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EFY

2000

&

PROJECTS

01
VOLUME

More than 90 fully tested


and ready-to-use
electronics circuits

IDEAS

2001

Electronics For You


issues

Contents
JANUARY 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS

2001

1)

ELECTRONIC STARTER FOR SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS ------------------------------------------------------------- 7

2)

MODEM 'ON'/'OFF' INDICATOR ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

3)

TOUCH-SELECT AUDIO SOURCE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

4)

PRECISION ATTENUATOR WITH DIGITAL CONTROL -------------------------------------------------------------- 10

5)

PRECISION AMPLIFIER WITH DIGITAL CONTROL ---------------------------------------------------------------- 11

6)

RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR BASED GAME ------------------------------------------------------------------- 12

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

BUILD YOUR OWN PENTIUM III PC (PART-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------- 14

2)

AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

FEBRUARY 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

9-LINE TELEPHONE SHARER ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

2)

ELECTRONIC CARD LOCK SYSTEM -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28

3)

PULSED OPERATION OF A CW LASER DIODE -------------------------------------------------------------------- 29

4)

GENERATION OF 1-SEC. PULSES SPACED 5-SEC. APART -------------------------------------------------------- 31

5)

HIGH-/LOW-VOLTAGE CUTOUT WITH TIMER --------------------------------------------------------------------- 32

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

BUILD YOUR OWN PENTIUM III PC (PART-II) ------------------------------------------------------------------ 34

2)

INTELLIGENT WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 40

3)

A UNIQUE LIQUID LEVEL INDICATOR ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43

MARCH 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

AUTOMATIC HEAT DETECTOR ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48

2)

MUSICAL 'TOUCH' BELL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49

3)

NON-CONTACT LIQUID-LEVEL CONTROLLER --------------------------------------------------------------------- 50

4)

AC MAINS PHASE-SEQUENCE INDICATOR ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 52

5)

HIGH-POWER BICYCLE HORN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 54

6)

LUXURIOUS TOILET/BATHROOM FACILITY ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 55

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

INTERFACE YOUR PRINTER WITH 8085 MICROPROCESSOR ---------------------------------------------------- 58

2)

MORSE PROCESSOR ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63

APRIL 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

EEPROM W27C512 (WINBOND) ERASER ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74

2)

INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC LOCK --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75

3)

STABLE 455KHZ BFO FOR SSB RECEPTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 78

4)

AUTO SHUT-OFF FOR CASSETTE PLAYERS AND AMPLIFIERS ---------------------------------------------------- 81

5)

HOUSE SECURITY SYSTEM ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84

6)

SIMPLE WATER-LEVEL INDICATOR-CUM-ALARM ----------------------------------------------------------------- 87

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

ACCESS-CONTROL SYSTEM ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 90

2)

TELEPHONE LINE-INTERFACED GENERIC SWITCHING SYSTEM (PART-I) --------------------------------------- 87

Contents
MAY 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS

2001

1)

PRECISION INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE METER ------------------------------------------------------------ 93

2)

UNDER-/OVER-VOLTAGE BEEP FOR MANUAL STABILISER ------------------------------------------------------ 95

3)

ULTRA-SENSITIVE SOLIDSTATE CLAP SWITCH ------------------------------------------------------------------- 97

4)

15-STEP DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 98

5)

MICROPHONE FOR COMPUTER ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

PROGRAMMABLE MELODY GENERATOR (PART-I) --------------------------------------------------------------- 102

2)

TELEPHONE LINE-INTERFACED GENERIC SWITCHED SYSTEM (PART-II) -------------------------------------- 110

JUNE 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

VERSATILE ZENER DIODE TESTER ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 117

2)

DTMF PROXIMITY DETECTOR ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119

3)

STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 120

4)

LOW-COST INTERCOM -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 121

5)

HIGH-POWER CAR BATTERY ELIMINATOR ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 122

6)

AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATOR ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 123

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

PROGRAMMABLE MELODY GENERATOR (PART-II) -------------------------------------------------------------- 125

2)

AUTO CONTROL FOR 3-PHASE MOTORS ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 129

JULY 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

PC-BASED DIAL CLOCK-CUM-ELECTRONIC ROULETTE ---------------------------------------------------------- 136

2)

SIMPLE TELEPHONE RING TONE GENERATOR ------------------------------------------------------------------- 138

3)

DUAL-INPUT HIGH-FIDELITY AUDIO MIXER ------------------------------------------------------------------- 139

4)

ANTI-THEFT SECURITY FOR CAR AUDIOS ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 140

5)

UNIPOLAR/BIPOLAR TRIANGULAR AND BIPOLAR SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR ------------------------------ 141

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

TELEPHONE REMOTE CONTROL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 143

2)

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED SCHOOL TIMER -------------------------------------------------------------------- 146

AUGUST 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

LONG-RANGE CORDLESS BURGLAR ALARM --------------------------------------------------------------------- 153

2)

WATER-LEVEL CONTROLLER -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 154

3)

INVISIBLE BROKEN WIRE DETECTOR --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 156

4)

PC-BASED MULTI-MODE LIGHT CHASER ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 157

5)

FUSE STATUS INDICATORS FOR POWER-SUPPLIES ------------------------------------------------------------- 159

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

DIGITAL CAPACITANCE-CUM-FREQUENCY METER --------------------------------------------------------------- 162

2)

FLUID-LEVEL CONTROLLER WITH INDICATOR ------------------------------------------------------------------ 166

SEPTEMBER 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

A HIERARCHICAL PRIORITY ENCODER -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 171

Contents

2001

2)

DIGITAL MAINS VOLTAGE INDICATOR --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 173

3)

ELECTRONIC DICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 175

4)

LIGHT-OPERATED ORGAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 177

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

MGMA-A MIGHTY GADGET WITH MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS --------------------------------------------------- 179

2)

TRAFFIC AND STREET LIGHT CONTROLLER --------------------------------------------------------------------- 183

OCTOBER 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

DIGITAL FAN REGULATOR ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 192

2)

STEREO TAPE HEAD PREAMPLIFIER FOR PC SOUND CARD ---------------------------------------------------- 194

3)

RUNNING LIGHTS AND RUNNING HOLES ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 195

4)

HEART BEAT MONITOR ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 197

5)

12V, 3A POWER SUPPLY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 198

6)

A SIMPLE TRANSISTOR TESTER --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 199

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

LEAD-ACID BATTERY CHARGER WITH ACTIVE POWER CONTROL ---------------------------------------------- 201

2)

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED DIGITAL CLOCK -------------------------------------------------------------------- 204

NOVEMBER 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

SPELLER EFFECT SIGN DISPLAY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 210

2)

DARKROOM TIMER ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 211

3)

LONG-RANGE TARGET SHOOTER --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 212

4)

ACTIVE SHORTWAVE ANTENNA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 214

5)

POWER SUPPLY FOR WALKIE-TALKIE --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 215

6)

HIGH-PERFORMANCE INTERRUPTION DETECTOR --------------------------------------------------------------- 216

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

AMPLITUDE MEASUREMET OF SUB-MICROSECOND PULSES --------------------------------------------------- 218

2)

AUTOMATIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP CONTROLLER ---------------------------------------------------------------- 221

DECEMBER 2001
CIRCUIT IDEAS
1)

DIGITAL RELAY TESTER FOR RAX AND MAX -------------------------------------------------------------------- 226

2)

DECORATIVE SIGNBOARD ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 228

3)

OVERLOAD PROTECTOR WITH RESET BUTTON ------------------------------------------------------------------ 230

4)

FASTEST FINGER FIRST INDICATOR ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 231

5)

CONDENSER MIC AUDIO AMPLIFIER ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 232

6)

SMOKE ALARM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 233

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1)

TRANSISTOR CURVE TRACER ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 235

2)

TRIPPING-SEQUENCE RECORDER-CUM-INDICATOR ------------------------------------------------------------- 241

January

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

C I R C U I T

I D E A S

ELECTRONIC STARTER
FOR SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS
SARAT CHANDRA DAS

novel single-phase electronic


starter circuit meant for 0.5HP
and 1HP motors is presented
here. It incorporates both overload and
short-circuit protections. A special current-sensing device has been added in
this starter to sense the current being
drawn by the motor.
If the motor jams due to bearing failure or defect in the pump or any other
reason, it would draw much higher current than its normal rated current. This
will be sensed by the current-sensing
device, which will trip the circuit and
protect the motor. Some other reasons
for the motor drawing higher current
are as follows:
(a) Windings damaged or short-circuit between them.
(b) Shorting of motor terminals by
mistake.
(c) Under voltage or single phasing
occuring in the mains supply source
(normally, a 440V AC, 3-phase with neutral four-wire system).
The main components used in the
circuit comprise a specially wound sensing transformer X1, another locally
available step-down transformer X2,
single-changeover relay RL1, two
double-changeover relays (RL2 and
RL3), and other discrete components
shown in the figure. The mains supply
to the motor is routed in series with
the primary of transformer X1 via normally-open contacts of relay RL3. The
primary of transformer X1 is connected
in the neutral line.
To switch on the supply to the motor, switch S1 is to be pressed momentarily, which causes the supply path to
the primary of transformer X2 to be
completed via N/C contacts of relay RL1.
Relay RL2 gets energised due to the
DC voltage developed across capacitor
C2 via the bridge rectifier. Once the
relay energises, its N/O contacts RL2(a)
provide a short across switch S1 and
supply to the primary of transformer
X2 becomes continuous, and hence re-

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

lay RL2 latches even if switch S1 is subsequently opened. The other N/O contacts RL2(b) of relay RL2, on
energisation, connect the voltage developed across capacitor C2 to relay RL3,
which thus energises and completes the
supply to the motor, as long as current
passing through primary of transformer
X1 is within limits (for a 1HP motor).
When the current drawn by motor
exceeds the limit (approx. 5A), the voltage developed across the secondary of
transformer X2 is sufficient to energise
relay RL1 and trip the supply to relays
RL2 and RL3, which was passing via
the N/C contact of relay RL1. As a result, the supply to the motor also trips.
The contact rating for relays RL1
and RL2 should be 5 amperes, while

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

contact ratings of relay RL3 should be 10


to 15 amperes.
Transformer X1 can be wound using any suitable size CRGO core. (One
can use a burntout transformer core as
well.) The primary comprises 30 to 31
turns for use with 1HP motor and additional eight turns, if you are using a
0.5HP motor. Fuses F1 and F2 are kitkat type. The on pushbutton is normally-off type, while off pushbutton
S2 is of normally-on type. Capacitors
C1 and C2, apart from smoothing the
rectified output, provide necessary delay during energisation and deenergisation of relays. Diodes across relays are used for protection as freewheeling diodes.
Starters for 0.5HP and 1HP motors
are not easily available in the market.
Users are therefore compelled to use
10-amp rated circuit breaker for such
motors. A mechanical starter or auto
starter would turn out to be costlier
than the circuit given here, which works
very reliably. Parts used in this circuit
are easily available in most of the local
markets.

C I R C U I T

I D E A S

MODEM ON/OFF INDICATOR


T.K. HAREENDRAN

ere is an interesting, low component-count, and easy-to-build


electronic circuit for the
Internet surfers. This circuit, using two
LEDs, indicates the modem status, i.e.
whether it is in use or not.
The incoming telephone line terminating on a master phone is shunted by
a metal oxide varistor.
The circuit is configured around the
popular timer chip NE555N, which is
wired as an astable multivibrator. When
power is applied to the circuit, the
astable starts working as usual. However, LEDs D2 and D3 connected to its
output pin 3 would not glow as transistor T1 is in off condition and hence resistor R4s bottom end is hanging in high
impedance state.
However, when the modem is working, voltage drop across preset VR1
illuminates the LED inside the optocoupler (IC2). As a result, transistor
T1 gets sufficient base-bias through ac-

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

tivated transistor inside opto-coupler


via resistor R3. Consequently, LEDs D1
and D2 start blinking at the bistable
IC1s frequency determined by the val-

ues of resistors R1 and R2 and capacitor C1.


A 9V, 0.5A AC adapter can be used
to power the circuit. Finally, one minor
adjustment is required for successful op-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

eration of the gadget. For this, first switch


on the supply to the gadget and then
switch on the modem. Now adjust the
wiper of preset VR1 very slowly until the
LEDs start blinking. Memorise the wiper
position and fix it in this position using a
good-quality glue/compound.
After construction, fix the complete
circuit in a suitable and attractive cabinet with one LED in its front panel. Keep

the whole unit near the modem and fit


another LED near the master telephone
with the label Modem in Use.

C I R C U I T

I D E A S

TOUCH-SELECT AUDIO SOURCE


SARAVANAN J.

ften you need to connect output from more than one source
(preamplifier) such as tape recorder/player and CD (compact disc)
player to audio power amplifier. This
needs disconnecting/connecting wires when you
want to change the source,
which is quite cumbersome and irritating.
Here is a circuit that
helps you choose between
two stereo sources by
simple touch of your hand.
This circuit is so compact
that it can be fixed within
the audio power amplifier
cabinet and can use the
same power supply source.
The circuit uses just
two CMOS ICs and a few
other componenets. The
ICs used are MC14551/CD4551 (quad 2channel analogue multiplexer) and
CD4011 (quad 2-input NAND gate). When
touch-plate S1 is touched (its two plates
are to be bridged using a fingertip), gate

EDI
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S.C.

N1 output (IC1, pin 3) goes high while


the output of gate N2 at pin 4 goes low.
This causes selection of CD outputs being
connected to the power amplifier input,
which is indicated by lighting of LED1.

When touch-plate S2 is touched, the


outputs of gates N1 and N2 toggle. That
is, IC2 pin 3 is pulled low while its pin 4
goes high. This results in selection of tape
recorder outputs being connected to the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

input of power amplifier. This is indicated


by lighting of LED2.
Pin 9 is the control pin of IC2. In the
circuit, the state of multiplexer switches
is shown with pin 9 high (CD source selected). When pin 9 is pulled low, all the
switches within the multiplexer change
over to the alternate position to select
tape player as source.
EFY Lab note. Although one can connect pin 7 (VEE) of IC2 to ground, but for

operation with preamplifier signals going


above and below ground level, one must
connect it to a negative voltage (say, 1V
to 1.5V) to avoid distortion.

C I R C U I T

PRECISION ATTENUATOR
WITH DIGITAL CONTROL

I D E A S

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

ANANTHA NARAYAN

hen instruments are designed,


an analogue front-end is essential. Further, as most equipment have digital or microcont-roller interface, the analogue circuit needs to have
digital control/access.
The circuit of a programmable attenuator with digital control is described here,
where digital control can be a remote dip
switch, or CMOS logic outputs of a decade counter (having binary equivalent
weight of 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively), or
I/O port of a microcontroller like 80C31.
The heart of this circuit is the popular OP07 op-amp with ultra-low offset in
the inverting configuration. A dual, 4channel CMOS analogue multiplexer
switch CD4052 enables the change in
gain. An innovative feature of the circuit
is that the on resistance (around 100
ohms) of CD4052 switch is bypassed so
that no error is introduced by its use.
Resistors R1 to R6 used in the circuit
should be of 0.1 per cent tolerance, 50
ppm (parts per million) if you use 3-

gain selection resistors for proper calibration to required accuracy. However, for
testing
or
trials,
use
1
per cent 100ppm MFR resistors. The
expected errors will be around 1 per cent.
To keep parts count (hence cost) to a
minimum, the common or ground is used
as the positive input terminal and one
end of resistor R1 as the negative. This is
so because the op-amp inverts the polarity as it is used in inverting configuration. This does not matter as the equipment will be isolated by the power supply
transformer and all polarities are relative. In case you want the common to be
the negative, you will have to add some
stages (IC4 and IC5 circuitry shown in
precision amplifier circuit described later).
The OP07 pinout is based on standard single op-amp 741. Any other
op-amp like CA3140, TLO71, or LF351
can be used but with offset errors in excess of 1 per cent, which is not tolerable
in precision instrumentation.
The OP07 has equivalent ICs like

The following design considerations


should be kept in mind:
(a) Input: 500V max
Since W resistors can withstand up
to 250V, resistors R1 and R2 in series are
used for 1 meg-ohm with 500V (max) input limit. These resistors additionally
limit the input current as well. Diodes
D1 and D2 clamp the voltage across input of op-amp to 0.5V, thereby protecting the op-amp.
(b) Output
The output can be connected to a
7107/7135-based DPM or any other analogue-to-digital converter or op-amp stage.
Use a buffer at the output if the output
has to be loaded by a load less than 1
meg-ohm.
Use an inverting buffer if input leads
have to have polarity where ground is the
inverting terminal. (For details, see next
circuit.)
(c) CD4052 CMOS switch
The on-resistance (100-ohm approx.)
comes in series with the op-amp output
source resistance, which produces no error at output.
Caution. The circuit does not isolate,
it only attenuates. When high voltage is
present at its input, do not touch any
part of the circuit.
(d) Digital control options
(i) A and B can be controlled by I/O
port of a microcontroller like 80C31 so
that the controller can control gain.
(ii) A and B can be given to counters
like 4029/4518 to scroll gain digitally.
(iii) A and B can be connected to DIP
switch.
(iv) A and B can be connected to a
thumbwheel switch.
Notes. 1. Digital input logic 0 is 0V
and logic 1 is 5V.
Truth Table (Control input VS attenuation)
X,Y (ON-switch (2) (1) Gain
Pair)
B
A
(Attenuation)
X0,Y0
0
0
1/1000
X1,Y1
0
1
1/100
X2,Y2
1
0
1/10
X3,Y3
1
1
1

digit DPM, i.e. 1999 counts (approx. 11


bits). But for 4-digit DPM (approx. 14
bits), you may need to have trimpots (e.g.
replace 1k-ohm resistor R6 by a fixed 900ohm resistor in series with a 200-ohm
trimpot) to replace R3, R4, R5, and R6

A714 and LM607 having ultra-low offset voltage (<100V), low input bias
current (<10nA), and high input impedance (>100M), which are the key requirements for a good instrumentation op-amp
for use with DC inputs.
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

2. All resistors are metal film resistors (MFR) with 1% tolerance, unless
specified otherwise.
3. C2 and C3 are ceramic disk capacitors of 0.1F = 100n value.

C I R C U I T

PRECISION AMPLIFIER
WITH DIGITAL CONTROL

I D E A S

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

ANANTHA NARAYAN

his circuit is similar to the preceding circuit of the attenuator.


Gain of up to 100 can be
achieved in this configuration, which is
useful for signal conditioning of low output of transducers in millivolt range.
The gain selection resistors R3 to
R6 can be selected by the user and
can be anywhere from 1 kilo-ohm to 1
meg-ohm. Trimpots can be used for obtaining any value of gain required by
the user. The resistor values shown in
the circuit are for decade gains suitable
for an autoranging DPM.
Resistor R1 and capacitor C1 reduce
ripple in the input and also snub transients. Zeners Z1 and Z2 limit the input
to 4.7V, while the input current is limited by resistor R1. Capacitors C2 and
C3 are the power supply decoupling capacitors.
Op-amp IC1 is used to increase the
input impedance so that very low in-

puts are not loaded on measurement.


The user can terminate the inputs with
resistance of his choice (such as 10 megohm or 1 meg-ohm) to avoid floating of
the inputs when no measurement is being made.
IC5 is used as an inverting buffer to
restore polarity of the input while IC4
is used as buffer at the output of
CD4052, because loading it by resistance
of value less than 1 meg-ohm will cause
an error. An alternative is to make
R7=R8=1 meg-ohm and do away with
IC4, though this may not be an ideal
method.
Truth Table (Control Input vs Gain)
X,Y (On-switch
(2)
(1)
Gain
Pair)
B
A
(Av.)
X0,Y0
0
0
1/10
X1,Y1
0
1
1
X2,Y2
1
0
10
X3,Y3
1
1
100

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

Gains greater than 100 may not be


practical because even at gain value of
100 itself, a 100V offset will work out
to be around 10 mV at the output (100V
x 100). This can be trimmed using the
offset null option in the OP07, connecting a trimpot between pins 1 and 8, and
connecting wiper to +5V supply rails.
For better performance, use ICL7650
(not pin-compatible) in place of OP07
and use 7.5V instead of 5V supply.
Eight steps for gain or attenuation
can be added by using two CD4051 and
pin 6 inhibit on CD4051/52. More steps
can be added by cascading many
CD4051, or CD4052, or CD4053 ICs, as
pin 6 works like a chip select.
Some extended applications of this
circuit are given below.
1. Error correction in transducer
amplifiers by correcting gain.
2. Autoranging in DMM.
3. Sensor selection or input type selection in process control.
4. Digitally preset power supplies or
electronic loads.
5. Programmable precision mV or
mA sources.
6. PC or microcontroller or microprocessor based instruments.
7. Data loggers and scanners.

C I R C U I T

RANDOM NUMBER
GENERATOR BASED GAME

I D E A S

NA
ANJA
RUP

K. UDHAYA KUMARAN

his electronic game is simulation


of one-arm bandit game. Electronics hobbyists will find it very
interesting. When toggle switch S1 is
in run position, all segments of 7-segment displays (DIS1 through DIS3) will
light up. On turning toggle switch S1
from run to stop position, displayed
digits will continue advancing and the
final display is unpredictable. Thus the
final number displayed in DIS1 through
DIS3 is of random nature. The speed
with which the number in 7-segment
display keeps changing on flipping
switch S1 from run to stop condition
slowly decays before stopping with a
random number display.
To play this game, one has to obtain
three identical numbers in displays
DIS1 through DIS3. The contestant
would score 1 (one) point if he manages
to get a final display of 000, 2 points
for getting 111 display, 3 points for
222, and so onup to ten points for
999. He should try to score maximum
possible points in fixed numbers of attempts (say, 20 to 25 attempts).
Apart from using this circuit as
a game for entertainment, one can use
it as random number generator for
any other application as well. The decay time with the given component
values is around 15 seconds before the
display could stop at a final random
number.
The circuit comprises clock oscillator built around NE555 timer IC4,
three-stage clock pulse counter built using three CD4033 ICs (IC1 to IC3), and
three 7-segment LED displays (DIS1 to
DIS3).
In clock oscillator circuit, NE555
timer IC4 is used in a similar way as a
free-running astable multivibrator, the
only difference being the additional capacitor C1 introduced between pin No.
7 of IC4 and junction of resistors R22
and R24. When toggle switch S1 is in
run position, both terminals of capaci-

tor C1 are shorted by switch S1 and


timer IC4 works as a free-running
astable multivibrator. The operating frequency is in the vicinity of 35 kHz,
determined by the value of timing components.
When toggle switch S1 is flipped
from run to stop position, capacitor
C1 is introduced in the discharge path
of pin No. 7 of IC4 and junction of resistors R22 and R24. At the same time,
capacitor C4 comes in parallel with timing capacitor C3 to change the operating frequency of the astable from
around 35 kHz to around 65 Hz. Now
capacitor C1 slowly starts charging as
it is connected in the discharge path of
the timing capacitors C3 and C4. The
clock frequency of IC4 gradually reduces
and after 15 seconds, when capacitor
C1 is sufficiently charged, the oscillat-

ing frequency gradually drops and finally it stops oscillating. Thus, pin 3 of
IC4 becomes low.
Second part of the circuit comprises
three cascaded ICs, IC1 through IC3
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

(CD4033 decade upcounter cum 7-segment


decoder). In conjunction with three 7-segment displays (DIS1 to DIS3), these form
a 3-digit clock counter. The clock counting speed is dependant upon the clock
pulse frequency of IC4. It is connected to
clock input pin 1 of IC1 while chip enable
pin 2 of IC1 to IC3 are held low. Thus all
clock counter ICs advance by 1 for every
positive clock transition. Reset pin 15 of
all counter ICs is held low through resistor R25. Thus reset facility is not used in
this circuit.
Due to persistence of vision, one cannot distinguish 0-9 counting in DIS1 to
DIS3 when the clock frequency is high.
All 7-segment displays appear to show
digit 8, while the red LED1 remains lit
continuously, indicating clock counter
is in running condition.
On sliding toggle switch S1 from
run to stop position, the counting
speed of individual digits falls immediately due to the clock frequency changing to around 65 Hz. Now, the counting speed will be 65 Hz for DIS3, 6.5
Hz for DIS2, and 0.6 Hz for DIS1. This
speed of individual digit counting slowly

decays, until the counter stops and


LED1 stops blinking, and the final count
(random numbers) are displayed in
DIS1, DIS2, and DIS3.

Construction

2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

BUILD YOUR OWN


PENTIUM III PC PART-I

RA
UND
N. K

K.C. BHASIN AND NEERAJ KUNDRA

he procedure presented here


would enable you to assemble
your own multimedia personal
computer. It is assumed that you have
a fundamental knowledge of how a PC
functions and some basics of electronics. By way of tools you only need
Philips-head and flat-blade screwdrivers. A simple multimeter is the only
test equipment that you would ever require during assembly, for AC and DC
voltage measurement.
All the parts needed to assemble this
multimedia PC with processor speed of
700 MHz are listed under Parts List.
The cost of parts may vary from dealer
to dealer and also with time. The total
cost of the listed parts at current price
level ranges from Rs 33,000 to Rs 37,000.
It is suggested to source these items
from authorised dealers who would meet
their warranty obligations. We have also
mentioned the brand names of the parts
that we used during assembly of the
basic unit. It is, however, not necessary
to use identical makes, except, of course,
the main processor and the
motherboard, based on identical chipset
mentioned later in this article.

length of the cable provided for interconnections to the motherboard or addon cards has to be taken into account, as
there must be some slack after these are
installed and connected.) This will improve the cooling and reduce the chances of electromagnetic interference between them.
The motherboard contains sensitive components,
which can be easily damaged by static electricity.
Therefore the motherboard
should remain in its original antistatic envelope un-

til it is required for installation. When


it is taken out from the envelope, it
should be immediately placed on a suitable grounded conductive surface. The
motherboard itself should be held from
edges and the person taking it out
should wear an antistatic wrist strap
that is properly grounded. In the absence of a proper wrist strap, you may
make one on your own using a peeled
off multi-strand copper cable and ground
it properly. Similar handling precautions are also required for DIMMS and
cards.
If you are using a motherboard different from the one mentioned in the

Precautions
Before starting the actual assembly of
the PC system, the following precautions would help you to avoid any mishap during the assembly process:
While the motherboard has to be
fitted at a fixed place inside the PC cabinet, the locations of add-on cards (as and
when used) and the drives (hard disk
drive, floppy disk drive, and CD-ROM
drive) within the drives bay of the cabinet can be changed within certain limits. But it is better to place them far
away from each other. (Of course, the
The authors represent a combined team from
EFY and IT Solutions (India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi

Fig. 1: Block diagram of motherboard employing 810E chipset


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Key Features of Motherboard Using Intel 810/810E Chipset


Processor
Full support for the Intel Pentium III and Celeron processors using PGA370 socket.
Supports 66MHz and 100MHz bus speed including all PGA370.
Supports 133MHz bus speed (810E chipset version only).
VRM 8.2 (Voltage Regulator Modules) On-board
Flexible motherboard design with on-board VRM 8.2, easy to upgrade with future processors.
System Memory
A total of two 168-pin DIMM sockets (3.3V SDRAM types).
Memory size up to 512MB.
Supports SDRAM at 66/100 (PC100) MHz.
Supports symmetrical and asymmetrical DRAM addressing.
Banks of different DRAM types and depths can be mixed.
System BIOS
4-Mbit Intel Firmware hub (with security feature).
PnP, APM, ATAPI, and Windows 95/98.
Full support of ACPI & DMI.
Auto-detects and supports LBA hard disks with capacities over 8.4 GB.
Easily upgradable by end-user.
On-board I/O
Supports two PCI-enhanced IDEs PIO mode 3, mode 4, and ultra DMA 33/66 channels
(optional ultra DMA 66 cable). Twin headers for four IDE devices including IDE HDDs and
CDROMs.
One ECP/EPP parallel port (via a header).
Two 16550A UART parallel port (via a header).
One floppy port. Supports two FDDs of 360KB, 720KB, 1.2MB, 1.44MB, or 2.88MB (via a
header).
Four USB ports (via a header, optional).
PS/2 mouse port (via a header, optional).
AT keyboard port (factory option for PS/2 type).
Infrared (IrDA) support.
Plug-and-play
Supports plug-and-play specification 1.1.
Plug-and-play for DOS, Windows 3.X, Windows 95, as well as Windows 98.
Fully steerable PCI interrupts.
On-board VGA
Hardware motion compensation for S/W MPEG2 decode (DVD).
3-D hyper pipelined architecture.
Full 2-D hardware acceleration.
3-D graphics visual enhancements.
Dynamic display memory (DDM) or optional 4MB display cache (810DC100 or 810E chipset
version only).
Resolution up to 1,600x1,200.
Win 95 vxd, Win 98/NT5 mini-port drivers support.
VGA port (via a header).
On-board AC97 Sound
Integrated AC97 controller with standard AC97 CODEC.
Direct Sound and Sound Blaster compatible.
Full-duplex 16-bit record and playback.
PnP and APM 1.2 support.
Win 95, 98, and NT drivers ready.
Line-in, line-out, mic-in and MIDI/game port.
Power Management
Supports SMM, APM and ACPI.
Break switch for instant suspend/resume on system operations.
Energy star Green PC-compliant.
WAKE-ON-LAN (WOL) header support.
External modem ring-in wake-up support.
Expansion Slots
One audio modem riser (AMR).
Four PCI bus master slots (ver 2.1 compliant).

parts list, modify the guidelines mentioned here as per the directions given in
the users manual (which is supplied with
the motherboard you may be using), since
there would be some differences between
any two makes of the motherboard.

Start the assembly only after going through this article at least once.
Only when you feel at ease, start the
assembly of your machine as per the
guidelines included in this article and
the applicable users manuals.
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

Never try to insert a card in PC


slots or try to plug/unplug a connector
with power supply to the PC on.
Ensure that the mains 3-pin socket
or the socket on your stabiliser/UPS
that you would be using for connection
to the SMPS of the computer and/or
the monitor is correctly wired with live
line on your right hand side. To find
out which line is live (phase) and which
one is neutral, use your multimeter in
250V AC or higher range. The live line
will show full voltage w.r.t. neutral pin
and nearly the same voltage w.r.t. the
ground pin, while the neutral pin (w.r.t.
ground pin) would/should show very
little voltage (less than 10V AC). Else,
the mains wiring has a problem that
needs to be set right.
Dont drop any screw or other conducting material on your PCs
motherboard as that might cause shorting of pins/tracks and consequent damage when you switch it on.
Make sure that you have a large,
flat surface area to work on. That will
reduce the chances of small screws etc
falling and getting lost.
While screwing components on to
the chassis, do not use excessive force
as that may damage the screws or their
grooves/holes.

Pentium III technology


Some points to be noted about the
Pentium III processor being used here
are:
Intels Pentium III processors support various clock speeds from 450MHz
to 933 MHz. The one meant for desktop
version goes up to 1.13 GHz. (We are
using here a 700MHz version.)
Integrates P6 dynamic execution
architecture and a dual independent bus
(DIB) architecture.
Has a multi transaction system bus.
Incorporates Intels MMX media
enhancement technology.
Supports Internet streaming
single-instruction multiple data (SIMD)
extensions.
Compared to Pentium II, it has
70 new instructions, enabling advanced
3-D imaging, streaming audio and video,
and speech recognition.
Has a 32k (16k for instructions and
another 16k for data) as primary (level
1) non-blocking cache for rapid access to
most heavily used data. In addition, it

C O N S T R U C T I O N

has 512k unified, non-blocking (level 2)


cache or 256k advanced transfer cache
integrated on die, which runs at the core
frequency of the processor with very low
memory access time.

The motherboard

Fig. 2: PC Partner motherboard layout diagram

TABLE I
JP1, JP2System Bus Frequency

JP1
1

Open

JP2
1

Open

CPU Clock Speed


133MHz (100MHz CPU run at 133MHz Front Side Bus)

Open

1-2

100MHz (66MHz CPU run at 100MHz Front Side Bus)

Close*

1-2*

Auto*

JP15 - BIOS (Firm Ware Hub)


Boot Block Protect

JP4 - CMOS Clear

JP15
Close*
1

Function
Unlocked*

JP4
1

1-2*

Function
Normal

Locked

2-3

CMOS Clear

Open

JP34 - On Board Crystal PCI Sound (Optional)

JP29 - Keyboard Power On Select

JP34

JP29
1

1-2*

2-3

Function

1-2*

PCI Sound Enable*

2-3

PCI Sound Disable

Function
Powered by +5V*
Powered by +5V Standby
(Allows Keyboard Power On)
* Default settings

JP35, JP36 - On Board AC97 Codec Sound

JP35
1
1

1-2*

JP36
1

2-3* (S)#

Function
AC97 Sound Enable*

2-3

1-2 (P)#

AC97 Sound Disable

# P = Primary AMR,
S = Secondary AMR

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

While the processor is the most important part of the motherboard, the
motherboard itself is the most important part of the computer system. Together with the chipset, it forms the
brain of your computer.
The modern motherboards do away
with the large number of controller chips
and cards that were used in the older XT
and AT versions, such as clock generator, bus controller, timer/counter, monitor/printer adopter, FDD and HDD controllers, multi-I/O or super IDE controller card, and DMA controller. All the functions performed by these controllers/
cards (and others) are now performed by
just two or three chips and that too at
much higher speed.
The motherboard based on Intels
810/810E chipset (being used in the
present system) combines the advantage
of a multimedia (full-screen, full-motion
video with realistic graphics) and enhanced Internet performance at a budget price. With this motherboard, one
does not need separate sound, video, or
graphics enhancement cards. A block
diagram of a motherboard employing
810E chipset is shown in Fig. 1.
Key features. The main features of
the PC Partner motherboard used in this
project are shown in the accompanying
box. A layout diagram showing the relative position of the jumpers, connectors,
major components, PCI slots, and DIMM
and CPU sockets is shown in Fig. 2.
Jumper settings. Positions of various jumpers within the motherboard are
shown in Fig. 3. The jumper settings
for enabling various functions are shown
in Table I. Default settings are shown
with an asterisk mark. (Note. Leave all
these jumpers in their default setting
positions for the present project. The processor speed setting is to be done through
CMOS setup as indicated later.)

Hardware installation and checkout


Verifying components. First, carry out
a physical check of all the items as per the
parts list to ensure that there are no ap-

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 3: Jumper positions within motherboard

measures approx.180mm
(width) x 330mm (height)
x 360mm (depth). The
drive bays comprise two
133.35mm (5.25-inch) exposed, one 89mm (3.5-inch)
exposed, and two 89mm
(3.5-inch) internal bays.
It has 200W SMPS of
VESTA make pre-installed
(+5V @16A, +12V @6A, 5V @0.5A, and 12V @0.5A). LEDs with
2-pin SIP connectors are provided for
power on (green and white twisted

wires), HDD (orange and white twisted


wires) activity indication, and to reset
push switch (blue and white twisted
wires), which are required to be connected to the appropriate pin pairs
(Berg type) on the motherboard. (Please
refer Fig. 2 to spot the corresponding
connectors near JP34/JP4, but for the
time being, leave them alone.) An 8ohm, 0.5W speaker (with black and red
twisted wires and 4-pin connector), to
go into corresponding 4-pin speaker connector on motherboard, also forms part
of the cabinet.

Fig. 4: Power on/off switch wiring

parent deficiencies and no signs of any


physical damage, and the parts are correct as indicated by the labels on the items/
packages. For example, the Pentium processor pack should comprise Pentium III
processor labeled 700MHz/100MHz system bus, fan/heat-sink assembly, and installation manual with 3-year limited warranty. Similarly, ensure that the 64MB
SDRAM DIMM bears the label (such as
PC100) to indicate that it is compatible
with 100MHz system bus speed.
Checking cabinet and its accessories. The AT mini tower PC cabinet

Fig. 6: DIMM installation

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 5: Installation of Pentium III processor in PGA 370 socket


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

Checking SMPS. The control console on the cabinet also has a DPDT pushbutton switch to switch on the mains
(230V AC) to SMPS of the computer and
a parallel-wired 3-pin AC socket on
SMPS for connecting AC power to the
monitor used with the PC. At this stage,
slide the shielded connectors of the four
power supply wires of the SMPS into
the corresponding connectors on the
DPDT switch as per the diagram provided on the SMPS case (top side). The
same is reproduced in Fig. 4. The white
and black wires have a return path via
blue and brown wires, respectively, when
the power supply switch is flipped on.
Connect the 3-pin power cord provided
with the cabinet to the socket at the back
of SMPS and plug 3-pin plug into the
socket of the mains supply or the UPS,
as appropriate.
Switch on the SMPS. The fan blower
inside the SMPS should start running,

C O N S T R U C T I O N

other,
this
forms
a
12-pin
Item Description
Make
AT power supAT cabinet with SMPS, power cord,
ply connector
power switch, reset switch, speaker,
with orange
LEDs, complete with connectors and
installation hardware packet.
IMIL, Chennai wire (carrying
Motherboard with Intels 810
power good
chipset PC Partner, USA along with
signal) emausers manual, CD (containing
nating from
drivers for onboard devices) and
pin 1.
headers for motherboard connectors.
The volt* (refer check-list)
PC Partner
Pentium PIII-700 Processor
Intel
ages on vari64MB (PC 100)SDRAM (168-pin DIMM)
Alpha
ous pins of
HDD (hard disk drive)
Seagate
this joint 12FDD (floppy disk drive) 3.5
Sony
pin connector
CD-ROM drive 52X with audio cable
Samsung
Keyboard
Logitech
with
their
Mouse(3-button)
Logitech
colour codes
Colour Monitor 14
LG
are shown in
USB connector bracket with 2 headers Table
II.
*list of connectors/brackets forming part of motherboard.
Check the corHeader (connectors with cables) for HDD (40-pin twin)
- one
rectness
of
Header for FDD (34-pin twin)
- one
these voltages
Header for PS/2 mouse
- one
within
the
Port bracket set with headers for:
(a) VGA (15-pin D connector ending into 16-pin FRC and
range as given
parallel port (25-pin D ending into 26-pin FRC)
- one
in Table II.
(b) Com1 and Com2 (two 9-pin D ending into 10-pin FRC) - two
Then switch
(c) Onboard AC97 sound codec (line-in, line-out, mic-in and
off the power
MIDI/game port ending into 26-pin FRC)
- one
supply and
take out the 3indicating availability of +12V supply pin plug from the mains socket. If the
to the fan. Now verify all DC outputs of AT power connector voltages are correct, you can safely assume that voltthe SMPS as follows.
There are two distinct 6-pin Molex ages in all other power connectors [4female power connectors with projection pin Molex, carrying +12V (yellow wire)
in the middle. If these are held such followed by two black wires (ground) and
that all black wires are adjacent to each +5V (red wire)] meant for various drives

TABLE IV

PARTS LIST

TABLE II
At Power Connector Pin Voltages
Pin
Voltage
Range
Wire
Pin
Voltage
Colour
1
*P. G.
4.5V (min)
Orange
7
Ground
2
+5V
+5%/-4%
Red
8
Ground
3
+12V
+5%/-4%
Yellow
9
-5V
4
-12V
+10%/-9%
Blue
10
+5V
5
Ground
Black
11
+5V
6
Ground
Black
12
+5V
*P. G. = Power good signal which is +5V (delayed, 100ms 500ms).

Range
+10%/-8%
+5%/-4%
+5%/-4%
+5%/-4%

Wire
Colour
Black
Black
White
Red
Red
Red

TABLE III
VGA VGA Out Connector CN34*
Pin Signal Name Pin Signal Name
1
Red signal
9
NC
2
Green signal
10
GND
3
Blue signal
11
NC
4
NC
12
Display data channel data
5
GND
13
Horizontal sync
6
GND
14
Vertical sync
7
GND
15
Display data channel clock
8
GND
*This connector is for the VGA display port. Connect a
VGA or higher resolution display monitor to it.
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

Parallel-Port Connector CN6


Pin

Signal Name

Pin

Signal Name

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

StrobeData bit 0
Data bit 1
Data bit 2
Data bit 3
Data bit 4
Data bit 5
Data bit 6
Data bit 7
ACK
Busy
PE
SLCT

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

AFD
Error
INIT
SLCTIN
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND

are also correct.


Motherboard fitment. The chassis
on which motherboard is to be mounted
can be easily removed from the PC cabinet. Unscrew it and gently slide it out
from the main casing. Lay it flatly on
the antistatic workbench (properly
grounded conductive surface). Mark the
side facing the keyboard connecter cutout on the chassis.
All motherboards have standard
mounting holes. The hardware supplied
comprises plastic and metallic
motherboard retaining fasteners/screwholders. Metal-type screw-holders are
better as these have better strength and
also these ground the motherboard to
the chassis. You may use four metallic
screw-holders for the four corner holes
in the motherboard, while the plastic
fasteners may be used for the middle
holes of the motherboard.
Before attempting fitment of the
motherboard, align it on the chassis
such that the keyboard connector on the
motherboard is towards the side marked
earlier for this purpose. Now fit all the
screw-holders/fasteners, as discussed
above, on the chassis, opposite the holes
on the motherboard, using Philips
screws provided in the hardware packet.
Align
the
motherboard above
the fasteners and
push it down, so
that the self-retaining heads of plastic
fasteners pop out
from the respective
holes. For the metallic screw-holders,
use Philips screws
to
secure
the
motherboard to the

C O N S T R U C T I O N

TABLE V
COM1/COM2 Serial Connectors CN4*, CN5*
Pin
Signal Name Pin
Signal Name
1
DCD
6
DSR
2
SIN
7
RTS
3
SOUT
8
CTS
4
DTR
9
RI
5
GND
10
NC
*These connectors are for the serial port
bracket. Both connectors have the same pinouts.

considerable force to engage it into the


projection. You may use the flat
screwdriver tip to do this, but be careful that screwdriver does not slip and
damage the tracks on the motherboard
[refer Fig. 5(d)].
6. Connect the 3-pin fan connector
to the corresponding connector CN17
marked CPU Fan on the motherboard.
DIMM installation (Fig. 6). There
are two 168-pin SDRAM DIMM sockets

TABLE VI
Audio & Game Port Pin Header CN341*
Pin

Signal Name

Pin

Signal Name

Pin

Signal Name

Pin

Signal Name

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

VCC
VCC
SWC
SWA
XTC
XTA
MSOUT

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

GND
XTD
GND
SWB
XTB
MSIN
SWD

15
16
17
18
19
20
21

NC
VCC
Line-out
Line-out
GND
GND
MIC-in

22
23
24
25
26

MIC-in
NC
GND
Line-in
Line-in

*This header is for the audio port bracket. It connects audio ports-stereo line-out, stereo line-in
and microphoneand a game port (for a joystick or MIDI device) to your system.

chassis firmly without using excessive


force.
Pentium processor mounting (refer Fig. 5). The processor is to be fitted
into the PGA370 (pin grid array with
370-pin recesses) socket, which is a ZIF
(zero insertion force) socket. Take out
the processor and its heat sink fitted
with cooling fan and heat sink retainer
clip D. Now proceed as follows:
1. Lift handle A to its vertical position [refer Fig. 5(a)].
2. Align the processor pins with the
socket holes and insert the processor
into its socket [refer Fig. 5(b)].
3. With the processor in its socket,
lower handle A and bring it to its closed
(horizontal) position [refer Fig. 5(c)].
4. Orient the heat sink (with fan on
top) such that the depression on one
side of the heat sink matches the corresponding projection on PGA370 socket,
and place it (along with fan) over the
processor [refer Fig. 5(c)].
5. On the PGA370 socket, there are
two small projecTABLE VII
tions on opposite
CN7: USB Port
sides, in which the
Pin Assignment
heat sink clip has to
1
VCC
be inserted. While
2
GND
it is fairly easy to
3
USBP1insert one side, it is
4
USBP0+
rather tricky to in5
USBP1+
sert the left-out
6
USBP07
GND
side as it needs to
8
VCC
be pulled down with

on the motherboard with socket 1


marked 1 and socket 2 left unmarked.
The two sockets can together accept
512MB SDRAM (i.e. up to 256 MB each).
We propose to install a single 64MB
DIMM, which is
quite adequate
for current type
of applications. It
can be inserted
into any of the
two sockets and
the same will be
automatically
suitably configured
during
setup. Remove
the DIMM from
its anti-static envelope, holding it
by its edges. Proceed as follows:
1. Using fingertips, push the
retainer clips on
either side of the
DIMM
socket
slightly
away
from the socket.
2. Position
the DIMM to be
installed above
the socket, aligning the two small
notches at the
bottom edge of
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

TABLE VIII
IDE Connector Pin Definitions (J18, J19)
Pin Function
Pin Function
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39

Reset IDE
Host data 7
Host data 6
Host data 5
Host data 4
Host data 3
Host data 2
Host data 1
Host data 0
GND
DRQ3
I/O WriteI/O ReadIOCHRDY
DACK3IRQ14
Addr 1
Addr 0
Chip select 0
Activity

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40

GND
Host data 8
Host data 9
Host data 10
Host data 11
Host data 12
Host data 13
Host data 14
Host data 15
Key
GND
GND
GND
BALE
GND
IOCS16GND
Addr 2
Chip select 1GND

DIMM with the corresponding keys in


the socket.
3. Push the DIMM vertically down,
inserting its bottom edge into the
socket.
4. Once seated properly, push DIMM
down from the top edge until the re-

C O N S T R U C T I O N

TABLE IX
Floppy Connector Pin Definitions (JP26)
Pin Function
Pin Function
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33

GND
GND
Key
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

FDHDIN
Reserved
FDEDIN
IndexMorot enable
Drive select BDrive select AMotor enable
DIRSTEPWrite dataWrite gateTrack 00Write protectRead dataSide 1 selectDiskette

tainer clips snap into place and the


DIMM is firmly held into its position.
Cable set installation. While the
motherboard chassis is still not replaced
into the case, you could install one of
the ends of all the cables originating
from the motherboard. The installation
of cables, which originated from SMPS
and the control panel of the case (LEDs,

TABLE X
PS/2 Mouse Connector*
Pin

Description

Pin

Description

1
Mouse data
2
NC
3
Ground
4
+5V
5
Mouse clock
6
NC
*This connector is for the optional PS/2 mouse
port bracket.

reset switch, and the speaker), would


be completed after the motherboard
chassis is screwed back into the PC case.
The cables to be connected to the
FRC-type male connectors/headers on
the motherboard are listed below, and
the pin assignments are shown in the
referred tables. On the motherboard,
normally, only start pin 1 is indicated.
In an FRC connector, all odd number
pins are in one row while even number
pins are in the opposite row; pin 2 is
opposite pin 1, pin 4 is opposite pin 3,
and so on.
Pin 1 on the mating FRC female connector can be identified by an arrow
mark over it. Ribbon cable wire going
into pin 1 is of red (sometimes blue)
colour. Some of the FRC connector pairs

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

have a notch and the corresponding projection, which serves as a key so that
they can go only the correct way. The
cables used for the drives have an additional connector in the middle (for slave
in case of HDD and drive B in case of
FDD, which will be explained later). Using the tips given here, you can install
the motherboard end of the following
cables:
16-pin VGA connector CN34 (refer Table III).
26-pin parallel-port connector CN6
(refer Table IV).
10-pin serial/com ports 1 and 2,
CN4 and CN5 (refer Table V).
26-pin sound cable connector CN31
(refer Table VI).
8-pin USB connector CN7 (refer
Table VII).
40-pin IDE-1 connector for HDD/
CD-ROM drive CN1 (refer Table VIII).
34-pin FDD connector CN3 (refer
Table IX).
6-pin PS/2 mouse connector CN8
(refer Table X).
Stay tuned for the concluding part in next issue

CONSTRUCTION

AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT


CONTROLLER

NA
ANJA
RUP
&
I
ED
DWIV
S.C.

REJO G. PAREKKATTU

sually, when we enter our room triggered first and then activates an up/
in darkness, we find it difficult down counter accordingly. The BCD outto locate the wall-mounted put of the counter, at any time, represwitchboard to switch on the light. For a sents the number of persons inside the
stranger, it is tougher still as he has no room. The output of the up/down counter
knowledge of the correct switch to be is decoded by 7-segment decoder/driver
turned on. Here is a reliable circuit that and displayed on 7-sement display. Sitakes over the task of switching on and multaneously, the output of counter is
switching off of the light(s) automatically compared by 4-bit magnitude comparawhen somebody enters or leaves the room tor.
during darkness. This circuit has the folThe output of comparator remains
lowing salient features:
high as long as BCD output of counter is
It turns on the room light when- greater than zero. A logic gate is used to
ever a person enters the room, provided initiate energisation of a relay to switch
that the room light is insufficient. If more on the light when comparator output is
than one person enters the room, say, one high and it is dark outside.
after the other, the light remains on.
The light turns off only when the
The circuit
room is vacant, or, in other words, when
all the persons who entered the room have The detailed section-wise description of
left.
the circuit shown in Fig. 2 is as follows:
IR transmitter. The IR transmitter
A 7-segment display shows the numcircuit consists of an astable multivibrator
ber of persons currently inside the room.
The circuit is resistant to noise and built around NE555 timer IC1. The outerrors since the detection is based on in- put of IC1 at pin 3 is a rectangular waveform of around 36kHz frequency. This outfrared light beams.
The circuit uses commonly avail- put is used to drive two IR LEDs, which
able components and is easy to build and transmit modulated IR light at 36kHz frequency. Modulating frequency of 36 kHz
test.
The functional block diagram of the is used because the IR receiver modules
circuit is shown in Fig.1. It comprises used in this circuit respond to IR signals
36kHz IR transmitter, two IR detector modulated at 36kHz frequency. The
modules, two monostable multivibrators, multivibrator frequency can be correctly
up/down-counter, 4-bit magnitude com- adjusted with the help of preset VR1 (10
kilo-ohm). Resistor R3 is a current limitparator, 7-segment decoder display,
light sensor, and relay driver.
Two pairs of IR transceivers are
employed in order to detect whether
the person is entering or leaving the
room. When a person enters the room,
IR detector 1 gets triggered, followed
by triggering of IR detector 2. Conversely, when a person leaves the
room, IR detector 2 gets triggered, followed by triggering of IR detector 1.
A priority detector circuit determines which of the two detectors is Fig. 1: Block diagram of automatic room light
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

ing resistor that keeps the IR LEDs,


current within the required range.
IR detector modules. The IR detector modules used in the circuit are commonly available in the market. These
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1, IC2, IC3 - NE555, timer
IC4
- 74LS192, up/down decade
counter
IC5
- 74LS85, 4-bit magnitude
comparator)
IC6
- 7447, BCD to 7-segment
decoder/driver
IC7
- MCT2E, opto-coupler
IC8
- 7805, +5V regulator
IC9(N1-N4)
- 74LS00, quad 2-input
NAND gate
IC10(N5-N10) - 74LS14, hex schmitt
inverter gate
T1, T2
- BC548, npn transistor
T3
- SL100, npn transistor
D1-D3
- IN4001, rectifier diode
IRLED1, IRLED2 - Infrared LED
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1
- 3.3-kilo-ohm
R2
- 10-kilo-ohm
R3
- 100-ohm
R4, R5, R21
- 1.2-kilo-ohm
R6, R7, R12
- 33-kilo-ohm
R8, R9
- 180-kilo-ohm
R10, R11
- 1-kilo-ohm
R13-R19
- 470-ohm
R20
- 100-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1
- 0.001F, ceramic disk
C2, C3, C4
- 0.01F, ceramic disk
C5, C6
- 4.7F, 16V electrolytic
C7, C8
- 10F, 16V electrolytic
C9
- 1F, 16V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
M1, M2
- IR sensor modules
DS1
- LT542 (common anode
display)
RL1
- 12V, 200 ohm, 2 C/O.
LDR1
- LDR (Dark resistance >
120 kilo-ohm)
L1
- 230V, 100W electric bulb
- 12V power supply
- Printed circuit board
- IC sockets

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of automatic room light controller

Fig. 3: Timing waveforms

have three terminals for


Vcc (+5V, here), ground,
and the output signal,
respectively. In the normal state, the output
pin (pin 3) of this detector remains at high
state, and when an IR
light of correct modulating frequency is detected, its output pin
goes low. The pin configuration of the IR
modules may vary from
one manufacturer to the
other. (Pin configuration of module TSOP
1136 for 36 kHz used
by EFY is shown in Fig.
2.) (Articles based on
the IR sensor module
have been published in
Nov. 2000 and some
other previous issues of
EFY. Readers may refer the same for more
information about the
module.)
Since the IR transmitter in this circuit is
continuously on, emitting IR light, in the normal condition, the output pins of both IR modules will be at low state.
Therefore transistors T1
and T2 will remain cutoff. When a person en-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

ters or leaves the room, the infrared light


beams are interrupted one-by-one and the
output of each IR sensor module, in turn,
goes high, which results in conduction of
associated transistors T1 and T2. Which
transistor will turn on first depends on
whether the person is entering or leaving
the room.
In the circuit, two NE555 timer ICs
(IC2 and IC3) wired as monostable
multivibrators are used. The pulse width
of the output waveform (on time) for these
multivibrators is fixed at about 0.9 seconds by suitably selecting the values for
the timing capacitors C5 and C6 in conjunction with their associated resistors R8
and R9. These monostable multivibrators
get triggered when their trigger input pins
(pin 2) go low. Thus the multivibrators
are triggered only when the IR light
beams are interrupted. Although the output pulse width of both the multivibrators
is approximately the same, there is, however, a phase difference corresponding to
the elapsed time between the successive
interruptions of the IR beams. Refer to
the waveforms shown in timing diagram
of Fig. 3.
Priority-detector logic circuit. The
priority detector circuit uses three NAND
gates, five inverter gates, and two
differentiators. The timing diagram given
in Fig. 3 helps in understanding as to
how the priority-detector circuit detects a
person going out of the room.
At first the outputs from the
monostable multivibrators are NANDed
by gate N1 and its polarity is inverted

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 4: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for the circuit

again by gate N7. At the same time, the


outputs of monostable IC3 and IC2 get
differentiated by the capacitor-resistor
combinations of C7-R10 and C8-R11, respectively. Each differentiated output is
passed via Schmitt inverter pairs of N5N6 and N10-N9 to convert the differentiated pulses into rectangular pulses. The
rectangular pulses obtained at the output of gates N6 and N9 are again

NANDed with the output of gate N7 in


NAND gates N2 and N3, respectively.
The rectangular pulse at pin 4 of NAND
gate N2 ends before the output of gate
N7 goes high and hence the output of
NAND gate N2 stays high, while both
inputs to NAND gate N3 are simultaneously high for the duration of rectangular output of gate N9. As a result, the
output of gate N3 applied to countdown

Fig. 5: Component layout for PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

clock pin 4 of IC4 causes the counter to


count down on its trailing edge (low-tohigh transition) and the output count goes
down by one count.
Similarly, when a person enters the
room, pin 4 of counter IC4 remains high,
while its pin 5 (count up) gets a lowgoing pulse resulting into counter output
advancing by one count. Values of capacitors C7 and C8 and resistors R10
and R11 can be varied for optimum performance. (Lab note. The component values have already been optimised and
logic circuit is suitably modified for
highly reliable performance of this part
of the circuit, after considerable effort.)
Up/down counter. Up/down decade
counter 74LS192 (IC4) is used as the
counter. When the power is turned on,
its outputs Q0 through Q3 are in the low
state. Whenever a person enters the
room, a low-going pulse is applied at its
count-up pin 5, while its count-down pin
4 is held at logic 1 and its output count
advances by one. Similarly, when the person leaves the room, a similar pulse is
applied at its countdown input (pin 4)
while its countup pin 5 is held at logic 1
and its output decreases by one. Thus
the 4-bit output always represents the
number of persons still inside the room.
The output of the decade counter is connected to 7-segment decoder/driver IC6
(7447) that displays the number on common-anode 7-segment LED display
(LT542).
Magnitude comparator. The output
of the up/down counter is also applied to
4-bit magnitude comparator that acts as
zero detector, i.e. it detects whether the
number of persons inside the room is
greater than zero or not. The 4-bit output of the decade counter is always compared with a reference 4-bit number
(0000), and if a match occurs, the output
at pin 5 (P>Q) of the comparator goes
low to represent an empty room condition. In all other cases (when the number of persons in the room is greater
than zero), P>Q output will be at high
state. This output is given as one of the
inputs to NAND gate N4 (followed by
inverter gate N8). Thus, as long as the
room is not empty, one of the inputs to
N4 gate will be high.
The second condition for the light to
get switched on is yet to be satisfied.
Whether there is sufficient light in the
room or not is checked by the light sensor circuit.

CONSTRUCTION

Light sensor. The light sensor is


wired around the opto-coupler MCT2E.
The resistance of the LDR depends upon
the amount of light in the room. An LDR
with resistance below 5 kilo-ohm in normal light and more than 120k resistance
in darkness is required. When there is
sufficient ambient light, the transistor inside the opto-coupler is turned on and
the input of NAND gate (pin 3) is driven
to low state. Thus the output of NAND
gate remains at high state and that of
inverter gate N8 at low. However, when
the light is insufficient, the resistance of
the LDR increases, turning off the transistor inside the opto-coupler. The sensitivity can be controlled by adding a highvalued variable resistance (about 680k)
across the LDR.
When both conditions are satisfied
(that is one or more persons are inside
the room and the ambient light is insufficient), the output of NAND gate goes low
and that of inverter gate N8 goes high
to turn on transistor T3, thereby
energising relay RL1. A 230V, 100W electric bulb is connected via the relay to the

AC mains. Once the relay gets energised,


the LDR is effectively removed from the
circuit (since the LDR is connected to the
N/C contact of the two pole relay) to prevent the flickering of the lamp with changing resistance of the LDR.

Assembly and testing


The full circuit, with the exception of the
IR transmitter, can be assembled on a
single general-purpose PCB. However, an
actual-size, single-sided PCB for the circuit in Fig. 2 is shown in Fig. 4. The component layout for the PCB is shown in
Fig. 5.
The receiver-transmitter pairs are
placed about a metre apart as shown in
Fig. 6. The distance between the two sensors (receiver modules) is about 40 cm. A
steel pipe of 5mm diameter and 3cm
length can be placed in front of the IR
module in order to improve its directivity. After assembling the circuit, adjust
preset VR1 (10k) until pin 3 of both the
IR sensor modules go high (5V). If the
circuit still does not function properly, ad-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JANUARY 2001

Fig. 6: Proposed layout of IR transmitter


and receiver pairs

just the distance between the sensors. The


metal cabinets of the IR modules must be
connected to ground.
Note that the circuit works with a
regulated +5V supply, except the power
supply to the relay coil. The circuit has
no off-time memory, and so its working is
interrupted during power failure.
Another disadvantage is that the circuit can count only up to 9. But it is quite
unusual to have more than nine people
in a normal living room.
Take care about the IR sensor module pin connections. It may be damaged if
connected wrongly.

February

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

9-LINE TELEPHONE SHARER

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

DHURJATI SINHA

his circuit is able to handle nine


independent telephones (using a
single telephone line pair) located at nine different locations, say,
up to a distance of 100m from each
other, for receiving and making outgoing calls, while maintaining conversation secrecy. This circuit is useful when
a single telephone line is to be shared
by more members residing in different
rooms/apartments.
Normally, if one connects nine
phones in parallel, ring signals are

heard in all the nine telephones (it is


also possible that the phones will not
work due to higher load), and out of
nine persons eight will find that the call
is not for them. Further, one can overhear others conversation, which is not
desirable. To overcome these problems,
the circuit given here proves beneficial,
as the ring is heard only in the desired
extension, say, extension number 1.
For making use of this facility, the
calling subscriber is required to initially
dial the normal phone number of the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

called subscriber. When the call is established, no ring-back tone is heard by the
calling party. The calling subscriber has
then to press the asterik (*) button on
the telephone to activate the tone mode
(if the phone normally works in dial mode)
and dial extension number, say, 1, within
10 seconds. (In case the calling subscriber
fails to dial the required extension number within 10 seconds, the line will be
disconnected automatically.) Also, if the
dialed extension phone is not lifted within
10 seconds, the ring-back tone will cease.
The ring signal on the main phone
line is detected by opto-coupler MCT2E (IC1), which in turn activates the
10-second on timer, formed by IC2
(555), and energises relay RL10 (6V, 100ohm, 2 C/O). One of the N/O
contacts of the relay has been
used to connect +6V rail to the
processing circuitry and the
other has been used to provide
220-ohm loop resistance to deenergise the ringer relay in
telephone exchange, to cut off
the ring.
When the caller dials the
extension number (say, 1) in
tone mode, tone receiver
CM8870 (IC3) outputs code
0001, which is fed to the 4bit BCD-to-10 line decimal decoder IC4 (CD4028). The output of IC4 at its output pin
14 (Q1) goes high and
switches on the SCR (TH-1)
and associated relay RL1. Relay RL1, in turn, connects, via
its N/O contacts, the 50Hz extension ring signal, derived
from the 230V AC mains, to
the line of telephone 1. This
ring signal is available to telephone 1 only, because half
of the signal is blocked by diode D1 and DIAC1 (which do
not conduct below 35 volts).
As soon as phone 1 is
lifted, the ring current increases and voltage drop
across R28 (220-ohm, 1/2W resistor) increases and operates
opto-coupler IC5 (MCT-2E).
This in turn resets timer IC2
causing:
(a) interruption of the
power supply for processing
circuitry as well as the ring

CIRCUIT

ELECTRONIC CARD
LOCK SYSTEM

IDEAS

RUP

ANJA

NA

PRIYANK MUDGAL

his circuit of electronic card lock


system is much simpler and
cheaper than other similar circuits that have appeared in earlier issues
of EFY.
The circuit is configured around an
addressable 1 of 16 demultiplexer
CD4514B (IC1). Any number in binary
form, when available at input pins 2, 3,
21, and 22 (address pins A0 through A3),
makes corresponding output go logic high,
thus turning on the appliance through relay contacts. Up to 15 appliances can be
switched on/off (one at a time). Output
Q0 (pin 11) can be used for visual indication, to show that circuit is active.

A 40W bulb illuminates LDR1 to


LDR5 constantly. This pulls down bases
of transistors T1 through T5 to ground.
LDR1 ensures that card is properly inserted into the card slot.
When the card is correctly inserted,
it covers the hole/opening for LDR1 and
thus blocks the light from falling on LDR1.
As a result, transistor T1 conducts and
extends positive supply to the collectors
of transistors T2 through T5. Then, depending upon the holes blocked/punched
in the inserted card, any combination of
emitters of transistors T2 through T5
turns logic high (transistors output corresponding to blocked LDRs only goes

high).
These outputs connected to address input
pins
A0
through A3
of
IC1

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

TABLE I
Appliance LDR2 LDR3 LDR4 LDR5
no.
1
*
*
*
2
*
*
*
3
*
*
4
*
*
*
5
*
*
6
*
*
7
*
8
*
*
*
9
*
*
10
*
*
11
*
12
*
*
13
*
14
*
15
- Blocked hole corresponding to selected binary address.
* Punched holes corresponding to LDR position on card

switch on the corresponding appliance


(one out of 15).
The card used should be of opaque
plastic. It should be able to withstand
some heat from the bulb, even though
the appliance remains on only for the
period for which the card is in the slot.
The card has a triangular notch that
shows correct orientation/direction of insertion of card and prevents false operation. LDRs can be placed in a line, or
randomly, to increase security.
The order in which holes should be
punched for each appliance is given in
Table I.
Two illustrations,
one each
for card-2
and card-5,
are shown
in the accompanying figures.
An elevation and
plan/top
view of the
gadget is
also shown
in the figures.

CIRCUIT

PULSED OPERATION OF A
CW LASER DIODE

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

DR. ALIKA KHARE

ere a simple low-cost technique


for converting a CW laser diode at 670 nm wavelength to
pulsed laser up to a frequency of 500 kHz.
A low-power pulsed radiation source
is very important for any laboratory involved in optical pulsed systemslaser,
pulsed discharges, optical communication,
fibre-optic sensors, image processing,
etcwhere one is required to check the
frequency response of the detection system or optical simulation of an optical
source or local networking using optical
fibre cable. Fast-speed LED offers the so-

lution for such requirements, but because


of very low power and large divergence,
its use remains limited. On the other
hand, a pulsed diode laser offers a very
good solution for this problem.
Commercial systems are usually expensive. However, a CW diode laser operating at 670 nm can easily be pulsed up
to a frequency of 500kHz with low-cost
technique, using a function generator and

an inexpensive push-pull amplifier interface circuit. The block diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 1.
A 3mW CW diode laser at 670 nm
with voltage and current rating of 3V at
100mA, respectively, is used. The source
(a function generator) is capable of delivering square pulses of 3V amplitude, which are amplified by a
complementary symmetry pushpull circuit shown in Fig. 2.
The output of the amplifier
is connected to the diode laser
for pulsed operation. The laser
is focused onto a
photodiode terminated with 50ohm resistor (Fig.
1). The output of
photodiode is displayed on digital
storage oscilloscope
and it is
also connected to the
PC for getting a hard
copy.
Up to a frequency
of around 20 kHz, the
threshold voltage for
laser oscillations is
around 2.4V. For frequencies greater than
20 kHz, the threshold
for laser oscillations
depends on the operating frequency and is
higher than 2.4V. The
behaviour of laser pulses up to 10 kHz is
nearly similar. Laser output at a typical
frequency of 2 kHz is shown in Fig. 3, at
various voltages (2.6V, 3.4V, and 4V). The
input waveform A is shown at the bottom of the figure.
For a driving pulse of about 3V (which
is the normal operating voltage for CW
operation), the laser pulse becomes flat
after a delay of approximately 40 s (time
taken to build up the laser oscillations to
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

its maximum amplitude). Above 3V, probably population inversion is developed


much above threshold, before the laser oscillations build up into the cavity, and so
we observe the sharp peak in laser output
(for more details, refer Laser Fundamentals book by W. T. Silfvast, published by
Cambridge University Press), exponentially decaying to a steadystate value
with a time constant depending on the
initial peak intensity and the carrier life
time in the excited state. After the input
pulse is over, the oscillations die down
within 5 s.
Therefore above 3V, up to a frequency

of 10 kHz, the laser is operated in quasi


CW mode. In the frequency range of 10
kHz to 50 kHz, the laser output keeps on
increasing, even during the flat portion of
the input current pulse, and falls down to
zero during the off period of the driving
pulse. Fig. 4 shows the laser waveforms
at 50 kHz, 100 kHz, 200 kHz, 300 kHz,
and 500 kHz, respectively.
All these pulses were recorded at
around 4V. In this range of frequencies,

CIRCUIT

the duration for which voltage is on/off is


of the order of less than 5 s, and so the
driving pulses switch off before the termination of laser oscillations. Therefore
the laser output shows a modulation with

IDEAS

the DC component in it. Beyond 500 kHz,


it is difficult to observe laser oscillations
even at voltages higher than 4V.
Lab note. Tests conducted at EFY
using laser diode of laser torch (rated

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

for <5mW) with identical inputs at 2 kHz


did not show any marked departure of
output waveform (square wave) from the
input square wave.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

GENERATION OF 1-SEC. PULSES


SPACED 5-SEC. APART
RUP

ANJA

NA

PRAVEEN SHANKER

his circuit using a dual-timer


NE556 can produce 1Hz pulses
spaced 5 seconds apart, either
manually or automatically. IC NE556
comprises two independent NE555 timers in a single package. It is used to
produce two separate pulses of different pulse widths, where one pulse
initiates the activation of the second
pulse.
The first half of the NE556 is wired
for 5-second pulse output. When slide
switch S2 is in position a, the first timer
is set for manual operation, i.e. by press-

ing
switch
S1
momentarily
you can generate a single pulse of 5second duration. When switch S2 is
kept in b position, i.e. pins 6 and 2 are
shorted, timer 1 in NE556 triggers by
itself.
The output of the first timer is connected to trigger pin 8 of second timer,
which, in turn, is connected to a potential divider comprising resistors R4 and
R5. Resistor R1, preset VR1, resistor R2,
preset VR2, and capacitors C2 and C5
are the components determining time period. Presets VR1 and VR2 permit trim-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

ming of the 5-second and 1-second pulse


width of respective sections.
When switch S2 is in position a and
switch S1 is pressed momentarily, the output at pin 5 goes high for about 5 seconds. The trailing (falling) edge of this 5second pulse is used to trigger the second
timer via 0.1F capacitor C6. This action
results in momentarily pulling down of
pin 8 towards the ground potential, i.e.
low. (Otherwise pin 8 is at 1/2 Vcc and
triggers at/below 1/3 Vcc level.) When the
second timer is triggered at the trailing
edge of 5-second pulse, it generates a 1second wide pulse.
When switch S2 is on position b,
switch S1 is disconnected, while pin 6 is
connected to pin 2. When capacitor C is
charged, it is discharged through pin 2
until it reaches 1/3Vcc potential, at which
it is retriggered since trigger pin 6 is
also connected here. Thus timer 1 is
retriggered after every 5-second period
(corresponding to 0.2Hz frequency). The
second timer is triggered as before to
produce a 1-second pulse in synchronism with the trailing edge of 5-second pulse.
This circuit is important wherever
a pulse is needed at regular intervals;
for instance, in Versatile Digital Frequency Counter Cum Clock construction project published in EFY Oct. 97,
one may use this circuit in place of
CD4060-based circuit. For the digital
clock function, however, pin 8 and 12
are to be shorted after removal of
0.1F capacitor and 10-kilo-ohm resistors R4 and R5.

CIRCUIT

HIGH-/LOW-VOLTAGE
CUTOUT WITH TIMER

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

DR D.K. KAUSHIK
his inexpensive circuit can be
connected to an air-conditioner/
fridge or to any other sophisticated electrical appliance for its protection. Generally, costly voltage stabilisers
are used with such appliances for maintaining constant AC voltage. However,
due to fluctuations in AC mains supply,
a regular click sound in the relays is
heard. The frequent energisation/deenergisation of the relays leads to electrical noise and shortening of the life of
electrical appliances and the relay/
stabiliser itself. The costly yet faultprone stabiliser may be replaced by this
inexpensive high-low cutout circuit with

RL2. After a preset time delay of one


minute (adjustable), it automatically tries
again. If the input AC mains supply is
still low, the power to the appliance is
again interrupted for another one minute,
and so on, until the mains supply comes
within limits (>180V AC). The AC mains
supply is resumed to appliance only when
it is above the lower limit.
When the input AC mains increases
beyond 270 volts, preset VR1 is adjusted
such that transistor T1 conducts and
relay RL1 energises and resistance R8
gets connected in series with the electrical appliance. This 10-kilo-ohm, 20W
resistor produces a voltage drop of ap-

timer.
The circuit is so designed that relay
RL1 gets energised when the mains voltage is above 270V. This causes resistor
R8 to be inserted in series with the load
and thereby dropping most of the voltage across it and limiting the current
through the appliance to a very low
value.
If the input AC mains is less than 180
volts or so, the low-voltage cut-off circuit
interrupts the supply to the electrical
appliance due to energisation of relay

proximately 200V, with the fridge as


load.
The value and wattage of resistor
R8 may be suitably chosen according to
the electrical appliance to be used. It is
practically observed that after continuous use, the value of resistor R8 changes
with time, due to heating. So adjustment of preset VR1 is needed two to
three times in the beginning. But once
it attains a constant value, no further
adjustment is required. This is the only
adjustment required in the beginning,

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

which is done using a variac.


Further, the base voltage of transistor T2 is adjusted with the help of preset VR2 so that it conducts up to the
lower limit of the input supply and cuts
off when the input supply is less than
this limit (say, 180V). As a result, transistor T3 remains cut off (with its collector remaining high) until the mains
supply falls below the lower limit, causing its collector voltage to fall. The collector of transistor T3 is connected to
the trigger point (pin 2) of IC1.
When the input is more than the
lower limit, pin 2 of IC1 is nearly at
+Vcc. In this condition the output of
IC1 is low, relay RL2 is de-energised
and power is supplied to the appliance
through the N/C terminals of relay RL2.
If the mains supply is less than the
lower limit, pin 2 of IC1 becomes momentarily low (nearly ground potential)
and thus the output of IC1 changes state
from low to high, resulting in
energisation of relay RL2. As a result,
power to the load/appliance is cut off.
Now, capacitor
C2 starts charging through resistor R6 and
preset
VR3.
When the capacitor charges
to (2/3)Vcc, IC1
changes state
from high to
low. The value
of preset VR3
may be so adjusted that it
takes about one minute (or as desired)
to charge capacitor C1 to (2/3)Vcc. Relay is now de-energised and the power
is supplied to the appliance if the mains
supply voltage has risen above the lower
cut-off limit, otherwise the next cycle
repeats automatically.
One additional advantage of this circuit is that both relays are de-energised
when the input AC mains voltage lies
within the specified limit and the normal supply is extended to the appliance
via the N/C contacts of both relays.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

BUILD YOUR OWN


PENTIUM III PC PART-II

The HDD can now be installed at


the lowest closed (without any cutout
in front) position in the drive bay. Secure it like the other drives using four
Philips screws.
Completing the hardware installation. After having completed the
installation of drives and the cable set
of the motherboard, install back the asK.C. BHASIN AND NEERAJ KUNDRA
sembled motherboard chassis (complete
with its cable/connector set)
Installation of drives in drives
into the PC cabinet and
bay. Before proceeding with the physithen complete the cabling
cal installation of CD-ROM drive, hard
as follows.
disk drive, and floppy drive in the
You may start with AT
drives bay, you have to plan their conpower supply connectors.
figuration. We propose to use only one
By now you are familiar
floppy drive. This drive will be configwith two 6-pin Molex conured as floppy drive A. The 34-pin
nectors from SMPS used
floppy drive cable end with twisted Fig. 7: Floppy drive cable for connecting up to two FDDs
for
powering
the
wires, emanating from CN3 on the
motherboard (refer paragraph under
motherboard, needs to be connected to
heading Checking SMPS in Part I).
floppy drive (DS1 in Fig.7).
Take connecter with orange wire (PG
Let us configure the HDD as prisignal) first and align it over pin 1 of
mary master and CD-ROM drive as priPW1 connector on motherboard. Promary slave using a single cable emajections on Molex connector of SMPS
nating from CN1 (IDE-1 header) on the
would engage into corresponding holes
motherboard (refer Fig. 8). (We could
in PW1 connector. Once you have enalternatively configure CD-ROM drive
gaged the connector in this fashion,
as secondary master and connect it dimake it vertical and then simply slide
rectly to CN2 (IDE-2 connector) in
it down. It will snap into its position.
motherboard, using another 40-pin
(Be careful not to bend the pins and
cable/connector.)
ensure that you have not engaged the
The jumper on HDD should be used
wrong pins.) Similarly, insert the other
Fig. 8: Connection of HDD and CD-ROM drive
to short pins 7 and 8 on the jumper using IDE-1 header
6-pin Molex connector in the adjacent
block at the rear of HDD (refer Fig. 9).
pins of AT power connector. On inSimilarly, there is a jumper block at not be allowed to go more than 3.5 mm stallation, all black coloured wires will
the rear of CD-ROM drive with the pairs into the threaded holes.
be adjacent to each other.
of pins marked as CS (cable select), SL
Suitable cutout also exists in the
Some of the connectors originating
(slave), and MA (master). Ensure that drive bay for installing the 8.9cm (3.5- from the motherboard (e.g. COM1,
jumper is used in the middle to select inch) floppy drive. Before fitting, ensure COM2, and VGA connectors) can be sethe slave mode for CD-ROM. The cable that drive door in the front opens down- cured into the cutouts provided on the
connection arrangement for HDD and ward (hinged towards top). For install- case below the SMPS. Thus secure the
CD-ROM is shown in Fig. 8.
ing floppy drive follow the same proce- D connectors for COM1, COM2, and
Before installation of drives, note dure as used for fixing CD-ROM drive.
VGA into the respective cutouts using
down pin-1 orientation/position of the
Philips screws. This saves the
34-/40-pin interface cable connectors on
precious space inside the PC
the drives.
case and gives it an ethical look.
The CD-ROM drive may be installed
For accommodating the
in the topmost position for 13.33cm
panel/bracket for 25-pin D con(5.25-inch) drive, after pushing out the
nector of parallel port and PS/2
plastic piece (used for protection) covmouse as well as audio panel/
ering the cutout in this drives bay. Align
bracket, remove two of the cutit from the front side of the case to enouts from the rear of the case
sure that it is flush with the cabinets
by just forcing them out with
external surface. Using four Philips
hands, and secure these brackscrews (6-32 UNC) secure it in proper
ets in the vacant positions ushorizontal position. The screws should
ing Philips screws.
RA
UND
N. K

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 9: Back-panel connector details of HDD


and CD-ROM drives

Now you may terminate the connectors originating from control panel on
the cabinet at the motherboard. Connect the loudspeaker connector to CN14,

power-on LED connector to CN12,


HDD LED connector to CN13, and reset switch connector to CN11. (Correct orientation can be ensured by
matching the pin connected to
coloured (not white) wire to go into
pin 1 of the connectors in
motherboard.)
Now connect the 40-pin middle
connector (in the ribbon cable) originating from CN1 in the motherboard
to CD-ROM drive and its end connector to HDD, ensuring that pin 1 of
connector pairs correctly match. (Projection/slot in the middle of connectors
will help you in proper orientation of
the connectors, unless you try to force
it in with wrong orientation.)
Follow it up by connecting the
34-pin floppy drive end-connector (at the end of twisted cable)
to the interface connector of
floppy drive. This header originates from CN3 on the
motherboard.
The 4-pin Molex-type power
supply connectors now remain
to be connected to the drives.
Ensure that rounded shoulder
on the female connectors mate

SCREENSHOTS CMOS SETUP MENUS

Continued
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

TABLE XI
Pin Assignment Internal Audio
Connector Internal Audio Connector
CN25 : AUX-IN
Pin
Assignment
1
AUX-L
2
GND
3
GND
4
AUX-R
CN24 : CD-IN
Pin
Assignment
1
CD-L
2
GND
3
GND
4
CD-R
CN33 : CD-IN
Pin
Assignment
1
CD-R
2
GND
3
CD-L
4
GND
CN32 : CD-IN
Pin
Assignment
1
GND
2
CD-L
3
GND
4
CD-R

correctly with the corresponding male


power connectors on CD-ROM drive and
HDD. In all cases you will observe that
yellow wire (+12V) pin faces the PC case
cover.
For FDD, use the 4-pin mini power
supply connector. This connector, if inserted properly, will lock itself into position. To take out this connector, you
should press the retaining lever with
your fingertip. Connect one of the 4-pin
connectors CN24 or CN33 or CN32
to analogue audio output connector on
CD-ROM drive, after correctly matching the ground pin G marked over the
analogue audio connector on CD-ROM
drive (refer Fig. 10) and those of CN24
or CN33 or CN32 as given in Table XI.
If you have followed all the tips religiously, your hardware assembly is
complete on closing the cover of the cabinet using four to six Philips screws. But
before you do that, have a look again to
ensure that no loose wires are hanging
around. After closing the cover, you may
connect the keyboard cable to the keyboard connector, mouse cable to COM1
connector, and amplified speakers banana-type stereo jack into the line-out
plug on the audio bracket.
Now that hardware assembly part
of the basic unit is over, installation of
other cards, such as LAN card (for networking), internal modem card (for
Internet access), and TV tuner card, into

CONSTRUCTION

formatted 8.9cm (3.5-inch) floppy. On


the working computer, click start button, select settings, double click on icon
add/remove programs, select startup
disk, insert formatted floppy in floppy
drive, and click over the create disk
button seen on monitors screen.
The program would prompt you for
insertion of original Windows 98 CD in
CD-ROM drive. Insert the same and
click on OK button. Even if you do not
have the original CD, but have all programs in Win98 directory in C: drive,
you can give the proper path and the
appropriate programs will be copied to
the startup floppy disk.

CMOS setup

Continued

the PCI slots, using the software drivers supplied with them, can be attempted subsequently.

ing and formatting of hard disk once


you switch on your newly assembled PC
for the first time.
To make a startup disk, get a new

Creating a startup disk


Eventually you will be using Windows
operating system (say, Windows 98), and
for that you should be having Microsoft
Windows 98 installation CD. Use some
other PC having Windows 98 operating
system to create a startup disk. The
idea is to have all important files, including system files, Fdisk.exe, and
Format.com files, in hand, so that you
may proceed with hardware partitionELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

Switch on the newly assembled PC. It


performs power-on-self-test (POST).
During POST you will find Num Lock,
Caps Lock, and Scroll Lock LEDs
flashing. A single short beep during
POST indicates that motherboard is
OK.
Certain messages will keep appearing on the screen of your monitor, including Press Del to enter CMOS
setup . When this message appears,
press Del key to enter setup. The
CMOS Setup Utility screen appears on
monitor screen (refer screenshot 1).
There are seven items on the left, which
can be selected using arrow keys on your
keyboard. On the right, it shows certain options that are quite obvious and
can be interactively executed when required.
Select the first item on the left,
Standard CMOS Features , and press
enter to see its screen (refer screenshot
2). Use arrow keys to move between
the items and Page Up or Page Down
key to edit or select the options. You
may correct the date, including year and
century, and the time to their current
values.
You would notice from
screenshot 2 that during power up,
the BIOS has identified the primary master (Seagates 10GB hard
disk ST310211A), 52X Samsungs
CD-ROM Drive SC-15, floppy
drives, video, and RAM address
range (including its breakdown).
This latest Award BIOS 1984-2000
does not contain Auto Detect Hard
Disk as a separate utility in the
CMOS setup options.

CONSTRUCTION

To select any other screen/setup utility option, press Esc, select the next
item from setup utility menu, and press
Enter. The next screenshot (screen shot
3) pertains to Advanced BIOS Features.
Here you may edit and change the first,
second, and third boot devices to read
CD-ROM, HDD-0, and floppy, respectively. This will enable you to boot/run
the computer from CD-ROM (if you have
a Windows installation), CD, HDD (after formatting and transferring the system files), or floppy drive (using the
startup floppy created earlier), in that
priority.
Press Esc to come back to the open-

ing screen. For the time being, skip utilities/screens 4 through 7 with their default values. Select the last Frequency/
Voltage Control menu item. Edit CPU
clock/spread spectrum item to read
100MHz/On. Thereafter press Esc and
select Save and Exit Setup or F10 key,
and then Y and Enter for saving the
edited BIOS selections.

HDD partitioning and formatting


Assuming that you have Windows 98
installation CD in CD-ROM drive, the
PC will boot from the CD and start the
Windows 98 setup program. Press funcELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

tion key F3 to come out of the setup


program and come to the prompt
D:\Win98>. Type Fdisk and press Enter for starting with the partitioning of
HDD. (Note. We could have used the
start up floppy in Drive A instead of
inserting Windows CD in CD-ROM drive
and come to A:\> prompt for running
the Fdisk program from A drive, if
desired.)
On pressing Enter key, the following FDISK main menu appears:
Current fixed disk drive: 1
Choose one of the following:
1. Create DOS partition or logical
DOS drive
2. Set active partition
3. Delete partition or logical DOS
drive
4. Display partition information
Enter choice: [ ]
Press Esc to exit FDISK
Enter choice 1 above and press Enter key. The next menu on page 2 appears as follows:
1. Create primary DOS partition?
2. Create extended DOS partition?
3. Create logical DOS partition?
Type 1 and press Enter key. The
program verifies integrity of the disk
and then displays.
Do you wish to use max. size for a
primary DOS partition and make it active. Y/N?
Type N and press Enter. (Because,
we propose to create two DOS partitions of equal size.) Once again the program verifies integrity of the disk and
prompts you to enter/specify partition
in megabytes or percentage of disk
space. Type 50% and press Enter. The
program complies. Now press Esc key
to return to the main FDISK menu.
Now enter choice 2. (The primary
DOS partition created earlier becomes
active.) The program will ask you to
enter the number of partitions. As it is
currently 1 on C drive, therefore type
1 and press Enter.
Again press Esc. (Do not press Esc
key more than once, else it will come
out of FDISK.) Again you are led to
main FDISK menu.
Enter choice 1. You will come to
menu on page 2. Now enter choice 2 to
create extended DOS partition. The program will again verify the integrity of
the disk and show availability of 50% of
the disk space for extended DOS partition. Type 50% for extended DOS parti-

CONSTRUCTION

tion and press Enter.


Again press Esc (only once). The
program will ask you to specify the disk
space for logical drive. Simply press Enter and then press Esc to come back
to the main FDISK menu. Choose option 4 to display the information. After
looking at the partition information that
it has been correctly done, press Esc
to
come
out.
Press
keys
CTRL+ALT+DEL or RESET button for
settings to take effect. The PC will boot
from CD-ROM drive as per settings
done in the CMOS setup. On booting
you will again come to the setup part of
Windows 98 program. Hence to come
out of it, press F3. Now your drives are
designated as under:
C: First partition on hard disk
D: Extended partition on hard disk
E: CD-ROM drive

Now you will be able to access CDROM drive by typing E:. After the
prompt E:\>, type Format C:/S/U/V
and press Enter. (Here C: refers to
drive to be formatted, S to system
(transfer of system files to C drive during formatting), U to unconditional, and
V to verification.) After formatting C
drive, you will come back to the prompt
E:\Win98>. Type setup and press Enter to install Windows 98 on C drive.
As the program is interactive, keep
answering the questions logically.
Choose typical while selecting the Win-

dows version. Various messages


like enter computer name,
workgroup, etc keep appearing,
which you may reply suitably.
Against date/time zone selection, choose India.
Computer will show the
Agreement format that you are
bound to accept. Hence click on
the appropriate button.
Before proceeding with the
Windows installation, the program prompts you for entering
the key number of Windows 98
product, which accompanies
each original copy. You must
type the key number accurately. It will then copy the
Windows 98 files to C drive in
Win98 directory. This will obviate use of Windows CD for
creating a startup file, whenever required.
To format drive D, double
click on My Computer icon,
click the right button on drive D:, choose
Format, and in Format D: menu box,
choose full and click on Start button.
After completion of the formatting of
D drive, it is accessible for read/write
operations. This completes partitioning
and formatting of the hard disk.

Loading motherboard drivers


On-board VGA display driver.
When the PC is running, insert the
motherboard driver CD that came with
the motherboard (PCPartner drivers
CD, in our case) into CD-ROM drive.
Select drive E, select Intel Chipset
Products, 810, VGA , Win9X, and
Graphics, in that order, and double click
on its Setup.exe icon and follow the
instructions on screen. After finishing,
shut down the PC as per Windows shutdown procedure and restart to allow the
drivers to take effect.
On-board AC97 Codec sound
driver. Click on Start button, select
settings, select control panel, double
click on System icon, click on Device
Manager, go to Other Devices, double
click on PCI multimedia, select PCI
Audio, click on Remove button (since
compatible software drivers have not yet
been installed to avoid conflicts), and
then click on refresh button.
Go back to control panel and, click
on Add new H/W. A wizard guides you
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

through rest of the process, and in due


course, a message Found new hardware
PCI multimedia audio, display, sound
video appears. The program asks if you
have disk (drivers). Click the Browse
button, select E:, Intel Chipset Products, 810 , AC97 Sound, CS4299, Win98,
in that order, and run Setup.
During the setup, when the program
prompts you for selection of device,
choose Crystal Audio Codec and click
OK. Again during the course of driver
installation for Crystal Audio Codec, the
program will prompt you for location of
Windows 98 files, which you may browse
and point towards C:\Win98 directory
or towards Windows CD as E:\Win98
and click OK button. After finishing,
you may verify, via Device Manager
(refer preceding para) by clicking on
Sound, Video and Game controller icon,
that Crystal Audio Codec as also Crystal Audio Codec with Game Device appear under it. (A sound icon will concurrently appear on the bottom line of
your desktop.)
Intel Firmware Hub configuration. In Device Manager under
Other Devices, an Unknown Device
would still appear. This concerns Intels
Firmware Hub. To correct this problem, again go to 810 subdirectory on
the CD, double click on INF_install,
and then on Setup.exe within that
subdirectory. A message Found New
Device Intel Firmware Hub appears
on the screen. This device will be automatically configured when you follow
the instructions appearing on the screen
properly. To confirm that there are no
unknown devices now, open Device
Manager and check all the items under
Other Devices.
With installation of drivers for onboard devices, hardware and software
configuration of your multimedia PC is
complete. Other secondary functions
such as power management functions
APM (advanced power management) or
ACPI (advanced configuration and
power management interface) can be
incorporated later through CMOS
Power Management Setup facility.
Similarly, you can install Ethernet card
for LAN and modem card for the
Internet, fax, and e-mail accessibility via
telecom lines. A brief information on
these additional functions is given below.
APM. APM caters to the PC to

CONSTRUCTION

enter an energy-saving standby mode.


BIOS enables APM by default. It can be
initiated in the following ways:
1. By specifying time-out period in
BIOS setup program.
2. By connecting a hardware suspend/resume switch to CN10 on the
motherboard.
3. From Suspend menu item in Windows.
ACPI. ACPI provides direct control to the operating system over the
power management as well as plug-nplay functions. Features include:
1. Power management control of individual devices, add-on cards, video display, and HDD.
2. Methods for achieving less than
30W operation in Power-on Suspend
Sleeping State and less than 5W in Suspend to Disk Sleeping State.
3. A soft-off feature to power off the
PC.
4. Support for multiple wake-up
events for the PC to resume normal operation.
5. Support for front-panel power and
sleep mode switch.

Ethernet
card for LAN.
Ethernet cards
capable of running at 10Mbps to
100Mbps, of different makes such
as Intel, Real Tek,
Mercury and Dax,
as Ethernet PCI
adapter are available in the market.
Each
card
comes with a bracket, driver diskette,
and user manual. The bracket would
have an LED and RJ-45 jack. This jack
is used for running a twisted-pair
unshielded cable (max. length 100
metres) between the card and the hub/
concentrator (10Base-T or 100Base-Tx)
to which other computers LAN cards
are similarly connected. Once the cable
is connected to the hub, the LED on
Ethernet card would light up. Before
installing, remove a cutout opposite the
PCI slot to make space for the bracket
of Ethernet card. When you install the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

card, the power to the PC should be


off.
When you switch on the computer,
it automatically detects its presence and
New Hardware Wizard appears on the
screen to guide you through the installation process. It asks for location of
the drivers. The drivers floppy can be
inserted in A drive and path can be
indicated. You can then proceed further, as per instructions appearing
on the screen, to complete its installation.
Modem. 56kbps PnP (plug-n-play
compatible) and Windows 95/98 compatible internal modem cards are available
from different manufacturers for installation in any of the PCI slots. The modem card will have a telephone line jack
for connection of telephone line from
wall socket, a parallel phone jack for
connecting a telephone set, and Mic and
speaker jacks for external mic and
speakers for use with voicemail and
speakerphone facilities, respectively.
For installing the drivers, the procedure would be similar to that used
for installation of the Ethernet card.

CONSTRUCTION

INTELLIGENT WATER LEVEL


CONTROLLER

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

SADHAN CHANDRA DAS

n coming years, the drinking water


is going to be one of the scarce commodities. This would partly be attributable to our mismanagement of water supply and its wastage. In normal
households, where pumps are used to
fill the overhead tanks (OHT), it is usually observed that people switch on the
pump and forget to switch it off even

when the tank has become full. As a


result, water keeps overflowing until the
household people notice the overflow
and switch the pump off. As the OHT,
in general, is kept on the topmost floor,
it is not quite convenient to go up frequently and see the water level in the
OHT.
This problem can be solved by using

Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of water level controller


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

the intelligent digital liquid level controller circuit presented here. It has the
following features:
It can automatically switch on the
pump when the tank is empty and
switch it off when the tank becomes full.
It can check the ground tank
(sump tank) water level from which the
water is pumped into the overhead tank
(OHT). If the sump tank water level is
below the predetermined level, the unit
switches off the pump to protect the
pump from dry-run, even though the
overhead tank may be completely
empty.
It includes under- and over-voltage cutout to switch off the pump if the
voltage is not within specified low
(200V) and high (250V) limits.
It includes a circuit for digital dis-

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Power supply

(cathode) No. 1 is in
touch with the water,
the voltage at pin 3 of
IC1 becomes logic high
(i.e. +5V), and hence
voltage at line No. 1
(L-1) also becomes
high. Now due to conduction of diode D3,
the BCD code 0001 (Q3
Q2 Q1 Q0) is generFig. 3: Construction details of probes for mineral water
ated and converted
to
equivalent 7segment code
by
IC2
(74LS47) to
display
the
decimal digit
1.
Similarly,
when the tips
of the both sensors 1 and 2
are in touch
with water, the
voltage at pin 3
Fig. 4: Construction details of probes for non-conducting liquids
becomes logic
play of the overhead tank level to indi- low (0V) while the voltages at pin 4 and
cate water levels 0 through 4 as per line 2 (L-2) become logic high (i.e. +5V).
positions of the tips of the sensors in- Now due to conduction of diode D6, the
side the overhead tank.
corresponding BCD code 0010 is gener The sensors used in this project ated and decimal digit 2 is displayed on
have a lifetime of more than five years.
the 7-segment display.
Digital display circuit (refer
When the tank is completely empty,
Fig. 1.) This circuit comprises a quad the outputs of all XOR gates of IC1 are
2-input XOR gate IC1 (CD4030) for sum low and the display shows decimal digit
outputs, decimal to BCD code converter 0. In this way the display circuit works
using diode matrix of diodes D3 through to show decimal digits 0 through 4, corD7, a BCD to 7-segment decoder/driver responding to the level of the water, as
IC2 (74LS47), and common-anode type defined by the position of the sensors
7-segment display LTS 542R.
at different heights. Here the resistors
When only the tip of sensor probe R9 through R12 and R19 through R21
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

have been used for passive pull-down.


Controller circuit. The controller
circuit is built around three quad 2-input NOR ICs (IC3 through IC5) to
switch the pump motor on or off when
certain conditions are fulfilled. The conditions to be met for switching-on/running of the pump are:
1. The mains supply should be
within certain low and high cut-off limits (say between 200V AC and 250V AC).
2. The water level in the sump
(ground tank) is above certain optimum
level (2' in Fig. 1).
3. Water in the overhead tank (OHT)
is below the minimum level.
Once all the above-mentioned three
conditions are satisfied, the pump motor would start running. The corresponding logic level at point A will be
low (point B will also be low automatically not being in touch with the liquid), point C will also be low and point
D will be high.
Once running, the pump will continue to run even when the water rises
above the minimum level in the OHT
(i.e. when point A subsequently goes
high), provided the first condition is still
fully satisfied and the water level in
the sump has not fallen below that of
sensor 1'. It will stop only when either
the maximum specified level in the OHT
has been reached or the water level in
the sump has fallen below sensor 1' position.
Here the NOR gate pairs of N2 and
N3, and N6 and N7, form NOR-latches.
When the ground tank (sump) water
level is above the defined level 2', the
voltage at pin 11 of gate N6 is low. So
diode D12 cannot conduct. Also, if the
mains voltage is within acceptable limits of 200-250V, the voltage at output
pin 3 of gate N12 is high and the voltage at collector of transistor T2 is low.
Diodes D8 and D11 are thus cut off. So
the voltage at input pin 8 of gate N4 is
pulled down to logic low level by passive pull-down resistor R18 (56 kiloohm).
Now if overhead tank is empty, i.e.
water level is below level 1, voltage
states at input pins 1 of gate N2, and
pins 12 and 13 of gate N1, are pulled
down to logic low by passive pull-down
resistors R13 and R14 respectively.
Hence voltages at output pin 11 of gate
N1 and input pin 5 of gate N3 become
logic high to force the output at pin 4 of

CONSTRUCTION

PARTS LIST1

Fig. 5: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for water level controller

Fig. 6: Component layout for the PCB

gate N3 to be latched low. This logic


level will not change until voltages at
input pins 5 and 6 of gate N3 become
low (0V) and voltage at pin 1 of gate N2
goes high (+5V). Since both inputs of
gate N4 are low, hence its output at pin
10 goes logic high to drive transistor T1
into conduction. Relay RL1 is thus
energised and the pump motor is
switched on.
The water level of the overhead tank
starts rising. When the water level
reaches the tip of the topmost sensor 5,
voltage at pin 1 of gate N2 goes high.

Already, the voltage levels at pin 11 of


gate N1 and input pin 5 of gate N3 are
low. So the voltages at output pin 4 of
gate N3 and input pin 9 of gate N4 become logic high to turn the output pin
10 of gate 4 to logic low level. Thus
relay RL1 is de-energised, to switch the
pump off.
When line voltage is within the
specified limits and ground water level
goes below the defined level 1', the voltage at output pin 11 of gate N6 becomes
logic high to make diode D12 conduct.
As a result, the voltage at pin 8 of gate
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

Semiconductors:
IC1
- CD4030 quad 2-input XOR
gate
IC2
- 74LS47 BCD to 7-segment
decoder/driver
IC3-IC5
- CD4001 quad 2-input NOR
gate
IC6
- LM7812 regulator 12-volt
IC7
- LM7805 regulator 5-volt
T1-T2
- SL100 npn transistor
D1-D15,
D17-D20
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
D16
- Red LED
DIS1
- LTS542R 7-segment common anode display
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1-R8
- 33-kilo-ohm
R9-R18
- 56-kilo-ohm
R19-R21
- 1.5-kilo-ohm
R22, R24
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R23
- 1.2-kilo-ohm
R25
- 1-kilo-ohm
R26, R27
- 220-kilo-ohm
R28-R34
- 330-ohm
VR1, VR2
- 100-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1-C4, C7 - 0.01F ceramic disc
C5
- 470F, 35V DC electrolytic
C6
- 2200F, 35V DC electrolytic
C8,C9
- 10F, 25V DC electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
RL1
- 12V, 200-ohm 2 C/O relay
X1
- 230V AC primary to
(a) 0-15V, 750 mA, and
(b) 0-12V, 100 mA secondary
transformer
S1
- Push-to-on button
S2
- On/Off switch
- IC sockets
- Heat sinks for regulator ICs
- SS304, 5mm dia. stainless
steel rod for anode and 3mm
dia. for all cathodes - of appropriate length
- Multi-core feed wire

N4 becomes logic high to make its output pin 10 go low. Transistor T1 is cut
off and the relay is kept disabled, even
though the overhead tank is fully empty.
The relay will be enabled only when the
water level in the sump tank is above
level 2'.
When the ground tank water level
is above level 2' but the line voltage is
out of range, gate N12 output pin 3 goes
low to cut off transistor T2, making diode D11 conduct. In this state the output of gate N6 and the output of gate
N2 become logic low. Although diode
D12 does not conduct, diode D11 conducts and the output of gate N4 goes
low to cut off transistor T1. This disables relay RL1 and the pump remains

CONSTRUCTION

off, even though the overhead tank is


completely empty.
Here two cathode sensors for sensing ground tank water level have been
used instead of one, to provide some
hysteresis in the system. When ground
water level is below level 1', the output
of gate N6 becomes logic high (5V).
When water level is above level 2', the
output of gate N6 is logic low (0V). If
the water level is in between levels 1'
and 2', there is no change of state at
output of gate N6, i.e. output remains
at the last/previous state.
Power supply (Fig. 2). The power
supply circuit consists of step-down
transformer X1 (having two secondaries with ratings of 12V, 100 mA and
15V, 750 mA), a bridge rectifier (using
four 1N4001 diodes), a capacitor of 2200
F for filtering purpose, regulator IC
7812 for feeding the anode probes as
well as relay RL1, and regulator IC 7805
for feeding regulated +5V supply to all

A UNIQUE LIQUID
LEVEL INDICATOR

digital ICs, LEDs, and 7-segment display. The 12V secondary is used for sampling the mains. One of its terminals is
grounded while its other terminal,
marked G, is connected to point G of
high/low cutout circuit in Fig. 1. The
other secondary rated at 15V, 750 mA
is used for deriving the regulated DC
supplies required for operation of the
circuit.
Construction of sensors (Fig. 3).
The highlight of the circuit are its electrodes (Fig. 3) used for mineral/conductive water, which are made of stainless
steel (grade SS-304) rods. These electrodes have a life span of more than five
years. Anode is a rod of 5 mm diameter
and each of the cathodes is of 3 mm
diameter, as shown in the figure.
The cathodes and the anode should
be long enough so that their soldered
terminals are not in contact with water,
even when the tank is full. The joints
should be covered with insulation in such

PARTS LIST2
NA
ANJA
RUP

SADHAN CHANDRA DAS

separate alternative circuit of a


unique liquid level indicator
to provide a display in terms of
the percentage of full-scale level in OHT
is shown in Fig. 7. It can either be used
to replace the digital display circuit included in Fig. 1 (by simply connecting
the 10% and 100% sensor probes of Fig.
7, additionally, to points marked A and
B respectively in Fig. 1, apart from connection of +5V and +12V supplies and
ground points) or it can be used in conjunction with an audio alarm unit shown
in Fig. 8 and the power supply circuit
in Fig. 2 independantly.
The latter configuration can be used
when you do not desire to have automatic control for switching the pump
motor on and off but need only to be

a way that rain water does not come in


contact with the soldered joints. One
has to use orthophosphoric acid or zincchloride to make a soldered joint between stainless steel and conducting part
of the flexible feed wire.
The distance between the anode and
the cathodes should not be more than 60
cm. Arrangement should be made in such
a way that no electrode touches the
other.
The circuit can also be used for nonconductive liquids such as pure distilled
water by using floats in conjunction with
micro switches, as shown in Fig. 4. This
arrangement can be used for distilled
water plants, research laboratories, and
for other nonconductive liquid level sensing applications.
An actual-size, single-sided PCB for
the circuits in Figs 1 and 2 is shown in
Fig. 5, and the component layout is
shown in Fig. 6.

warned when water reaches 100% and


also when its level drops to 10% so that
you may manually switch the pump motor on or off, as the case may be.
This level indicator can show the discrete levels in percentage from 0 to
100% with 10% resolution. An audio
alarm circuit has been incorporated to
generate audio alarm when the tank
level reaches 100% and also when the
level drops to 10%. The input to the
audio alarm circuit (Fig. 8) is tapped
from line-1 and line-10 representing
10% and 100% levels respectively in
Fig. 7.
If, in place of displaying the liquid
level in percentage, one wants to display only the digits 0 through 10, then
7-segment display DIS1 and LEDs
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

Semiconductors:
IC1-IC3
- CD 4030 quad 2-input X-OR
gate
IC4
- 74LS47 BCD to 7-segment
decoder/driver
IC5
- UM66 melody generator
DIS1-DIS3 - LTS 542 common anode
7-segment display
T1, T3, T4 - SL100 npn transistor
T2
- BC 108 npn transistor
D1-D16,
D21, D22
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
ZD1
- 3.1 volt zener diode
LED1-LED4 - Red LED
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1
- 3.3-kilo-ohm
R2-R5
- 1.5-kilo-ohm
R6-R24
- 330-ohm
R25-R34
- 56-kilo-ohm
R35-R44
- 33-kilo-ohm
R45
- 100-kilo-ohm
R46
- 2.7-kilo-ohm
R47, R48
- 680-ohm
Capacitor:
C1
- 100F, 25V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
LS
- 8-ohms speaker 7.5 cm dia
- SS 304, 5 mm dia and 3mm
dia stainless steel rods of appropriate length for anode
and cathodes respectively.
- Multi-core feed wire

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 7: Unique liquid level indicator

Fig. 8: Audio alarm unit

(LED1 through LED4) for % symbol can


be removed. This circuit can be used
for premises which have overhead tanks
and the water supply is provided by municipalities or corporations etc.
Display circuit. The basic elements
of the circuit, as shown in Fig. 7, comprise three quad 2-input XOR gates (IC1
through IC3) to get only the sum outputs, a hardwired decimal-to-BCD converter (using diodes D1 through D16),
and a 74LS47 BCD-to-7-segment de-

coder/driver
(IC4). When
the tip of
sensor-1 is in
touch with
the water,
the line (L-1)
connected to
pin 3 of IC1
(CD 4030)
goes to logic
1
state
(+5V).
W h e n
the tips of sensors 1 and 2 both touch
the water, pin 3 of IC1 goes to logic 0
(0V), while line L-2 connected to pin 4
of IC1 becomes high (+5V). Thus which
one of the lines (L-1 through L-10) will
be at logic 1 would depend on which
last sensor (counted from bottom of the
tank) is in touch with the water. If the
tank is totally empty, all the lines, L-1
through L-10, would be at logic 0.
These lines (L-1 through L-10) represent the decimal numbers 1 through
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

10. If line L-1 is at logic 1, BCD code


0001 is generated due to conduction of
diode D9 only. Similarly, if line L-3 is
at logic 1, BCD code 0011 is generated
due to conduction of diodes D6 and
D16.
The voltages, corresponding to their
BCD codes, are fed to the inputs of IC
74LS47 (7-segment decoder/driver) to
drive 7-segment display DIS2. When line
L-10 is high, display DIS3 is driven by
transistor T1 (SL100) for decimal number 1.
Since all the time the unit place digit
of the percentage display is 0, the cathodes of corresponding segments of DIS1
have been permanently connected to
0V (ground) through current-limiting
resistors of 330 ohms each. In this way
the circuit displays 0 to 100 per cent
of liquid level with 10 per cent resolution.
One may or may not use diode D1.
In this circuit the resistors of 56-kiloohm are connected across the inputs of
XOR gates and ground, while resistors

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 9: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for the unique liquid level indicator

Fig. 10: Component layout for the above PCB

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  FEBRUARY 2001

from R2 to R5 have been


used for passive pulldown action.
Audio alarm unit.
Fig. 8 shows the circuit
for audio alarm. The
base of transistor T2
(BC108) is connected to
the terminals of lines L10 and L-1 via diodes
D21 and D22 respectively and a common resistor of 100-kilo-ohm.
When water touches
the topmost sensor
probe, transistor T2 conducts and transistor T3
is cut off. As a result
3.1V developed across
zener ZD1 becomes
available across pins 1
and 2 of melody generator IC7 (UM66). The
amplified musical alarm
is heard from the
speaker.
When the tank is neither 100% full nor it is
above 10% (but less than
20%), transistor T2 cuts
off while transistor T3
is saturated to make
the voltage across pins 1
and 2 of IC7 at almost
0V, and hence no sound
is produced by the unit.
A separate parts list
and actual-size PCB layout as well as component
layout (Figs 9 and 10 respectively) are included
after integrating the
power supply of Fig. 2
with liquid level indicator circuit of Fig. 7 and
audio alarm unit of
Fig. 8.

March

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

AUTOMATIC HEAT DETECTOR


SUKANT KUMAR BEHARA

his circuit uses a complementary


pair comprising npn metallic
transistor T1 (BC109) and pnp
germanium transistor T2 (AC188) to detect heat (due to outbreak of fire, etc)
in the vicinity and energise a siren. The
collector of transistor T1 is connected
to the base of transistor T2, while the
collector of transistor T2 is connected
to relay RL1.
The second part of the circuit comprises popular IC UM3561 (a siren and
machine-gun sound generator IC), which
can produce the sound of a fire-brigade
siren. Pin numbers 5 and 6 of the IC
are connected to the +3V supply when
the relay is in energised state, whereas
pin 2 is grounded. A resistor (R2) connected across pins 7 and 8 is used to fix
the frequency of the inbuilt oscillator.
The output is available from pin 3.
Two transistors BC147 (T3) and
BEL187 (T4) are connected in
Darlington configuration to amplify the

lay is in energised state. LED1, connected in series with 68-ohm resistor


EDI
R1 across resistor R4, glows when the
V
I
W
D
S.C.
siren is on.
To test the working of the circuit, bring a burning matchstick
Pin Designation
Sound Effect
close to transistor T1 (BC109),
SEL1
SEL2
which causes the resistance of its
No Connection No Connection Police Siren
emitter-collector junction to go low
+3V
No Connection Fire Engine Siren
Ground
No Connection Ambulance Siren
due to a rise in temperature and it
Do not care
+3V
Machine Gun
starts conducting. Simultaneously,
transistor T2
also conducts because its base is
connected to the
collector of transistor T1. As a
result, relay RL1
energises and
switches on the
siren circuit to
produce
loud
sound of a firebrigade siren.
Lab note.
We have added a
sound from UM3561. Resistor R4 in se- table to enable readers to obtain all posries with a 3V zener is used to provide sible sound effects by returning pins 1
the 3V supply to UM3561 when the re- and 2 as suggested in the table.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CIRCUIT

MUSICAL TOUCH BELL


SUKANT KUMAR BEHARA

ere is a musical call bell that


can be operated by just bridging the gap between the touchplates with ones fingertips. Thus there
is no need for a mechanical on/off
switch because the touch-plates act as
a switch. Other features include low cost
and low power consumption. The bell
can work on 1.5V or 3V, using one or
two pencil cells, and can be used in
homes and offices.
Two transistors are used for sensing the finger touch and switching
on a melody IC. Transistor BC148 is
npn type while transistor BC558 is pnp
type.
The emitter of transistor BC148 is
shorted to the ground, while that of
transistor BC558 is connected to the
positive terminal. The collector of transistor BC148 is connected to the base of
BC558. The base of BC148 is connected
to the washer (as shown in the figure).

IDEAS

The collector of BC558 is connected to


pin 2 of musical IC UM66, and pin 3 of
IC UM66 is shorted to the ground. The
output from pin 1 is connected to a transistor amplifier comprising BEL187
transistor for feeding the loudspeaker.
One end of 2.2-mega-ohm resistor R1
is connected to the positive rail and the

ing. Simultaneously, the emitter-baser


junction of transistor BC558 also starts
conducting. As a result, the collector of
transistor BC558 is pulled towards the
positive rail, which thus activates melody
generator IC1 (UM66). The output of
IC1 is amplified by transistor BEL187
and fed to the speaker. So we hear a
musical note just by touching the touch
points.
The washers inner diameter should
be 1 to 2 mm greater than that of the
screwhead. The washer could be fixed in

other to a screw (as shown in the figure). The complete circuit is connected
to a single pencil cell of 1.5V.
When the touch-plate gap is bridged
with a finger, the emitter-collector junction of transistor BC148 starts conduct-

the position by using an adhesive, while


the screw can be easily driven in a
wooden piece used for mounting the
touch-plate. The use of brass washer and
screw is recommended for easy solderability.

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

NON-CONTACT LIQUID-LEVEL
CONTROLLER

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

R.G. THIAGARAJ KUMAR


FY readers are quite familiar
with liquid-level controllers. But
the one presented here is different. Usually, transducers using elec-

permissible.
In resistance type sensors, the resistance is altered through some mechanical arrangement, which means a

tric conduction, or variation in resistance or capacitance principle, are employed for level sensing.
In conduction type of sensors, the
electric current passes through the liquid. The corrosion of contacts is a major problem while using DC excitation.
The cost and the size are the two restrictive factors in using AC excitation.
Further, passing current through the
liquid in combustive environments is not

large operating
force is required, which
may be a problem in small
tanks. In capacitive transducer type, the
construction
cost is high.
In
the
present project,
an easy but effective liquidlevel controller
is presented using the magnetic principle. It is non-contact type
and hence can be used in almost all applications, irrespective of whether the
liquid is conductive or not. Two reed
switches (with glass enclosure) and a
ring magnet (normally used in loudspeakers) form the sensor unit. The reed
switches used are normally-open type
and they close when placed (and oriented properly) in a magnetic field.
The electronic circuit is a simple biELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

stable multivibrator wired around the


common 555 timer IC. It can be set or
reset by the closure of reed switches.
The output of the multivibrator drives
the relay, which controls the AC mains
supply to the pump motor or any other
controller (such as a solenoid-operated
valve).
The reed switches are connected as
shown in the figure. These are put in a
closed (non-conductive) tube, which is
then placed in the tank. The ferrite ring
magnet is put inside the float, and it
moves up and down along the
tube depending upon the
level of the liquid in the tank.
When the level of the liquid in the tank is low, the
magnet comes closer to reed
switch S2. As a result, switch
S2 is closed and the bistable
multivibrator sets. This actuates the relay, thereby
starting the pump to fill the
tank. The level of the liquid
in the tank starts increasing.
When the level of the liquid in the tank is high
enough, the ring magnet
comes close to reed switch
S1, and it closes. The bistable
multivibrator now resets and the pump
is switched off. This process is repeated
and the tank gets filled automatically.
Switches S1 and S2 are used for
testing the circuit or when the reed
switches are non-functional. A neon bulb
is used to indicate the presence of the
AC supply in the plug. An optional
piezobuzzer is used to raise an audible

CIRCUIT

alarm when the relay energises.


If you desire to display the level of
the liquid in the tank, additional reed
switches would need to be placed inside
the tube at different levels (say, 1/4th, 1/
2, 3/4th, and near-overflow level). They

IDEAS

can be connected between the LEDs and


the supply via current-limiting resistors
for level indication. The LEDs can be
arranged in a model tank diagram
printed on the front panel of the controller. The LED corresponding to the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

level of the liquid in the tank would glow


in this arrangement.
The selection of float material is to be
done carefully to avoid chemical reaction and/or pollution of the liquid. Teflon
floats are suitable for most applications.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

mains phase-sequence indicator


serves as a hand-tool in check
ing electrical wiring, especially the
wiring of three-phase AC motors.
The basic idea of the circuit is that

specified fashion, as shown in the figure.


The second part comprises the phase-sequence detector followed by phase-sequence sensor operated flip-flop and LED
switching transistors.

the second part of the circuit.


