = 100 /30
/30 and X = 0 +j5
j5
determine the power flow in the system.

=
X
j5
I = 10 j2.68

I=

V1I* = 100(10 + j2.68) = 1000 + j268

V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(10 + j2.68) = 1000 j268
| I |2 X = 10.352 5 = 536 var

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 39

The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a g
generator supplying
pp y g real p
power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

( V E)
sin
X

( )

Power Flow
1

( V E)
V
cos
X
X

( )

2
2

Real Power Flow

Reactive Power Flow
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 40

Bus Voltage
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
kV value
Percent
P
t off Nominal
N i lB
Bus kV

For Bus4:

kVCalculated = 13.5 kVNo min al = 13.8

kVCalculated
V% =
100 = 97.83%
kVNo min al
For Bus5:

kVCalculated = 4.03
V% =

kVCalculated
100 = 96.85%
kVNo min al
Slide 41

Slide 42

L di

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 43

Transformer Impedance
Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance

Reactor Impedance
Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

Transmission Line Length

djust Transmission
a s ss o Line
e Impedance
peda ce based o
on poss
possible
b e length
e gt
variation tolerance

Cable Length
Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 44

t Page
P
Individual
Global

Temperature Correction
Cable Resistance
Transmission Line
Resistance

Slide 45

NEC and
d ANSI C84
C84.1
1

Slide 46

Part 1

Slide 47

Part 2

Slide 48

Slide 49

p

Cable

Reactor

Line

Transformer
f

O

UPS/Panel

Generator

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 50

Protective Devices

Monitored parameters %

Condition reported

Fuses

Rated Current

Contactors

Slide 51

If the Auto Display

feature is active, the
appear as soon as the
L d Fl
Flow calculation
l l ti
has finished.

Slide 52

Voltage Control
Mvar Control

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 53

Negative Impedance
Zero or Very Small Impedance
Widely Different Branch Impedance Values
B dB
Bus V
Voltage
lt
IInitial
iti l V
Values
l

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 54

Voltage Control
Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.
Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:
Transformer Replacement
Transformer Tap
j
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 55

Under-Voltage Example
Create Under Voltage
Condition

Method 2 - Shunt
Capacitor

Change Syn2 Quantity to 6.

(Info Page, Quantity Field)

Run LF

Voltage is improved

Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under

Voltage Condition)

Method 3 - Change Tap

Place LTC on Primary
y of T6
Select Bus8 for Control Bus

Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8

MVA will
MVA,
ill notice
ti slight
li ht
improvement on the Bus8 kV

Study Case

consuming

Bus Voltage
g Comes within
specified limits

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Run LF

Slide 56

Mvar Control
Vars from Utility

Close Switch

Open Switch

Run LF

Var Contribution from the

Utilit reduces
Utility
d

Method 1 Generator
Change Generator from
Voltage Control to Mvar
Control
Set Mvar Design Setting to 5
Mvars

Method 3 Xfmr MVA

Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
Will notice decrease in the
contribution from the Utility

Slide 57

Panel Systems
y

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 58

Panel Boards
They are a collection of branch circuits
Panel System is used for representing power
and lighting panels in electrical systems

Click to drop once on OLV

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 59

Representation
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as
1. Easier Data Entry
2. Concise System
Representation

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 60

Pin Assignment
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 61

Assumptions
Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)
Note that if a 1
1-Phase
Phase load is connected to a 3
3Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage
The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
Static loads are calculated based on their rated
voltage
lt
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 62

Line-Line Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3-Phase System
A

B
C

B
C
IB = IBC

IBC

IC = -IBC

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C:

For load connected to phase B

SBC = VBC.IBC
PBC = VBC.IBC.cos
QBC = VBC.IBC.sin

SB = VB.IB
PB = VB.IB.cos ( - 30)
QB = VB.IB.sin (
Q
( - 30))
And, for load connected to phase C
SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos ( + 30)
QC = VC.IC.sin
C C
( + 30))

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 63

Info Page

NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of
the panel
Phase B shall be the highest
voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 4-Wire Panel

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1 Ph
1-Phase
3 Wi Panel
3-Wire
P
l
1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 64

Rating Page
Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1-Phase p
panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV
For IEC, Enclosure Type
is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel

Select ANSI or IEC

B k
Breakers
or Fuses
F
from
f
Main Device Library

Slide 65

Schedule Page

Ci
Circuit
it Numbers
N b
with
ith
Standard Layout

C l
Column
L
Layoutt

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 66

Description Tab
Fi
l d items
it
in
i the
th list
li t are based
b
d on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total
p
element type
demand factor status

Slide 67

Rating Tab

Enter per phase VA, W, or

For example, if total Watts
1200 enter W as 400
1200,
(=1200/3)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 68

For both internal and external loads, Amp values are
calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

Slide 69

Protective Device Tab

Library Quick Pick LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic Trip
Device) or
Library Quick Pick
Fuse
will
appear
depending on the
Type of protective
device selected.

Slide 70

Feeder Tab

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 71

Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
and State are not copied.
copied

Paste the entire content (of the

copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked.

selected row.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 72

Summary Page
Continuous Load Per Phase and Total
Non-Continuous Load Per Phase and Total

Slide 73

Output Report

Slide 74

Panel Code Factors

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999
Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors