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Karadenizden Frata Bilgi retimleri

From the Black Sea to the Euphrates Knowledge Production

nder Bilgiye Armaan Yazlar

Studies Presented in Honour of nder Bilgi

Yayna Hazrlayanlar
Edited by
Aliye ztan
evket Dnmez

Bilgin Kltr Sanat Yaynlar

II

III

Karadenizden Frata Bilgi retimleri

Knowledge Production From the Black Sea to the Euphrates

nder Bilgiye Armaan Yazlar


Studies Presented in Honour of nder Bilgi

Yayna Hazrlayanlar/ Edited by


Aliye ztan
evket Dnmez

Bilgin Kltr Sanat Yaynlar

IV

Karadenizden Frata Bilgi retimleri


Knowledge Production From the Black Sea to the Euphrates
nder Bilgiye Armaan Yazlar
Studies Presented in Honour of nder Bilgi

Yayna Hazrlayanlar / Edited by


Aliye ztan
evket Dnmez
Redaksiyon / Copyediting
Gzde Dinarl
Kbra Nur Odal
Didem olak

ISBN: 978 2011 Bilgin Yaynlar


Selanik 2 Caddesi No.68/4 06640 Kzlay/ANKARA
Tel.0.312.419 85 67

Kapak resmi / Cover image


n kapak: Drtl spiral biiminde tun sembol, kiztepe, Erken Tun a
Arka kapak: Tun ustura ve kemik klf, kiztepe, Erken Tun a

Tasarm / Design
Suna GLER HKENEK

Bask / Printed by
..................................................

NDEKLER
nsz ..............................................................................................................................................................................IX
Prof. Dr. nder Bilginin zgemii ............................................................................................................................... X
Preface.............................................................................................................................................................................XI
Biography of Prof. Dr. nder Bilgi ...............................................................................................................................XII
nder Bilgi nin Yaynlar...............................................................................................................................................IX
Engin Akdeniz
Kuadas Kadkalesi Kazsnn lk Tun a Buluntular.............................................................................................. 1
Yldz Akyay Meriboyu
Kuzey Pontusda Bulunmu Baz Eserlerin Yapm Yeri zerine Grler .................................................................... 23
Gven Arsebk
Australopithecuslar (nsann nsanlama Aamalarna Bir rnek) ............................................................................... 45
Hate Baltacolu
Buda Oturuunda Betimlenmi Ge Neolitik a Kk Hyk Heykelcikleri.............................................................. 49
Rainer M. Czichon - Nihal Temuin-Czichon
Kuzey Anadoluda Yeni Bir Hitit Yerlemesi Oymaaa/Nerik- Projesi..................................................................... 81
Altan ilingirolu
Ayanis Kalesinde Bulunan Demir Bir Kl .................................................................................................................. 87
Ali Serkander Demirkol - Mesut Gk
Muhtar Kent zel Koleksiyonunda Bulunan Boa Protomu Biimli Bir Hitit Ritonu ve Baz Yorumlar ................... 99
Rafet Din
Antiokheia ad Maeandrum Yaknlarndaki Roma Kprs.......................................................................................... 111
evket Dnmez
Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Karadeniz Blgesindeki Varlklarna Ait Yeni Kantlar
New Evidences on the Exstence of Eurasian Horse-riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey..................... 129

VI

Refik Duru
Yesemek Heykel Atelyesi ile lgili ki Bulgu ............................................................................................................... 147
Ylmaz Selim Erdal
kiztepede Kafa Yaralanmalar: Anadoludan Erken Bir Savan zleri ..................................................................... 159
Farshid ravani Ghadim
Jafar Abad VIII. Kurgan Kazlar, Kuzeybat ran........................................................................................................ 191
Sevin Gnel
ine Tepecik Kazlar Inda Blgenin Tarihncesi Kltrleri zerine Bir nceleme ........................................... 217
Halime Hrylmaz
Gkeada-Yenibademli Hyk: Troiann Denizar Uydusundan Bezemeli Keramik rnekleri.............................. 233
Evangelia Ioannidou
Environmental Archaeology in the Southern Black Sea Region .................................................................................. 253
A. Tuba kse
Salat Tepe Kalkolitik Dnem Yerleimi........................................................................................................................ 269
Metin zbek
Kk Hykte Kil Sval nsan Balar: Son Buluntular Inda Yeni Bir Deerlendirme....................................... 299
Aynur zfrat
Erzurum Mzesinden nsan Figrl Bir mlek ........................................................................................................ 311
lknur zgen
A Study of Anatolian Archaeological Material in the Iron Age From An Anatolian Perspective:
A Re-Evaluation of the Use of the Term East Greek.................................................................................................. 319
Sleyman zkan
Eski Anadoluda Kuvars Ta lemecilii.................................................................................................................... 325
Aliye ztan
Kk Hyk Kabartmal Kaplarnda Boa ve Geyik Ba Betimleri ........................................................................... 339
Serpil Sandalc
kiztepe Boynuz Tutamakl anaklar zerine Bir Deerlendirme............................................................................... 351
Necla Arslan Sevin - Haydar Kalsen
Harput Esadiye (Aslaniye) Klliyesi ............................................................................................................................ 381

VII

Veli Sevin
Dou Anadolunun Blgesel Kltrleri (Ss neleri Inda) ................................................................................... 391
Aygl Sel
Ortaky-apinuva Tabarna Mhrleri .......................................................................................................................... 403
Mustafa Sel
Ortaky-apinuvada Bulunan Bir Bronz Mifer......................................................................................................... 415
M. Taner Tarhan
Mze ve nsan............................................................................................................................................................... 425
Gocha R. Tsetskhladze
Scythians in the Central Black Sea Regon of Turkey? ................................................................................................ 429
zlem Ttncler
M.. III. Binylda Orta Anadolunun Kuzeyine Ait Bir Grup Maden Vazo Bal ne .............................................. 437
Derya Yalkl
Mezraa Hykten Bir Grup Figrin ............................................................................................................................ 449
Tayfun Yldrm
Resulolu Mezarlnda Ele Geen Bir Grup Sap Delikli Balta................................................................................... 457
Thomas Zimmermann
Hieb Und Stichfest?- Kritische Betrachtungen Zu Einigen Frhbronzezeitlichen
Waffenformen Aus Vorderasien .................................................................................................................................... 471

VIII

IX

NSZ
Bilgi insan pheden,
iyilik ac ekmekten,
kararl olmak korkudan
kurtarr.
Konfyus

Nedeni bilinmez ancak, Trkiyede arkeolojik almalarn en az olduu blge hep Karadeniz olmutur. 1971 yl
bir kilometre tadr Karadeniz Blgesi iin. Bu tarihte Prof. Dr. Ulu Bahadr Alkmn stanbul niversitesi adna
balatt Samsun Blgesi aratrmalar, kendisinden nce gerekletirilen, says iki elin parmaklarn gemeyen ve
birka dnem sren almalarn aksine gnmze kadar kesintisiz sregelen arkeolojik aratrmalarn da balangcn
oluturur. Prof. Alkmn ekibine birka yl sonra kiztepe kazlarnn balamas (1974) ile katlacak olan gen bilim
adam Dr. nder Bilgi, Karadeniz Blgesi aratrmalarnn sreklilii ve bugnlere gelmesi konusunda hayati bir rol
stlenecektir. nk Prof. Alkmm 1981 ylndaki vefat sonras, Dr. nder Bilgi gerek kiztepe kaz bakanlnn
gerekse Samsun ili yzey aratrmalarnn sorumluluklarn stlenmi, hatta arkeolojik almalar Sinop ve Amasya
illerine yani Orta Karadeniz Blgesinin geneline tamtr. 1981 sonras srete kiztepe kazs adeta bir aratrma
merkezi durumuna gelmi, bu kaz yeri ile ilgili hazrlad kiztepe II kitabna hayatta olmayan Prof.Dr. Bahadr
Alkm ile Handan Alkmn da isimlerini yazarak bir etik ve vefa rnei sergilemitir. Kendisinin ynettii yksek
lisans ve doktora tezleri sonucunda Karadeniz arkeolojisine pek ok gen bilim adam kazandrlmtr.
Prof.Dr.nder Bilgi, Karadeniz Blgesi almalar ile ezamanl olarak bir dnem Dou Anadoludaki baraj kurtarma
kazlarna destek vermi ve Karakaya Baraj glalan iinde kalacak olan Kkerbabada 1978-1985 yllar arasnda
arkeolojik kazlar gerekletirmitir. Erken Tun adan Roma Dnemine uzanan bir tabakalamaya sahip
Kkerbaba, Dou Anadolunun ntarih ve Tarihi alarndaki pek ok noktann -mili gemi zamandan -dili
gemi zamana dnmesini salamtr.
Prof.Dr. nder Bilginin arkeolojik almalar arkeolojik kazlar ve yzey aratrmalar ile snrl kalmamtr. Mzenin
arkeolojideki yeri ve nemi bilen Prof. Bilgi, Samsun, Sinop, Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu ve Sivas mzelerinde yllarca
aratrma yapm ve Protohistorik aa ait yzlerce metal eseri kronolojik bir erevede deerlendirerek arkeoloji
dnyasna tantmtr.
Bizler, meslektalar ve rencileri olarak Prof. Dr. nder Bilgiye bu kitab hazrlam ve sunmu olmann mutluluunu
yayoruz. Deerli Hocamza uzun, salkl, mutlu ve akademik almalarnn hep olduu bir mr diliyoruz.
Aliye ztan

evket Dnmez

PROF. DR. NDER BLGNN ZGEM


01.08.1939 Ankara doumlu nder Bilgi, Yksek renimini Ankara niversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Corafya Fakltesi
Protohistorya ve nasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim dalnda 1963 ylnda tamamladktan sonra, lisansst eitim iin devlet
bursu kazanarak gittii ngilterede doktora derecesini Londra niversitesi Arkeoloji Enstitsnde Development and
Distribution of Anthropomorphic Figures in Anatolia from the Neolithic to the End of the Early Bronze Age balkl tezi
ile 1972 ylnda elde etmitir. Ayn yl Kltr Bakanl Eski Eserler ve Mzeler Genel Mdrlnde meslek hayatna
balam ve 1973 ylnda da stanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Eski nasya dilleri ve Kltrleri Krssne
doktor asistan olarak atanmtr.
1977 ylnda Matara Biimli Kaplar balkl tezi ile doentlik ve 1988 ylnda profesrlk unvann kazanm ve 2006
ylnda da stanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve nasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim Dal Bakan iken ya
haddinden emekli olmutur. retim yesi olarak Arkeolojide Yntembilim, Mezopotamya Sanat, Eski Asur Ticaret
Kolonileri a, Hitit Sanat, Frig Sanat, Urartu Sanat ile Ge Hitit Sanat zerine dersler vermitir. Lisans ve Lisansst
eitimi srasnda nce stajyer renci, sonra ekip yesi olarak Kltepe, Acemhyk, Altntepe kazlarnda almtr.
Meslek hayatna atldktan sonra ise 1974 ylnda Maat Hyk ve 1974-1980 yllar arasnda da kiztepe Kazlarna
heyet yesi olarak katlm, 1978 ile 1985 yllar arasnda Karakaya Baraj Gl alanndaki Kkerbaba Hyk kurtarma
kazlarnn bakanln yapmtr. 1981 ylndan beri de kiztepe kazlarnn bakanln yrtmektedir.
kiztepe Kazlarnn ilk sonularnn yaynnda e-yazarlk yapm ve kiztepede elde edilen madeni eserler, insan
figrleri, l gmme gelenekleri ile ilgili olarak da Manchester, Paris, Roma, Sozopol, Tokyo Berlinde dzenlenmi
sempozyumlarda bildiriler sunmutur. Kazlar sonucunda elde edilen baz verilere dayanarak da kiztepe halknn ProtoHint Avrupal olduklarn ve Hititlilerin de M 2000 yllarnda Anadoluya g etmedikleri ve balangcndan beri ve
Hattilerden nce Anadolunun yerli halk olduklarn ileri srmtr. Bu nerlerini de ieren Orta Karadeniz Blgesi
Madencileri/Metallurgists of the Central Black Sea Region balkl kitabnda kiztepe deki kaz ve aratrmalarn
sonularn deerlendirmitir. Uzman olduu Orta Karadeniz Blgesi madencilii zerindeki almalar srasnda Sivas,
Samsun, Tokat, Amasya ve Sinop Mzelerindeki rnekleri incelemi ve bir makale olarak bilim dnyasna sunmutur.
1981-1982 yllarnda Kltr Bakanl Eski Eserler ve Mzeler Genel Mdrlnde 2 yla yakn sre ile Genel
Mdr Yardmcl grevinde bulunmutur. Kendisi, Kltr ve Turizm Bakanl Kltr ve Tabiat Varlklarn Koruma
Kurullarnn ilk nce Nevehir ve daha sonra da Samsun Blgesi Bakanlklarn yapm ve 2005-2006 yllarnda da
stanbul II Numaral Blge Kurulunun yeliinde bulunmutur. 1998-2005 yllar arasnda Kltr ve Tabiat Varlklarn
Koruma Yksek Kurulu yesi olarak da grev yapmtr. Ayrca, Trkiye Amerikan Aratrma Enstits ile Eski a
Bilimleri Enstitsnn asli yesi, Trk Tarih Kurumu ile Alman Arkeoloji Enstitlerinin muhabir yesidir. Prof. Dr.
nder Bilgi evli ve 1 ocuk babasdr.

XI

PREFACE
Knowledge saves one from doubt,
kindness saves one from pain,
determination saves one from fear
Confucius

ough the reason is unknown, Black Sea Region has always been the region in Turkey at which the fewest number
of archaeological studies are conducted. e year 1971 is a milestone for the Black Sea Region. Samsun Region
field surveys, started by Prof. Dr. Ulu Bahadr Alkm on behalf of Istanbul University at the time, initiated the
uninterrupted archaeological studies that have lasted up until today, unlike studies that were conducted before Alkm,
which were less than a dozen and lasted only a few terms. Dr. nder Bilgi, the young archaeologist who joined the team
of Prof. Alkm at the start of kiztepe excavations a few years later (in 1974) adopted a vital role on the continuity and
lasting of the Black Sea Region research. is is mainly because Dr. nder Bilgi came to both hold the presidency of
kiztepe excavation and also took the responsibility of field surveys in the province of Samsun following Prof. Alkms
death in 1981. He has even widened the radius of action of the archaeological works as far as the provinces of Sinop
and Amasya, which is the whole of the Central Black Sea Region. e period aer 1981 sees kiztepe excavation as
practically a research center, and Dr. nder Bilgi has displayed an example of ethics and loyalty by writing the names
of Prof. Dr. Bahadr Alkm and Handan Alkm, who had passed away, in kiztepe II, his book on the excavation site.
He has enabled the archaeology of the Black Sea Region to earn many young archaeologists through the postgraduate
and doctorate theses he advised.
Simultaneously with his the Black Sea Region works, Prof. Dr. nder Bilgi supported the dam salvage excavations
in Eastern Anatolia Region for a while, conducting archaeological excavations at Kkerbaba, which was going to be
submerged in the lake of Karakaya Dam, in 1978-1985. With its sequence of layers ranging from the Early Bronze Age
to Roman Period, Kkerbaba helped unclear many question marks and ambiguities in the Protohistory and History
of Eastern Anatolia.
Archaeological works by Prof. Dr. nder Bilgi are not limited to archaeological excavations and field surveys. With
a firm knowledge of the role and significance of museums in archaeology, Prof. Bilgi carried out research projects in
Samsun, Sinop, Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu and Sivas museums for years and introduced hundreds of metal artefacts
belonging to Protohistoric Period analysed in a chronological framework.
As his colleagues and students, we are delighted to have prepared and presented this book in honour of Prof. Dr.
nder Bilgi. We wish a long life of health, happiness and ongoing academic studies for our beloved teacher.
Aliye ztan

evket Dnmez

XII

BIOGRAPHY OF PROF. DR. NDER BLG


nder Bilgi was born in 01.08.1939 in Ankara. He completed his advanced studies in Ankara University Faculty of
Languages, History and Geography Department of Protohistory and Near Eastern Archaeology in 1963 and received
his doctorate degree in University of Londons Archaeology Institute in England in 1972, where he was on a state
scholarship for postgraduate education. His thesis was named Development and Distribution of Anthropomorphic
Figures in Anatolia from the Neolithic to the End of the Early Bronze Age. He started his professional life in Ministry
of Cultures General Directorate of Ancient Arts and Museums at the same year and was assigned as a doctor assistant
to Istanbul University Faculty of Letters Department of Ancient Near East Languages and Cultures in 1973.
nder Bilgi received his Associate Professorship degree in 1977 and his Professorship degree in 1988 with his thesis
named Matara Biimli Kaplar. In 2006, Bilgi was retired due to age limit while working as the Head of Istanbul
University Faculty of Letters Department of Protohistory and Near Eastern Archaeology. As an academic lecturer,
he gave lectures on Methodology in Archaeology, Mesopotamian Art, Assyrian Trade Colonies Period, Hittite Art,
Phrygian Art, Urartian Art and Neo-Hittite Art.
nder Bilgi worked at Kltepe, Acemhyk and Altntepe excavations as first a trainee and then a team member
during his Graduate and Postgraduate education. Aer starting his professional life, he attended Maat Hyk
excavations in 1974 and kiztepe excavations in 1974-1980 as a committee member, and he presided over Kkerbaba
Hyk salvage excavations in the site of Karakaya Dam Lake between 1978 and 1985. He has been the president of
kiztepe excavations since 1981.
Prof. Bilgi co-authored the publication of the initial results of kiztepe Excavations and presented notices in
symposiums organised in Manchester, Paris, Rome, Sozopol, Tokyo and Berlin on the metal artefacts, human figures
and burial customs revealed at kiztepe. Based on information acquired at the excavations, he proposed that kiztepe
people were Proto-Indo-European and that the Hittites did not migrate to Anatolia around 2000 BC; indeed they
were native people of Anatolia from the beginning and before the Hatti. He evaluated the results of excavations and
research at kiztepe in his book named Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Madencileri/ Metallurgists of the Central Black Sea
Region, which includes his propositions. During his studies on the Central Black Sea Regions mining, his area of
expertise, he examined examples in Sivas, Samsun, Tokat, Amasya and Sinop museums and presented them to the
world of science with an essay.
nder Bilgi worked as the Vice General Director of Ministry of Cultures General Directorate of Ancient Arts and
Museums for two years between 1981 and 1982. He was the Head of, initially Nevehir, and later, Samsun Cultural
and Natural Heritage Preservation Committees and a member of the Board of stanbul Cultural and Natural Heritage
Preservation Committee during 2005-2006. He also worked as a member of the Cultural and Natural Heritage
Preservation Higher Board between 1998 and 2005. In addition to the above, he is a founding member of American
Research Institute in Turkey and Turkish Archaeological Institute and an associate member of Turkish Historical
Society and German Archaeological Institute. Prof. Dr. nder Bilgi is married and has one child.

XIII

NDER BLGNN YAYINLARI / PUBLICATIONS OF


NDER BLG
KTAPLAR / BOOKS
1.

M.. II. Binylnda Anadoluda Bulunmu Olan Matara Biimli Kaplar, stanbul 1982 EFY

2.

kiztepe I, Ankara 1988


Birinci ve kinci Dnem Kazlar/The First and Second Seasons Excavations TTKY (Eyazar)

3.

Sadberk Hanm Mzesi Protohistorik a Silahlar/Weapons of the Prtotohistoric Age, stanbul 1989 VKVSHMY
(e-yazar)

4.

Protohistorik ada Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Madencileri; Hind-Avrupallarn Anavatan Sorununa Yeni Bir
Yaklam / Protohistoric Age Metallurgists of the Central Black Sea Region, stanbul 2001 TASKVY

5.

kiztepe II, Ankara 2003


nc, Drdnc, Beinci, Altnc, Yedinci Dnem Kazlar/Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh Seasons
Excavations TTKY (e-yazar)

MAKALELER / ARTICLES
1.

Kltepe Kazlarnda Bulunmu Olan nsan Figrinleri / Antropomorphic Representations From the Mound of
Kltepe. Belleten XXXIX, Ankara 1975: 201-216 TTKY

2.

Yeni Tip Mermer doller / Some Remarks on Marble Idols of An Unusual Type. Belleten XLI, Ankara 1977: 473480 TTKY

3.

M.. III. Binylna Tarihlenen Bir Grup nsan Figrini ve Bunlarn Anadoluda Dal / A Type of a Goddess
of the Third Millennium BC and its Diffusion in Anatolia. Anadolu Aratrmalar VI, stanbul 1979: 133-141
EFY

4.

Yeni Bulunmu Eserlerin I Altnda Anadoluda Bronz a ncesi nsan Figrleri Hakknda Yeni Gzlemler /
New Remarks on the Pre-Bronze Age Anatolian Antropomorphic Representations in the Light of New Acqusitions.
Belleten XLIV, Ankara 1980: 1-24 TTKY

XIV

5.

Kkerbaba (Gkerbaba) Hyk 1979 Yl Kazlar Sonular. II. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1981: 113119 KBY

6.

Kkerbaba Hyk Kazs 1980 Yl Sonular. III. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1982: 83-86 KBY

7.

1981 Dnemi kiztepe Kazlar. IV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1983: 49-54 KBY

8.

Kkerbaba Hyk 1981 Dnemi Kazlar. IV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1983: 89-94 KBY

9.

Kkerbaba Hyk Kazlar 1982. V. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1984: 113-116 KBY

10 kiztepe Kazlarnn 1982 Dnemi Sonular. V. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1984: 87-91 KBY
11. Metal Objects from kiztepe-Turkey. BAVA 6, Bonn 1984: 31-96 KAVADAI
12. 1983 Dnemi Malatya-Kkerbaba Hyk Kurtarma Kazlar. VI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1985 : 49-54
KBY
13. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1983 Dnemi Sonular. VI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1985: 55-63 KBY
14. An Anthropomorphic Representation from kiztepe in Turkey. Studi di Paletnologia in onore di Salvatore
M.Puglisi, Rome 1985: 273-275
15. 1984 Dnemi Malatya-Kkerbaba Hyk Kurtarma Kazlar. VII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1986: 143149 KBY
16. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1984 Dnemi Sonular. VII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1986: 111-118 KBY
17. kiztepe Kazlarnda Ele Geirilen Antropomorfik Figrinler Hakknda Genel Gzlemler. IX. Trk Tarih Kongresi
- Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara 1986 Cilt I: 133-134 TTKY
18. Frat Nehri Kenarnda Bir Urartu Yerlemesi. IX. Trk Tarih Kongresi Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara
1986 Cilt I: 317-318 TTKY
19. M.. I. Binyl Anadolu Matara Tipi Kaplar. Anadolu Aratrmalar X, stanbul 1986: 417-423 EFY
20. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1985 Dnemi Sonular. VIII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1987: 149-156 KBY
21. kiztepe Metal Buluntularnn Etd III. III. Arkeometri Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1987: 121-138 KBY (Eyazar)
22. Kkerbaba Hyk Kazs, 1978 / Kkerbaba Hyk Excavations, 1978. Aa Frat Projesi 1978-1979
almalar/Lower Euphrates Project 1978-1979 Activities, Ankara 1987: 189-216 ODTY/METUP
23. Kkerbaba Hyk Kazs, 1979 / Kkerbaba Hyk Excavations, 1979. Aa Frat Projesi 1978-1979
almalar/Lower Euphrates Project 1978-1979 Activities, Ankara 1987: 217-256 ODTY/METUP

XV

24. kiztepeden nik Bir Haner/A Unique Dagger From kiztepe. Belleten LI, Ankara 1987: 1109-1115 TTKY
25. Kkerbaba Hyk Demir a Mimarisi. I. Anadolu Demir alar/Anatolian Iron Ages I, zmir 1987: 1-5
EEFY
26. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1986 Dnemi Sonular. IX. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1988: 169-17 KBY
27. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1987 Dnemi Sonular ve evre Aratrmalar. X. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1989:
201-209 KBY
28. A Unique Spearhead from Sadberk Hanm Museum. Anatolia and the Ancient Near East. Studies in Honor of
Tahsin zg, Ankara 1989: 29-31 TTKY
29. 1974 ile 1986 Kaz Dnemlerinde Bulunan Tun Silahlarn I Altnda kiztepenin nasyadaki Yeri. X. Trk
Tarih Kongresi Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara 1990 Cilt I: 70-77 TTKY
30. Metal Objects from kiztepe-Turkey. BAVA 9-10, Bonn 1990: 119-219 KAVADAI
31. kiztepe Kazlar. Sam-Sev Magazin 3, Samsun 1990: 10-11
32. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1988 Dnemi Sonular ve evre Aratrmalar. XI. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara
1990: 211-220 KBY
33. Bafra-kiztepe Kazlarnn Inda Samsun Blgesinin Protohistoryas. kinci Tarih Boyunca Karadeniz Kongresi
Bildirileri, Samsun 1990 Cilt I: 1-2 OMY
34. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1989 Dnemi Sonular ve Restorasyon almalar. XII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I,
Ankara 1991: 241-246 KBY
35. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1988 Dnemi Sonular ve evre Aratrmalar. Hyk I, Ankara 1991: 25-28 TTKY
36. Iron Age Pottery from Kkerbaba Hyk. Proceedings of the Second Anatolian Iron Ages Colloqium, Exeter
1991: 11-28 BIAA Monography 13
37. Some Unstratified Metal Weapons from the East Anatolian Museums. Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains,
Roma 1993: 601-604 Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica Alba Palmieri Dedicata
38. A Shaft-hole Axe from Amisos. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 43, Berlin 1993: 253-254 AAEY
39. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1991 Dnemi Sonular ve Restorasyon almalar. XIV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, 1993:
Ankara 199-211 KBY
40. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1990 Dnemi Sonular. XV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-II, Ankara 1994: 583-596 KBY
41. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1992 Dnemi Sonular. XV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1994: 235-244 KBY

XVI

42. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1993 Dnemi Sonular. XVI. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1995: 141-160 KBY
43. Samsun Mzesi Protohistorik a Silahlar ve Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Maden Sanat Hakknda Yeni Gzlemler.
XI. Trk Tarih Kongresi Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara 1994 Cilt I: 253-268 TTKY
44. Avrupallarn kiztepedeki Atalar. Atlas 29, stanbul 1995: 101-102
45. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1994 Dnemi Sonular. XVII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1996: 157-168 KBY
46. Klasik a ncesinde Anadoluda Ticaret / Trade in Anatolia During Pre-Classical Period. Palmet I, stanbul
1997: 1-57 VKVSHMY
47. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1995 Dnemi Sonular. XVIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Ankara 1997: 145-161 KBY
48. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1996 Dnemi Sonular. XIX. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1998: 323-356 KBY
49. M 2. Binylda Karadeniz Blgesi. III. Uluslararas Hititoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, Ankara 1998: 63-75
50. Boumlu Mzrakularnn Dalnn I Altnda Anadolu Mezopotamya likileri. XXXIV. Rencontre
Assyriologique Internationale, Ankara 1998: 377-382 TTKY
51. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1997 Dnemi Sonular. XX. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1999: 485-505 KBY
52. kiztepe in the Late Iron Age. Anatolian Studies 49, London 1999: 11-28
53. Samsun-kiztepe Arkeolojik Kazlar Tepe III almalar, 1993 ve 1994 Dnemleri Sonular. Anadolu
Aratrmalar XV, stanbul 1999: 137-165 EFY
54. Samsun-kiztepe Arkeolojik Kazlar Tepe III almalar, 1995 Dnemi Sonular. Anadolu Aratrmalar XV,
stanbul 1999: 167-190 EFY
55. Samsun-kiztepe Arkeolojik Kazlar Tepe III almalar, 1996 Dnemi Sonular ve Genel Deerlendirme
Anadolu Aratrmalar XV, stanbul 1999: 191-230 EFY
56. kiztepede Ele Geen Son Buluntularn Inda Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Protohistorik a Maden Sanat
Hakknda Yeni Gzlemler. XII. Trk Tarih Kongresi Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara 1999 Cilt I: 41-50
TTKY
57. Karadeniz Blgesi Ky Kesimi lk Tun a Mimarisi. alar Boyunca Anadoluda Yerleim ve Konut
Uluslararas Sempozyumu, stanbul 1999: 63 -74 (HABTAT I) EBEY
58. Metal Workers of the Black Sea Region of Turkey in the Early Bronze Age: A New Perspective on the Question of
the Indo-Europeans Original Homeland. Proceedings of the First International Congress on the Archaeology of
the Ancient Near East, Rome 2000: 109-127
59. kiztepe Kazlar. Trkiye Arkeolojisi ve stanbul niversitesi, Ankara 2000: 111-117 Y

XVII

60. Kkerbaba Kazlar. Trkiye Arkeolojisi ve stanbul niversitesi, Ankara 2000: 133-139 Y
61. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1998 Dnemi Sonular. XXI. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 2000: 381-396 KBY
62. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1999 Dnemi Sonular. XXII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 2001: 315-326 KBY
63. Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Protohistorik a Maden Sanatnn Kkeni ve Geliimi Belleten LXV, Ankara 2001: 1- 35
TTKY
64. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2000 Dnemi Sonular. XXIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2002: 245-254 KBY
65. Samsun (Amisos) Blgesinin Kltrel Geliimi Projesi ile lgili Yzey Aratrmas. XIX. Aratrma Sonular
Toplants, Ankara 2002: 279-296 E-yazar KBY
66. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2001 Dnemi Sonular. XXIV. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2003: 17-28 KBY
67. Hitit ncesi Anadolusunun Etnik Yaps. Colloquium Anatolicum II, stanbul 2003: 51-68
68. Kkerbaba Hyk. Arkeo Atlas 2, stanbul 2003: 65
69. kiztepe. Arkeo Atlas 2, stanbul 2003: 105,107
70. kiztepeden nik Bir Buluntu: Kemik Tarak. Gven Arsebk iin Armaan, stanbul 2003: 43-44
71. Klasik a ncesinde Anadoluda l ve Tart Aletleri. Anadolu Arlk ve lleri, stanbul 2003: 16-23
72. kiztepe Mezarlk Kazlar ve l Gmme Gelenekleri; 2000 2001 Dnemleri. Belleten LXVII, Ankara 2004:
383-402 TTKY
73. kiztepe Mezarlk Kazlar ve l Gmme Gelenekleri; 2000 2002 Dnemleri. Anadolu Aratrmalar XVII,
2004: 25-50 EFY
74. Bakr-Tun Dkm Sanat: Kalsik a ncesi / Castings of Copper-Bronze: Pre-Classical Age. Anadolu,
Dkmn Beii/Anatolia, Cradle of Castings, stanbul 2004: 45-112
75. Bakr-Tun Dkm Sanat: Kalsik a/Castings of Copper-Bronze: Classical Age. Anadolu, Dkmn Beii/
Anatolia, Cradle of Castings, stanbul 2004: 113-144
76. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2002 Dnemi Sonular. XXV. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2004: 155-162 KBY
77. Samsun (Amisos) Blgesinin Kltrel Geliimi. Belleten LXVIII, Ankara 2005: 387-403 TTKY (Eyazar)
78. slam ncesi Ktahya Yresi Seramik Sanat. Toprak, Ate, Sr, stanbul 2005: 14-29
79. Orta Karadeniz Blgesi M 2000 Yl Metal Silahlar. V. Uluslararas Hititoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, Ankara
2005: 119-131

XVIII

80. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2003 Dnemi Sonular. XXVI. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2005: 21-28 KBY
81. kiztepenin Anadolu T Maden Sanatnn Geliimine Olan Katklar. XIV. Trk Tarih Kongresi Kongreye
Sunulan Bildiriler, Ankara 2005: 21-35 TTKY
82. kiztepeden W Kabartma Bezekli Kap. Hayat Erkanala Armaan, stanbul 2006: 158-161
83. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2004 Dnemi Sonular. XXVII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2006: 29-36 KBY
84. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2005 Dnemi Sonular. XXVIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2007: 117-122 KBY
85. kiztepe Pimi Toprak Aplike Boa Ba Betimlemeleri. Refik Duruya Armaan, stanbul 2007: 127-129
86. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2006 Dnemi Sonular. XXIX. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2008: 273-278 KBY
87. kiztepeden lk Tun a Pimi Toprak ngraklar. Muhibbe Darga Armaan, stanbul 2008: 129-131
88. Relations between kiztepe by the Black Sea Coast and the Aegean World. The Aegean in the Neolithic,
Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age, Ankara 2008: 109-117
89. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2007 Dnemi Sonular. XXX. Kaz Sonular Toplants-IV, Ankara 2009: 327-336 KBY
90. Bronze Age Razor Blades From kiztepe by the Central Black Sea Coast in Turkey. Altan ilingiroluna
Armaan, stanbul 2009: 163-167
91. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2008 Dnemi Sonular. XXXI. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-IV, Ankara 2010: 369-380 KBY
92. Karadenizin Neolitii; kiztepe. Aktel Arkeoloji 18, stanbul 2010: 50-56
93. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2009 Dnemi Sonular. XXXII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants-I, Ankara 2011 (baskda) KBY
94. Bir lk Tun a Yerlemesi kiztepeden Sembol Nitelikli Metal Buluntular. Armaan Erkanala Armaan
(baskda)

BLDRLER / PAPERS
1.

Kkerbaba (Gkerbaba) Hyk 1979 Yl Kazlar Sonular. II. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1980

2.

Kkerbaba Hyk Kazs 1980 Yl Sonular. III. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1981

3.

kiztepe Kazlarnda Ele Geirilen Antropomorfik Figrinler Hakknda Genel Gzlemler. IX. Trk Tarih Kongresi,
Ankara 1981

4.

Frat Nehri Kenarnda Bir Urartu Yerlemesi. IX. Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1981

XIX

5.

1981 Dnemi kiztepe Kazlar. IV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1982

6.

Kkerbaba Hyk 1981 Dnemi Kazlar. IV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1982

7.

kiztepe Kazlarnn 1982 Dnemi Sonular. V. Kaz Sonular Toplants, stanbul 1983

8.

Kkerbaba Hyk Kazlar 1982. V. Kaz Sonular Toplants, stanbul 1983

9.

1983 Dnemi Malatya-Kkerbaba Hyk Kurtarma Kazlar. VI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, zmir 1984

10. Kkerbaba Hyk Demir a Mimarisi. I. Anadolu Demir alar/Anatolian Iron Ages I, zmir 1984
11. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1983 Dnemi Sonular. VI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, zmir 1984
12. 1984 Dnemi Malatya-Kkerbaba Hyk Kurtarma Kazlar. VII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1985
13. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1984 Dnemi Sonular. VII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1985
14. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1985 Dnemi Sonular. VIII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1986
15. kiztepe Metal Buluntularnn Etd III. III. Arkeometri Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1986
16. 1974 ile 1986 Kaz Dnemlerinde Bulunan Tun Silahlarn I Altnda kiztepenin nasyadaki Yeri. X. Trk
Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1986
17. Boumlu Mzrakularnn Dalnn I Altnda Anadolu Mezopotamya likileri. XXXIV. Rencontre
Assyriologique Internationale, stanbul 1987
18. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1986 Dnemi Sonular. IX. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1987
19. Metallographic Studies of Archaeological Metal Artifacts from kiztepe-Samsun. XXV. International Symposium
on Archaeometry, Atina 1987
20. Iron Age Pottery from Kkerbaba Hyk. II. Anadolu Demir alar Sempozyumu Bildirileri, zmir 1987
21. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1987 Dnemi Sonular ve evre Aratrmalar. X. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara
1988
22. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1988 Dnemi Sonular ve evre Aratrmalar. XI. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Antalya
1989
23. Bafra-kiztepe Kazlarnn Inda Samsun Blgesinin Protohistoryas. kinci Tarih Boyunca Karadeniz Kongresi
Bildirileri, Samsun 1989
24. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1989 Dnemi Sonular ve Restorasyon almalar. XII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I,
Ankara 1990

XX

25. Samsun Mzesi Protohistorik a Silahlar ve Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Maden Sanat Hakknda Yeni Gzlemler.
XI. Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1990
26. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1990 Dnemi Sonular. XV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-II, anakkale 1991
27. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1991 Dnemi Sonular ve Restorasyon almalar. XIV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I,
Ankara 1992
28. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1992 Dnemi Sonular. XV. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1993
29. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1993 Dnemi Sonular. XVI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1994
30. kiztepede Ele Geen Son Buluntularn Inda Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Protohistorik a Maden Sanat
Hakknda Yeni Gzlemler. XII. Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1994
31. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1994 Dnemi Sonular. XVII. Kaz Sonular Toplants-I, Ankara 1995
32. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1995 Dnemi Sonular. XVIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Ankara 1996
33. Karadeniz Blgesi Ky Kesimi lk Tun a Mimarisi. alar Boyunca Anadoluda Yerleim ve Konut
Uluslararas Sempozyumu, stanbul 1996 (HABTAT II)
34. M 2. Binylda Karadeniz Blgesi. III. Uluslararas Hititoloji Kongresi, orum 1996
35. Ge Demir anda kiztepe. IV. Anadolu Demir alar, Mersin 1997
36. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1996 Dnemi Sonular. XIX. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1997
37. Relations between kiztepe by the Blacksea Coast and the Aegean World before the Iron Age. Tarih ncesi
alarda Ege Uluslararas Sempozyumu, zmir 1997
38. Metal Workers of the Black Sea Region of Turkey in the Early Bronze Age: A New Perspective on the Question of
the Indo-Europeans Original Homeland. Proceedings of the First International Congress on the Archaeology of
the Ancient Near East, Rome 1998
39. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1997 Dnemi Sonular. XX. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Tarsus 1998
40. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1998 Dnemi Sonular. XXI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 1999
41. kiztepe Kazlarnn 1999 Dnemi Sonular. XXII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 2000
42. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2000 Dnemi Sonular. XXIII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 2001

XXI

43. Samsun (Amisos) Blgesinin Kltrel Geliimi Projesi ile lgili Yzey Aratrmas. XIX. Aratrma Sonular
Toplants, Ankara 2002
44. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2001 Dnemi Sonular. XXIV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 2002
45. kiztepenin Anadolu T Maden Sanatnn Geliimine Olan Katklar. XIV. Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 2002
46. Orta Karadeniz Blgesi M 2000 Yl Metal Silahlar. V. Uluslararas Hititoloji Kongresi, orum 2002
47. kiztepe; An Early Bronze Age Site by the Central Black Sea Coast in Turkey. British Academy Black Sea
Initiative, Manchester 2003 (14-16 March Table Ronde)
48. kiztepe; An Early Bronze Age Site by the Central Black Sea Coast in Turkey. Thracia Pontica VIII, Sozopol
2003 (14-17 Eyll)
49. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2002 Dnemi Sonular. XXV. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 2003
50. Distinguished Burials of the Early Bronze Age Graveyard at kiztepe in Turkey. 4th International Congress on the
Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Berlin 2004 (29 Mart 3 Nisan) Freie Universitt
51. kiztepe-Overseas Connections and Cultural Parallels in the Black Sea. An International Inter-Disciplinary
Conference on The Black Sea Region: Past, Present and Feature, stanbul 2004 (Ekim 14-16) stanbul Teknik
niversitesi
52. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2003 Dnemi Sonular. XXVI. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Ankara 2004
53. kiztepe Kazlarnn 30 Yllk Sonularna Toplu Bir Bak. kiztepe Kazlarnn 30. Yl Kutlama Toplants, Bafra
2005
54. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2004 Dnemi Sonular. XXVII. Kaz Sonular Toplants, Antalya 2005
55. lk Tun a kiztepe Halknn Kimlii Sorunu. XV. Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 2006
56. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2005 Dnemi Sonular. XXVIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, anakkale 2006
57. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2006 Dnemi Sonular. XXIX. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Kocaeli 2007
58. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2007 Dnemi Sonular. XXX. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Ankara 2008
59. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2008 Dnemi Sonular. XXXI. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Denizli 2009
60. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2009 Dnemi Sonular. XXXII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, stanbul 2010
61. kiztepe Kazlarnn 2010 Dnemi Sonular. XXXIII. Kaz Sonuler Toplants, Malatya (baskda)

XXII

YILLIK KAZI RAPORLARI / ANNUAL EXCAVATION REPORTS


1.

Excavations in Turkey in 1970 and 1971. Bulleten DArcheologi Sud-Est Europene 3, 1975 Bucarest: 147-167
(Eyazar)

2.

Kkerbaba Hyk, 1978. Anotolian Studies XXIX, 1979 London: 203

3.

Kkerbaba Hyk, 1979. Anatolian Studies XXX, 1980 London: 223-224

4.

Kkerbaba Hyk, 1980-1981. Anatolian Studies XXII, 1982 London: 16

5.

kiztepe Eight Season 1981. Anatolian Studies XXXII, 1983 London: 15

6.

Kkerbaba Hyk 1982. Anatolian Studies XXXIII, 1983 London: 252-253

7.

kiztepe 1982. Anatolian Studies XXXIII, 1983 London: 248-249

8.

Kkerbaba Hyk, 1983. Anatolian Studies XXXIV, 1984 London: 224-225

9.

kiztepe 1983. Anatolian Studies XXXIV, 1984 London: 220-221

10. Kkerbaba Hyk, 1984. Anatolian Studies XXXV, 1985 London: 201-202
11. kiztepe 1984. Anatolian Studies XXXV, 1985 London: 194-195
12. kiztepe 1985. Anatolian Studies XXXVI, 1986 London:
13. kiztepe 1986. Anatolian Studies XXXVII, 1987 London: 192

KONFERANSLAR / CONFERENCES
1.

Protohistorik ada Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Madencileri. stanbul Arkeoloji Mzeleri, stanbul 1994

2.

Klasik a ncesinde Anadoluda Ticaret. Vehbi Ko Vakf Sadberk Hanm Mzesi, stanbul 1997

3.

kiztepe nsan Betimlemeleri. stanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi, stanbul 2000

4.

Hitit ncesi Anadolusunun Etnik Yaps. Trk Eski a Bilimleri Enstits, stanbul 2003

5.

Klasik a ncesi Orta Karadeniz Blgesi Kltrel Gealiimi ve Bir lk Tun a Yerlemesi, kiztepe. Samsun
Yerel Tarih Grubu, stanbul 2004 Mart

6.

Orta Karadeniz Blgesi. British Council, Ankara 2004

XXIII

7.

Anatolia, Cradle of Castings. The 66th World Foundry Congress, stanbul 2004 6-9 Eyll Swiss Otel

8.

kiztepe Kazlarnn 30 Yllk Sonularna Toplu Bir Bak. kiztepe Kazlarnn 30. Yl Kutlamas, Bafra 2005

9.

Lidya. Turizm Rehberleri Birlii, Mimar Sinan niversitesi 2006, stanbul

10. Phrig Tarihi ve Sanat. Turizm Rehberleri Birlii, Mimar Sinan niversitesi 2006, stanbul
11. Orta karadeniz Blgesi kiztepe Kazlarnn Sonularna Toplu Bak. Tahsin zg An Toplants, Ankara 2006
12. Orta Karadeniz Blgesi kiztepe Kazlarnn Sonularna Toplu Bir Bak. Middle East Culture Center in Japan,
Tokyo 2006

KISALTMALAR / ABBREVIATIONS
AAEY

Ankara ngiliz Arkeoloji Enstits Yayn, Londra

BAVA

Beitrge zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archologie, Bonn

BIAA

British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London

EEFY

Ege niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Yayn, zmir

AAEY

stanbul Alman Arkeoloji Enstits Yayn, Berlin

EFY

stanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Yayn, stanbul

stanbul niversitesi Yayn, stanbul

KAVADAIY

Kommission fr Allgemeinen und Vergleichende Archologie des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts


Yayn, Bonn

KBY

Kltr Bakanl Yayn, Ankara

METUP

Middle East Technical University Publication, Ankara

ODTY

Orta Dou Teknik niversitesi Yayn, Ankara

OMY

Ondokuz Mays niversitesi Yayn, Samsun

TASKVY

Tarih, Arkeoloji, Sanat ve Kltr Mirasn Koruma Vakf Yayn, stanbul

TTKY

Trk Tarih Kurumu Yayn, Ankara

VKVSHMY

Vehpi Ko Vakf Sadberk Hanm Mzesi Yayn, stanbul

XXIV

129

AVRASYALI SAVAI-ATLI GEBELERN


KARADENZ BLGESNDEK VARLIKLARINA AT
YEN KANITLAR
evket DNMEZ*

Sorunun Tanm
Anadoluda Demir ann Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerine1 ait arkeolojik bulgular arttka, bu durumla doru
orantl olarak yaynlarla birlikte yeni grler de sayca fazlalamaktadr. Bugne dein Kimmerler ile skitler
temelinde incelenen Demir ann gebe kltryle ilgili deerlendirmeler, zellikle Kimmerlerin Anadoludaki
varlklar zerine balayan sorunlarla birlikte yeni gelimeleri de beraberinde getirmeye balamtr. Kimmerler
hakkndaki bilgilerimizin arkeolojik bulgulardan ziyade antik kaynaklara dayanmas ve zellikle Bat kayna olarak
yalnzca Herodotosun bu halktan bahsetmesi (Historia, I, 6, 15, 16, 103; IV, 1, 11, 12, 13; VII, 20), Kimmerlerin
Anadoludaki varlklar zerine younlaan phelerin temelini oluturmaktadr. Yeni grlerin dorultusunda
yllardan beri ok sayda arkeolog ve eskia tarihisinin Kimmerlere ve onlarn kltrne ait ok sayda yazy,
gerekte Kimmerlere aitlii tartmal bulgular ve buluntular zerinden yazm olduklar sonucu ortaya kmaya
balamtr. Sz konusu tartmal buluntular zerinden gelitirilen temel sorun Kimmer kltrne ait buluntularn skit
sanat zellikleri gstermesidir. Baka bir deyile arkeolojik adan Kimmer kltrne ait olan arkeolojik bulgular
skit sanat eserlerinden ayrmak olduka zordur2. Bu nedenlerden dolay bugne dein ele gemi olan Anadolu Demir
a gebe sanatna ait buluntularn skit olarak kimliklendirilmesi3, bu gebe kltrn erken olduu dnlen baz
buluntularnn ise, Erken skit terimi ile adlandrlmas yoluna gidilmitir.
Yukarda ana hatlar belirtilen tartmalar nedeniyle henz bir sonuca ulamad anlalan Anadolu Demir a
gebe kltr buluntularnn kimliklendirme sorunundan kanmak iin, bu yazda sz konusu kltr ve buluntularn
sahiplerinden Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebeler olarak bahsedilecektir. Bu terim kimliklendirme sorunu bir zme
ulancaya kadar skit, Erken-skit, Proto-skit ve Kimmer kltrel kimliklerini kapsayc niteliktedir.

Do.Dr. evket Dnmez, stanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Arkeoloji Blm Protohistorya ve nasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim Dal, 34134stanbul. donmezsevket@gmail.com

Anadoludaki Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebe buluntular ve ayrntl kaynaka iin bkz. San 1998.

Tsetskhladze 1999: 483-485.

Hellmuth 2008: 102-122.

130

evket Dnmez

Bulgular
Bu yaznn konusunu oluturan bulgu ve buluntularn bir ksm Maat Hyk (Fig.3) ve Oluz Hyk (Fig.4) arkeolojik
kazlarnda ortaya karlmtr. Dierleri ise, stanbul Arkeoloji Mzeleri ile Berlindeki zel bir koleksiyonda muhafaza
edilmektedir.
zmit kkenli olduu dnlen yaban keisi figrl bir at koum takm paras4 tuntan retilmitir (Fig.1). Berlinde
zel bir koleksiyonda yer alan yaban keisi ban arkaya doru evirmi pozisyonda betimlenmitir. Bu eserin bir benzeri
Lydia bakenti Sardeste ele gemitir5. zmit kkenli yaban keisi figrl bu at koum takm paras Avrasyal SavaAtl Gebelerin Karadeniz Blgesindeki varlklarna iaret eden, ancak bugne dein bu ynde deerlendirilmeyen
nemli bir eserdir. stanbul Arkeoloji Mzelerinde muhafaza edilmekte olan Balkesir kkenli tuntan bir baka yaban
keisi biimli kay datcs6 (Fig.2) ban arkaya evirmemi oluu ile zmit yaban keisinden ayrlmaktadr. zmite
ok da uzak olmayan bir blgede ele gemi olmas, Karadenizin bats ile yakn evresinde Avrasyal Savalarn
youn faaliyetlerine iaret etmektedir.
Maat Hykn (Fig.3) M.. 6. yzyln son eyreine tarihlenen Demir ann II. Mimari Tabakasnda ele gemi
olan iki bal at figrnden oluan tuntan retilmi bir eser7 olduka ilgi ekicidir. Simetrik, ancak ters yerletirilmi
at figrleri boyunlarnda izgisel olarak belirtilmi yeleleri ile doal olarak betimlenmitir. Bu eserin ilevi tam olarak
anlalmasa da bir at koum takm paras olmas olasdr. Anadolu sanatna yabanc tarz ve geler tayan bu eser
de, zmit (Fig.1) ve Balkesir kkenli at koum takm paralar (Fig.2) gibi Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerle ilgili
olmaldr.
Maat Hykn kuuumu 70 km kuzeyinde yer alan, Amasya yaknlarndaki Oluz Hyk (Fig.4) 2. Mimari Tabakada
(M 5. yzyln son eyrei M 3. yzyl) bulunan bir krater paras zerindeki at figr (Fig.5a-b) bir gebe kltr
gesi olarak deerlendirilebilir. Halys/Kzlrmak Kavsi ii Erken ve Orta Demir a anak-mlekiliinde olmayan
at figrlerinin birdenbire ortaya kmas, gebelerin anak-mlek atlyelerine bir etkisi olmaldr. Burada dikkat
edilecek husus, Avrasyal gebelerin bu etkiyi sanatlar ile deil yaam tarzlar ile yapm olmalardr. Oluz Hyk ile
ayn kltr blgesinde yer alan Maat Hyk8 ile Boazkyde Kuzeybat Yamacnda (Fig.6) ele gemi kap paralar
zerinde grlen silah tutan svarilerin9 atlar bu erevede deerlendirilmelidir. Oluz Hyk 2. Mimari Tabakada ele
geen skit tip tun okular (Fig.7a-b, 8a-b, 9a-b), gebelerin yerleme ve evresindeki varlklarna iaret etmektedir.
skit tipi okucu, kovanl, genellikle tek nadiren ift mahmuzlu, bazen iki bazen de kanatl, ounlukla tuntan bazen
de demirden yaplm olan ve Demir anda Anadolu ile nasyann dier blgelerinde Avrasyal Sava-Atl
Gebelerin varlklarna iaret eden okularn tanmlayan bir terimdir. nasyann hemen hemen tm blgelerinde
grlen skit tipi okularnn kimlii konusunda, yani Kimmerlere mi yoksa skitlere mi ait olduu ya da her iki
ulus tarafndan da m kullanld veya Anadolu ve nasyada yerel olarak retilip retilmedii gibi temel tartmalar
gnmzde halen devam etmektedir.
Ayrca, Oluz Hykte yine 2. Mimari Tabakada ortaya karlan baz ukurlarn (Fig.10-11) iinde ortaya karlan
kasaplk izler tayan at kemikleri ve onlarn kesimi ile ilgili bulgular (Fig.12-14), Oluz Hyk Demir a halknn
at eti yemek gibi baz Asyal geleneklerine iaret etmektedir. Avrasyal Gebelerin zaman iinde Anadolu kltr
potasnda eridikleri ve yerleime getikleri bugne dein tartlm, ancak arkeolojik bulgularla desteklenememi bir
konuydu. Oluz Hyk kazlar, Avrasyal Gebelerin yerleik hayata ne ekilde ve nerelerde gemi olabilecekleri
sorununun zmne hlihazrda bulgu sunan tek kaz durumundadr.
4

Otto 1941:Abb.1/2; Waldbaum 1983: Fig.17/5-6; Ivantchick 2001: Abb. 37/3.

Hanfmann 1963: Fig.9; Waldbaum 1983: Fig.17/1-2; Ivantchik 2001: Abb.37/1.

Meriboyu 1997: 6, iz.10.

zg 1982: 66, Lev.62/15.

zg 1982: Lev.74/10.

Genz 2007: 135-136, Fig.2a.

Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Karadeniz Blgesindeki Varlklarna Ait Yeni Kantlar

131

stanbul Arkeoloji Mzelerinde muhafaza edilmekte olan ve Mze envanterine Samsun kkenli olarak kayt edilmi
olan tuntan retilmi at koum takm paras olan ku ba eklinde bir kay datcsnn10 (Fig.15) yakn bir benzeri
Sardes ve Ephesos Artemisionda ele gemitir11. Bat Anadoludaki benzerlerinin iaret ettii zere, bu eser Avrasyal
Sava-Atl Gebelerle ilgili olmaldr.
At koum takm paralarndan olan ve Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebeler tarafndan retilmi ve kullanlm olan ku
ba eklindeki kay datclarndan Anadoludan olduka az sayda rnek yaynlanmtr. Konuyla ilgilenmi olan Y.
Akyay Meriboyu Trkiye mzelerinde yaynlanmam birok kay datcs olabileceini belirtmitir12.
Bugne dein Anadoludaki saylar toplam 3 adet olan sava kazmalar13, Anadoluda Avrasyal Sava-Atl
Gebelerin varlklarna iaret eden en nemli buluntu gruplarndan biridir. Sava gebelerle birlikte Anadoluya
giren silahlar iinde hi kuku yok ki tipolojik adan, skit tipi okucu da denilen kovanl ve bazen mahmuzlu,
ounlukla tuntan imal edilen okular14 bata gelmektedir. skit arkeolojisi aratrmalarnn balang dnemlerinde
yalnzca skitlerin retmi ve kullanm olduu bir obje olarak dnlm bu okularnn, zaman iinde arkeolojik
aratrmalarn artmasna doru orantl olarak hem saysal ve hem de blgesel olarak artlar, sz konusu bu okularnn
belli bir dnem sonra Anadolu insanlar tarafndan da benimsenmi ve retilmi olduu kansnn olumasna neden
olmutur. Tarafmzdan yaplan bir deerlendirmede Kargam Dkentteki E ve F konutlarnn skit tipi okularnn
Anadoludaki yerel retimi ile ilgili olduklar ileri srlmtr15.
Sava kazmalar ise, skit tipi okucu gibi Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebeler tarafndan Anadoluya gelmi olan yeni bir
silah tipidir. Bunlar okular ile karlatrldnda, saysal adan ok fazla rnei olmad bilinmektedir. Bu durum,
sava kazmalarnn Anadolu Demir a halklar tarafndan benimsenmedii ve retilmedii kansn uyandrmaktadr.
Amasya-mirler Kurgan16, stanbul Arkeoloji Mzeleri rnei17 ile Mu kkenli sava-kazmas18 hem form ve tip
asndan ve hem de tun ile demirin ayn silah zerinde birlikte kullanlmas nedeniyle retim teknolojisi asndan
Anadoluya pek ok ynden yabancdr. Sava kazmalar gerekte iki blmden olumaktadr. Silahn esas ksm tuntan
yaplm kovanl bir sap ve bu sapa 90o ayla monte edilmi demirden bir namlu ve bir enseden oluturmaktadr.
ounlukla namlunun tun sap ile birletii ve 90 derecelik bir a oluturduu ksmda tuntan stilize bir yrtc ku ba
figr yer alr. Kvrk ve sivri gagal kuun gzleri yuvarlak kabartlarla belirtilmitir. Kovanl sapn alt ksmnda perin
delikleri yer alr. Sava kazmasnn dier ksmn kabzas oluturur. Sap gibi kovanl olarak imal edilmi bu kabzalar
dkm tekniinde retilmi olup, d yzeyleri genellikle dikey yivlerle bezenmitir. Kabzann az ksmnda da tpk
kovanl sapn alt ksmnda olduu gibi perin delikleri mevcuttur. Sap ve kabzadaki perin delikleri, kovanl olan her iki
blme yerletirilen ve uzun bir sap oluturan ahap sapa monte edilmekteydi. Bu ekilde kabzasyla birlikte Anadoluda
ele gemi tek rnek Amasya-mirlerde yasad kazlar sonucu ortaya karlm ve sonra Amasya Mzesi tarafndan
msadere edilmi eserler iinde yer alan bir sava kazmasdr19. Sinopta ele gemi tuntan bir sava kazmas kabzas20,
Anadoludaki ikinci kabza olmasnn yan sra, Orta Karadeniz Blgesinde Sava-Atl Gebelerin varlna ilikin
en nemli kantlar arasndadr.
10 Akyay Meriboyu 1997: 4-5, iz.6.
11

Akyay Meriboyu 1997: 5.

12 Akyay Meriboyu 1997: dipnot 12.


13 Ivantchik 2001: Abb.22/8-9, 12.
14 skit tipi okularnn kaynakas iin bkz. Dnmez 2002: 33-44.
15 Dnmez 2008: 225-234.
16 nal 1982: Abb.1/2-3; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 12/098.
17 Mller-Karpe 1995: 233.
18 Mller-Karpe 1995: Res.2/2.
19 nal 1982: Abb.1/2-3; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 12/098.
20 Dnmez 2011: Fig.23.

132

evket Dnmez

Kurganlar ve Tmlsler
Gnmze kadar yaplan arkeolojik aratrmalar sonucunda Anadoluda Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelere ait
herhangi bir yerleme saptanamamtr. Sava kazmalar, okular, at koum takm paralar ve benzeri buluntular
bir tarafa ayrdmzda, Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelere ait mimari ge ieren en nemli bulgular kurgan ve
tmlslerdir. Bugne dein yasad kazlar ya da bilimsel arkeolojik aratrma ve kazlar ile ortaya karlm
olan kurgan ve tmlsler, Amasya ili Gmhacky ilesi yaknlarndaki mirlerde, Elaz ili snrlar iindeki
Noruntepede, Ankara ili Polatl ilesi yaknlarndaki Phryg bakenti Gordion/Yasshykte ve Eskiehir ili snrlar
iindeki Demircihykte yer almaktadr.
mirlerde yasad kazlar sonucunda aa karlm olan kurgan tipindeki bir mezarn buluntular, demir bir kl21,
demir ve tuntan bir sava kazmas22 ile bunun tun kabzas, tun bir at gemi paras23 ile 7 adet tun skit tipi okucudur24.
Sz konusu bu buluntular Amasya Mzesi tarafndan yasad kazlardan sonra msadere edilmitir. Mezardan toplanan
kemik paralarnn incelenmesinin sonucunda hem insan hem de at kemiklerine rastlanmas ve buluntular arasnda
grlen gem paras, bu kurgann25 atyla birlikte gmlm olan bir Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebeye ait olduuna
iaret etmektedir. Bu savann bir komutan olabilecei olasl da gz ard edilmemelidir. A. Hellmuthun yaknlarda
yaynlad bir makalede mirler Kurgann, kabul edilenin aksine, M 8. yzyl balarna hatta M. 9. yzyl sonlarna
tarihlendirmesi, eer kabul edilirse, Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Orta Karadeniz Blgesindeki faaliyetlerine
Orta Demir ann balarnda baladklarna iaret etmektedir. Proto-skit ya da Erken skitler diyebileceimiz bu
gruplarn Anadoluda bu kadar erken grnmelerine armamak gerekir. Anadolunun komu blgelerinde faaliyetleri
olan Avrasyal Gebelerin, hi phe yok ki, bildikleri ve tandklar bir blgede, az sayda da olsa, var olmalar ok
doaldr.
Bugn Keban Baraj Gl iinde kalm olan Noruntepede ta rg duvarl bir konstrksiyon iinde iki at iskeleti
saptanmtr. M 7. yzyla tarihlenen bu at gmlerinde ele geen buluntular olarak, demirden kovanl 2 mzrakucu,
sap delikli 1 balta ve 1 haner ile tuntan 2 at gemi paras, 1 at koum takm balants, hayvan ba biimli 2 at koumu
takm paras, 1 bilezik ve 1 kesici dikkati ekmektedir26.
Gordion/Yasshykte tahrip tabakas sonrasna, M 7. yzyla tarihlenen KY (Kk Yasshyk) Tmls, 5
m yksekliinde olup 100 m apndadr. KY Tmls kazlar sonucunda ahap mezar odasnn merkeze yakn bir
konumda ve ana toprak iine ina edilmi olduu saptanmtr27. Ancak KY Tmlsn dierlerinden ayran en
nemli zellik, mezar tepesinin dou tarafnda saptanan iki at iskeletidir. At iskeletlerinin yan sra baz gem paralar
ile kafataslarnda birer tun plaka ele gemitir. KY Tmls mezar yaps ve ahap mezar odas ile tmyle Phryg
zellikleri yanstmaktadr. Burada dnlmesi gereken iki olaslk bulunmaktadr. Birincisi, KY Tmlsne
gmlm olan ahs bir Phryglidir ve tmlsn orijinalinde tek bana gmlmtr. At gmleri ise, daha sonraki
bir dnemde gerekletirilmi ikinci bir gm operasyonudur. Daha zayf olan ikinci olaslk ise, Phryg tarznda ina
edilmi bu tmlse bir Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebe ve atlar gmlmtr.
Gordion/Yasshykle ayn blgede, yani Bat Anadoludan Orta Anadoluya gei blgesinde, Eskiehir ili snrlar
iinde yer alan Demircihyk-Sarket Mezarlnda ortaya karlm olan bir tmlsteki at gms28 ile skit
21

nal 1982: Abb.1/1; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 25/162.

22

nal 1982: Abb.1/2-3; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 12/098.

23

nal 1982: Abb.1/4; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 4/056.

24

nal 1982: Abb.1/-11; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 25/153, 156-158.

25

nal 1982: 65-81.

26

Hauptmann 1983: Abb.4/1-10; Ivantchik 2001: 332, Abb.5/1-10.

27

Young 1956: 266.

28

Seeher 1998: Taf.9/1-2.

Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Karadeniz Blgesindeki Varlklarna Ait Yeni Kantlar

133

tipi bir okucu29 bu yredeki Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin varlna ait dier nemli arkeolojik bulgular
oluturmaktadr.
Anadoluda yukarda deinilen Noruntepe, Amasya-mirler, Gordion/Yasshyk ve Demircihyk-Sarket at
gmleri dnda baka at gmlerinin de varl bilinmesine karn, bunlarn konu ile ilgili aratrmaclarn dikkatini
pek ekmedii ya da gzden kam olduklar anlalmaktadr.
1925 ylnda Th. Makridi Bey Ankarada baz tmlslerde kaz almalar gerekletirmitir30. Bunlar iinde
kendisinin Ankara stasyonu arkasndaki tmlsler olarak nitelendirdii 2 tmlsten kk olannda yapt kaz
almalar srasnda byk olaslkla bir mezar odasna ait 1.5 m derinliindeki boluk iinde nce at dileri saptam,
bu boluu daha da geniletince ortaya bir at iskeleti kmtr. skeletin yaknlarnda bulduu baz tun paralarn
ise at bal ile koum takmnn gemi olduu belirtilmitir. Bunlarn yaknnda ise, kalkan ve elbise sslerine ait
levhalar ve fildii dmeler ele geirildii bildirilmitir. Bu buluntularn bir insana ait olduu anlalmaktadr. 1926
ylnda Maarif Vekleti Mecmuasnda yaynlanm olan kaz raporunun Arap harfleri ile baslm olmas nedeniyle
yukarda bahsettiimiz bulgu ve buluntular uzun bir sre aratrmaclarn dikkatinden kamtr. Sz konusu rapor 2001
ylnda transkripsiyonu ve gnmz Trkesi ile yeniden yaynlandktan31 sonra tarafmzdan sz konusu bu bilgilere
ulalmtr. Th. Makridi Beyin de olduka ilgisini eken at iskeleti ve dier buluntular32, Gordion/Yasshyk KY
Tmlsndeki at gmlerini hatrlatmaktadr. Corafi olarak da her iki tmls birbirlerine yakn konumdadr. Her
iki tmls birlikte deerlendirdiimizde, zellikle Ankara Tmlsnn Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Orta
Anadoludaki varlklar iin eski olmakla birlikte gndeme yeni gelen arkeolojik bir kant oluturmaktadr.
Maat Hykn (Fig.3) E. Akurgal tarafndan 1945 ylnda gerekletirilen ilk dnem kazlarnda bir at iskeletine
rastlanmtr33. Her ne kadar at iskeletinin Hitit tabakasnda saptand belirtilse de, gmlerin bulunduklar tabakalara
ait olma olaslklar ok zayftr. nk gmler bulunduklar tabakaya sonradan ukur kazlarak yerletirilirler. Bu
durumda at iskeletinin de Hitit tabakas iine, tabaka tahrip edilerek sonradan yerletirildii ok byk bir olaslk olarak
dnlmelidir. Bu balamda Amasya-mirler kurganna ok uzak bir mesafede olmayan Zile yaknlarndaki Maat
Hykte skit tipi okular34, ift bal at figrl at koum paras35 ve bir Avrasyal sava betimi ieren anak-mlek
paras36 dnda, ortaya karlan bir at iskeleti Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin Maat Hyk ve Orta Karadeniz
Blgesindeki varlklarn gzler nne bir kez daha sermektedir.