The three phases (R, Y, and B) are
brought to an artificial neutral at the junctions of resistors R17 through R19 (each
22 kilo-ohm, 2-watt) to serve as the common reference. As stated earlier, for a
given phase sequence, when phase R is
at its negative-going zero, phase B is negative. So data-input pin 5 of the flip-flop
(IC2) is logic high (due to non-conduction of transistor T5). Meanwhile, clockinput pin 3 of the flip-flop goes from low
to high due to phase R (refer waveforms
for condition 1, as observed by EFY Lab).
The high at data pin appears at the Q

when any (say, Y) of the three phases


(RYB), taken as a reference phase, is at
negative-going zero voltage, its leading
phase (say, R) is positive while its lagging phase (B) is negative, and these
states can be easily verified.
The circuit comprises two main parts.
The first part comprises transistorised
multivibrator, decade counter-cum-LED
driver, and LED arrays arranged in a

The astable
multivibrator
section provides
clock pulses in
the
10
to
1000Hz range to
the
decade
counter and the
LED array section. The LEDs
are grouped into
two parts to
form two distinctive indicators. These
two groups are successively
driven by Q0 to Q4 and Q5 to Q9 outputs
of IC1. Only one of the two groups LEDs
will turn on sequentially, depending on
which of the two transistors (transistor
T3 or transistor T4) is on, which, in turn,
is dependent upon the phase sequence of
the three-phase supply. This becomes
clear from the following explanation of

output (pin 1) while Q output remains


low as long as the phase sequence is
clockwise. Therefore the Q output drives
transistor T3 to extend the ground path
for green LEDs D1 through D10 to show
a clockwise-rotating LED ring.
When any of the two phases gets interchanged (say, after a maintenance

AC MAINS PHASE-SEQUENCE
INDICATOR

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

M.K. CHANDRA MOULEESWARAN

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CIRCUIT

work at the power-house or repair/replacement of a 3-phase transformer), the conditions are reversed (refer waveform for

IDEAS

condition 2, as observed by
EFY Lab), and Q become
high and red LEDs D11
through D20 are switched
on (sequentially) by transistor T4 to show an
anticlockwise-rotating ring.
While testing for the
phase sequence, there is no
need to keep the device on
for a long time. A push-toon read switch can be used
during the phase-sequence
testing. If the device is to
be used for long periods, use a high-capacity battery in place of PP3 battery. Also
replace 2W resistors R17 to R19 with 5W

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

fusible-type resistors.
The frequency of the astable
multivibrator is unimportant, except that
the speed of the LED ring must be easily
visible. Zener diodes ZD1 and ZD2 are
used for protection of transistors T5 and
T6, respectively.
Precautions. 1. Never use an AC
mains adaptor-type power supply in place
of the battery.
2. Correctly position LEDs D1
through D20 in the ring for its proper
viewing.
3. Assemble resistors R11 to R19 on
the PCB at a slightly elevated level using
ceramic beads for proper dissipation of
heat.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

HIGH-POWER BICYCLE HORN


T.K. HAREENDRAN

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

n interesting circuit of a bicycle


horn based on a popular, lowcost telecom ringer chip is described here. This circuit can be powered using the bicycle dynamo supply
and does not require batteries, which
need to be replaced frequently.
The section comprising diodes (D1
and D2) and capacitors (C1 and C2)
forms a half-wave voltage-doubler circuit. The output of the voltage doubler
is fed to capacitor C3 via resistor R1.
The maximum DC supply that can be
applied to the input terminals of IC1 is
28V. Therefore zener diode ZD1 is added
to the circuit for protection and voltage
regulation.
The remainder of the circuit is the
tone generator based on IC1 (KA2411).
The dual-tone output signal from pin 8
of IC1 is fed to the primary of transformer X1 (same as used in transistor radios) via capacitor C6. The secondary of
X1 is connected to a loudspeaker directly.
In case you are interested in con-

necting a piezoceramic element in place


of the loudspeaker, remove capacitor C6,
transformer X1, and the loudspeaker.
Connect one end of the piezoceramic

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

disk to pin 5 of IC1 and the other end


to pin 8 of IC1 through a 1/4W, 1-kiloohm resistor.
IC1 KA2411 is also available in COB
style, with the same pin configuration.

Both packages work equally well. However, to get the best results with the
COB package, change values of resistors R2 through R4 to 330-kilo-ohm, capacitor C4 to 0.47F, 63V electrolytic
(positive end to pin 3 of IC1), and C5 to
0.005F, 63V.
This bicycle horn project can also be
used as a telephone extra ringer by just
removing all components on the left side
of capacitor C3 and connecting the circuit shown in Fig. 2 to the terminals of
capacitor C3.

CIRCUIT

LUXURIOUS TOILET/
BATHROOM FACILITY

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

A.R. GIDWANI

ged persons in the house and


guests often fumble while
searching for the toilet and
bathroom switches at night. Also, very
few of us take care to switch off the
lights of toilets/bathrooms after using
them. The circuit given here helps to
overcome both the problems.
The figure shows two symmetrical
circuits (one each for toilet and bathroom) sharing common power supply
and a melody generator-cum-audio
warning unit. The reed switches S1 and
S2 are of normally-open type, operated
by permanent magnets appropriately
fixed to the doors of bathroom and toilet, respectively. When the doors of
bathroom and toilet are closed, the reed
switches are also closed, and vice versa.
(Door is assumed in closed condition
with nobody inside bathroom/toilet, i.e.
reed switch is activated.)
The operational features of the circuit are:

Lamp and exhaust fan are


switched on when the door is opened.
Soft music is played continuously
until the door is closed from inside/outside.
With a person inside the room,
lamp and fan remain on, until the door
is reopened. They go off when the door
is reopened.
Visual indication of whether the
toilet/bathroom is occupied/vacant is
given by two bicolour LEDs fixed on a
panel, which may be fitted near the door
with corresponding toilet/bathroom labels on them. Here the LED colour turns
from green to red if the room gets
occupied, and vice-versa.
If the door is opened once, and
not closed back within 10 seconds, the
lamp and fan are automatically switched
off, thus conserving electricity. But the
music remains on as a reminder that
the door is not closed.
For cleaning of bathroom/toilet

with doors kept open, a parallel on/off


switch is included on the switchboard
to bypass the relay contacts and manually control the switching on/off of the
light and exhaust fan. (This is the service mode.) In this case, the music remains on as long as the door remains
open. In case of failure of the unit, the
same on/off switch can be used as usual
until the circuit is repaired.
Due to battery backup facility,
even with power failure, when a person
is inside, the door status is maintained.
However, the lamp and fan will be on
only on mains resumption.
Also, when a person leaves the
room during power failure, with door
closed, the lamp and fan are kept off on
resumption of power. (Intelligent-mode!)
However, the circuit can be fooled
by opening and closing the door within
10 seconds, without entering inside. In
this case, the lamp and fan will continue to be on and would require reopening and closing of the door to bring
the circuit to order.
This problem can be prevented to
some extent by using a hydraulic door
opener, which would approximately take
10 seconds to close the opened door. A
delay period of 10 seconds is deliberately chosen for letting the person inside the toilet/bathroom in normal case!
IC1 is a dual positive edge-triggered
D type flip-flop. IC1(a) gets triggered

Fig. 1
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CIRCUIT

Fig. 2

when bathroom door (and switch S1) is


opened and hence IC1(b) toggles, as Q
output of IC1(a) is connected to clock
input pin of IC1(b). As a result, relay
RL1 energises through transistor T3,
thereby switching on the lamp and exhaust fan. (Please refer to Fig. 2, the
separate wiring diagram of lamp and
exhaust fan via the N/O contacts of the
relay.) Simultaneously, pin 2 (Q) of
IC1(a) goes low, switching transistor T5
on, which switches on melody generator IC4, letting out a sweet audio tune
via transistor T6 and loudspeaker.
In normal condition, when someone
opens the bathroom door and gets inside
within preset time of IC3(a) (10 seconds
here), and closes the door from inside,
the music stops with lamp and fan on.
Now, in case someone opens the door
before or after use, and forgets to shut
it, the lamp and exhaust fan are switched
off after 10 seconds but the music remains on as a reminder that the door is
to be closed. This happens due to mono
multivibrator (MMV) IC3(a), which resets pin 10 of IC1(b) through transistor
T1 after 10 seconds. (This period can be
adjusted by varying the values of resistor R11 and/or capacitor C7.)
It should be noted here that al-

IDEAS

though IC3 is used as MMV, it is triggered here with a positive pulse through
its pin 4 (reset pin) rather than its pin
6 (trigger pin). This arrangement makes
it unique for setting and resetting IC3
through pin 4, and resetting IC1(a)
through pin 5 of IC3 and transistor T1.
Battery backup facility ensures
memory backup during power failure.
Power supply uses a normal 2-diode fullwave rectifier circuit, which needs no
further explanation. The purpose of using bi-colour LED1 and LED2 is that,
initially when the door is closed these
emit green light as the green LED part
gets the supply via resistor R15 to indicate that bathroom/toilet is vacant.
When bathroom/toilet is occupied, transistor T3/T4 conduct to light up the red
LED part as well.
Melody generator IC4 (UM66) is
switched on through diodes D3/D4 and
transistor T5, which conducts when
IC1(a) pin 2 or IC2(a) pin 2 goes low.
When transistor T5 conducts, zener ZD1
breaks down and supplies regulated
3.9V to IC4, to produce a melodious tune
via transistor T6 and the speaker.
As most toilets and bathrooms are
attached nowadays, only a single circuit is required, and the circuit can be
wired on a general-purpose veroboard.
A small modification of the circuit,
by adding additional SPST switch S3,
as shown in Fig. 2, needs to be done
inside the wooden switchboard box. This
permits the user to operate the lamp
and fan during cleaning of the toilet or
for bypassing the circuit, when bathroom or toilet undergo repair work.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

INTERFACE YOUR PRINTER WITH


8085 MICROPROCESSOR
NA
ANJA
RUP

SHAILA GHANTI

t is very convenient to interface a


printer to print 8085 programs.
Here a simple hardware interface
circuit with its driver software is described that would enable students to
take printout of the 8085 programs in
hexadecimal codes along with their
memory locations in the format:
XXXX DD,
where XXXX is the 4-bit hexadecimal
address and DD is 2-bit hexadecimal
data.
For most types of printers, the data
to be printed is sent to the printer as
ASCII characters on eight parallel lines.
The printer receives the characters to

Fig. 2: Systems block diagram

Fig. 1: Timing diagram


TABLE I
Pin Assignments of Centronics
Interface Connector
Pin no.
Signal
Direction
2
Data bit 0 (D0)
In
3
Data bit 1 (D1)
In
4
Data bit 2 (D2)
In
5
Data bit 3 (D3)
In
6
Data bit 4 (D4)
In
7
Data bit 5 (D5)
In
8
Data bit 6 (D6)
In
9
Data bit 7 (D0)
In
1
14
36
31

Strobe (STR)
Auto Feed (AF)
Device Select (DSL)
Initialise (INIT)

In
In
In
In

11
13
32
12
19 to
30, 33

Busy (BSY)
Select (SEL)
Error (ERR)
Paper end (PE)

Out
Out
Out
Out

Ground

be printed and stores them in an internal buffer. When the printer detects a
carriage return (0dH), it prints out the
first row of characters from the printer
buffer. When the printer detects a second carriage return, it prints out the
second row of characters. The process
continues until the desired characters
are printed.
Transfer of ASCII
codes from the microprocessor to a printer
needs to be done on
a handshake basis because the microprocessor can send characters much faster
than the printer can
print them.
The printer
must in some
way let the microprocessor
know that its
buffer is full,
and it cannot
accept
any
more characters until it
prints
out
some of the already stored
characters. A
common standard for interfacing with
parallel printers is the
Centronics interface.

Centronics
interface

Fig. 3: Schematic diagram of the printer interface circuit


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

Centronics
printers usually have a 36pin interface
connector. The
pin
assignments of the
significant
pins
of
Centronics interface connector, used in
this project,

CONSTRUCTION

8085 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE LISTING


Memory
location

Instructions

Code Comments

Memory
location

7112

XCHG

1B

7157
7158
7159
715A
715B
715C
715D
715E
715F
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169
716A
716B
716C
716D
716E
716F
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176
7177
7178
7179
717A
717B
717C
717D
717E
717F
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
718A
718B
718C
718D
718E
718F
7190
7191

7113
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119
711A
711B
711C
711D
711E
711F
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
712A
712B
712C
712D
712E
712F
7130
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137
7138
7139
713A
713B
713C
713D
713E
713F
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149
714A
714B
714C
714D
714E
714F
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154
7155
7156

LXI D 2A20

MOV A,H
CALL 70FC
MOV A,H
CALL7100

MOV A,L
CALL 70FC
MOV A,L
CALL 7100
MOV A,M
CALL 70FC
MOV A,M
CALL 7100
INX H
MOV A,M
CPI CF
JNZ 7116
MVI A,43
STAX D
INX D
MVI A, 46
STAX D
DCX D
LXI H 2A20
MVI A, 82
OUT 0B
MVI A, 0B
OUT 0B
CALL 7200
MVI A,05
OUT 0B
IN 09
ANI 02
CPI 02
JNZ 714F

11
20
2A
7C
CD
FC
71
7C
CD
00
71
7D
CD
FC
70
7D
CD
00
71
7E
CD
FC
70
7E
CD
00
71
23
7E
FE
CF
C2
16
71
3E
43
12
13
3E
46
12
1B
21
20
2A
3E
82
D3
0B
3E
0B
D3
0B
CD
00
72
3E
05
D3
0B
DB
09
E6
02
FE
02
C2
4F

Exchange DE with HL pair so that


HL is initialised to starting memory
location of the program to be printed.
Initialise memory locations to store
ASCII codes of the program.
To get the ASCII codes of addresses
of memory location of the program to
be printed using the subroutine.

To get the ASCII codes of the


contents of the program to be
printed using the subroutine.

Increment pointer to mem. location.


Move contents of mem. into acc.
Whether it is end of the program.
If not, start executing from 7116.
If it is end of the program,
transfer the code for CF.

Initialise mem. pointer to block


(2A20) where ASCII codes of characters to be printed are stored.
Initialise 8255.
Write control word in control register
of 8255.
Reset printer.

Delay for a few microseconds.

Instructions

MVI B,04
CALL 7220

INX H
DCR B
JNZ 715A
MVI A, 20
OUT 08
MVI A,09
OUT 0B
MVI A,08
OUT 0B
MVI C,02
CALL 7220
INX H
DCR C
JNZ 7170
MVI A, 0A
OUT 08
MVI A,0D
OUT 08
MVI A,09
OUT 0B
MVI A,08
OUT 0B
MOV A,E
XRA L
JNZ 7158

MOV A,D
XRA H
JNZ 7158

RST 1

Code
71
06
04
CD
20
72
23
05
C2
5A
71
3E
20
D3
08
3E
09
D3
0B
3E
08
D3
0B
0E
02
CD
20
72
23
0D
C2
70
71
3E
0A
D3
08
3E
0D
D3
08
3E
09
D3
0B
3E
08
D3
7B
Ad
C2
58
71
7A
AC
C2
58
71
CF

Comments

Else counter of 4 is initialised in B


register to print 4 digits of memory
address (use subroutine to transfer
data to printer in polling mode).
Get next memory location
Check whether 4 characters are
transferred.
Send the (20) blank space to printer

To generate STROBE pulse to printer

Counter of 2 is initialised in C register


to print 2 codes.
Use subroutine to transfer data.
in polling mode.
Get next memory location
Check whether 4 characters are
transferred.
Send LF code to printer.

Send CR code to printer.

Check wheter the full program


codes are transferred to printer
If not, continue to transfer next
codes.

Else, stop executing the program.

Send SELECT signal.

Read the status of printer to find


out whether the printer is selected.

If printer is not selected, again read


the status of printer

Subroutine for converting hexadecimal to ASCII codes


70FC
RRC
0F
Rotate right 4 times to get 4 MSB.
70FD
RRC
0F
70FE
RRC
0F
70FF
RRC
0F
7100
ANI 0F
E6
Mask 4 LSBs
7101
0F
7102
CPI 0A
FE
Compare with 0A
7103
0A
7104
JC 7109
DA
If it is less than 0A,
7105
C6

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Memory
location
7106
7107
7108
7109
710A
710B
710C
710D

Instructions

ADI 07
ADI 30
STAX D
INX D
RET

Code Comments

Memory
location

Instructions

Code Comments

70
C6
07
C6
30
12
13
C9

722E
722F
7230
7231
7232
7233
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
723A
723B
723C

OUT 08

D3
08
3E
08
D3
0B
3E
09
D3
0B
3E
08
D3
0B
C9

location, send the data to printer to


print.
Send the strobe pulse with min
0.5s duration.

0E
FF
0D
C2
02
72
C9

Load C register with data FF.

Add 07 to data
Else add 30H to data to convert data
into ASCII code.

Subroutine to transfer data in polling mode:


7220
MVI A 09
3E
To generate the STROBE signal
7221
09
7222
OUT 0B
D3
7223
0B
7224
IN 09
DB
Find whether the printer is not BUSY
7225
09
7226
ANI 01
E6
7227
01
7228
CPI 00
FE
7229
00
722A
JNZ 7224
C2
722B
24
722C
72
722D
MOV A,M
7E
Get the ASCII code from memory

MVI A,08
OUT 0B
MVI A,09
OUT 0B
MVI A,08
OUT 0B
RET

Subroutine for delay:


7200
MVI C, FF
7201
7202
DCR C
7203
JNZ 7202
7204
7205
7206
RET

Decrement the contents of C reg.


If the contents of C is not zero, go to
7202.

MODIFIED PROGRAM USED BY EFY


Addr.
9000
9003
9006

Hex code
310095
11209D
EB

9007 11209A
900A 7C
900B
900E
900F
9012
9013
9016
9017
901A
901B
901E
901F
9022
9023
9024
9026
9029
902B
902C
902D
902F
9030
9031

CDFC90
7C
CD0091
7D
CDFC90
7D
CD0091
7E
CDFC90
7E
CD0091
23
7E
FECF
C20A90
3E43
12
13
3E46
12
1B
21209A

9034
9036
9038
903A
903C
903E
9040
9043
9045
9047

3E82
D30B
3E30
D30A
3E10
D30A
CD0092
3E30
D30A
3E02

Label

X1:

Mnemonics
Remarks
LXI SP,9500H ;Initialise stack pointer
LXI D,9D20H ;Store location where
XCHG
;data to be printed starts
;into register pair DE
LXI D,9A20H ;Location where ASCII
MOV A,H
;conversion of data is
;stored
CALL 90FCH ;Convert addresses of
MOV A,H
;mem. locations of data
CALL 9100H
;to be printed into ASCII
MOV A,L
CALL 90FCH
MOV A,L
CALL 9100H
MOV A,M
;Convert data to be
CALL 90FCH ;printed into ASCII
MOV A,M
CALL 9100H
INX H
MOV A,M
CPI CFH
;End of data?
JNZ X1
MVI A,43H
;ASCII code of C
STAX D
INX D
MVI A,46H
;ASCII code of F
STAX D
DCX D
LXI H,9A20H ;Initialise mem. pointer
;to start of ASCII codes
MVI A,82H
;Initialise 8255
OUT 0BH
MVI A,30H
;Initialise Printer
OUT 0AH
MVI A,10H
OUT 0AH
CALL 9200H
;Call delay
MVI A,30H
OUT 0AH
MVI A,02H
;ASCII code for start of
;text

Addr.
9049
904B
904E
9051
9053
9056
9057
9058
905B

Hex code
D308
CD5092
CD7092
0604
CD2492
23
05
C25390
3E20

Label

905D
905F
9062
9065
9067
906A
906B
906C
906F
9072
9073

D308
CD5092
CD7092
0602
CD2492
23
05
C26790
CD9092
7B
AD

9074
9077
9078
9079
907C

C25190
7A
AC
C25190
3E03

JNZ X4
MOV A,D
XRA H
JNZ X4
MVI A,03H

907E
9080
9083
9086
9088
908A
908D
9090

D308
CD5092
CD7092
3E04
D308
CD5092
CD7092
76

OUT 08H
CALL 9250H
CALL 9270H
MVI A,04H
OUT 08H
CALL 9250H
CALL 9270H
HLT

X4:
X2:

X3:

Mnemonics
OUT 08H
CALL 9250H
CALL 9270H
MVI B,04H
CALL 9224H
INX H
DCR B
JNZ X2
MVI A,20H
OUT 08H
CALL 9250H
CALL 9270H
MVI B,02H
CALL 9224H
INX H
DCR B
JNZ X3
CALL 9290H
MOV A,E
XRA L

Remarks
;Call status
;Call strobe
;Counter of 4 for printing
;four digits of addresses
;of memory location
;Send blank space to
;printer
;Call status
;Call strobe
;Counter of 2 for printing
;two digits of data

;Call LFCR
;Check whether all data
;has been transfered for
;printing

;ASCII code for end of


;text
;Call status
;Call strobe
;ASCII code for end of
;transmission
;Call status
;Call strobe

;Subroutine for converting hex to ASCII


90FC 0F
RRC
;Rotate four times to get
;MSB
90FD 0F
RRC

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Addr. Hex code


90FE
90FF
9100
9102
9104
9107
9109
910B
910C
910D

0F
0F
E60F
FE0A
DA0991
C607
C630
12
13
C9

Label

X5:

Mnemonics
RRC
RRC
ANI 0FH
CPI 0AH
JC X5
ADI 07H
ADI 30H
STAX D
INX D
RET

;Output Subroutine
9224 7E
9225 D308
9227 CD5092
922A CD7092
922D C9

MOV A,M
OUT 08H
CALL 9250H
CALL 9270H
RET

;Delay Subroutine
9200 C5
9201 06FF
9203 0EFF
X7:
9205 0D
X6:
9206 C20592
9209 05
920A C20392
920D C1
920E C9

PUSH B
MVI B,FFH
MVI C,FFH
DCR C
JNZ X6
DCR B
JNZ X7
POP B
RET

;Status Subroutine
9250 C5
9251 06FF
X9:
9253 0EFF
X8:
9255 DB09
9257 E60F
9259 FE06

PUSH B
MVI B,FFH
MVI C,FFH
IN 09H
ANI 0FH
CPI 06H

Remarks

Addr. Hex code


925B
925E
925F
9262
9263
9266
9267

;Mask four bits of LSB

;Output one byte of data


;Call status
;Call strobe

Label

X11:

;Strobe subroutine
9270 3E20
9272 D30A
9274 C5
9275 0EFF
9277 0D
X10:
9278 C27792
927B C1
927C 3E30
927E D30A
9280 C9
;Line
9290
9292
9294
9297
929A
929C
929E
92A1
92A4

