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NASA Technical

Memorandum

102219

"

A Survey of Nonuniform
Inflow Models for Rotorcraft
Flight Dynamics and
Control Applications
Robert T. N. Chen

November

1989

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A_.[ __ _.O? Z1 9 3
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C_2_iT_OL

National
Space

A StJ_V_Y

ARPLI.C.ATION_

Aeronautics
Administration

and

...... N_NtJNIt:ORt_
.-_'_

NASA Technical

Memorandum

102219

A Survey of Nonuniform
Inflow Models for Rotorcraft
Flight Dynamics and
Control Applications
Robert T. N. Chen, Ames Research

November

1989

I_IASA
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, Califomia 94035

Center,

Moffett

Field, California

A SURVEY
OF NONUNIFORM
FLIGHT
DYNAMICS

INFLOW
MODELS
FOR ROTORCRAFT
AND CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
Robert

NASA
Moffett

T. N. Chen

Ames

Field,

Research

Center

California

94035,

USA

ABSTRACT
This paper
calculation
survey,

of induced

conducted

spectrum
forward

summarizes

velocities

conditions

and reviews

sis is on the evaluation

rotor out of ground


overall. For inflow
wake

methods

LIST

OF SYMBOLS

hover,

vertical

and dynamic

simple

flight,

Leeuw

cyclic

dynamic

analyses

and low-speed
models

Number

of blades

b1

Lateral flapping

per rotor
angle

length

C1

Aerodynamic

rolling

Cm

Aerodynamic

pitching

CT

Thrust

Rotor drag

Total

moment
moment

coefficient
coefficient

coefficient

produced

by the rotor

(see Fig. 25)

64-1

first harmonic
it is suggested

for the

effect.

The

covers

and high-speed
A primary

developed

empha-

over the

inflow model works well


that charts similar to

be produced

and simulations.

pitch

force

models

applications,

of the inflow.

inflow

of NACA

slope

chord

and control

aspects

first harmonic

and Castles/De

for use in flight

_ Lateral

Blade

including
both static

inflow

rotor in and out of ground

dynamics

effect indicate that the Pitt/Peters


near the rotor or in ground effect,

of Heyson/Katzoff

Alc

of flight

of nonuniform

with more sophisticated


methods developed
for use in performance
and
The results of correlation
with several sets of test data obtained
at the

those

Lift curve

survey

at and near a lifting

of various

years, in comparison
airload computations.

of a brief

from the perspective

of flight
flight,

the results

using

modem

free-

Ratio

of rotor

Distance

Parameter
inflow

height

of rotor

above

above

ground

in the static

components,

to rotor diameter

(see Fig. 25)

gain matrix

relating

K = 1 for a nonrigid

Ratio

of cosine

Ks

Ratio

of sine component

Static

gain matrix

components

the ground

component

the aerodynamic
wake,

to mean value

moments

K = 2 for a rigid wake

of the first harmonic

to mean value

of the first harmonic

aerodynamic

force and moments

relating

inflow,
inflow,

K c = Vc/V0

K s = Vs/V0

to the harmonic

inflow

(also rotor lift, see Fig. 25)

Apparent

Distance

Rotor

radius

Rotor

thrust

Au

Ground-induced

interference

velocity

in the tip-path

plane

Ground-induced

interference

velocity

perpendicular

to the tip-path

Induced
speed)

at a general

radial

vi

= v, induced

vi,_o

Induced

Vz

= -v (see Fig. 22, v x = v)

vo

Induced velocity
at the rotor
vo = CT/[2(_t2 + _2)1/2]

Vc

Cosine

Vs

Sine component

Vh

Mean

VHOV

Induced

Av

to the harmonic

mass matrix
of blade

velocity

element

inflow

velocity

component

induced
velocity

associated

with inflow

from axis of rotation

ratio when

out of ground

and azimuthal

normalized

disc center,

of the first harmonic

(normalized

with tip

with tip speed

calculated

induced
induced

based on momentum

at hover

position

plane

effect

of the first harmonic

velocity

dynamics

as a function

velocity,

also denoted

theory,

by _,1c

velocity
theory

of radial

64-2

by the momentum

at hover,

position

v h = af_

/ 2

vT

Normalized

total velocity

vm

Mass

Voo

Free-stream

Vv

Vertical

velocity

Vc

Vertical

climb

Vc

= Vc/v h

Vd

Vertical

W 0

= --V 0

Aw

= -Av

=r]R

)C

Wake

flow parameter,

It*

Normalized

o_

Tip-path

)_

Inflow

)Llc

= vc

f2

Rotor

velocity

ratio,

angular

Azimuth

(normalized

with tip speed)

(see Fig. 4)

)_ = tan-l(_t/'L)

g = Voo cos o_

advance
plane

of the aircraft

velocity

angle,

ratio,

velocity

of the aircraft

descent

Advance

v T = (_2 + )L2)1/2

v m = [g2 + 9_(_ + v0)]/VT

or flight

skew

at the rotor disc center,

angle
_ = v 0-

ratio,

U-t*= [-t/v h

of attack

(also (ZTpp)

Voo sin (z

velocity

position

Blade

pitch

at radial

position

00.75

Blade

pitch

at radial

position,

x = 0.75

= d/d_

(see Eqs. (17), (19))

1. INTRODUCTION
This brief
aerodynamic

survey

was undertaken

representation

with the intent

of a generic

helicopter

64-3

of forming

a basis

for improving

the

mathematical

model

for real-time

flight

simulation.As the dynamicrepresentationof


sophistication

in terms

blade

it becomes

motion,

the rotor system reaches a given level of


frequency
range and of the degrees of freedom

of the applicable
apparent

that a comparable

level of detail

dynamic counterpart.
At the heart of the helicopter
aerodynamics
and near the main rotor(s). In the past, uniform induced velocity
reduce

computational

putational
power

capability

at reduced

resentation

wake.

in the simulation

review

simulation

This survey
vertical
focus

inflow

data obtained
lation. Hoad

analytical

2. A BRIEF

rotor

wake

to determine

Both

With real-time
evaluation

tuned

the

for a specific

including

static

hover,

and dynamic

applications
of several

aspects

in mind,

simple

old and new test data. In particular,

a main

first-

the wind tunnel

and theoretically

methods.

The survey

first harmonic

provides,

inflow

therefore,

models

perform

models.

PERSPECTIVE

[3], in trying

first harmonic

calculation

how well the simple

wake

HISTORICAL

In 1926, Glauert
a simple

available

flight.

with

for real-time

in representing

manner

rep-

associated

models

of flight conditions

forward

effect.

a more realistic

of rotorcrafl
added

com-

computational

to provide

has been

a spectrum

on the comparative

using

to the advanced

observed

covers

and high-speed

was placed

models

opportunity

compared

expanding

of limited

and the dynamic_

generation

that some realism

because

recently by Elliott and Althoff [ 1] with a laser velocimeter


was used for correet al. [2] did extensive
correlations
of these data with predictions
from several

state-of-the-art
good

possible

for its nonuniformity

both in and out of ground

of the survey

harmonic

models

and low-speed

were reviewed,

the rapidly

been done in an ad hoc and empirical

of inflow

flight,

With

be used for its aero-

are the induced velocities


at
has commonly
been used to

environment

it has become

of the current

indicates

inflow, but this has often


rotorcraft.

simulation

facility.

years,

accounting

A cursory

dynamic

in a real-time

cost in recent

of the inflow,

the rotor
flight

burden

must

of the

to resolve

calculated
nonuniform

discrepancies

lateral
inflow

force
model

between

of the rotor
which

the experimentally

from uniform

generates

inflow,

an induced

proposed

velocity

field
(1)

v = v0(1 + xK c cos _)
that increases

longitudinally

the gradient

K c being

from the leading

unspecified.

Wheatley

edge to the trailing


[4] correlated

edge

a preselected

ent (K c = 0.5) with flight-test


data that he gathered from an autogyro.
was that "the blade motion is critically
dependent
upon the distribution
over

the rotor

the induced
"hump"

for further
of the rotor

be calculated

[5] explained
load which

of the Bell Model


vibration

study,

(a cylindrical

component

also arrived
rotor

Seibel

of the vibratory

flight-testing

normal

disc and cannot

flow."

of induced

at a remarkably

disc center,

which

was encountered

velocity

is expressed

define

inflow

in the low-speed
the induced

and used it to develop


along

formula
in terms

of wake

64-4

determination

flight

a simplified

vortex

of the rotor

of the induced
(as defined

during

the rotor

formula
velocity

of

the

regime

over

an analytical

skew angle

of the gradi-

that causes

velocities

the fore and aft diameter


for the gradient

value

disc with

One of his conclusions


of induced velocities

the accurate

et al. [6] in 1945 introduced

model)

simple

without

that it is the nonuniform

30. To better

Coleman
wake

rigorously

of the rotor

disc

system
for the

disc. They
at the

in Fig. 1), as

Kc = tan(_ /
Thus

for the first time the value

determined.

Later,

Coleman's

simple

sinusoidally
for

Drees

of Kc, left largely

[7] determined

cylindrical

with azimuth.

vortex
When

2)

(2)

unspecified

Kc using

a wake

wake

to account

expressed

in terms

by Glauert,

was analytically

geometry

modified

for the bound

circulation

of the wake

skew

from
varying

angle,

Drees'

formula

Kc yields
4
)_
K c = -_- (1 - 1.8g 2) tan _-

which shows
ratio, It.

that the gradient

is a function

(3)

of both the wake

skew

angle,

_, and the advance

In 1947, Brotherhood
[8] conducted
a flight investigation
of the induced velocity distribution in hover, and showed that flight-test
measurements
correlated
well with values calculated

using

blade-element

also reported

momentum

their flight-test

theory

[9,10].

work in forward

flight

Later,

Brotherhood

using

smoke

and Steward

filaments

[11]

to indicate

the

flow pattern. They estimated


that the value of the gradient
K c was between 1.3 and 1.6 in
the range of advance ratios tested (0.14 to 0.19), thereby concluding
that Eq. (2), derived by
Coleman,

tended

theoretical

to substantially

calculation

underestimate

of Mangler

well with their flight-test

the value of K c. They also showed

and Square

measurements

[12] based

of the induced

on potential

a dynamic

during

a jump

state inflow
ticipates

inflow
takeoff

model

maneuver.

to include

on the dynamic

decades

later. Meanwhile,

of induced

velocities

A concerted
vortex

effort
theory

still used
computer
wake

was carded
introduced

velocity

in the helicopter
digital

codes

models.

(e.g.,

Work

velocity

industry

computational

out at NACA

[ 17,18])

codes

during

that par-

were in good
Unfortunately,

further

of the static

buildup

for steady-

air mass

the model

the 1950s

loaded

rotor,

culminated

until two

aspect

using

to further
of Castles

and the work

in the NACA
in the flight

that became

were developed

on free-wake

theory

was not pursued

particularly

power

and the inflow

test stand.

et al. [6]. The work

rotors,

today,

rotor had been


[ 13] pro-

of the theory

rotor.

by Coleman
loaded

using

on the refinement

near a uniformly

[ 15] for nonuniformly

the increasing

continued

thrust

the apparent

on a helicopter

of the induced

work

of the lifting
and Fridovich

momentum

involving

of the calculation

data obtained

aspect

rotor

the simple

buildup

at and near the lifting

[ 14] on the induced


Katzoff

the transient

extended

inflow

The results

with the experimental

research

simple

They

the transient

in the acceleration.

agreement

to investigate

did not correlate

velocities.

Up to the early 1950s, all the research on the induced velocity


focused on the static or time-averaged
aspect. In 1953, Carpenter
posed

theory

that the

available

mechanics

(e.g., [19,20])

the

of Heyson

charts

in the 1960s,

more complicated

was also begun

develop

and De Leeuw

discipline.

are
With

sophisticated

prescribed
during

and

[16] which

helical-

the late

1960s

and early 1970s. Heyson [21] and Landgrebe


and Cheney (see Ref. 77) provided
excellent
reviews of the research activities
on static inflow modeling
using vortex theory in the U.S.
during

this period.

Reference

77 also discussed

the inherent

64-5

capability

of the transient

inflow

calculationusingfree-wakemethods.Someof the activitiesin the U.S.S.R.duringthese


yearsaresummarizedin Refs.22 and23.
In 1972,Harris [24] publisheda setof low-speedflapping data
controlled
inflow

wind

models,

tunnel

test. He correlated

including

Coleman's

calculated

model

flapping

[6], NACA

charts,

obtained

angles

from

a well-

using various

static

and a representative

pre-

scribed helical-wake
computer
code [18], then available
with his experimental
data. He found
that none of the available
methods was able to predict lateral flapping in the low advance
ratio region as shown in Fig. 2. The existence
nent, as evident from Fig. 2, causes a variety

of a strong first-harmonic
of undesirable
rotorcraft

longitudinal
characteristics

composuch as

noise and vibration


in the low-speed
flight regime as mentioned
earlier [5], and a large
migration
with speed and load factor, which may cause a loss of control for rotorcraft.
Ruddell [25] reported
that the value
design calculation
for cyclic control

for Glauert longitudinal


inflow gradient,
Kc, used in the
of the first advancing-blade-concept
(ABC) aircraft was

found to be much less than the actual value


resulted
in the loss of control which caused
suggested

that,

to achieve

stick

an improved

derived from flight tests. This discrepancy


the 1973 ABC accident.
In his work, Harris

correlation

with his experimental

[24]

data, free-wake

rather than prescribed-wake


approaches
should be pursued. His suggestion
was finally realized in 1981 by Johnson
[26] with his comprehensive
CAMRAD
[27] computer
code, which
uses the Scully
radius),

[28] free-wake

Johnson

experimental
improving

data. Work
free-wake

applications

For flight

codes

dynamics

inflow model for induced


used extensively
[31-34].
interpret

is not computationally
computer
for real-time
inflow

tum theory.
theory

A similar

the concept
developed,
Dynamic
Hohenemser,

inflow

lateral

and airload

a simple

core

with Harris'

aerodynamicists

and computational

in

efficiency

calculations.

very computationally

applications,

(tip vortex

flapping

harmonic,

It is the only practical

from pitching

first harmonic
dynamics

introduced
theory,

for hover

and Ormiston

inflow

and rolling
model

[36]. Building

on momentum
models

for

As might

be

intensive.
finite-state,

nonuniform

nonuniform

inflow

model

intensive
and thus can be implemented
on a current-generation
simulation.
In 1971, Curtiss and Shupe [35] extended
Glauert's

and Peters

of inflow
based

of a parameter

by the rotorcraft

fidelity

performance

environment.

perturbations

by Ormiston

tuning

velocity similar to that originally


proposed
by Glauert is still being
This form of model is easier to use and the results are easier to

in a nonreal-time

to include

toward

to model

are, in general,

and control

some

well his calculated

(e.g., [29,30])

with respect

primarily

free-wake

With
very

is continuing

codes

directed

expected,

analysis.

was able to correlate

upon

moments,

was also developed


the work of Curtiss

by Carpenter

and Fridovich

a more complete

similar

dynamic

to that of Peters

[38], Ormiston

using

the simple

using

model

were also proposed

[39], and Johnson

[40,41].

Peters'

vortex

and using

[13], Peters

inflow

digital
model
momen-

a simple

and Shupe

that

[37]

for hover.

by Crews,
dynamic

inflow model was validated


with wind tunnel data [42,43] using system identification
methods. Using unsteady
actuator disc theory, Pitt and Peters [44] extended
Peters' [36] model for
hover

to include

perturbed
For flight

dynamic
dynamic

forward

flight

conditions,

thereby

completing

the three-state,

first harmonic,

inflow model that has found broad applications


in rotorcraft
dynamics.
simulations,
it was found [e.g., 45] that nonlinear
dynamic inflow models

such as that of Carpenter

and Fridovich

[ 13] and Peters

64-6

[46,47],

in lieu of the linear

version

[44], areoften the mostsuitableform to use,becausetotal values,ratherthanthe perturbed


values,of the thrustandthepitching androlling momentsareinvolved.
In this paper,a mainfocusis on
harmonic

inflow

models

tion to the assessment


cance

that have

vortex

case,

theory

unsteady

the Blake/White

is compared

[47], the classical

Coleman

which

represents

practice

current

Inclusion

recently

by Curtiss

tant in the design


quencies

of airmass

model

dynamic

to the development
3. INFLOW
Since

this survey

of inflow

the inflow

using

rotor

mathematical

model

vering

tasks,

system

may be expected

speed cruise.
mathematical

because

the fre-

as are those

of the

is intended.

effects

hovering,

vertical

of the frequency

with the applications


For low-frequency
investigations

of the interaction

of the induced

of the user in flight dynamics

applications
involving

of the airmass

and therefore

static

velocity

of a lifting

ascent

or descent,

For each of these flight regimes,


some
models, with experimental
correlation

for which

and moments

for other

parts of the airframe

range

Effect

A. Hover

and Vertical

Out of Ground
investigated

flight

(less than 0.5 Hz),


maneu-

with the airframe/rotor

inflow

models

rotor depend

low-speed

forward

will be of interstrongly
flight,

on the
or high-

physical description
and the associated
where available,
are reviewed
below.

are discussed.

Static

flights are
for calculations
characteristics

ing from rotor thrust will be addressed


first, and then the influence
of the pitching
moments
of the rotor system on the inflow distribution
will be discussed.
3.1 Static

of appli-

a specific

low-bandwidth

Ground effects of the rotor that are important


for low-speed
and low-level
reviewed,
and induced
velocities
near the lifting rotor which are required

were

shown

[34] to be impor-

of magnitude

the perspective

will be a function

consistent

to be negligible,

characteristics

conditions:

is from

or flying-qualities

the dynamic

est. The static

forces

[31],

a blade-element

have been

for rotorcraft

order

inflow

used by Howlett

[45], and Schrage

systems

a simple

dynamic

Therefore,
the paper will also discuss dynamic
wake effects. Table 1 summarizes
the events related

of interest

an accuracy

such as trim computations

operating

in 1979 from

First,

models.

models

models

and will have

dynamics

inflow

with a lifting

the signifi-

MODELS--STATICS

and control,
cability

of some

[24,48],

is also addressed.

of rotorcraft

and Hindson

are of the same

rotor-blade
flapping
and lead-lag modes.
inflow models that account for unsteady

model

first

in 1972. In addi-

of the Pitt/Peters

simulation

flight-control

modes

by Harris

was developed

solution

associated

of several

of Harris

dynamics)

[6], and an inflow

[50], Chen

of high-bandwidth

of the inflow

(inflow

[49], which

in real-time

dynamics

[32], Miller

as examined

effects

model

evaluation

since the work

effects

wake

with the steady-state

model
method.

and comparative

of their steady-state

of the low-frequency,

for the static

review

been developed

of
result-

and rolling

of Thrust

Effect.

Flight
The flow patterns

extensively

in the 1940s

at and near the rotor


and 1950s,

in hover

both analytically

and in vertical

flight

and experimentally.

Figure 3, from Ref. 10, illustrates


the flow patterns and the normalized
induced velocity
in
terms of rate of climb, Vc, in vertical flight out of ground effect. A more detailed
description

64-7

Table 1.NonuniformInflow Model Development--FlightMechanicsPerspective


Year

1926

Remarks

Author(s)
Glauert

Proposed

a "triangular"

v(r/R,_)

induced

= v0[1 + (r/R)Kc

velocity

1934

Wheafley

Used Ke = 0.5 to correlate


with flight
inadequate
in predicting
flapping.

1944

Seibel

Explained

1945

Coleman

1949

Drees

et al.

that the severe

speeds

encountered

caused

by the nonuniform

Determined
that
with a uniformly
angle).
Determined

vibration

in flight

et al.

Conducted

Mangler/Square

"hump"

at low
30 is

inflow.

Kc = tan(7,J2), using a vortex theory


loaded circular
disk (g = wake-skew

Kc using

a wake

a flight

geometry

bound

test using

Developed
induced velocity
nonuniformly
loaded rotors

modified

circulation

smoke

cate the flow pattern; estimated


Ix range of 0.14 to 0.19.
1950

data; found

tests of Bell Model

from Coleman's
(assuming
sinusoidally
with azimuth).
Brotherhood

model:

cos _1.

varies

filaments

to indi-

Kc = 1.3 to 1.6 in the

contours
for lighted,
for several values of TPP

angle of attack.
1953

Carpenter/Fridovich

Developed
variations.

inflow

1953to

Castles/DeLeeuw;

Developed

NACA

1959

Heyson/Katzoff/Jewel

uniformly

1959to

Miller;

1967

Piziali/DuWardt;

Developed
computer
wake models.

Davenport
1967to
present

dynamics

charts

and nonuniformly
codes

with respect

of induced
loaded

to thrust

velocities
lifting

for various

near

rotors.

prescribed-

et al.
Development
of free-wake
and CAMRAD.

64-8

codes

such as UTRC

codes

Table 1.

1972

Remarks

Author(s)

Year

1971

Continued

Curtiss/Shupe

Harris

Developed

equivalent

inflow

variations

roiling

moments.

Correlated

Lock

w.r.t,

several

number

to account

aerodynamic

inflow

models

pitching

Peters

Developed
a more complete
based on momentum
theory.

1976

RuddeU

Documented

that value

inflow

resulting

in accident

model

of the Glauert

Kc, used in the design calculation


the first ABC aircraft was much

and

with his wind

data and found that none were able to predict


eral flapping
at low advance ratio (g < 0.15).
1974

for

tunnel

the lat-

for hover

gradient

term,

for cyclic control of


less than actual value,

in 1973.

1977to
1979

Banerjee/Crews/
Hohenemser

Identified
the dynamic
tunnel data.

1979

Blake/White

Determined,
using
Kc = _
sin X

Van Gaasbeek

Documented
version

1981

Johnson

Used

free-wake

achieve

Pitt/Peters

Howlett

Junker/Langer

a simple

the inflow

of C-81

good

Harris

inflow

model

correlation

theory,

wind

the value

of

used in the modern

on Drees'

wake)

using

data.

in CAMRAD

to

with lateral-flapping

data

of

(1972).

Developed

a complete

ward

using

flight

dynamic

unsteady

Documented

the inflow

Black

Engineering

Hawk

Obtained
ratios

vortex

code, based
(Scully

parameters

downwash

from three

calculations
theories.

64-9

inflow

actuator

model

disk theory.

Simulation

model.
at low advance

and correlated

from local-momentum

for for-

used in GENHEL-

measurements

tunnels

model

them with

and rigid-wake

Table 1 Concluded
Year

Remarks

Author(s)

1986

Chen/Hindson

Investigated
response

effects
in hover

CH-47

flight

of dynamic
using

inflow

Carpenter

on vertical

and Pitt models

and

data.

1987

Harris

Provided
a historical
perspective
inflow development--an
update

1988

Hoad/Althoff/Elliott

Correlated
several prescribed-wake
and free-wake
models with their recent tunnel-measured
inflow data
(from

Cheeseman/Haddow

a laser

Measured

velocimeter);

(using

advance

Peters/HaQuang

Refined

can be found
ing state,
state.

in Refs.

In the regions

velocity

where

the momentum

can be calculated

the tip-path

plane

model

of the regions

as shown

(TPP)

theory

theory

and the vertical

the momentum

not exist.
reach
using
Note

Within

theory

the region

a fully developed
the fully developed

[53] using
using

a free-wake
ratio

Brotherhood

analysis

This is shown

as developed

velocity

[8] are shown

the mean

speed

a well-defined

workring

of the induced
velocity

at the

by the mean

in hover

wake

model

in Fig. 6, where

a similar

does

rapidly

to

can be calculated
[23], as shown

A recent

is somewhat

slipstream

or expands

wake

condition

as shown.

a three-part
wake

value

induced

are normalized

it contracts

and continuity

involving

in the propeller

state and the vortex

the mean

because

exists,

in hover,

dynamic

applications.

of the fully developed

induced-velocity
ratio is 0.707

theory.

wake,

The induced

the slipstream

at low

/ 2, thereby removing
their dependency
on
curve is indicated
for the flight conditions

applicable

The radius

at the fully developed

momentum

an empirical

where

wake.

that the contraction

contraction

is no longer

downwash

of Pitt/Peters

brake

flight

agreement.

of Kc to be about

is applicable

is applicable,

value of the induced velocity


at hover, v h = _
the air density and the disc loading. An empirical
where

version

of the windmill

poor

value.

for practical

in Fig. 3. In this figure,

of the rotor

value

than Coleman's

51 and 52. The momentum

but only in portions

estimated

nonlinear

inflow

showed

hot wire probes)

ratios;

50% higher

of static nonuniform
of his 1972 work.

calculation

trend

in Fig. 4.

by Bliss et al.

(Fig. 5) indicated
larger

by

that the

than that calculated


is also indicated

for

in Ref. 54.

at the rotor plane

is nonuniform.

in Fig. 7, in which

calculations

Measurements

from flight

using

blade-element

theory [9] and uniform inflow are also shown. The measurements
0.073R and 0.39R, below the rotor TPP, and the induced velocity

were taken
at the rotor

64-10

by

momentum
at two planes,
was then

extrapolatedusingstreamlines obtainedfrom smokephotographs.Thus,themeasureddata


nearthebladetip may not beaccurate.Nevertheless,it canbe seenfrom Fig. 7 that,except
for thefew percentof therotor radiusnearthebladetip region,theinducedvelocity in hover
calculatedfrom blade-elementmomentumtheory[9],

2 (o-

(4)

(4nV 2 / bcaf_)

correlates

very

velocity

well with flight-measured

are caused

by the strong

tions of the distribution


sensitive

to tip vortex

promising,

geometry

[48]. Generally,

performance

estimation

fore a good

approximation

blade

of the contracted

for stability

applications

tip vortex.
tip based

in Fig. 8, Landgrebe

permitting

an accuracy

for simple

variations

in induced

However,

calcula-

on vortex

theory

[56] calculated

are

the

several prescribed
wake models and compared
the
momentum
theory. Free-wake
methods,
though

a level of accuracy
however,

/ 16n)

tip, large

near the blade

[55]. As shown

is sufficient

for low-frequency

Near the blade

velocity

distribution
using
the blade-element

have yet to achieve

calculations

influence

of the induced

hover-induced
velocity
results with those from

data.

+ V v + (bcaf_

and control

nonuniform
in flight

their routine

level somewhat
inflow,

dynamics

use in performance

less than that required

analysis.

Equation

out of ground

for

(4) is there-

effect,

at the rotor

and control.

A knowledge
of induced velocity near the lifting rotor is required
for the calculation
of
the forces and moments
acting on the fuselage,
the tail rotor, and the horizontal
and vertical
tails. Examples
cylindrical
shown

of NACA

wake

charts

[16], for which

with (1) uniform

in Fig. 9. Improvements

in look-up
rotor,

tables

of Ground.

plane

In ground

the vertical

induced

These

especially

airspeed

velocity

Ref. 57. As is well known,


plane

above

bution

the ground

along

a simple
as shown

the rotor

cylindrical

proximity,

blade

for rapid

calculations

velocity

and full-scale

effect

was calculated

becomes

at hover,

in a similar

chart

conditions
in flight

decreases,

are

form,

or

of a lifting

dynamics

and

of the ground

negligible

years

when

on the mean

for example,

the height

The induced

ago by Knight

loaded

the effects

since in the ground

tests can be found,

of the rotor.

many

for a uniformly

that without

a simple

applications.

than the diameter

wake

using

disc loading

presented

must be zero. The effect

the ground

vortex

were made

and operating

the induced

by model

is larger

in Fig. 10. Note

are needed

component

methods

characteristics

for real-time

as determined

calculations

and (2) a triangular

free-wake

geometrical

lacking.

simulations,

Effect

using

for various

are presently

control

disc loading

in

of the rotor

velocity

distri-

and Hefner

[58] using

rotor disc and the method

of images,

of the ground,

the induced

velocity

distri-

bution is uniform,
and is identical
to that shown in Fig. 9a for the uniform disc-loading
case.
Nonuniformity
increases
as a result of the ground effect as the rotor disc approaches
the
ground
smallest

plane.

at the blade

the distribution
calculated
Fig.

Ground-induced

interference

tip. However,

of ground-induced

and compared

11. The interference

velocities

the disc-load
interference

the uniform
is nonuniform

are largest

distribution
velocities

and triangular
in spanwise

64-11

at the rotor center

can have
over

disc-load
distribution,

significant

the rotor

and
effects

disc. Heyson

distributions,
particularly

as shown
for the

on

[59] has
in

triangulardisc-loaddistributionfor low valuesof the rotor heightabovethe ground.The


largedistortionnearthe rotor centeris a resultof the zeroloadat therotor centerfor the
triangulardisc-loaddistribution.Theinduced-velocitydistributionat therotor disccanthen
beobtainedby combiningtheinformationin Fig. 11with correspondingout-of-ground-effect
(OGE) valuesatthe rotor discin Figs.9aand9b. Notethatfor uniformdisc-loaddistribution,
theresultis identicalto thatshownin Fig. 10,asit shouldbe.In Ref. 59,Heysonalsoprovided someof his calculationsof the flow field of a triangularlyloadedrotor in ground
proximity, which may becompareddirectlywith its OGEcounterpartin Fig. 9b to gain
qualitativeinsightinto thegroundeffect.Becauseof the failure to considerwakedistortions
in theprescribedsimplecylinder wakemethod,a high level of accuracycannotbeexpected.
A systematiccorrelationof theseresultswith thosecalculatedusingthe moresophisticated
free-wakemethods,andwith testdatato quantifythe degreeof accuracyof the calculated
results,hasalsobeenlacking.
B. Low-Speed
Out

Forward

of Ground

swept
angle

Effect.

rearward.

in edgewise

Flight
As the forward

The wake

flight,

skew angle

speed

increases

(see Fig.

1) increases

and at the same time the mean

and the mean

induced

attack, using the uniform


momentum
theory,

velocity

induced

formula

hovering,
rapidly

induced

can be calculated

velocity

from

from

velocity

for various

proposed

the rotor

0 in hover

decreases.
values

by Glauert

wake

is
to 90

The wake

of TPP angle
[3], based

skew
of

on the

(5)

v 0 = C T / 2(_ 2 + _L2)1/2
and the definition

of the wake

skew angle,
tan

where

l.t = Voo cos 0_, E = v0 - Voo sin 0_ (note that

ure 12 shows
with respect
attack.
flight

_ = _t/E

the wake
to the hover

At a given
(positive

TPP angle

skew angle

flight

values

of attack,

uniform
velocity

induced
the wake

skew angle

larly, the calculated


mean
with the measured
values.

skew angle,

Voo is normalized

of the normalized

velocity,
flight

values

is considerably

(negative

already

reaches

values

about

with tip speed).


flight

Vh) for several

skew angle

of 0_) than in climbing


the wake

speed of about 2.3 (corresponding


the smaller values of 0_ correlate

The wake

as a function

(6)

velocity

Fig-

(normalized

of TPP angle

larger

of

in descending

of ct). Note that at zero

80 at the normalized

flight

to tz = 1. 62_fC-T ). The calculated


wake skew angles for
well with measured
data, as shown in Fig. 13 [10]. Simi-

induced

velocity

at low speeds

which

is dependent

upon

using Eq. (5) matches

advance

ratio,

TPP angle

fairly

well

of attack,

and

thrust coefficient,
defines the orientation
of the rotor wake and is a key parameter
in determining the induced velocity at and near a lifting rotor. Figure 14 shows the contours
of
induced-velocity
angles.
uniform

These

ratio

v/v 0 in the longitudinal

were calculated

disk loading,

by Castles

and they show

plane

and DeLeeuw

that the induced

64-12

of the rotor for various


[14] using
velocity

wake

a cylindrical

at the rotor

plane

skew

wake

with

is strongly

dependenton the wakeskewangle.Paynehassuggested[51] thatthe resultsof Castlesand


DeLeeuwmay beapproximatedby a first-harmonicexpressionsimilar to thatoriginally proposedby Glauert:
v = v0+ x(vc cos _ + vs sin _t)

(7a)

= v0[1+ x(K c cos _ + Ks sin _)]

(7b)

where v0Kc = vc,v0Ks= vs,and


(4 / 3) tan Z
1.2+tanx

Kc=
and K s = 0. Over the years several
Some of these, recast as an explicit
Table
Year

1949

Drees

[7]

1959

Payne

[55]

1979

Blake

and White

1981

Pitt and Peters

1981

Howlett

aConsidering

only static

A comparison

With

in Table

the wake

the hover

nent of the induced

(4/3)tan

[49]
[44]

(15rc/32)tan(X/2)

of the cosine

effect.

component

to the mean

in Fig. 15 as a function

calculated

velocity

as shown

from those

16 shows

induced

velocity

peaks

flight

sin2 X

and with only thrust

Figure

sin

depends

speed

Thus,

64-13

thrust

skew

for those

for several

angle.
of the cosine

2, at various
inflow

models

flight
shown

conin

conditions.
As the flight speed
peaks at a flight speed less than

the flight

on the thrust

for a higher

velocity

12, a comparison

listed in Table

such a comparison

velocity.

induced

of the wake

in Fig.

models

level flight, and descending


flight
component
of the induced velocity

with a higher

1.2 + tan

2 is shown

uniform

Ks

(4 / 3) (1 - 1.81.t2) tan(X / 2)

skew angle

can be made.

Fig. 15 for climbing,


increases,
the cosine

operating,

Models

tan(_2)

[31]

of the induced

other formulae
for K c and Ks.
angle, are summarized
in Table 2.

Kc

et al. [6]

of the ratio

listed

component

twice

Inflow

Author(s)
Coleman

ditions,

authors have developed


function of wake skew

2. First Harmonic

1945

models

(8)

speed
coefficient

coefficient.

at which

the cosine

at which

compo-

the rotor is

The peak amplitude

also

dependsstronglyon the signof the TPPangleof attack;it is largerwhenthevalueof 0_is


positive,asin a descendingflight or in a flare, thanwhenthe valueof 0_ is negative,asin a
level or a climbing flight. Thesetrendsareconsistentwith the verticalvibrationlevel in lowspeedflights typically observedby thepilot or measuredin flight, as shownin Figs. 17and
18 (takenfrom Refs.60 and61,respectively).As mentionedearlier, somegeneralcharacteristics of the low-speedvibrationdueto thefore-and-aftvariationin theinducedvelocity were
investigatedby Seibel[5] manyyearsago.With the emphasison nap-of-the-Earth(NOE),
low-speedterrainflying in recentyearsfor military missions,interesthasresumedin a thoroughreexaminationof the vibrationproblemassociatedwith low-speedmaneuveringflight.
In Fig. 16,it is seenthat asthe flight speedincreasesbeyondthe peakof thecosinecomponentof theinducedvelocity, both themeanandthecosinecomponentof the induced
velocity diminishrapidly, reducingtheir impacton the rotor forcesandmoments.In thepeak
region,the magnitudeof the cosinecomponentvariessignificantlyamongthemodels,being
muchlargerfor the Blake/WhiteandPitt/Petersmodelsthanfor theclassicalmodelof
Colemanet al. [6]. CheesemanandHaddow[62] recentlygatheredinduced-velocitydataat
low advanceratiosfrom a wind tunnel,usingtriaxial hot-wireprobes.They comparedthe
valuesof thelongitudinal inflow gradient,Kc, fitted from themeasuredinflow datawith
thosecalculatedfrom Coleman'smodel,andfound thatthecalculatedvalueswere45%to
56% smaller,dependingon theflight conditions,thanthemeasuredvalues,asshownin
Table3. For a broadercomparison,someof the first harmonicinflow modelslistedin
Table2 arealsoincludedin Table3.TheresultsshowthatthePitt/Petersinflow model
correlatesbestwith the Cheeseman-Haddow
data,differing by only 2% to 7% from their
fitted experimentaldata.TheDreesmodelandthe Paynemodelalsomatchthe datafairly
well, differing by 10%to 16%from thefitted values,dependingon the operatingconditions.
Someimprovementsof othermodels(e.g.,BlakeandHowlett)over the classicalColeman
modelcanalsobeseenin Table3.
The Cheeseman/Haddow
datawereobtainedfor smallvaluesof TPPangleof attack
(about-1.75). To seethepotentialeffect of theTPPangleof attack,Fig. 16wasreplotted
for Kc, asshownin Fig. 19.It canbeseenthatthevalueof Kc tendsto behigherfor a positive value of o_thanfor a negativevalueof (x. For the o_ = 20 case, the K c values for the
four inflow models
exceeds 90 .

peak

at flight

speeds

below

Voo/v h = 2, when

the wake

skew angle

An indirect means of estimating


K c is through correlations
of the calculated
lateral flapping values with those measured.
As described
earlier, Harris [24] has done such a correlation,

as shown

Harris

wind

in Fig. 2. The Blake/White

tunnel

data,

as shown

model

achieved

a fairly

in Fig. 20 [63]. In 1987, Harris

good

correlation

[48] expanded

with the
his 1972

work [24] to include correlations


of the (1) Blake/White
model [49]; (2) the Scully free-wake
model used in the CAMRAD
[26]; and (3) the inflow model used in the C-81 [64], which
was developed
obtained

empirically

from a wind

tunnel.

Blake/White
simple model
tudinal plane of symmetry,

based

on Drees'

The results,

model
shown

together
in Figs.

agrees fairly well with Harris'


the induced velocity compares

64-14

with his low-advance-ratio

21 and 22, again

indicate

data
that the

experimental
data, and in the longiwell with that calculated
from

Table3. Comparisonof SomeFirst-HarmonicInflow Modelswith Cheeseman


Haddow
Wind-TunnelData
Testcondition
Parameter
Advanceratio
Rotorrpm

0.1
2500

0.067
2500

0.067
1250

K_

Fittedfrom measureddata[62]

1.07

Coleman
et al.
Pitt/Peters
Howlett
Blake/White
Drees

0.74
1.09
0.92
1.35
0.96
0.98

Payne

CAMRAD.
other

Harris

noted,

however,

set of data that he used

0.96
0.61
0.90
0.79
1.26
0.81
0.82

that the Blake/White

model

0.92
0.59
0.87
0.77
1.24
0.78
0.80

did not agree

well with the

[48].

Another
indirect method of estimating
K c at low speeds is by examining
the cyclic
trol requirements
for trim, since lateral cyclic inputs are required to trim out the roiling
moment

generated

from

the lateral

reported that, for a hingeless


results than the Payne model
of Coleman's

in the design

dicting the required cyclic


earlier tend to corroborate
In Ground
in rotor

Effect.

flapping

analysis

above.

Faulkner

was found

to be about

a factor

in ground

on NOE

proximity

flight

in some

at low advance

ratios

be seen in Fig. 12 that the wake


twice

[66] using
angle
mean
center

the hover
a cylindrical

mean

skew angle

induced

wake

model

has already

velocity

reached

of images

of attack, the ground effect virtually disappears


at speeds
induced velocity,
as illustrated
in Fig. 24. The normalized
is plotted

as a function

of the normalized

forward

speed

missions,

research

has been reactivated

velocity

at the center

flight

because

the decrease

speed

the decrease

increases,
in induced

velocity

in forward

of the rotor increases


in ground
flight.

64-15

effect

Although

in

is rapidly swept rearward,


the ground effect, it can

approximately
indicates

75 at a flight
An early

study

that, for zero TPP

greater than twice the hover


induced velocity at the rotor
for various

values

of rotor

height above the ground. Note that for Z/R = oo, the curve, which is monotonically
ing, is identical to that out of ground effect as shown in Fig. 16 (0t = 0). For smaller
Z/R, the total induced

better
to that

data discussed

(for zero TPP angle of attack).

with the method

[65]

yielded
similar

of two too small in pre-

operational

recent years. As the forward speed increases,


the wake of the rotor
and as a result, the effect of the ground is rapidly reduced. Without
speed

and Buchner

control for trim (Fig. 23). The Cheeseman/Haddow


this result.

With the emphasis

aerodynamics

discussed

rotor helicopter,
the Blake/White
model generally
did. Ruddel [25] indicated
that use of a K c value

con-

rather

with speed
the simple

decreasvalues of

than decreases
is more rapid
vortex

theory

as the
than
used in

Ref. 66 doesnot include sucheffectsasgroundvortex,similarphenomenahavebeen


observedin flight [67] andin wind tunneltests[68,69].Formationof thegroundvortex in the
regionof very low advanceratios(u < 0.06),which wasobservedby Sheridan[68], was
attributedto theincreasein powerrequired,in thatflight regime,for rotor heightslessthan
aboutone-halfof the rotor radius.
In groundproximity, the OGEmeaninducedvelocity andwakeskewangle,Eqs.(5) and
(6), accordingto momentumtheory,requiremodificationsto accountfor thevertical and
horizontalcomponents,Av andAu, of theground-inducedvelocity (seeFig. 25). It canbe
shown[59] that
(V0/

Vh)4 =

1
[(V_ / v0) + tan o_ - (Au / v0)] 2 + [1 + (Av / v0)] 2

(9)

and
cos Z = (v 0 / Vh)2[1 + Av / v0]
In computing

the ground-induced

Observations

have

similar

indicated

to a low-aspect-ratio

ellipfically
loaded wing,
related to the momentum

interference

is considerably

wing,

schematically

as shown

Heyson [59] proposed


wake skew angle by

of the ground
larger

wake

of the wake

tan

for the calculation

velocity,

that the roll-up

(10)
roll-up

takes place

must to be considered.
rapidly

behind

in Fig. 26. Using

to use an effective

the rotor,

an analogy

skew angle

which

to an

is

He = (g2 / 4) tan

effect

in forward

than the momentum

skew

(11)

flight.
angle

(Note

that the effective

in the region

wake

of low valuesof

angle
_.) A

sample of results calculated


[59] using the skewed cylinder wake with the method of images
is shown in Fig. 27 for the distribution
of the vertical component
of ground-induced
interference velocity
at Ze = 30, 60 , and 90 . As in the hover case, the results are sensitive
to the
disc-load
erally
analysis

distribution

not known

is the failure

of the ground

in the low-rotor-height

beforehand,

to consider

and of the roll-up

Sun [70] recently

developed

the aerodynamic
interaction
calculate
the induced-velocity
deformation

calibration

as either look-up
(similar to those

the distortion
wake.

a simplified

Here,

Since
useful.

the disc-load
Another

of the near wake


free-wake

distribution
shortcoming

resulting

methods

is genof the

from the influence

may play an important

free-wake/roll-up-wake

distribution

of the ground

and the roll-up

near the blade

with test data, plots

IGE to be used in detailed

region.
are not very

flow model

role.

to investigate

between the rotor wake, the ground, and the roll-up wake and to
distribution
at the rotor plane. He found that the near-wake

from the influence

the induced-velocity
proper

the results

flight-dynamic

tables (similar to those


used in Ref. 72).

similar

wake

tip in the forward


to NACA

simulations,

charts

large variations

part of the rotor.

[16] for OGE

particularly

used in Ref. 71) or simple

64-16

causes

in a real-time
curve-fit

After

are needed

in
a
for

environment

equations

For flight-dynamic simulations,first-harmonicinflow models,eitherin static[71] or


dynamic [32-34]form, havebeenusedin recentyears.Curtiss[73] recentlyanalyzedand
determinedeffectivevaluesof the constantandfirst-harmonicinflow coefficients,v0,vc, and
vs,in Eq. (7a),usinglow-advance-ratioground-effectdataobtainedfrom thePrinceton
Dynamic Model Track facility [70,74].The experimentalfacility andthe modelrotor are
describedin Refs.73 and74. Someof theseobtainedby Curtiss,recastin the formatof
Fig. 16,areshownin Figs.28 and29.Figure28 showsanexampleof thevalueof v0/vh vs.
Voo/vh at Z/R = 0.88.The valuecalculatedfrom the momentumtheory,OGE,which is
identicalto thatshownin Fig. 16(0_= 0), is alsoplotted(shownby thedashedline) for comparison.Whenthe valueof thenormalizedspeed,Vodvh,is lessthanabout1,theeffect of the
groundis favorablein thatit reducesthe meaninducedvelocity to a valuebelowthatindicatedby the momentumtheory.However,the effectof the groundbecomesadversewhenthe
value of the normalizedspeed,Vdv h,is increasedbeyond1.Theseexperimentallyderived
characteristicsareconsiderablydifferentfrom thoseobtainedfrom the simplevortex theory
of Heyson[59] shownin Fig. 24, in which the effectof groundis alwaysfavorable.
Curtiss[73] alsofoundfrom theexperimentaldatathattheeffect of the groundis to
reducesignificantlythe cosine(thefore-and-aft)componentof theharmonicinflow. As
shownin Fig. 29, the normalizedcosinecomponentis depictedasa functionof height-toradiusratio at two collectivepitch settings.For purposesof comparison,valuescalculated
using theBlake/Whitetheory[49], which is oneof thefour OGE theoriesshownpreviously
in Fig. 16,arealsoplottedin the figure.As shown,anincreasein collectivepitch somewhat
decreasesthevalueof thenormalizedcosinecomponentat thehighervaluesof the normalized flight speed.At low speeds,therecirculationmaypreventthe developmentof a longitudinal distributionof theinducedvelocity. Theflow field in this flight regimeis extremely
complicated.Flow-visualizationexperiments[70,74]indicatedthattherearetwo distinct
flow patterns:recirculationandgroundvortex,asshownin Fig. 30.Fromhoverto the normalizedadvanceratio of about0.5,dependingon therotor height,is theregionof recirculation of the wakethroughtherotor. As the speedis increased,a newpatternin the form of a
concentratedvortex appearsundertheleadingedgeof the rotor.Theseexperimentsalsoindicatedthatthe inducedvelocityis very sensitiveto low levelsof translationalaccelerationand
deceleration.The sinecomponent(or lateraldistribution)of the inducedvelocity wasfound
to be negligiblein this very-low-speedflight regime(advanceratio <0.1).
C. High-Speed
When

Forward

the forward

Flight

speed

increases

beyond

the normalized

speed,

h = 2, the mean

VoJv

induced velocity will decrease


by more than 50% of the hover value and the wake skew angle
(for o_ = 0) will exceed 75 . In this flight regime, therefore,
the effect of the ground disappears,

and the influence

less significant.
regime,
lation

Nevertheless,

and to show

correlate

with some

of inflow

resulting

forces

of the induced

how

velocity

it is of interest

some of the simple

on the rotor
to review

of the old and new experimental

and moments

acting

on the tail rotor

briefly.

64-17

and moments

some of the work

first-harmonic

near the rotor in this flight regime,

forces
inflow

provide

related

models

data. Applicable
which

to this flight

listed

theories

a method

and tail surfaces,

becomes
in Table

for the calcu-

for estimating

will also be reviewed

the

In 1954,Gessow[10] providedanexcellentsurveyof work on the inducedflow of a lifting rotor. He showedby anexamplethatin high-speedforwardflight, the inducedvelocity
distributionat therotor disc calculatedfrom the simplecylindrical wakemodelof Castles
andDeLeeuw [14] correlatedfairly well with thatderivedfrom smoke-flowpicturesobtained
in flight by BrotherhoodandSteward[ 11]. Gessow'sexampleis shownin Fig. 31.Note that
in the figure,the normalizedinducedvelocity, V/Vh,is equalto (v/v0)(v0/vh).Thus,thecalcu,
latedvaluesin the figure canbeobtainedfrom NACA chartssuchasthosein Fig. 14(for the
example,the wakeskewangleis about82) to obtainthevalueof v/v0,andfrom Fig. 16to
obtainthe valueof v0/vh for the givenoperatingcondition.At this flight condition(advance
ratio = 0.167),theinflow distributionis nonlinear,varying from a slightupwashatthe leading edgeof therotor to a strongdownwashatthe trailing edge.In Ref. 11,a linearfit to the
testdatayields thevalue of Kc = 1.43,which is significantlyhigherthanthatcalculatedfrom
Colemanet al. (Kc= tan(_2)=0.87)asshownin Table4. Forpurposesof comparison,three
otherfirst-harmonicinflow modelslistedin Table2 areincludedin the tablefor all three
flight conditionstested.
It is evidentfrom the tablethattheBlake/Whitemodelandthe Pitt/Petersmodelbetter
matchthe linear fit to the testdatathantheothertwo modelsdo. It is alsointerestingto note
thatthe meaninducedvelocity (or inducedvelocityat therotor disccenter)of thelinear fit to
thetestdatais considerablysmallerthanthatcalculatedfrom themomentumtheoryfor all
threetestconditions.Fig. 32 showsanexampleof a testconditionsimilar to thatshownin
Fig. 31. Threeadditionalfirst-harmonicinflow models,i.e.,Blake,Pitt, andHowlett, are
includedin theoriginal figure in Ref. 11,in which someresultsfrom ManglerandSquare
[ 12] arealsoshown.
Table4. Comparisonof SeveralFirst-HarmonicInflow Modelswith Brotherhood-Steward
[11] Flight Data
Testconditions
Parameter
Advanceratio
Estimatedwake-skewangle,deg

0.138
82.8

0.167
82.1

0.188
84.9

vO/vh
Momentum
Linear fit to data[11]

0.34
0.25

0.29
0.26

0.26
0.20

Kc
Data fit
Coleman
Pitt
Howlett
Blake

1.54
0.88
1.30
0.98
1.40

64-18

1.43
0.87
1.28
0.98
1.40

1.94
0.91
1.35
0.99
1.41

In 1976,LandgrebeandEgolf [75,76]extensivelycorrelatedtheir wakeanalysis(which


is generallyknown asUTRC rotorcraftwakeanalysis)with induced-velocitytestdata
obtainedfrom 1954to 1974from 10differentsources.The analysisincludeda hostof
optionsrangingfrom theclassicalskewedhelicalwakemodelto a free-wakemethod,which
providesthe capabilityfor thecalculationof bothtime-averagedandinstantaneous
induced
velocitiesat andneara rotor, asdescribedin detailin Refs.19and77. Theresultsof the correlation studyindicatedthatthe predictionfrom thefree-wakemethodwasgenerallyin good
agreementwith the testdata,althoughthe accuracydeterioratedneara wakeboundaryor in
thevicinity of therotor blade,mainly becauseof the useof lifting line (insteadof lifting surface) theoryin the analysis.Theresultof LandgrebeandEgolf's correlationof their wake
analysisdatawith a setof laservelocimeterdataobtainedby BiggersandOrloff [78] in a
wind tunnelat theNASA AmesResearchCenteris shownin Fig. 33.The testconditionwas
anadvanceratio of 0.18with a TPPangleof attackof-6.6 . The calculatedandthe measuredradialdistributionsof theverticalvelocity componentat 90 azimuthposition (i.e.,
advancingside)areshownat four verticalpositionsbeneaththe rotor planefor the timeaveragedandinstantaneous
values,respectively,in (a)and(b). Thecalculatedvalues
includedthosebothwith andwithout wakedistortion(the wake-distortionversioncorrespondedto theuseof their free-wakemethod).As aresultof the passageof the tip vortices,
the flow is upwardoutsidethe wakeanddownwardinsidethe wake.The free-wakemethod
tendsto betterpredictthe tip vortexposition,therebyimprovingthe correlationwith the data.
However,ascanbe seenin thesefigures,thecalculatedvaluesbecomesignificantly
degradedasthevortex positionapproaches
the rotor plane.
In 1988,Hoadet al. [2] did extensivecorrelationsbetweenseveralstate-of-the-artanalytical rotor wakemethodsandinflow measurements
collectedfrom a wind tunnelat NASA
LangleyResearchCenterusinga laservelocimeter[1]. The laserdatawereobtainedat variousazimuthalandradial positionsslightly abovetherotor discplane(z/R= 0.0885)at
advanceratiosof 0.15, 0.23,and0.30.Thethrustcoefficientwas0.0064,andtheTPP angle
of attackwassmall,rangingfrom -3 to-4 . The analyticalmethodsexaminedincluded
threeoptions(classicalskewed-helixwakemodule,free-wakemodule,andgeneralized-wake
module)of the UTRC rotorcraftwakeanalysis[76,79]discussedearlier,the CAMRAD [27]
with the Scully free wake[28], andthe Beddoesmethod[80], which utilized aprescribed
wakegeometry.Theresultsshowthat,in general,thecalculatedvalues,eventhosecalculated
from thefree-wakemethods,do not agreevery well with the measureddata.The large
upwashregionin the leading-edgepartof thedisc,apparentin themeasureddata,is not
reproducedby the calculations.Neitheris the largestdownwashon the advancingsideof the
rearportion of thedisc matchedby thecalculatedvalues.
It is of interestto seehow well the simplefirst harmonicinflow modelslistedin Table2
performcomparedto thosesophisticatedcomputercodesjust discussed.The four inflow
modelsshownin Fig. 16wereusedto calculatethe inducedvelocitiesatthe rotor disc, without correctionsfor the smallverticalpositiondifference,z/R = 0.0885.The resultswere
comparedwith the measureddatafor thefore-and-aftradial distributionsat thethreeadvance
ratiosshownin Fig. 34. It is seenthatthemeaninflow ratio calculatedfrom the momentum
theoryis considerablylargerthanthe measuredvaluesasthe advanceratio increases.This
trendwasalsonotedpreviouslyin the discussionof correlationswith the flight dataof
64-19

BrotherhoodandSteward.Failureto considerthe wakeroll-up andthepresenceof the


inducedvelocity componentparallelto the rotor discplanemight accountfor thediscrepancy.The slope,however,matchesthe trendof thedatafairly well, particularlywith the Pitt
andBlakemodels.Correlationsfor otherazimuthalpositionsshowa similar trend,asshown
in Fig. 35 for I.t= 0.15.To comparemorequantitativelythemerits or flaws of thefirst harmonicinflow models,theradial distributionof the inflow angleerrorsfrom eachof the four
modelswascalculatedatvariousazimuthalpositionsfor all threeadvanceratiostested.The
resultsshowthatthe first harmonicinflow modelscomparefavorablywith thosecalculated
from thefree-wakeandprescribed-wake
methodsevaluatedby Hoad etal. [2]. Fig. 36 shows
anexampleof sucha comparisonat theadvanceratio of 0.15.At the zeroazimuthalposition,
= 0, the first harmonicinflow modelsproducelargerinflow errorsin the inboardportion
thanmostof the prescribed-andfree-wakecodesdo; however,in the outboardportion
(r/R > 0.5),which is more importantthantheinboardregionbecauseof thehigherdynamic
pressure,all four simpleinflow modelsperformbetterthanthefive wakecodesdo. Similar
trendsareseenfor otherazimuthalpositions.Overall,thePitt inflow modelseemsto perform
slightly betterthanthe otherthreefirst-harmonicinflow modelsat the advanceratio of 0.15.
However,at thehigheradvanceratiosof 0.23and0.30,thereseemsto beno clearly discernableadvantageof onemodelover theother,asshownin Figs.37 and38. Fromthesefigures,
it canalsobe seenthat,overall, all the simplefirst-harmonicinflow modelsperformaswell
(or aspoorly) asthe five state-of-the-artprescribed-andfree-wakecodesdo.
Beforethis sectionis concluded,a vortex theoryusinga flat-wakeconceptthatis suitable
for higherforwardflight shouldbe discussed.Theflat-waketheory [22] is basedon the
assumptionthatthe freevorticesleavingtherotor bladesform a continuousvortex sheet
which is sweptbackwith the free streamwithout a downwardmotion.For simplicity in carrying out theintegrationinvolvedin calculatingtheinducedvelocitiesusing theBiot-Savart
law, circulationis assumedto beindependentof the azimuthalposition.The detailedmathematicaltreatmentis describedin Refs.22 and23. In thesereferences,it is suggestedthatthe
theoryis generallyvalid for I.t> 1.62_fC-T,which corresponds
to thewakeskewangle,calculatedfrom the momentumtheory,of above80 at 0t= 0. Goodresultswerereported
recentlyby ZhaoandCurtiss[33] usingtheflat-waketheoryto treattheinfluencesof the
rotor wakeon thetail rotor andthetail surfaces.M. D. Takahashiof AmesResearchCenter
recentlydevelopeda softwaremodulebasedon Refs.22 and33 for rapid calculationof
inducedvelocitiesat andneartherotor in high-speedforwardflight. Goodcorrelationof the
calculatedvalueswith testdataavailablein Ref.22 wasobtained,asshownin Fig. 39. The
dataweremeasuredon a plane 10%of thedisk radiusbeneaththerotor disk, atthe flight
conditionsof CT = 0.006 and _ = 0. Correlationwasalsoperformedwith the wind tunnel
dataof Ref. 1.Figure40 showsthecalculatedinducedinflow ratiosatthreevaluesof the
advanceratios,l.t = 0.15,0.23,and0.30,all at ot= 0, CT = 0.0064,and z/R = 0.0885(above
therotor disk). For the purposeof comparisonwith the datain Figs.36-38,theinflow angle
errorsat thesedatapointswerealsocalculated.Figure41 showsanexampleof theresultsat
two azimuthpositions,_ = 0 and180".It is seenthatthe correlationof theflat-wakemethod
improvesnearthe trailing edgeof therotor astheadvanceratio increases;however,the correlationdeterioratessomewhatin the midsectionof the rotor.Overall,theresultsfrom the
flat-wakemethodcomparefavorablywith the free-wakemethods.

64-20

3.2 Static

Effect

Since,

in a steady

dynamic

moment

harmonic

inflow

matrix
radial

Resulting

from

pitching

Aerodynamic

or rolling

on the airstream,
distribution.

of the harmonic
distribution

and v s are related

motion,

inflow

to assume

theory

components

a first-harmonic

that there

can be applied

in hover.

components

to aerodynamic

the rotor can exert

it is reasonable

Momentum

of the inflow

Moments

Curtiss

would

be a first-

[32] to determine

[81] has shown

and rolling

moment

the gain

that for linear

in the form of Eq. (7), the inflow

pitching

aero-

coefficients

components

vc

by a gain matrix,

fvs

(12)

Vc

where

the value

of K depends

on the wake

model

used. For a "rigid

wake

model,"

which

assumes
that the mass flow used in applying
the momentum
theory considers
only v 0' the
value of K is 2. For a "nonrigid
wake model," which considers
the total inflow, v = v 0 + v c
cos _ + v s sin _, in calculating
the mass flow when applying
value of K i s 1. Note that the rigid wake model corresponds
latter

to Ref. 42. Gaonkar

the gain matrix


assumptions.
from

from

a historical

Perhaps

Extension
using

unsteady

Analysis

and discuss

review

of the development

the implications

data are needed

from hover

and less satisfactory.

actuator
using

discussed

perspective,

an extensive

to resolve

of

of the two wake

the controversy

resulting

assumptions.

of the gain matrix


difficult

with the results

[82] provide

more experimental

the two different

to be more

and Peters

the momentum
theory, the
to that used in Ref. 40 and the

theory,
a prescribed

earlier.

rather

than perturbed,

angle,

it can be shown

has been

correlated

wake

method

The gain matrix,

values

to forward

flight

The gain matrix,

of the thrust

extensively
contained

L, was further
coefficient.

using

developed

momentum

and compared

in the UTRC
extended

Expressed

theory

proves

by Pitt and Peters

by Peters

in terms

favorably

Rotorcraft

[44]
[83]

Wake

[46] for total,

of wake-skew

to be
CT

v0

, Vs

= [L].

C1

Cm

,Vc

64-21

(13a)

1
2v T

15g tanZ
64Vm

Vm(1 + cos

Z)

(!3b)

4 cos Z

Vm(1 + cos Z)
where

v T = (tl 2 + _2)1/2, and the mass-flow

parameter,

Vm, is given

by

g2 + _,(_ + vo)
Vm =

(14)

VT

Note from Eq. (13) that the Glauert gradient term, which represents
the ratio of the v 0 to v c
due to thrust, is (15r_/64)tan(ff2),
which was discussed
earlier. For hover and for high-speed
flight (more precisely,
for wake
Eqs. (15) and (16), respectively:

skew angle

= 90),

"1

-1

2
1
Lhver = "_0

64

1
= _-

that

theory

L22 and L33

using

by using

the total values

as derived
one-half

the nonrigid

in the original
that shown

elements
wake

in (15) are identical


assumption

discussed

of C y and v 0. When
Pitt/Peters

dynamic

in Eq. (15) (i.e., Lll

= 1/(4v0).

those
proper

shown

and the pitching-moment


in Eqs.

coordinate

coefficient.

system

is used. The inflow

to those

derived

earlier.

The value

model
Notice

the momentum

of L 11 is obtained

of C T and v 0 are used

[44], the value

of Lll

is only

also from Eq. (13) that while

adopting

analysis,

components,

64-22

values

from

the

from other components,


the steady and
and they are functions
of both the thrust

When

(7) and (13) for flight-dynamic

(16)

the perturbation
inflow

sine component
of the induced
velocity is uncoupled
cosine components
are, in general, closely coupled,
coefficient

Note

12

45rc

to

64

in Eq. (13) reduces

(15)

75rc

Lcruise

the gain matrix

an inflow

care should

model

such as

be taken that the

and the aerodynamic

force

(thrust)

andmoments(pitchingandrolling), arereferredto in the wind axissystem;therefore,proper


coordinatetransformationsaregenerallyrequiredfor applicationsto flight dynamics.
4. INFLOW

MODELS_DYNAMICS

We now turn to the dynamic


section

(except

induced
namic

aspect

in the discussion

velocity

builds

moments,

of the induced

of free-wake

up instantaneously,

to its new inflow

velocity.

methods)
in response

state.

Since

a large

In most of the preceding

it was tacitly
to changes
mass

assumed

that the

in disc-loading

or aerody-

of air must be accelerated

to

reach the new inflow state, there will be dynamic


lag associated
with the buildup of induced
velocity.
For a finite-state characterization
of the induced velocity,
such as the Pitt/Peters
inflow

model

time constants

( a three-state
associated

state characterization
induced

velocities

model

for the induced

with the buildup

of the induced

velocity,

at and near the lifting

velocity

of the three

at the rotor

inflow

disc),

components.

such as a free-wake

rotor is in consonance

model,

there

will be

For a nonfinitethe evolution

with the development

of the
of the

vortex wake geometry


and the blade loading. In this case, however,
there are no explicitly
defined states or time constants
associated
with the dynamic process.
It is conceivable
that a
finite-state
est (such
tedious.

dynamic

model

as at the rotor

For simulation
rigid-body

disc) from the original

of rotorcraft

modes,

dynamic

must be considered.

Recent

the inflow

modes

flapping

dynamic
and lead-lag

ity of the rotorcraft.


nonfinite-state,
rapidly
real-time

studies

between

[32-34,50]

strong

the inflow

For nonlinear

simulation,

methods

computational

power

of rotorcraft

to the updated

state model

[47,82]

suitable

the dynamic

inflow

equation,

at reduced

as those

flight

dynamic
version

dynamics.
inflow

environment,

for linear

of the

inflow
analysis

the discussion

models
or for

that follows

models.

of the Pitt/Peters

for flight-dynamic

M.

For this reason,

of

the stabil-

because

finite-state

suited

motion

of the rotor blade


influencing

in the future

cost. However,

be

the frequencies

in a nonreal-time

[84] are better

would

and the blade

can be present,

particularly

of inter-

than that of the

that, because

may find wide application

[44] and Peters/He

range

dynamics

of magnitude

coupling

area

but the procedure

frequency

have indicated

dynamic

for the specific

model,

in a higher

are of the same order

on the finite-state

According

free-wake

dynamics

interactions

of Pitt/Peters

simulation

is focused

flight

modes,

free-wake

expanding

such as those

may be used to fit the data generated

dynamic

applications,

v0

v0

CT

v s,+L-l*

v s _=.

C1 ,

Vc.

Vc.

64-23

,Cm,

inflow

the apparent

theory
mass

for a threematrix,

M, in

(17)

is given by
8

3_

16

M_

the

(The value
respectively
[44]).

Mll

element

of Mll

45x

to be 128/75x

in Eq. (18) and the suggested

to "uncorrected"

Recent

16

was suggested

studies

[45,85]

and "corrected"
have

found,

(18)

45x

in which

value

values

however,

for rotors

with twisted

for a twisted

stated

in the original

that the value

identical
to that originally
proposed
by Carpenter
and Fridovich
the flight-test
data, even though the rotor blades are twisted.

['_]'

Vs

,Vc.

[47].

Pitt/Peters

model

[13], correlates

better

is obtained

is
with

by multi-

"CT _

v0

.+.

blades

correspond

of M 11 = 8/3x, which

The matrix of time constants


associated
with the inflow dynamics
plying both sides of Eq. (17) by the static gain matrix, L, to yield

v0

blade

= [L],

vs

(19)

C1 .

Cm'

v c

where
1
vT

3x

-i_-_m tan z

64
[x] = LM =

45XVm(1 + cos

(20)

X)
64 cos

45XVm(1 + cos
Values
given

of the time constant

matrix

in hover

and in edgewise

by

64-24

flight

X)

(i.e., _ = 90 ) are therefore

3re

1
[Z]hover

16

45rc

vo

45rc
1

3re

(21)

16

1
[Xlcruise = _

12

64
45rc

(22)

It is of interest
L, discussed

theory
in moments

as explained
hingeless

section.

associated

matrix

Equation

with the nonrigid-wake

the time constants

changes

the time-constant

in the preceding

momentum
used,

that in hover

earlier,

the static

inflow

as large

are. Correlations

[82,86,87]

to that derived
variations

as those

mixed

results

on the

assumption

resulting

shown

with wind tunnel

produced

gain matrix,
based

[32]. If the rigid-wake

with the harmonic

gains

in hover

as is the static

(21) is identical

assumption

(i.e., "C22 and '_33) are twice

rotor model

is diagonal,

is

from

in Eq. (21) because,


data obtained

using

from

the two different

wake assumptions.
lem. For detailed

More work is needed to resolve this controversial


"factor of two" probdiscussions
of the historical
development
of the dynamic inflow models, the

reader

to the excellent

review

paper

of nonuniform

inflow

models

is referred

of Gaonkar

and Peters

[82].

5. SUMMARY
A brief survey
and near a lifting

rotor

trol applications.

The survey

out of ground

effect.

has been conducted

first-harmonic

inflow

cated

developed

methods

dynamic

aspects

the comparative
correlation
monic

models

developed

of the inflow

and low-speed
has been

predict

available

flight,

static

and

is considered

from

effect,

as well (or as poorly)

simple

sophisti-

Both

aspect

At the rotor out of ground


velocity

both in and

with more

only the static

at

and con-

of various

disciplines.

old and new test data. Results

surprising.
the induced

in comparison

velocities

dynamics

on the evaluation

and structure
however,

of induced
of flight

and high-speed

placed

over the years,

were reviewed;

using

are somewhat

models

hover

emphasis

for use in performance

evaluation

effort

inflow

covers

A primary

for the calculation

from the perspective

all the first-har-

as the free-wake

methods reviewed
when compared
to a set of new data at advance ratios of 0.15, 0.23,
0.30. The results of correlation
with several sets of test data indicate
that the Pitt/Peters
harmonic

inflow

suggested

that charts

should

be produced

model

works

similar
using

well overall.
to those

modern

For inflow

of Heyson/Katzoff

free-wake

methods

64-25

near the rotor


and Castles/De

in

this limited

or in ground
Leeuw

for use in flight-dynamic

and
first-

effect,

it is

of NACA
analyses

and

simulations.Finally, it is suggestedthatadditionalexperimentsbeconductedtoresolve
issuesconcerningtheinfluenceof massflow assumptionson aerodynamicmomentsandtime
constantsassociatedwith inflow dynamics.
REFERENCES

Elliott,

J. W. and Althoff,

on a Helicopter
o

4.

Hoad,
Ratio,

Model

S. L., Inflow

in Forward

Measurement

Flight,

D. R., Althoff, S. L., and Elliott,


Ann. Forum AHS, June 1988.

Glauert,

H., A General

Theory

of the Autogyro,

Inflow

R&M

Velocimeter
April

Variability

1988.

with Advance

No. 1111, British

A.R.C.,

1926.

Wheatley,
J. B., An Aerodynamic
Analysis
of the Autogiro
Rotor with a Comparison
Between
Calculated
and Experimental
Results, NACA Report No. 487, 1934.

Coleman,
Velocity

with a Laser

TM 100541-100543,

J. W., Rotor

Seibel, C., Periodic Aerodynamic


Forces
Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 339-342,
Oct. 1944.

5,

NASA

Made

Drees,

R. P., Feingold,
Field

Helicopter

A. M., and Stempin,

of an Idealized

J. M. Jr., A Theory
Problems,

on Rotors

Helicopter

of Airflow

J. Helicopter

Assoc.

Brotherhood,
P., An Investigation
Helicopter
Rotor When Hovering,

Gessow, A. and Myers, G. C. Jr., Aerodynamics


Pub. Co., New York, 1952.

10.

Gessow, A., Review


TN 3238, 1954.

11.

Brotherhood,
a Helicopter

Rotor

in Forward

Rotors

J. Aero.

of the Induced-

ARR L5E10,

1945.

and its Application

Britain,

Sci.,

to Some

Vol. 3, No. 2, July-Sept.

1949.

in Flight of Induced Velocity Distribution


Under a
Br. ARC RAE Report No. Aero.2212,
June 1947.

of Information

P. and Steward,

NACA

Great

Flight,

C. W., Evaluation

Rotor,

Through

in Forward

on Induced

W., An Experimental
Flight,

R&M

of the Helicopter,

Flow of a Lifting

Investigation

No. 2734,

Sept.

Frederick

Rotor,

Ungar

NACA

of the Flow

Through

1949.

12.

Mangler,
K. W. and Square,
No. 2642, May 1950.

13.

Carpenter,
P. J. and Fridovich,
B., Effect of a Rapid-Pitch
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Inflow
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64-32

Velocities

ITR Methodology

June 21-22,

on Rotor

May

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P. P. and Venkatesan,
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Finite

Comparison

Unsteady
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AHS-NASA

Aerodynamic
Resonance,
Ames,

Nov.

Second
7-9,


\
\

V T

,u

WAKE

SKEW

ANGLE:

tan

-_

/l

Voo cosc_
S2R
Voo

X = vo

Figure

1. Wake

sins
_R

skew angle.

b1

----]---

4/3

#13o

AIC

4/3

/_/3o

A1C

2/_v/_2R

4/3

/_/3o

A1C

v/_R

WITH

CASTLES

AND

WITH

VERTOL

HELICAL

WITH

HEYSON

AND

tan

DE

X12

LEEUW

CHARTS

WAKE
KATZOFF

(REF

METHOD

(REF

CHARTS

(REF

14)
18)
15)

_4
e_
iii
--]

TEST
3

(3

CT/_

.08

_TPP

+1

(3
(3

Z
<
Z

<
.d
ii
.d
<
er
UJ
<
l
0

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

ADVANCE

Figure 2. Comparison
of calculated
test data (from Ref. 24).

lateral

RATIO

flapping

64-33

angles

using

several

inflow

models

with

MOMENTUM
EMPIRICAL

---

THEORY
THEORY

VORTEX-RING
STATE

w, O ,LL; ',, 1;1


BRAKE

i\

STATE

_VERTICAL
- 14

CLIMB

DESCENT-_

-3i

- 12

_VERTICAL

-1I

CLIMB-_

Vc/v h

Figure

3. Induced

velocity

relations

in vertical

flight

(from

Ref. 10).

Ru/R

2.0
T

I
I
i

I
I

Vd

-Vd
IVdl

1.5

12Vdl

J
1.0

'__,'_-Vc
- .5

', _':
-V C

I
-5

I
-4

IVdl
I
-3

_ IVdl
t
-2

; _'-v
I
d
-1

Vc --- Vc/Vh
0

|
41

Figure

4: Ratio

of fully developed

DESCENT

wake

radius

Ref. 23).

64-34

CLIMB

to that of the actuator

disk vs. V c (from

PRIMARY

BLADE

, 1/2__p_

PRIMARY

0-_-- T-

_ FREE

VORTEX
--FREE
/
-

LAST
WAKE

--

ADAPTIVE
MID WAKE

1-

!
_

FREE
POINT

2-

!--

z/R 2-_

WAKE

ADAPTIVE

I
!

- MID

3-

WAKE

4-

MOMENTUM
--THEORY

Figure
hover

5. Three-part
analysis

(from

wake

model

0
WAKE

for the

.6

(5 turns/
blade)

z/R

.8

!
i

FAR

.4
FREE

3-

.2

1 1/2-

WAKE

WAKE

1 TURN'-_//

,---

FAR

--

--WAKE

.5
rlR

54xNt

WAKE

1.0

(REF
54)
EMPIRICAL

1.2

.2

.4

.6
r/R

.8

i
1.0

1.2

Figure 6. Computed
wake envelope
for a
two-bladed
rotor having five turns of free

Ref. 53).

wake per blade


Ref. 53).

with

C T =.0058

(from

3O

20

CALC.

_.

I.I.

O
-r
>

10

Figure

7. Comparison

.2
FRACTION

of calculated

.4
OF

BLADE

uniform

64-35

.6
RADIUS,

.8
r/R

and nonuniform

1.0

inflow

with measurements.

MOMENTUM

ANALYSIS

(TIP

------

GOLDSTEIN-LOCK

-----

PRESCRIBED

CLASSICAL

PRESCRIBED

EXPERIMENTAL

(GENERALIZED

LOSS

= 0.97)

ANALYSIS
WAKE

ANALYSIS
WAKE

ANALYSIS

WAKE)

u. 80

>-

p.

_) 60

40

20

m
/

=
0.2

I
.4

I
.6
r/R

<

Figure 8. Comparison
of induced velocities
prescribed-wake
analyses
(from Ref. 56).

calculated

64-36

I
.8

from

I
1.0

momentum

theory

and three

z/R

/
\

z/R

0
f

/
/

Figure 9. Contours of induced-velocity


ratio v/v 0 in the longitudinal
two different disk loadings at _ = 0 (from Ref. 16).

64-37

plane of the rotor for

z/R
1.0

2
.

_..

3/2
1

1,_

.6

i
.20

I ....
.40

I
.60

I
.80

i
1.00

r/R

Figure

10. Induced-velocity

distribution

DISK-LOAD

along

rotor

blade

in ground

effect

(from

Ref. 58).

DISTRIBUTION
UNIFORM

.....

TRIANGULAR
H/R =_

-.2

-.4

<1 -.6

-.8

-1.0

Figure
the rotor

11. Distribution
in hover

(from

I
-.8

I
-,6

of ground-induced

I
-.4

I
-.2

0
r/R

interference

Ref. 59).

64-38

I
.2

I
.4

I
.6

velocities

I
.8

I
1.0

over the longitudinal

axis of

= 40
20
140

oo
_20

120

-40

"0

_.,...._

,.--..-" _

;2 100
LU
--I

(3
Z

8O

60

4o
20

3
V_/v

Figure
angle

12. Wake

skew

angle vs. normalized

flight

I
4

I
5

I
6

velocity

at several

values

of tip-path

plane

at low speeds

(from

of attack.

60

50

DOWNWIND

I-I

UPWIND

_/OG)
__M
J_

_
z

CALC.
FROM
MOMENTUM

-o 40

30

_ 20
_.

10
0

_EECwT
-0

I
.2

----'-I_

IAONNG_E_X
t
.4

t
.6

I
.8

R
1.0

t
1.2

L
1.4

Voo/v h

Figure
Ref.

13. Comparison

of calculated

and measured

10).

64-39

wake

skew

angles

'X= 26.56

z/R

-1

-2

X = 45.00 1

z/R

-1

-2
-3

-2

-1

0
x/R

Figure 14. Lines of constant values of isoinduced velocity ratio v/v 0 in longitudinal
symmetry for several wake skew angles (from Ref. 16). (a) Z =26.56. (b) Z = 45.

64-40

plane of

z/R

-1

-2

z/R

-1

-2
-3

-2

-1

x/R

Figure

14. Concluded.

(c))_ = 63.43 . (d))C = 75.97.

64-41

1.6

BLAKE/WHITE
PITT/PETERS

1.2

.8

..'2"

_/"

"x

"X?..

.4

_---- "-

,, I,,

20

40

60

80

100

WAKESKEW

Figure

15. Comparison

ANGLE

,deg

of Vc/V0 for several

64-42

I
120

inflow

models.

I
140

1.0

r-

"..

CLIMB:

_ =-20

*e

oe

oloooeooe
o

Vo/V h
BLAKE

......

PITT

e
>O

HOWLETT

.6

.4

>J

.2
--.... ___.......

_'/

_.

_.

_..'-3-_T

1.0
ooooo

Vc/Vh

_ = 0

.8

.4

.2

1.2

1.0
0
>

.8

.6

.4

Figure
angle

16. Comparison

of Vc/V h vs. VoJv h for several

of attack.

64-43

inflow

models

at three

values

of TPP

om

LOW SPEED
REGIME

n-

MODERATE
SPEED REGIME

HIGH SPEED
REGIME

k/J
,.d
O
.)

Figure 17. Typical


Ref. 60).

20

40

helicopter

vibration

04--

140 160
knots

characteristics

,F\

20

iii
>

18. Vibration

180

200

with increasing

airspeed

(from

02

01

Figure

100
120
AIRSPEED,

FLARE

03

_.J
F.-

F.

ira

60
80
FORWARD

characteristics

40

...._._
60

AIRSPEED,

for a four-bladed

64-44

80

_b'_''-_

100

120

140

knots

single rotor helicopter

(from Ref. 61).

1,4

c_= -20
1.2

'

1.0

.8

.6

..:_.I___--- .......

/J/'/

SLAKE

.....

PiTT

--'--

COLEMAN
GEN. HEL.

.4
/
.2

/,/j/

r_
I

(a)

1,6

o'

1,4

1,2

___------------------

".o-/

_ _

/f

,,,G_ _

I-'-

o- / ,,V.. _
_-l,_/
0 _'_/''r/

(b)

1,6 r
|

o
_ = 20

I /,,;

.....

//

1.0

_._,_,_

'I/,:;:;;'"
-'--- !

'r / ,,.2/

,F/,,'k"
._l-lJ
0

(c)

Figure 19. Comparison


of attack.

V_/v h

of K c values

of several inflow

64-45

models

at three values of TPP angle

d,

TEST

REFERENCE

[]

THEORY

_1 _ 0

THEORY

_1 = 0

(24)

==

'ID
o3

==

'ID
t,..Q

] BB

ot

.05

.10

,15

.20

BB

.25

-10

0.75'

Figure
Harris'

20. Correlation
test data (from

of calculated
Ref. 63).

flapping

angles

KA-A_

using

deg

the Blake/White

-5

0
_:, deg

inflow

model

with

BLAKE
(REF
_-_

jCAMRAD
49)

f_3"

(REF

24)

(REF

26)

/C-81

(REF

64)

<,_
_T

l/o,
/

TEST

.04

.08

.12

.16

ADVANCE

Figure

21. Prediction

of lateral

RATIO,

flapping

.20

.24

//

is improving

(from

Ref.

48).

C-18
64)

CAMRAD
(REF

26)

BLAKE
(REF

49)

.16

.20
-1.0
=

180

I
1.0

0
RADIUS

STATION

Figure
22. Induced
velocity
distribution
in the plane
I.t = 0.08, _TPP =1.4 , CT/O = 0.08 (from Ref. 48).

64-47

ff

of symmetry

is sort of triangular

at

i
20

i
40

I
60

AIRSPEED,

Figure 23. Comparison


test (from Ref. 25).

of Kc values

i
80

kN

used in the design

analysis

and determined

from flight

, deg
14.04
45.00
0
26.56
i
i
i

63.43
i

75.97
i

.8:--.---.-.">.___
--.
.......

84.29
i

--- 2.0

-._._'_

-.-

1.5

.6 __
- I _ - --_ _.._._ -.......
lo:_
4

"_ -_:_'_

.2

.........

0
O

"'"

I
.5

i
1.0

i
1.5

i
2.0

i
2.5

I
3.0

3.5

Voo/Vh

Figure 24. Induced


Ref. 66).

velocity

at center

of rotor in forward

64-48

flight near the ground

(from

--_

Voo

_,

-_

J'_

i .S__i_.

GROUND

25. Rotor and wake in ground

effect (from Ref. 59).

Figure

w
o == -v
o
Aw
-Av

L F_

_wlwol

Figure

NOTE:

26. Schematic

of rotor and fixed-wing

64-49

wakes

(from Ref. 77).

.2

-.2

-.4

-.6
DISK LOAD
DISTRIBUTION
-.8

UNIFORM
---

-1.0

TRIANGULAR

(a)
-1.2

,2
I
0

_--_

e = 60

HIR....

2.0

-.2

-.4

-_

-.6

<1

-.8

o_7-_-.o

",_

_0.5

_0

-1.0
_03

-1.2
-1.4

H/R

= oo
e = 30

--"_'--'--'---_

-,2

2.0 --.---.---=--

"_"='_='_-

-- 1.5 .....

_1
,,..._...- .,,

, .0

-.4

- - _:"_

-.6

:c.____

- - -o.7- - -

-.8

"0.3,

_o3.=.__-_

-I.0
(c)
-1.2
-1.0

i
-.8

i
-.6

=
-.4

i
-.2

.2

.4

.6

.8

1.0

x/R

Figure 27. Distribution


of the vertical component
of ground-induced
over the longitudinal
axis of a rotor in forward flight, c_ = 0 (from

64-50

interference
Ref. 59).

velocity

1.0

(9"_-

-----.4
.2

MOMENTUM

THEORY

(OGE)

.6

1.0

1.4

1.8

Vodv h

Figure 28. Constant component


of induced velocity as a function of normalized
advance ratio
as determined
from thrust measurement
(00.75 = 9.8 , shaft angle of attack = 0 , Alc = -1.5 ,
z/R = 0.88) (from Ref. 73).

1.2
00.75

(C T _ 0.005

= 8.4

THEORY

00.75

- 0.006)
[49]

= 9.8

THEORY

OGE

z/R

= 088/
/..

/
/
/

/"
"

/
/,

j
,

-^
O.bt_

/../.o.48
/,,

,"

OGE

= 0.88

. ._-'_

/"

/ .. 0.68

/...

.- _. 0.46

/:

(b)
I

.4

.8

1.2

1.6
0
Vodvh

Figure 29. Normalized


cosine of harmonic induced
advance ratio and height-to-radius
ratio determined
angle of attack

[49]

0.007)

_'_

(a)
0

z/R

-.4

/
/

.4

(C T = 0.006

.4

.8

1.2

1.6

velocity as a function of normalized


from hub moment measurements
(shaft

= 0). (a) 00.75 = 8.4 . (b) 00.75 = 9.8 (from Ref. 73).

64-51

i._

.6

E
ill
I-

<
O

_.2
-ira
I.H
-i-

I
.2

i
:4

I
.6

NORMALIZED

I
.8

ADVANCE

I
1.0

RATIO,

/a*

Figure 30. Boundaries


for recirculation
and ground vortex
flow visualization
studies (from Ref. 74).

Voo =

1.0

53

mph

LAT.

flow regimes

DISTANCE

.8

I
1.2

TO

[]

0.25R

0.30R

0.40R

determined

from

STB'D

.6
z_

__ .4
.2

0
Q
-.2
I

1.0

.8

.6

.4

.2

.2

.4

.6

.8

1.0

L.E.

Figure 31. Comparison


of calculated
induced velocities (from Ref. 10).

FRACTION

OF

BLADE

and measured

64-52

RADIUS,

r/R

(approximated

T.E.

from smoke-flow

pictures)

.........

EXPERIMENTAL

1:I
.6

RESULTS,

OF SMOKE

------

COLEMAN

CURVE

....

MANGLER

CURVES

--

PLANE

(REF.

12 LOAD

ACROSS

FORE

IN PLANE

DISTRIBUTION

AND

0.4R

.OWLETT

I
i
_

0.4R

"I"
F-]

0.3R
0.25R TO
TO STARBOARD
STARBOARD

DIAMETER

LATERAL

TYPE

PITT

AFT

TO STARBOARD

(REF.

OFFSET

6)

+..<

...._=0
..J

I)

..J

.if"

i = 15

_,..._+.."T,

:"" " .i

+./-I"
__.:.:"'I.L-'"
I"
+++._+_
._."3::':_":""I

...."$

.2

_-'_

._....t'
_

,,'".if

-.2

-.8

FORE

Figure

-.6

32. Comparison

dinal plane of symmetry

-.4
-.2
LONGITUDINAL

of calculated

I
0
POSITION

and measured

(It = 0.167).

64-53

ON

.2
ROTOR

induced

I
.4
DISC,

.6

.8

1.0
AFT

x/R

velocity

distributions

in longitu-

LV TEST DATA
------

UNDISTORTED
DISTORTED

WAKE

WAKE

ROTORCRAFTWAKE

/ ANALYSIS
.10

.06
.04

%=_10

"_N .02

_
t_

I-<_
z

_,.'_._

-.04

-.05

.;r
_

F<
Z

>, -.04 _-

_."

oI , /y',--'/I

-.07

(.9
<

"\ .,j /
_

-.05

nO
O
O
_J
< -.07

,71, -.02
o
o
o
J
_
I-re
w
>

-.10

.5>'--'-

, /.>- i

>-.o5-

/,'-_

-.03

o_TpP = -6.6

-.03

.o5

V/E_R = 0.18
0 = 8.5

-.04 &E

.o2F

-.09

,-,._'-"-'"
"-_"

oI ' _...v_
_'', ,,

-.09

-.02

r'- __._

-05 I- o--_

"--"

-.0
.7

.8
RADIAL

.9

i
1.0

COORDINATE,

i
1.1

i
1.2

y/R

-- -.10 _(b)
-.15 /
.7

V/aR

I
I

- %=-10o

\/
I
.8

RADIAL

= 0.18

o=8.5o

I
.9

(XTPP= -6'6
t
I
1.0
1.1

COORDINATE,

y/R

Figure 33. Calculated


and measured radial distributions
of vertical component
of induced
velocity beneath the advancing blade of a NASA model rotor. (a) Time-averaged
values.
(b) Instantaneous
values (from Ref. 75).

64-54

AFT

FORE

0/I

_:t_'_._,
._... _._--.._,

/
/
-.02

_.,,_

I
I

_"__

"

-_'__"
_'_-_

"'-

I---

.I

"'-1
......
I
....

_"_'_
_.'i_".

__--

.......

TEST

DATA

--'--

GEN.

HEL.

--.-

COLEMAN

(REF.

__ BLAKE
..... _,TT

"
I

-.06

_'-_._._

1)

.->

, """

.02

QOIQI

--I--

........ I

e_
__

eO*OOoo..=

oeeO

Oea.

0
,J

"
Z

-.02

D
w

-_._._
_._

._ -.04

_U =

.02

0.23

-.06

"-,,,

leo

.01

iIoe

o
!

elil,

O
lo

O
lllIOlill
e

1..

eooe

-.01

=
-.02

0.30

--

-.03
-1.2

-.9

-.6
_j =

Figure

34. Comparison

plane of symmetry

I
-.3

180

of calculated

at three advance

64-55

.6

.9

1.2

(r/R)

and measured
ratios.

I
.3
_j

induced

inflow ratios

in the longitudinal

.02
,,

_ = 180

_9

.....

I
TEST

_
....
'''"

I _
.........

-.02

=0

DATA

I
(REF.

1)

BLAKE
PITT
GEN. HEL,

_-_
"o

-.04

-.06

.O2

.9

1.2

0
cc
o
_1
g.

z
3

-.02

--

IJJ

o
a
z

-.04

--

.02

= 240

l.

-.02

= 60

--

-.04
-1.2

-.9

-.6

-.3

.3

.6

"'""1

r/R

Figure
t.t = 0.15

35. Comparison
for several

of measured
azimuthal

and calculated

positions.

64-56

induced

inflow-ratio

distributions

at

INFLOW
FLOW

ANGLE

ERROR,

deg

Z0_"
II

r_

ANGLE

ERROR,

deg

FLOW

ANGLE

ERROR,

INFLOW

deg

ERROR,

ANGLE
deg

_
b

b_ o

b_ b

b_ bb_

_1

O1

O
O

_-'c_

Ill

&

"11

iI

II

/L /

_'

k.o
O

= _///

._ _//
o"

{.0

0_

.;.
Ct_

,.p

INFLOW
INFLOW
;_"

FLOW

ANGLE

ERROR,

deg

ERROR,

_0

....

k_'" _ >_o

FLOW

ANGLE

ERROR,

deg

ERROR.

I[

ANGLE

'

deg

N"

ANGLE

'_. _'

I,
' _',',

II

Nm._>
i5
_

nl

"__
'l/_,

,,>o_o

o-_m

_,

deg

--

BLAKE

....

PITT
HOWLETT

==
-o

COLEMAN

cE

, _,.4,_

li:Tj"

O
a:5
uJ
ILl
_4
(3

N3
0
-I
"
Z

0
-1.2

-.9

-.6

= 180

, =

-.3

.3

.6

r/R

_,L-"

.9
_

180

=0

10

==

"0

1.2'

= 0

LASER

[]

BEDDOES

VELOCIMETER
METHOD

CAMRAD

FREE

DATA

WAKE

/_

UTRC

CLASSICAL

WAKE

UTRC

FREE

_Ik

UTRC

GENERALIZED

WAKE
WAKE

==s
LU

=,

O
...I
u.

-5
0

.5

1.0

I
1.5

r/R

.5

1.0

I
1.5

r/R

Figure 37. Comparison


of inflow-angle
errors calculated from simple first-harmonic
models with those from wake models evaluated in Ref. 2, l.t = 0.23.

64-58

inflow

(a) _ = 0

(b) _ = 180

_6

_5
w

<

4
3

BLAKE

....

PITT

_
_!_

.....
------

HOWLETT
COLEMAN

_o
_J
Z

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

1.0

1.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

1.0

1.1

r/R

r/R

10

10
REF.

==

[2]

REF.

[2]

[]
_

LASER

VELOCIMETER

BEDDOES
CAMRAD

DATA

METHOD
FREE WAKE

Z_ UTRC

CLASSICAL

WAKE

FREE WAKE ED WAKE

n"
LU
LU
--I

_Z

UTRC

o
_J
LI.

-5

.5

110

1.5,

-5 0

.5i

1.10

1.5

r/R

r/N

Figure 38. Comparison of inflow-angle errors calculated from simple first-harmonic inflow
models with those from wake models evaluated in Ref. 2, g = 0.30. (a) _ = 0. (b) _ = 180 .

64-59

.02
= 180
=

.02

= 225
-.02
_=

45/

O -.04
nr
0

-.06

_J

.02
LU

D
Z

-,02

-.04

6
-'0-1.5

-1

L I

-.5

.5

1.5

r/R

Figure

39. Correlation

of Takahashi

64-60

model

with data from Ref. 22.

= 0.30
0.23
_-

0.15

.03
.02
.01
_ =300

_ =120

,i_;

,.

-.01

_----

_----_..._
.....

./

-.02

-.03
-.04
-.05

.04

= 240

.02

_ = 60

_ol

_kl

-.02

(
.qJ

-.04

-.06

-.08

-.02

Figure 40. Induced


Ref. 1.

inflow

ratios calculated

from Takahashi

64-61

model

at test conditions

of

_-

_ = 0.30
0.23

.....

/'_

0.15

../%
O
ee

= 180

./'//J/_i/,'\"

"x\ \

,,

ill

_=o

_0
O
_d
ii
Z-2
m

-4

-1.2

~.9

-.6

-.3

.3

.6

.9

1.2

r/R

Figure

41.

symmetry

Induced

inflow

for the three

errors

advance

generated
ratios

tested

from

Takahashi

in Ref.

64-62

1.

model

in the longitudinal

plane

of

Na_onal

Aeronautics

Report Documentation

and

Page

Space Adminisb-atJon

2. Government

1. Report No.

NASA

Accession

No.

3. Recipient's

Catalog No.

TM- 102219
5. Report Date

4. Title and Subtitle

A Survey

of Nonuniform

Inflow

Models

Dynamics

and Control

Applications

for Rotorcraft

November

Flight

6. Performing

1989
Organization

Code

8. Performing Organization

7. Author(s)

Robert

Report No.

A-89220

T. N. Chen

10. Work Unit No.

505-61-51
9. Performing

Ames

Organization

Research

Moffett

Name and Address

11. Contract or Grant No.

Center

Field,

CA

94035
13. Type of Report and Period Covered

12. Sponsoring

Technical

Agency Name and Address

National

Aeronautics

Washington,

DC

15. Supplementary

and Space Administration

14. Sponsoring

Memorandum
Agency Code

20546-0001

Notes

Point of Contact:

Robert
(415)

This paper

was originally

September

12-15,

T. N. Chen, Ames
694-5008

Research

Center,

MS 211-2,

Moffett

Rotorcraft

Forum,

Field,

CA

94035

or FTS 464-5008

prepared

for the Fifteenth

European

1989, Amsterdam.

16. Abstract

This paper
of induced
the

summarizes

velocities

perspective

of flight

including

hover,

dynamic

aspects

inflow

models

vertical
developed

well overall.

Inflow

over

and aMoad

For inflow

dynamic

of a brief

analyses

and

survey

and low-speed

indicate

with more

The results

flight,

effect,

several

developed

free-wake

for

sets of test data

inflow

that charts

conditions

first harmonic

methods

with

from

both static and

simple

first harmonic

using modem

conducted

and reviews

sophisticated

it is suggested

be produced

for the calculation


of flight

of various

of correlation

that the Pitt/Peters

or in ground
of NACA

forward

models

The survey,

a spectrum

is on the evaluation

in comparison

effect

inflow
effect.

covers

and high-speed

computations.

Leeuw

applications,

emphasis

the years,

of nonuniform

in and out of ground

control

A primary

near the rotor

and Castles/De

17. Key Words (Suggested

Induced

flight,

at the rotor out of ground

Heyson/Katzoff
in flight

dynamics

of the inflow.

use in performance
obtained

the results

at and near a lifting rotor

model

similar

works

to those

methods

and simulations.

18. Distribution Statement

by Author(s))

Unclassified-Unlimited

velocity
dynamics

Subject

Flight dynamics
Ground effect
19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

Category

- 08

21. No. of Pages

65

_ASA FORM 1626 OCT86


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22. Price

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