Deerlendirme ve Sonu
Karadeniz Blgesinde bugne dein ele gemi olan Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerle ilikili bulgu ve buluntulara bu
yaz ile gncel katklar ve yorumlar yaplmtr. zellikle gnmze dein deerlendirilmemi ya da gzden karlm
olan Maat Hyk at iskeleti, mirler Kurgannda varl saptanan bir at iskeletinden sonra Karadeniz Blgesindeki ikinci
rnei oluturmas bakmndan son derece nemlidir. Buna ek olarak, Oluz Hyk (Fig.4) 2. Mimari Tabakada (M 5.
yzyln son eyrei M 3. yzyl) ele geen at figrl krater paras (Fig.5a-b), skit tipi okular (Fig.7a-b, 8a-b,
9a-b) ile baz ukurlarda (Fig.10-11) ortaya karlan bak izi tayan at kemikleri (Fig.12-14), Anadoluda nerede ve ne
zaman yerleime getikleri bilinmeyen Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebeler hakknda gncel arkeolojik bulgular sunmaya
29 Seeher 1998: Abb.2/4.
30 Makridi 1926: 38-48.
31 Makridi 2001: 38-44.
32 Makridi 2001: 42-43.
33 zg 1978: 17.
34 zg 1982: Lev.62/10-11.
35 zg 1982: Lev.62/15.
36 zg 1982: Lev.74/10.

134

evket Dnmez

balamtr. Oluz Hyk arkeolojik kazlarnn daha balang aamasnda Avrasyal Gebelerle ilgili arkeolojik
bulgular ele gemeye balam olmas, yakn gelecekteki kazlarn ok daha fazla veri sunacan gstermektedir. zmit
kkenli yaban keisi figrl (Fig.1) ve Samsun kkenli ku ba eklindeki (Fig.15) kay datclar ile Maat Hykte
ele gemi ift bal at figrl at koum takm paras, mirler Kurgan buluntular, Sinopta ele gemi sava kazmas
kabzas, at iskeletleri ve Oluz Hyk bulgular, bir btn olarak deerlendirildiinde, Demir a srecinde, Karadeniz
Blgesindeki Avrasyal Sava-Atl Gebelerin varlklarn ve hareket gzerghlarn tartmaya olanak vermeyecek
biimde kantlamaktadr. Bilinenin aksine, mirler Kurgan ve buluntularnn M 8. yzyl balarna hatta M. 9. yzyl
sonlarna tarihlendirilerek erkene ekilmesi, Avrasyal Gebelerin M 8. yzyl sonlarndan itibaren yurt edinecekleri
Anadolu ve Karadeniz Blgesini tanma ve keif gayretleri erevesinde deerlendirilmelidir. Bu tr faaliyetleri,
yzyllar sonra ayn topraklar yurt tutan Trklerin aknclk sistemine benzetebiliriz.

135

NEW EVIDENCES ON THE EXISTENCE OF


EURASIAN HORSE-RIDING NOMADS IN THE BLACK SEA
REGION, TURKEY
evket DNMEZ*

Problem Definition
As archaeological findings about the existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads of Iron Age in Anatolia37 increase,
new opinions with new publications about the matter increase accordingly. Evaluations on the nomad cultures in Iron
Age, examined on the basis of Cimmerians and Scythians until now, bring new developments especially with the
problems that have emerged on the existence of Cimmerians in Anatolia. Foundation of suspicions about the presence
of Cimmerians in Anatolia is the fact that our information about Cimmerians depend on antique records rather than
archaeological findings and especially the ancient Western source with a reference to the society is Herodotus (Historia,
I, 6, 15, 16, 103; IV, 1, 11, 12, 13; VII, 20). According to the new opinions, it appears that many archaeologists and
historians wrote their numerous publications on Cimmerians and their culture based on disputable data and findings.
The main problem with developed on these findings is that Cimmerian findings display Scythian art characteristics. In
other words, archaeologically, it is very difficult to distinguish between Cimmerian culture archaeological findings and
Scythian artworks38. Thus, it has been chosen to identify findings obtained until now from Anatolian Iron Age nomad art
as Scythian39 and to name some findings thought to be from early nomad culture as Early Scythian.
In order to avoid the problem of identification of the Anatolian Iron Age nomad culture findings, incomplete because of
these outlined disputes, the owner of this culture and findings as Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in this article. This
term is comprehensive enough for Scythian, Early Scythian, Proto-Scythian and Cimmerian cultural identities until the
identification problem is solved.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. evket Dnmez. stanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Protohistory and Near Eastern Archaeology. Beyazt
34134-stanbul, Turkey. donmezsevket@gmail.com

37 See San 1998 for Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads findings and extensive bibliography.
38 Tsetskhladze 1999: 483-485.
39 Hellmuth 2008: 102-122.

136

evket Dnmez

Findings
Some of the data and findings that make the topic of this article were revealed during the archaeological excavations
at Maat Hyk (Fig.3) and Oluz Hyk (Fig. 4). The other are preserved in stanbul Archaeological Museums and a
private collection in Berlin.
A horse harness piece, which is a strap distributor, with a wild goat figure40 (Fig.1), thought to have originated in zmit,
is made of bronze. The wild goat, contained in a private collection in Berlin, has its head turned back. An analogue of
this work was obtained in the Lydian capital Sardis41. This horse harness piece with a wild goat figure from zmit is
an important work that indicates to the existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region but not
accordingly evaluated until now. Another bronze strap distributor with a wild goat figure42 (Fig.2) is from Balkesir
and preserved in stanbul Archaeological Museums but the wild goat does not have its head turned back and thusly
distinguished from zmit wild goat. The fact that it was found not far from zmit indicates to dense Eurasian Nomads
activity in the west of the Black Sea and close proximity.
A bronze figure of a double headed horse43, dating to the last quarter of 6th century BC and obtained in the 2nd
Architectural Layer of Iron Age at Maat Hyk (Fig.3), is quite striking. The horse figures are symmetrical but placed
opposite and they are depicted in a natural manner with linear mane on their necks. Although function of the work could
not be specified, it is possible that it is a harness piece. It has unfamiliar style and elements to Anatolian art and must be
connected to Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads, like zmit (Fig.1) and Balkesir horsegear pieces (Fig.2).
A horse figure on a crater piece (Fig.5a-b) was found in the 2nd Architectural Layer (last quarter of 5th century BC - 3rd
century BC) of Oluz Hyk (Fig.4), near Amasya and in 70km air distance from Maat Hyk, can be evaluated as a
nomad culture element. The sudden appearance of previously non-existent horse figures in Early and Middle Iron Age
pottery in Halys/Kzlrmak Bend must be an influence by the nomads on pottery workshops. Point here to consider is
that the nomads made this influence not with their arts but with their lifestyles. Horses of armed cavalries observed on
the potsherds found at Maat Hyk44 and Boazky Northwest Slope45 (Fig.6), which belong to the same culture area
as Oluz Hyk, should be evaluated within this context. Scythian type bronze arrowheads, obtained at Oluz Hyk
2nd Architectural Layer (Figs.7a-b, 8a-b, 9a-b), point out to existence of the nomads in the settlement and its vicinity.
Scythian type arrowhead is a term for the generally bronze and sometimes iron arrowheads with cartridges, mostly
single and rarely double spurs, sometimes two and sometimes three wings, which signal the presence of Eurasian HorseRiding Nomads in Anatolia and other regions of Near East in Iron Age. Basic discussions continue today on the identity
of Scythian arrowheads which are observed in almost all regions of Near East, i.e. whether they belong to Cimmerians
or Scythians or both societies used them and whether or not they were locally produced in Anatolia and Near East.
Also, horse bones with butchery traces and findings (Figs.12-14) on their slaughter, revealed in some pits (Figs.10-11) of
the 2nd Architectural Layer of Oluz Hyk, suggest certain Asian traditions of Oluz Hyk Iron Age society like eating
horse meat. It has been discussed that Eurasian Nomads melted in the Anatolian culture pot in time and settled; however,
the matter was not supported with archaeological evidences. Oluz Hyk excavations are the only ones that currently
provided data for the problem how and where Eurasian Nomads could have settled.

40

Otto 1941: Abb. 1/2; Waldbaum 183: Fig. 17/5-6; Ivantchick 2001: Abb. 37/3.

41

Hanfmann 1963: Fig.9; Waldbaum 1983: Fig.17/1-2; Ivantchik 2001: Abb.37/1.

42

Meriboyu 1997: 6, iz. 10.

43

zg 1982: 66, Lev. 62/15.

44

zg 1982: Lev.74/10.

45

Genz 2007: 135-136, Fig.2a.

New Evidences on the Existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey

137

A close analogue of bird head shaped strap distributor from a bronze harness46 (Fig.15), preserved in stanbul
Archaeological Musems and recorded in museum inventory as originating from Samsun, was found in Sardis and
Ephesos Artemision47. As the analogues from Western Anatolia pointed, this work must be in connection with Eurasian
Horse-Riding Nomads.
A rather small number of bird head shaped strap distributors, a harness piece which was produced and used by Eurasian
Horse-Riding Nomads, were published from Anatolia. Y. Akyay Meriboyu, who dealt with the subject, stated that there
could be many unpublished strap distributors in museums of Turkey48.
Bi-metallic battle picks49, the total number of which in Anatolia until today was three, are one of the most important
finding group indicating to the presence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in Anatolia. Surely, mostly bronze Scythian
type arrowheads with cartridges and sometimes spurs50 are typologically the leader among the weapons the warrior
nomads brought to Anatolia with them. These arrowheads were thought to be an object which were only produced
and used by Scythians in early Scythian archaeology research; however, as the archaeological studies increased, these
arrowheads also increased numerically and in area created the impression that the arrowheads were in time adopted and
produced by the Anatolians. An evaluation of ours proposed that E and F residences at in Carchemish Outer Town
were connected to local Scythian type arrowhead production in Anatolia51.
Although bi-metallic battle picks are a new weapon type which entered Anatolia with Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads
like Scythian type arrowheads, scarce examples found until today give the impression that they, contrary to the
arrowheads, were not adopted or used by Anatolian Iron Age societies. The barrow (kurgan) of Amasya-mirler52,
stanbul Archaeological Museums example53 and Mu originated bi-metallic battle pick54 are unfamiliar to Anatolia in
many ways in their forms and types and in production technology as bronze and iron were used in the same weapon.
Bi-metallic battle picks are actually in two parts. The main part of the weapon is a bronze shaft with cartridge with an
iron barrel, attached 90o, and a nape. Generally, a stylized feral bird head figure is placed on the part where the barrel
joins with the bronze shaft in a 90o angle. Eyes of the convoluted and pointy beaked bird are emphasized with round
embossments. Rivet holes are located on the lower part of the shaft. These hilts, made with cartridges like the shaft,
were produced in casting technique and their exteriors are usually decorated with vertical grooves. There are rivet holes
on the mouth of the hilt, like the lower part of the shaft. Rivet holes on the shaft and hilt were mounted on the wooden
shaft which was placed on the both sides with cartridges and formed a long shaft. The only example obtained with its
hilt in Anatolia was a bi-metallic battle pick, revealed at the mirler Kurgan during an illegal excavation and confiscated
by Amasya Museum55. A bronze bi-metallic battle pick handle (hilt) found in Sinop56 is the second hilt found in Anatolia
and is one of the most important evidences for Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Central Black Sea Region.