;In port B
;Compare with 06H

CA6692
0D
C25392
05
C25192
C1
C9

92A6
92A8
92AB
92AE

Mnemonics

Remarks

JZ X11
DCR C
JNZ X8
DCR B
JNZ X9
POP B
RET
MVI A,20H
OUT 0AH
PUSH B
MVI C,FFH
DCR C
JNZ X10
POP B
MVI A,30H
OUT 0AH
RET

feed and Carriage return Subroutine


3E20
MVI A,20H
;ASCII code for Space
D308
OUT 08H
CD5092
CALL 9250H
;Call status
CD7092
CALL 9270H
;Call strobe
3E0A
MVI A,0AH
;ASCII code for Line feed
D308
OUT 08H
CD5092
CALL 9250H
;Call status
CD7092
CALL 9270H
;Call strobe
3E0D
MVI A,0DH
;ASCII code for Carriage
;Return
D308
OUT 08H
CD5092
CALL 9250H
;Call status
CD7092
CALL 9270H
;Call strobe
C9
RET

(not busy), send an


ASCII code on the
eight parallel data
lines. After at least 0.5
s, assert the STROBE
signal low to tell the
printer that a charac-

to receive the next character, the BUSY


signal will be low. The process continues.
Cent. pin no. 12
32
13
11
The 8085 microprocessor is interSignal
PE
ERR SEL BSY Comments
faced to the printer through 8255 proData
B3
B2
B1
B0
grammable peripheral interface device
0
1
1
0
=06H (status OK)
as shown in the block diagram (Fig. 2)
and the detailed interface diaTABLE III
gram (Fig. 3). One end of the
Port C of 8255(Output) Control Signals
cable, which is used for connectCent. pin no.
NU
14
31
1
NU
36
NU
NU
ing 8255 to the printer, should
Signal
AF
INIT STR
DSL
Comments
normally have a 26-pin FRC conData
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
nector to meet with the corre=30H
printer
X
0
1
1
X
0
X
X
=10H
initiali- sponding connector on the kit,
X
0
0
1
X
0
X
X
long delay
sation
and the other end should have a
=30H
X
0
1
1
X
0
X
X
36-pin male Centronics connecX
0
1
0
X
0
X
X
=20H
tor to go into the corresponding
Short delay strobe
connector on the printer.
X
0
1
1
X
0
X
X
=30H
Port A of 8255 is used for
NU=Not Used
transferring the data to the
ter has been sent. The strobe signal printer. Port B is used for checking the
are given in Table I.
Fig. 1 shows the timing waveforms going low causes the printer to assert status signals coming from the printer.
for transferring data characters to the its BUSY signal high. After a minimum Port C is used for sending the control
printer using the basic handshake sig- time of 0.5 s, the strobe signal can be signals required to activate the printer.
nals. Assuming that the printer has raised high again. Note that the data The interface signals between 8255 and
been initialised, first check the busy must be held valid on the data lines for the printer should be connected as
signal pin to see if the printer is ready at least 0.5 s after the strobe signal is shown in Table I.
(EFY Lab note. The maximum curto receive data. If this signal is low made high. When the printer is ready
TABLE II
Port B of 8255(Input) Status Signals

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

CONSTRUCTION

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1, IC2
- 7407 hex buffer/driver (opencollector type)
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1-R12
- 1-kilo-ohm (or use one-/tworesistor networks)
Miscellaneous:
- Centronics connector and
cable

Fig. 4: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for


the printer interface circuit

Fig. 5: Component layout for the PCB

rent that an 8255 output pin can source


and sink is limited to 400 A and 2.5
mA, respectively. To enhance this capability, open-collector hex buffers/drivers
7407 shown in Fig. 3 were used for all
output port pins. For input port pins,
there is no danger of overloading, and
hence these pins were connected directly
from the printer to the kit.)

Printer driver program overview


During initialisation, some memory locations are kept aside to store the ASCII
equivalent of the characters that are to
be printed. This is followed by configuration (initialisation) of 8255 by sending the mode control word to its control
register. To initialise the printer, first

send initialisation (INIT*) pulse for a


few microseconds. Then send the select
signal (DSL*) to select the printer. Read
the status to find out whether the
printer is selected and the BUSY signal
is low. Now send the ASCII character
to print the character, followed by the
STROBE* pulse for 0.5 s. The process
continues till the end of the program.
The end of the program is indicated using RST1 (CFH).
The starting location of the program
to be printed should be stored in D and
E registers. The eight MSBs and eight
LSBs of memory location should be
stored in D register and E register, respectively. The complete software program is given (page 46) with comments
as necessary.
(EFY Lab note. The original program was tried many times, but we did
not succeed. Finally, the program was
extensively modified and successfully
run using Epson 9-pin printer. The program, along with Tables II and III showing the status and control signals that
have been used in program implementation, is included (page 47) for the benefit of readers, who may try both the
programs, if desired.)
Address map of devices used:
RAM locations used: 9000H to 92AEH (70FCH
onwards used by author)
PORT A (output) : 08H
PORT B (input) : 09H
PORT C (output) : 0AH
Control word register : 0BH
Important memory locations :
Stack pointer initialised : 9500H
Data to be printed is stored at : 9D20H onward
ASCII conversion of data to be printed starts
at: 9A20H. Data to end with CFH as the last
byte.

The actual-size, single-sided PCB


layout of the printer interface circuit
and the component layout are shown in
Figs 4 and 5, respectively.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

MORSE PROCESSOR

Hardware

NA
ANJA
RUP

JUNOMON ABRAHAM

orse code, introduced by


Samuel Morse, is still used
universally even though better modes of communication are now
available. Following are the main reasons for its preference over other means
of communication:
1. It enables communication with
distant stations, using low-power transmitters.
2. It avoids the problems of regional
accents and pronunciation.
3. It has the ability to override noise
as it occupies only a fraction of the bandwidth required for a radio telephony
signal.
The circuit presented here converts
text into
TABLE I
the corre7-segment Display
sponding
M o r s e
code, and
vice versa.
The highlight
of
this circuit
is that it
can interpret Morse
signals
available
in the form
of sound
from ham
radio or
any other
source. It
is
very
useful for
not only
learning
but also
for transTABLE II
Address Distribution
Device
Address
EPROM
0000 to 03FF
RAM
1000 to 17FF
8279:
Command Port
21
Data Port
20

mission and reception of Morse code. It


can find application in ham radio, telegraphy, etc.

The circuit is configured around the basic 8085 microprocessor. For simplifying the overall design, a programmable
keyboard/display interface 8279 chip has
been used, which relieves the microprocessor from scanning the keyboard and
display. Here, 25 keys, including SHIFT
and CNTL keys, and six 7-segment com-

TABLE III
DATA FORMAT IN SCAN KEY BOARD MODE
(FOR ANALYSING RETURNED HEX CODE)

TABLE IV
Lookup Table
Chr/
word

Address

Hexcode

Ch/
word

Address Hexcode

Ch/
word

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

0300
0304
0308
030C
0310
0314
0318
031C
0320
0324
0328
032C
0330
0334
0338
033C
0340
0344
0348

3F AA 0E 00
06 A9 0E 00
5B A5 0E 00
4F 95 0E 00
66 55 0E 00
6D 55 0D 00
7D 56 0D 00
07 5A 0D 00
7F 6A 0D 00
6F AA 0D 00
77 39 00 00
7C 56 03 00
39 66 03 00
5E D6 00 00
79 0D 00 00
71 65 03 00
3D DA 00 00
76 55 03 00
30 35 00 00

J
K
L
M

034C
0350
0354
0358
035C

.
,
;
?

N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

0380
0384
0388
038C
0390
0394
0398
039C
03A0
03A4
03A8
03AC
03B0

*Notes: 1. EOM=End of message=


3. BT=Sentence separation=

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

1E A9 03 00
70 E6 00 00
38 59 03 00
55 3A 00 00
46

Address Hexcode

03B4
03B8
03BC
03C0
03C4
03C8
54 36 00 00 EOM* 03CC
5C EA 00 00 WAIT* 03D0
73 69 03 00 BT*
03D4
67 9A 03 00 SK*
03D8
50 D9 00 00 SELECt 03DC
03E0
6D D5 00 00
78 0E 00 00 trAnSt 03E4
3E E5 00 00 M oVEr 03E8
2A 95 03 00 rECEIE 03EC
6A E9 00 00
03F0
03F4
52 96 03 00 SEtUP
6E A6 03 00
03F8
4B 5A 03 00
03FC
2. WAIT=
4. SK=End of work=

80 99 39 00
04 5A 3A 00
84 66 36 00
D3 A5 35 00
08 56 39 00
00 3F 00 00
0F 99 0D 00
7E 59 0D 00
49 56 0E 00
4F 95 39 00
6D 79 38 79
39 78 78 50
77 54 6D 78
55 00 5C 2A
79 50 50 79
39 79 30 79
6D 79 78 3E
73 00 00 00
00 00 00 00

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 1: Schematic circuit of Morse processor

mon-cathode
character displays are used.
Though 7-segment displays
are not suitable
for alphanumeric characters, these have
been used here
with some compromise for reducing the overall cost. (Note.
The use of dotmatrix LCD display avoids the
difficulty in displaying characters in 7-segment format.
One can go for
a
microcontroller design, if
needed.) The 7segment display
pattern
employed for different characters is shown in
Table I.
Two hardware
interrupts, RST5.5
and RST6.5, are
used for reading
the key entries.
These
are
driven by the
IRQ line from
the keyboard/
display interface IC 8279.
A
buffer
(IC8) is connected at the
display output
of 8279 to drive
the 7-segment
displays. The
encoded scan
lines (SL2 SL0) are decoded by an octal
decoder
74LS138 (IC9),
whose outputs
drive the common cathode of
displays
via
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- 8085A microprocessor
IC2
- 74LS373 octal D-type latches
IC3
- 6116 RAM (2 kB)
IC4
- 27C32 EPROM (4 kB)
IC5
- 8279 keyboard/display
decoder
IC6, IC9
- 74LS138 3-bit binary decoder
IC7
- 74LS123 retriggerable
monostable multivibrator
IC8
- 74LS244 octal bus driver
IC10
- 7805 +5 volt regulator
T1
- BC548 npn transistor
T2
- BC549 npn transistor
T3-T8
- BC558 pnp transistor
D1
- 1N4148 switching diode
LED1
- LED
DIS1-DIS6 - LTS543 common-cathode
display
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1
- 68-kilo-ohm
R2
- 3.3-kilo-ohm
R3
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R4
- 5.6-kilo-ohm
R5
- 1-mega-ohm
R6
- 15-kilo-ohm
R7, R8
- 1-kilo-ohm
R9-R16
- 68-ohm
R17-R22
- 220-ohm
R23
- 180-ohm
VR1
- 2.2-kilo-ohm preset
VR2
- 100-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1
- 2.2F, 16V electrolytic
C2, C4, C6 - 0.1F ceramic disc
C3
- 10F, 16V electrolytic
C5
- 0.001F ceramic disc
C7
- 10pF ceramic disc
Miscellaneous:
PZ1
- Piezo buzzer
MIC
- Condenser microphone
S1-S26
- Tactile switches for keyboard
- 6.144 MHz crystal
XTAL

Fig. 2: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for the Morse processor


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

transistor switches. The keys are wired


in such a way that these can be represented by the seven higher order bits of
the keyboard data.
Morse signals in the form of sound
are converted to microprocessor-compatible signals. The arrangement comprises
condenser microphone, preamplifier,
and
retriggerable
monostable
multivibrator 74LS123 (IC7). The output of IC7 drives SID pin of 8085 and it
is in high logic state when a sound is
detected by the microphone. The sensitivity of the amplifier can be adjusted
by preset VR2.
The converted Morse code drives a
piezo buzzer via a transistor connected
at the SOD line of 8085 microprocessor.
Intensity of the sound can be controlled
by potentiometer VR1.
The firmware is stored in 27C32 (4k
EPROM only 1 kB is needed for the

C O N S T R U C T I O N

program). RAM 6116 stores the keyboard entries and also acts as a stack.
One can enter/store a maximum of approximately 1,750 characters in the
RAM. This is adequate for normal applications. In case one needs to store
lengthy text, one should use a largercapacity RAM. Battery backup may be
used for avoiding loss of data due to
power failure. The low-level address/
data lines of 8085 are demultiplexed
using an octal transparent latch IC
74LS373.
The address bits A12 and A13 are
decoded by IC6 to generate chip select
(CS) signals for various ICs. The address map of devices is indicated in
Table II.

Firmware
The software driver routines for the circuit, along with their Assembly language
code, are listed in Appendix A. Basically, the following functions are performed by the software program:
(a) Initialisation of the peripherals.
(b) Reading the depressed key data
and its storage in RAM.
(c) Writing data into the display
RAM in 8279.
(d) Generation of Morse code.
(e) Recognition of Morse code from
its sound.
(f) Giving proper messages at appropriate time.
Since Morse code is a time-dependent code, the program contains many
jump instructions. The program has
been made interactive and user-friendly.
The firmware is divided into the following modules: (a) booting, (b) keyboard,
(c) transmit, (d) receive, (e) play, and
(f) lookup table.
The logic of the program can be generally understood from the Assembly
language listing given in Appendix A. A
brief description of each module is, however, given below:
(a) Booting. This section initialises
stack pointer 8279 and the interrupts.
It also fixes default speed for Morse
code. It is the first module executed
when you switch on the power supply.
(b) Keyboard. When a key is
pressed, IRQ pin of 8279 interrupts
8085. The ISR (interrupt service routine) reads the keyboard data and, if
needed, does some manipulations. It also
displays the entered characters in the

Fig. 3: Component layout for the PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

APPENDIX A: 8085 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM LISTING


Addr.
Booting
0000
0003
0005
0007
0009
000B
000D
000E

Opcode Label

Mnemonics

Comments

31FF17
3E10
D321
3E40
D321
3E0D
30
325017

LXI SP,17FFH
MVI A,10H
OUT 21H
MVI A,40H
OUT 21H
MVI A,0DH
SIM
STA 1750H

Initialise stack pointer


Initialise 8279

0011
0014
0017
001A
001D
0020
0023
0024

211D00
225117
21246C
227017
11DC03
CDE000
FB
76

LXI H,001DH
SHLD 1751H
LXI H,6C24H
Fixing default setup
SHLD 1770H
LXI D,03DCH
CALL DISPLAY Display SELECt
EI
HLT
Halt

Activating RST6.5
Updating mode and
position data

RST 5.5
002C
C3F700

JMP 00F7H

Go to ISR of RST5.5

RST 6.5
0034
DB20

IN 20H

0036
0037

F5
FE8A

PUSH PSW
CPI 8AH

Reading keyboard data


from IC 8279
Store it in the stack
Checking CNTL+
RECEIVE key

0039
003C

CA0002
FE8C

JZ RECEIVE
CPI 8CH

003E
0041

CA8001
FE84

0043
0046

CAD001
FE86

0048
004B

CAD501
FE98

004D
0050
0053
0055
0056
0057
0059
005C
005F

C26000
210010
36C8
23
7C
FE17
DA5300
2A5117
E9

0060

FE8E

0062
0065
0067
0068
006B

C27700
3E0E
30
11F403
CDE000

006E
006F
0070
0072
0073
0076

FB
76
3E0D
30
2A5117
E9

0077
007A

3A5017
B7

007B

CA8000

007E
007F
0080
data

FB
76
F1

JZ KEYBOARD
CPI 84H
Checking CNTL+PLAY
key
JZ PLAY
CPI 86H
Checking CNTL+
CONTINUE key
JZ 01D5H
CPI 98H
Checking CNTL+
CLEAR key
JNZ 0060H
LXI H,1000H
Clearing the RAM
MVI M,C8H
INX H
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
JC 0053H
LHLD 1751H
Return to mode from
PCHL
where clearing action
is called
CPI 8EH
Checking CNTL+
SETUP key
JNZ 0077H
MVI A,0EH
Activating RST5.5
SIM
LXI D,03F4H
CALL DISPLAY Display the message
SEtUP
EI
HLT
MVI A,0DH
Activating RST6.5
SIM
LHLD 1751H
PCHL
Return to mode from
where setup action is
called
LDA 1750H
The following CNTL
ORA A
key functions are only
for TRANSMIT mode
JZ 0080H
Checking whether we
were in the TRANSMIT
mode
EI
HLT
POP PSW
Getting key closure

Checking CNTL+
TRANSMIT key

which is stored in stack

Addr.
0081
0083
0086
0087
0088
0089
008B

Opcode Label
FE92
C28900
2B
2B
C9
FE90
C8

Mnemonics
CPI 92H
JNZ 0089H
DCX H
DCX H
RET
CPI 90H
RZ

008C

FE80

CPI 80H

008E
0091

C29600
110500

JNZ 0096H
LXI D,0005H

0094
0095
0096

19
C9
FE82

DAD D
RET
CPI 82H

0098
009B

C2A000
11F9FF

JNZ 00A0H
LXI D,FFF9H

009E
009F
00A0

19
C9
FE88

DAD D
RET
CPI 88H

00A2
00A5

CA1001
FE96

JZ TRANSMIT
CPI 96H

00A7
00AA
00AB

C2BA00
E5
46

JNZ 00BAH
PUSH H
MOV B,M

00AC
00AD
00AE
00AF
00B0
00B1
00B3
00B6
00B7
00B8
00B9
00BA

2B
70
23
23
7C
FE17
DAAB00
E1
2B
2B
C9
FE94

DCX H
MOV M,B
INX H
INX H
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
JC 00ABH
POP H
DCX H
DCX H
RET
CPI 94H

00BC
00BF

C2D100
2B

JNZ 00D1H
DCX H

00C0
00C1
00C2
00C4
00C5
00C6
00C7
00C8
00C9
00CB
00CE
00CF
00D0
00D1

E5
46
36C8
23
7E
70
47
7C
FE17
DAC400
E1
2B
C9
FE7F

PUSH H
MOV B,M
MVI M,C8H
INX H
MOV A,M
MOV M,B
MOV B,A
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
JC 00C4H
POP H
DCX H
RET
CPI 7FH

00D3
00D6
00D7
00D8

D2CF00
07
77
C9

JNC 00CFH
RLC
MOV M,A
RET

DISPLAY SUBROUTINE:
00E0
0E06
DISPLAY:

MVI C,06H

00E2

1A

LDAX D

00E3
00E5
00E6
00E7

D320
13
0D
C2E200

OUT 20H
INX D
DCR C
JNZ 00E2H

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

Comments
Checking CNTL+key
Shifting the characters
right by one place
Checking CNTL+key
Shifting the characters
by one place
Checking CNTL+TABR
key
Shifting the characters
left by six places
Checking CNTL+TABL
key
Shifting the characters
right by six places
Checking CNTL+
START key
Checking CNTL+DEL
key
Delete one character in
the left most position of
the display

Checking CNTL+INS
key
Inserting a space for
adding character

Checking whether key


data is valid character
Enter it into the RAM
Return
Display six characters
taken from lookup table
Lookup table is pointed
to by DE -reg pair

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Addr.

Opcode Label

Mnemonics

Comments

Addr.

Opcode Label

Mnemonics

00EA
00ED
00F0

CDC001
CDC001
C9

CALL DELAY2
CALL DELAY2
RET

Wait for some time

017A
017B

E1
C9

POP H
RET

IN 20H

00F9
00FB
00FC
00FF
0100
0101
0102
0105

ANI 3FH
RLC
STA 1770H
MOV B,A
ADD B
ADD B
STA 1771H
RET

E63F
07
327017
47
80
80
327117
C9

TRANSMIT SUBROUTINE:
0110
31FF17 TRANSMIT:
0113
7C
0114
FE17
0116
D2B301
0119
1603
011B
5E
011C
1A
011D
D320

LXI SP,17FFH
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
JNC 01B3H
MVI D,03H
MOV E,M
LDAX D
OUT 20H

011F
0120
0121
0123
0124
0125
0126
0129
012B
012D
0130
0131
0133
0136
0138
013B
013C
013D
013E
013F
0140

F3
E5
0E04
13
1A
F5
217017
E603
FE01
CA4801
23
FE02
CA4801
FE03
CA5901
F1
E1
FB
7E
23
FECC

DI
PUSH H
MVI C,04H
INX D
LDAX D
PUSH PSW
LXI H,1770H
ANI 03H
CPI 01H
JZ 0148H
INX H
CPI 02H
JZ 0148H
CPI 03H
JZ 0159H
POP PSW
POP H
EI
MOV A,M
INX H
CPI CCH

0142
0145
0148
014A
014B
014C
014F
0150
0153
0155
0156
0159
015A
015D
015E
0161
0162
0163
0164
0165
0168

C21001
C3B301
3ECD
30
46
CD7001
05
C24C01
3E4D
30
217017
46
CD7001
05
C25A01
F1
0F
0F
0D
C22501
C32101

JNZ 0110H
JMP 01B3H
MVI A,CDH
SIM
MOV B,M
CALL DELAY1
DCR B
JNZ 014CH
MVI A,4DH
SIM
LXI H,1770H
MOV B,M
CALL DELAY1
DCR B
JNZ 015AH
POP PSW
RRC
RRC
DCR C
JNZ 0125H
JMP 0121H

DELAY1 SUBROUTINE:
0170
E5
DELAY1:

PUSH H

0171
0174
0175
0176
0177

LXI H,01CFH
DCX H
MOV A,H
ORA L
JNZ 0174H

21CF01
2B
7C
B5
C27401

Return
KEYBOARD SUBROUTINE:
0180
AF
KEYBOARD:XRA A

VECTOR RST 5.5


00F7
DB20

Comments

Reading key closure


data from 8279
Storing dot value

Storing dash value


Return

Checking end of mem.

Display character in
the RAM
Morse code generation

Checking end of
message character ]
Setting SOD line
Waiting
Resetting SOD line

Waiting

0181
0184
0187
018A
018D

325017
218001
225117
11E203
CDE000

0190
0193

31FF17
210610

0196
0199
019A
019C
019E
019F
01A0
01A2
01A3
01A4
01A7
01A8
01AA
01AD
01B0

11FBFF
19
0E06
1603
5E
1A
D320
23
0D
C29E01
7C
FE17
DAB301
11E803
CDE000

01B3
01B4
01B5

FB
76
C39601

MVI C,9FH

01C2
01C5
01C6
01C9

CALL DELAY1
DCR C
JNZ 01C2H
RET

PLAY SUBROUTINE:
01D0
1603
PLAY:
01D2
210510
01D5
F3
01D6
23
01D7
7C
01D8
FE17
01DA
D2EB01
01DD
5E
01DE
1A
01DF
D320
01E1
CDC001
01E4
FB
01E5
7E
01E6
FECC

MVI D,03H
LXI H,1005H
DI
INX H
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
JNC 01EBH
MOV E,M
LDAX D
OUT 20H
CALL DELAY2
EI
MOV A,M
CPI CCH

01E8
01EB

JNZ 01D5H
JMP 01B3H

C2D501
C3B301

RECEIVE SUBROUTINE:
0200
3EFF RECEIVE:

Executing these
instructions require
approximately
3 msec

STA 1750H
LXI H,0180H
SHLD 1751H
LXI D,03E2H
Displaying message
CALL DISPLAY trAnSt for indicating
the TRANSMIT mode
LXI SP,17FFH
LXI H,1006H
Entering keyboard data
to the RAM
LXI D,FFFBH
DAD D
MVI C,06H
MVI D,03H
MOV E,M
LDAX D
OUT 20H
INX H
DCR C
JNZ 019EH
MOV A,H
CPI 17H
Checking end of mem.
JC 01B3H
LXI D,03E8H
CALL DISPLAY If mem. is over display
MoVEr
EI
HLT
JMP 0196H

DELAY2 SUBROUTINE:
01C0
0E9F
DELAY2:
CD7001
0D
C2C201
C9

0202
0205
0208
020B
020E

325017
210002
225117
11EE03
CDE000

0211
0214
0217
0218
021B
021C
021D
0220

11FA03
CDE000
FB
110510
13
D5
218117
3600

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

Updating mode and


positing data

MVI A,FFH

Wait approximately
400 msec

Checking end of mem.