46 Akyay Meriboyu 1997: 4-5, iz. 6.


47 Akyay Meriboyu 1997: 5.
48 Akyay Meriboyu 1997: Footnote 12.
49 Ivantchik 2001: Abb.22/8-9, 12.
50 See Dnmez 2002: 33-44 for Scythian type arrowheads bibliography.
51 Dnmez 2008: 225-234.
52 nal 1982: Abb. 1/2-3; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 12/098.
53 Mller-Karpe 1995: 233.
54 Mller-Karpe 1995: Res. 2/2.
55 nal 1982: Abb. 1/2-3; Bigli 2001: Tablo 12/098.
56 Dnmez 2011: Fig. 23.

138

evket Dnmez

Kurgans (barrows) and Tumuli


Archaeological studies carried out until now have not yielded any settlements connected with Eurasian Horse-Riding
Nomads in Anatolia. When we put aside the bi-metallic battle picks, arrowheads, harness pieces and similar findings, the
most important data with architectural elements of Eurasian Nomads are the kurgans and tumuli. Kurgans and tumuli,
revealed until today by illegal excavations or scientific archaeological research and excavations, are located at mirler,
near Gmhacky district of Amasya Province, Noruntepe, within Elaz Provincey borders, Gordion/Yasshyk,
the Phrygian capital near Polatl district of Ankara Province, and Demircihyk, in Eskiehir Province.
The findings from the kurgan type tomb, disclosed by illegal excavations at mirler, are an iron sword57, a bi-metallic
battle pick 58 with its bronze hilt, a bronze bridle piece59 and seven bronze Scythian type arrowheads60. These findings
were confiscated by Amasya Museum after the illegal excavations. As the examination on bone pieces gathered from
the tomb found both human and horse bones and the presence of a bridle piece among the findings suggest that this
kurgan61 belongs to a Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomad who was buried with his horse. The possibility that this warrior was
a commander should not be ruled out. An article of A. Hellmuth, published recently, if the dating of mirler Kurgan to
the beginning of the 8th century BC or even the end of the 9th century BC is accepted, contrary to the prevalent idea, this
would indicates that Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads started their activities in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey
in the beginning of the Middle Iron Age. It is not surprising these groups, which we can call Proto-Scythians or Early
Scythians, appeared this early in Anatolia. Surely it is natural for Eurasian Nomads existed, although in a small number,
in an area they know.
Two horse skeletons were detected in a stone network wall at Noruntepe, today inside Keban Dam Lake. These horse
burials, dating to 7th century BC, 2 spearheads, 1 axe and 1 dagger with pierced hilts, 2 bronze horse bridle pieces, 1
harness connection, animal head shaped 2 harness pieces, 1 bracelet and 1 cutter stand out62.
KY (Kk/Small Yasshyk) Tumulus, dating to the 7th century BC before the demolished layer at Gordion/Yasshyk,
is 5m high with 100m diameter. KY Tumulus excavations results reveal that the wooden burial chamber was located
near the centre but in the main soil63. However, the most significant aspect that distinguishes KY Tumulus from others
is the two horse skeletons detected in the east side of tomb hill. Besides the skeletons, some bridle pieces and one
bronze plate in each skull were found. KY Tumulus entirely reflects Phrygian characteristics with its tomb structure and
wooden burial chamber. There are two possibilities to consider: The first is that the person buried inside KY Tumulus
was a Phrygian and he was buried alone in the original tumulus; Horse burials were a second burial operation in a later
time. The second and less likely possibility is that a Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomad and his horses were buried inside
this tumulus, built in the Phrygian style.
A horse burial64 and a Scythian type arrow head65, found at Demircihyk-Sarket Cemetery in Eskiehir Province, the
passage from Western Anatolia to Central Anatolia, the same region as Gordion/Yasshyk, constitute other important
archaeological findings on the existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the region.
Although other horse burials are known other than the ones at Noruntepe, Amasya-mirler, Gordion/Yasshyk and
Demircihyk-Sarket, it is understood either they do not appeal to researchers of the subject or they were overlooked.
57

nal 1982: Abb. 1/1; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 25/162.

58

nal 1982: Abb. 1/2-3; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 12/098.

59

nal 1982: Abb. 1/4; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 4/056.

60

nal 1982: Abb. 1/-11; Bilgi 2001: Tablo 25/153, 156-158.

61

nal 1982: 65-81.

62

Hauptmann 1983: Abb. 4/1-10; Ivantchik 2001: 332, Abb. 5/1-10.

63

Young 1956: 266.

64

Seeher 1998: Taf. 9/1-2.

65

Seeher 1998: Abb. 2/4.

New Evidences on the Existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey

139

Th. Makridi Bey conducted excavation works on some tumuli in Ankara in 192566. During the excavations of a tumulus,
the small one of the 2 tumuli which Th. Makridi Bey defined as the tumuli behind Ankara Station, he first detected
horse teeth in a 1.5m deep space of probably a burial chamber, and as he expanded the space, a horse skeleton was
revealed. Some bronze pieces which he found near the skeleton were specified as a horse headgear and bridle of a
harness. Near there were found plates of shield and cloth ornaments and ivory buttons. These findings were understood
to belong to a person. As the excavation report, published on Board of Education Magazine (Maarif Vekleti Mecmuas)
in 1926, was written in Arabic letters, these findings we mentioned escaped the notice of researchers for a long time. We
reached the information when the report was transcribed, translated into modern Turkish and reprinted in 200167. Horse
skeletons and other findings68 which greatly interested Th. Makridi Bey, remind the horse burials at Gordion/Yasshyk
KY Tumulus. These tumuli are geographically close. When we consider the tumuli together and especially Ankara
Tumulus, form an old but newly come up archaeological evidence for the Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads presence in
Central Anatolia.
A horse skeleton was come across at Maat Hyk (Fig.3), near Zile District in Tokat Province in the first period
excavations of 1945 by E. Akurgal69. Although the skeleton was reported to be found in the Hittite layer, it is a small
possibility that these burials belong to the layer they were found in because burials are placed after a hole is dug in
the layer. Thus, it must be considered a great possibility that the horse skeleton was placed inside the Hittite layer by
demolishing the layer in a later time. So, besides Scythian type arrowheads70 at Maat Hyk, not very far from Amasyamirler Kurgan, a harness piece with a double headed horse figure71 and a potsherd with a Eurasian warrior depiction72,
a horse skeleton once more reveals the existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads at Maat Hyk and in the Central
Black Sea Region.

Evaluation and Conclusion


This article made some contemporary contributions and comments on the data and findings of Eurasian Horse-Riding
Nomads found in the Black Sea Region of Turkey until today. Maat Hyk horse skeleton, not evaluated or overlooked
until now, is especially important as it is the second example in the Black Sea Region after the horse skeleton from mirler
Kurgan. In addition, crater fragment with a horse figure (Fig.5a-b), obtained in the 2nd Architectural Layer (last quarter
of 5th century BC - 3rd century BC) of Oluz Hyk (Fig.4), Scythian type arrowheads (Fig.7a-b, 8a-b, 9a-b) and horse
bones with knife cuts (Fig.12-14) revealed in some pits (Fig.10-11) started to give contemporary archaeological data on
the Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads, unknown where and when they settled. The immediate archaeological findings of
Eurasian Nomads in the beginning phase of Oluz Hyk excavations show that future excavations are going to reveal
much more data. When we consider in their entirety the strap distributors, one from zmit with a wild goat figure (Fig.1)
and one from Samsun in the shape of a birds head (Fig.15), and the harness piece with a double headed horse figure,
obtained at Maat Hyk, mirler Kurgan findings, bi-metallic battle pick hilt found in Sinop, horse skeletons and Oluz
Hyk findings, it indisputably proves the existence and routeing of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea
Region during the Iron Age. The earlier dating of mirler Kurgan findings to the beginning of the 8th century BC, or
even, the end of the 9th century BC, contrary to what is believed, must be evaluated with a consideration that Eurasian
Nomads strived to acquaint and discover Anatolia and Black Sea Region, where they were going to settle after the end
of 8th century BC. We can draw a parallel between these activities and the Turkish flow system to the same country.
66 Makridi 1926: 38-48.
67 Makridi 2001: 38-44.
68 Makridi 2001: 42-43.
69 zg 1978: 17.
70 zg 1982: Lev. 62/10-11.
71 zg 1982: Lev. 62/15.
72 zg 1982: Lev. 74/10.

140

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KAYNAKA/BIBLIOGRAPHY
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G.M.A. Hanfmann. Fift Campaign at Sardis, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental
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H. Hauptmann. Neue Funde eurasischer Steppenomaden in Kleinasiens, Beitrge zur


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H. Otto. Achamenidsche Kleinkunst in Anatolien, Die Antike 17: 81-88.

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New Evidences on the Existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey

Fig.1: Yaban keisi figrl bir at koum takm paras, tun,


zmit / A horse harness piece with a wild goat figure, bronze, zmit

Fig.2: Yaban keisi figrl bir at koum takm paras, tun,


Balkesir / A horse harness piece with a wild goat figure, bronze, Balkesir

Fig.3: Maat Hykn genel grn, Zile, Tokat / General view of Maat Hyk, Zile, Tokat

141

142

evket Dnmez

Fig.4: Oluz Hykn genel grn, Amasya / General view of Oluz Hyk, Amasya

Fig.5a-b: Krater paras, pimi toprak, Oluz Hyk / Crater Fragment, baked clay, Oluz Hyk

Fig.6: Krater paras, pimi toprak, Boazky Kuzeybat Yamac /


Crater Fragment, baked clay, Boazky Northwest Slope

New Evidences on the Existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey

Fig.7a-b: Okucu, tun, Oluz Hyk / Arrowhead, bronze, Oluz Hyk

Fig.8a-b: Okucu, tun, Oluz Hyk / Arrowhead, bronze, Oluz Hyk

143

144

evket Dnmez

Fig.9a-b: Okucu, tun, Oluz Hyk / Arrowhead, bronze, Oluz Hyk

Fig.10: ukurda saptanan at kemikleri, Oluz Hyk / Horse bones in the pit, Oluz Hyk

New Evidences on the Existence of Eurasian Horse-Riding Nomads in the Black Sea Region, Turkey

145

Fig.11: ukurda saptanan at kemikleri, Oluz Hyk / Horse bones in the pit, Oluz Hyk

Fig.12: Bak izleri tayan at kemii, Oluz Hyk / horse bone


with butchery traces, Oluz Hyk

Fig.13: Bak izleri tayan at kemii, Oluz Hyk / horse bone


with butchery traces, Oluz Hyk

146

evket Dnmez

Fig.14: Bak izleri tayan at kemii, Oluz


Hyk / horse bone with butchery traces,
Oluz Hyk

Fig.15: Ku ba eklinde kay datcs,


tun, Samsun / Bird head shaped strap
distributor, bronze, Samsun