Displaying data in RAM


Wait for some time
Checking end of mem.
symbol ]
Go to keyboard module
Updating mode and
position data

STA 1750H
LXI H,0200H
SHLD 1751H
LXI D,03EEH
CALL DISPLAY Display message
rECEIE
LXI D,03FAH
CALL DISPLAY Clear the display
EI
LXI D,1005H
Morse code aquisition
INX D
PUSH D
LXI H,1781H
MVI M,00H

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Addr.

Opcode Label

Mnemonics

0222
0223
0224
0226
0228
0229
022B
022E
022F
0230
0231
0234
0235
0238

2B
E5
0E00
1E04
61
0600
CD7001
04
20
07
DA2B02
24
3A7117
BC

DCX H
PUSH H
MVI C,00H
MVI E,04H
MOV H,C
MVI B,00H
CALL DELAY1
INR B
RIM
RLC
JC 022BH
INR H
LDA 1771H
CMP H

0239
023C
023D
023F
0242
0244
0246
0249
024A

DA6602
78
FE02
DA2902
2600
1640
3A7117
0F
B8

JC 0266H
MOV A,B
CPI 02H
JC 0229H
MVI H,00H
MVI D,40H
LDA 1771H
RRC
CMP B

024B
024E
024F
0250
0251
0252
0253
0254
0255
0256
0257

D25702
7A
07
57
00
00
00
00
00
00
79

JNC 0257H
MOV A,D
RLC
MOV D,A
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
MOV A,C

0258
0259
025A
025B
025C
025D
0260
0261
0262
0263
0266
0267
0268
0269
026B
026C
026F
0270
0271
0274
0275

0F
0F
B2
4F
1D
C22902
E1
71
23
C32302
79
0F
0F
F6C0
1D
CA7402
0F
0F
C36B02
E1
77

RRC
RRC
ORA D
MOV C,A
DCR E
JNZ 0229H
POP H
MOV M,C
INX H
JMP 0223H
MOV A,C
RRC
RRC
ORI C0H
DCR E
JZ 0274H
RRC
RRC
JMP 026BH
POP H
MOV M,A

7-segment display. (Table III has been


included by EFY for ready reference by
the readers to know the hex data generated by 8279 when any key is either
pressed alone or in combination with
SHIFT or CNTL key.)
(c) Transmit. This module converts
each character in the RAM to its corresponding Morse code signals which are
output through the SOD line. The speed
of transmission or words per minute depends on the value entered in the setup
menu.
(d) Receive. The acquisition of
Morse code is done by checking the pres-

Comments

Reading the SID pin

Checking for the space


between characters

Checking for dot and


dash

Constructing morse
code data

Addr.

Opcode Label

Mnemonics

Comments

0276
0278

0638
21FD02

MVI B,38H
LXI H,02FDH

Comparing obtained
morse code data with
lookup data

027B
027E
027F
0280
0281
0282
0283

3A8017
23
23
23
23
05
C29102

LDA 1780H
INX H
INX H
INX H
INX H
DCR B
JNZ 0291H

0286
0288
028B
028E
0291
0292
0295
0298
0299
029A
029B
029E
029F
02A0
02A1
02A3
02A6
02A7
02A9
02AA

FE04
DA1D02
215C03
C39F02
BE
C27B02
3A8117
23
BE
2B
C27B02
2B
D1
7A
FE17
D2D102
7E
D320
7D
12

CPI 04H
JC 021DH
LXI H,035CH
JMP 029FH
CMP M
JNZ 027BH
LDA 1781H
INX H
CMP M
DCX H
JNZ 027BH
DCX H
POP D
MOV A,D
CPI 17H
JNC 02D1H
MOV A,M
OUT 20H
MOV A,L
STAX D

02AB
02AD
02B0
02B1
02B2
02B3
02B4
02B7
02B8
02B9
02BA
02BD
02BE
02BF
02C2
02C3
02C4
02C7
02C8
02CA
02CB
02CD

0600
217017
7E
07
23
86
D2B802
04
4F
0B
CD7001
20
07
DA1B02
78
B1
C2B902
AF
D320
13
3EC8
12

MVI B,00H
LXI H,1770H
MOV A,M
RLC
INX H
ADD M
JNC 02B8H
INR B
MOV C,A
DCX B
CALL DELAY1
RIM
RLC
JC 021BH
MOV A,B
ORA C
JNZ 02B9H
XRA A
OUT 20H
INX D
MVI A,C8H
STAX D

02CE
02D1

C31B02
76

JMP 021BH
HLT

ence of sound with time. This module


continuously monitors the SID pin of
8085 microprocessor, where the soundconverted logic level (depending on
whether the sound is present or not) is
available. It compares this logic level
with a prefixed time value and accordingly decides whether the sound was
due to dot or dash. Moreover, it displays characters corresponding to the
entered Morse code.
(e) Display. This module displays
characters in the moving display format as per the entered message. The
speed of movement is fixed to approxiELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

If given morse code is


invalid, display y

Checking end of mem.


Display the character
Store data, corresponding to displayed character, in the RAM

Check for space between


words

Giving space in display


Store the space data
in the RAM
Repeat the process
Halt

mately three characters per second.


(f) Lookup table (Table IV). This
is a block of data, which contains the 7segment data for every character and
the data needed for Morse code generation or reception. Each character takes
four EPROM locations. The first location indicates the 7-segment data, while
the second and third locations hold the
Morse code data. The fourth location is
unused. (EFY note. We have included
Table IV showing the hex data generated by depression of any key alone or
in combination with SHIFT or CNTL
keys, for ready reference by the readers.

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Control-key functions
Before going to the operating procedure,
we have to know the functions of keys
associated with CNTL key.
CNTL+SETUP (8EH). The default
speed is initialised for approximately 5
words/minute. If you want to change
this setting, you can do so by using this
control key combination. When you
press this combination, the message
SEtUP is displayed. Here you can enter any one of the characters ranging
from 1 through 9 and A through K
to change the speed. Note that the minimum speed is associated with K and
the maximum with 1.
CNTL+CLEAR (98H). It clears the
RAM content.
CNTL+PLAY (84). CNTL+PLAY is
used for displaying the RAM content in
moving format. You can interrupt any
process by pressing any control key that
has no function.
CNTL+CONT (86). It is used for
continuing the play operation if it were
interrupted.

5. Press CNTL+START keys for getting Morse code of the message.


6. You can go to any other mode by
selecting the corresponding mode before
finishing the transmission or later.
7. For entering into the receive
mode, press the CNTL+RECEIVE keys.
You will see the rECEIE message for
one second.
8. Generate Morse code using a
buzzer, voice, or some other source (such
as ham radio and recorded tape).
9. The acceptance of sound will be
indicated by LED1 for duration of Dit/
Dash. If LED does not light, adjust the
position of microphone or change the
gain of the amplifier using potmeter
VR2.
10. The converted data can be replayed by pressing the CNTL+PLAY
keys.
Note 1. The clear and setup control

Operating procedure
1. Switch on the power supply. A message SELECt will be displayed. By depressing the appropriate key, you can
select any one of the following modes:
(a) transmit, (b) receive, (c) setup, (d)
play, (e) continue, and (f) clear.
2. Press CNTL+TRANSMIT keys for
entering into the transmit mode. A message trAnSt appears for a second, after which you can enter your message.
3. At the end of the message you
have to enter ] symbol (by pressing
SHIFT+] keys, i.e. 66H) for invoking the
microprocessor.
4. By the use of arrow keys ( or )
or by TAB (TAB R or TAB L) keys, set
the location in the message at which the
transmission is to start. If you want to
transmit the message from beginning,
depress CNTL+TRANSMIT keys again
for getting into the first character.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MARCH 2001

keys can be used, at any time, if needed.

Construction
PCB designed particularly for this circuit (as given in Fig. 2, with component
layout shown in Fig. 3) is needed for
making this circuit. IC bases are preferred for fixing the ICs. For continuous operation, provide a heat sink for
the regulator IC. Since this circuit is
based on time comparison, it is necessary to use the correct frequency crystal (6.144 MHz).
EFY Note. Although the circuit has
been fully tested using the given firmware, elaboration of certain software instructions, requested from the author,
is still awaited. These clarification,
when received, will be suitably published
in a coming issue.

April

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

EEPROM W27C512
(WINBOND) ERASER

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

J.P. SHARMA
PROMs (electrically erasable
PROMs) are generally erased by
ultraviolet rays, and it takes half
an hour or so to erase the data in an
ERPOM. Nowadays a special EEPROM
from Winbond is available in the market,
which is being used in telecommunication due to its low cost.
The simple, low-cost circuit presented
here takes only 100 ms to erase old programs electrically. The programming voltage VPP for the mentioned IC is 12.7V,
unlike the 28xxxx series EEPROMs that
can be written to or read like a RAM, in
situ. Multiple ICs connected in parallel

sets VR1 and VR2 and capacitor C1. The


on/off time of pulse may be set with the
help of an oscilloscope or by taking appropriate values of presets VR1 and VR2
(in-circuit resistances) and capacitor C1
using the following relationship:
On time=0.69VR1xC1=Off Time=
0.69VR2xC1=100 milliseconds
IC1 (7812) and IC2 (7805) are voltage
regulator ICs that are used to obtain regulated 14V DC and 5V DC, respectively,
required for operation of the circuit. The
clock with time period of 200 milliseconds
is fed to IC4 (CD4017). In this IC, the
output is available successively only at

can be erased simultaneously using the


given circuit.
The circuit requires 15V to 20V DC.
Timer IC3 (LM555) is used for generation of clock pulses of 200 millisecond time
period with an on time of 100 milliseconds. Pulse time is achieved by using pre-

one of the output pins with a delay of 200


milliseconds when reset pin 15 is low. The
14V DC is made available via transistors
T1 and T2 to pins 22 and 24 of IC5
(27C512, which is the IC under erasure).
As soon as push-to-on switch S1 is
pressed momentarily, it resets IC4 by ap-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

plication of 5V DC to reset pin 15, and


the output at pin 3 (Q0) goes high. This
high output is shifted to the next output
pin with the successive clock pulse received at pin 14.
Q5 output from pin 1 of IC4 is inverted using transistor T3 and is given to
chip-enable pin 20 of IC5, when 14V DC
is already available at pins 22 and 24 of
IC5. All address pins, except pin 24 (A9),
are set low and all data pins (11 through
13 and 15 through 19) are at high level
(+5V). Then pins 22 and 24 are pulsed
low for 100 milliseconds. Immediately all
data (cells) are set high. (Data output is
high only in erased condition.)
At the end when Q9 output of IC4
goes high, transistor T4 conducts, pulling
its collector low. LED1 glows to indicate
completion of erasure. Simultaneously, pin
4 of timer IC3 is taken low to stop generation of further clock pulses until IC4

is reset.
Insert the next IC to be erased in IC5
socket (preferably use a ZIF socket) and
reset IC4 by pushing switch S1 momentarily. It takes only 100 milliseconds to
erase the EEPROM IC.

CIRCUIT

INTELLIGENT
ELECTRONIC LOCK

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

K. UDHAYA KUMARAN
his intelligent electronic lock circuit is built using transistors
only. To open this electronic lock,
one has to press tactile switches S1
through S4 sequentially. For deception
you may annotate these switches with
different numbers on the control panel/
keypad.
For example, if you want to use ten
switches on the keypad marked 0

ration of 0.75 second to 1.25 seconds. The


relay will not operate if on time duration of each tactile switch (S1 through
S4) is less than 0.75 second or more than
1.25 seconds. This would amount to rejection of the code.
A special feature of this circuit is that
pressing of any switch wired across disable switch (S6) will lead to disabling of
the whole electronic lock circuit for about

through 9, use any four arbitrary numbers out of these for switches S1 through
S4, and the remaining six numbers may
be annotated on the leftover six switches,
which may be wired in parallel to disable
switch S6 (shown in the figure). When
four password digits in 0 through 9 are
mixed with the remaining six digits connected across disable switch terminals,
energisation of relay RL1 by unauthorised
person is prevented. For authorised persons, a 4-digit password number is easy
to remember.
To energise relay RL1, one has to
press switches S1 through S4 sequentially
within six seconds, making sure that each
of the switch is kept depressed for a du-

one minute. Even if one enters the correct 4-digit password number within one
minute after a disable operation, relay
RL1 wont get energised. So if any
unauthorised person keeps trying different permutations of numbers in quick
successions for energisation of relay RL1,
he is not likely to succeed. To that extent, this electronic lock circuit is foolproof.
This electronic lock circuit comprises
disabling, sequential switching, and relay
latch-up sections.
The disabling section comprises zener
diode ZD5 and transistors T1 and T2. Its
function is to cut off positive supply to
sequential switching and relay latch-up
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

sections for one minute when disable


switch S6 (or any other switch shunted
across its terminal) is momentarily
pressed.
During idle state, capacitor C1 is in
discharged condition and the voltage
across it is less than 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 are in
non-conduction state. As a result, the collector voltage of transistor T1 is sufficiently high to forward bias transistor T2.
Consequently, +12V is extended to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections.
When disable switch is momentarily
depressed, capacitor C1 charges up
through resistor R1 and the voltage available across C1 becomes greater than 4.7
volts. Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 start conducting and the
collector voltage of transistor T1
is pulled low. As a result, transistor T2 stops conducting and
thus cuts off positive supply voltage to sequential switching and
relay latch-up sections.
Thereafter, capacitor C1
starts discharging slowly
through zener diode D1 and
transistor T1. It takes approximately one minute to discharge
to a sufficiently low level to cutoff transistor T1, and switch on
transistor T2, for resuming supply to sequential switching and
relay latch-up sections; and until then the circuit does not accept any code.
The sequential switching
section comprises transistors T3
through T5, zener diodes ZD1
through ZD3, tactile switches S1 through
S4, and timing capacitors C2 through C4.
In this three-stage electronic switch, the
three transistors are connected in series
to extend positive voltage available at the
emitter of transistor T2 to the relay latchup circuit for energising relay RL1.
When tactile switches S1 through S3
are activated, timing capacitors C2, C3,
and C4 are charged through resistors R3,
R5, and R7, respectively. Timing capacitor C2 is discharged through resistor R4,
zener diode ZD1, and transistor T3; timing capacitor C3 through resistor R6, zener diode ZD2, and transistor T4; and
timing capacitor C4 through zener diode
ZD3 and transistor T5 only. The indi-

CIRCUIT

vidual timing capacitors are chosen in


such a way that the time taken to discharge capacitor C2 below 4.7 volts is 6
seconds, 3 seconds for C3, and 1.5 seconds for C4.
Thus while activating tactile switches
S1 through S3 sequentially, transistor T3
will be in conduction for 6 seconds, transistor T4 for 3 seconds, and transistor T5
for 1.5 seconds.
The positive voltage from the emitter
of transistor T2 is extended to tactile
switch S4 only for 1.5 seconds. Thus one
has to activate S4 tactile switch within
1.5 seconds to energise relay RL1. The
minimum time required to keep switch
S4 depressed is around 1 second.
For sequential switching transistors
T3 through T5, the minimum time for
which the corresponding switches (S1
through S3) are to be kept depressed is
0.75 seconds to 1.25 seconds. If one operates these switches for less than 0.75 sec-

IDEAS

onds, timing capacitors C2 through C4


may not get charged sufficiently. As a consequence, these capacitors will discharge
earlier and any one of transistors T3
through T5 may fail to conduct before activating tactile switch S4. Thus sequential switching of the three transistors will
not be achieved and hence it will not be
possible to energise relay RL1 in such a
situation.
A similar situation arises if one keeps
each of the mentioned tactile switches depressed for more than 1.5 seconds. When
the total time taken to activate switches
S1 through S4 is greater than six seconds, transistor T3 stops conducting due
to time lapse. Sequential switching is thus
not achieved and it is not possible to
energise relay RL1.
The latch-up relay circuit is built
around transistors T6 through T8, zener
diode ZD4, and capacitor C5.
In idle state, with relay RL1 in de-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

energised condition, capacitor C5 is in discharged condition and zener diode ZD4


and transistors T7, T8, and T6 in nonconduction state.
However, on correct operation of sequential switches S1 through S4, capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R9 and
the voltage across it rises above 4.7 volts.
Now zener diode ZD4 as well as transistors T7, T8, and T6 start conducting and
relay RL1 is energised. Due to conduction of transistor T6, capacitor C5 remains
in charged condition and the relay is in
continuously energised condition.
Now if you activate reset switch S5
momentarily, capacitor C5 is immediately
discharged through resistor R8 and the
voltage across it falls below 4.7 volts. Thus
zener diode ZD4 and transistors T7, T8,
and T6 stop conducting again and relay
RL1 de-energises.

CIRCUIT

STABLE 455KHz BFO


FOR SSB RECEPTION

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

D. PRABAHARAN

ost Indian amateur radio operators prefer to operate on


SSB (single sideband) and CW
because these carry the signal over a long
distance for a given transmitter power.
Broadcast receivers are not meant to di-

rectly receive Morse code transmission on


SSB and CW. Short-wave listeners require
some arrangement to receive the same.
One such arrangement comprises a simple
IF BFO (beat frequency oscillator), which
is an RF oscillator of conventional type.
The output of BFO is heterodyned
to beat with another frequency to
obtain a resultant frequency (difference of the two frequencies) lying in the audio range (about 1
kHz).
BFO can be used to get an audio note from CW reception and
also to resolve SSB signals. An SSB
signal is transmitted without carrier signal. In ordinary receivers,
it does not produce speech with sufficient clarity. When BFO signal is
heterodyned with SSB signal, this

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

RF acts like a carrier and the signal is


well resolved.
The BFO circuit comprises transistors
T1 and T2, which are connected in a
straightforward two-stage, direct-coupled,
common-emitter configuration. The input
and output are in phase and positive feedback between the two is provided by ceramic filter CF1. A significant amount of
feedback is provided only at the operating frequency of the filter, which is 455
kHz. So the circuit oscillates at this frequency. The ceramic filter gives good frequency stability and requires no adjustment in order to produce the correct frequency. This BFO is meant for singlesideband reception only.
There is no need to connect BFO to
receiver. Tune your BC receiver to any
SSB signal, and then on keeping BFO just
close to it, you may notice some hissing
noise in your receiver. Match BFO frequency to your receivers IF, which may
be between 452 and 460 kHz, until you
get clear sound. If the BFO signal is too
strong, increase the distance between
BFO and receiver.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

AUTO SHUT-OFF FOR CASSETTE


PLAYERS AND AMPLIFIERS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

ARTHUR LOUIS

ere are two simple, low-cost circuits that can be used to shut
off the mains supply to any audio or video equipment (such as tape recorder, CD player, and amplifier). These
circuits are helpful to those in the habit
of falling asleep with their music system
on.
The circuits will also protect the equipment from getting damaged due to highvoltage spikes whenever there is a resumption of power after a break. This is
possible because the equipment will get
switched off automatically under such conditions but will not get switched on automatically on resumption of mains supply.
The circuit in Fig. 1 can be used to
shut off any cassette player that has a
reliable auto-stop mechanism. Whenever
switch S1 is pressed momentarily, it extends the supply to the step-down transformer of the tape recorder and charges
capacitor C1 through diode D1. This, in
turn, makes transistor T1 conduct and
energise relay RL1 to provide a parallel
path to switch S1, so that supply to the
step-down transformer continues even
when switch S1 is released.
When any button on the cassette
player is pressed, the capacitor charges
through diode D2. This ensures conduction of transistor T1 and thus the continuity of operation of cassette player. However, whenever the auto-stop mechanism
functions at the end of a tape, the leaf
switch gets opened. This cuts the charging path for the capacitor and it starts
discharging slowly. After about one
minute, the relay opens and interrupts
main power to the transformer. The time
delay can be increased by increasing the
value of capacitor C1.
If the appliance used is a two-in-one
type (e.g. cassette player-cum-radio), just
connect another diode in parallel with diodes D1 and D2 to provide an additional
path for charging capacitor C1 via the
tape-to-radio changeover switch, so that
when radio is played the relay does not

interrupt the power supply.


The other circuit, shown in Fig. 2,
functions on the basis of the signal received from preamp of the appliance used.
In this circuit, opamp A741 is wired in
inverting opamp configuration. It amplifies the signal received from the preamp.
Timer NE555 is used to provide the necessary time delay of about one minute.
Preset VR1 is used to control the sensitivity of the circuit to differentiate be-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

tween the noise and the signal. Resistor


R4 offers feedback resistance to control
the gain of the opamp. By increasing or
decreasing the value of resistor R4, the
gain can be increased or decreased, respectively. The preset time delay of timer
NE555 (which is about one minute) can
be increased by increasing the value
of C4.
Initial energisation of relay RL2 and
charging of capacitor C4 take place on
depression of switch S3 in the same manner as charging of capacitor C1 (refer Fig.
1) on depression of switch S1. As a result, pins 2 and 6 of NE555 go high and
the output of timer goes low to switch off
mains supply from the relay to step-down
transformer X2 of the appliance. Bleeder
resistor R6 is used to discharge capacitor
C4. Now if signals are received from the

CIRCUIT

preamplifier, these are amplified by 741


and fed to the base of transistor T2, which
keeps capacitor C4 charged through resistor R5. When there is no signal, T2
will not conduct and the capacitor slowly
discharges through R6. The output of 555
goes high to switch off the relay and thus

IDEAS

the mains supply to transformer X2.


Switch S2 can be depressed momentarily
if the device needs to be manually
switched off.
Note. The 12V supply should be provided to the circuit from the equipments
power supply. Opamp 741 should be

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

driven from the preamplifier of the gadget used, and not from its power amplifier output. Switches S1 and S2 are 2pole push-to-on switches. These can also
be fabricated from 2-pole on-off switches,
which are widely used in cassette players, by removing the latch pin from them.

CIRCUIT

HOUSE SECURITY SYSTEM

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

MALAY BANERJEE

ere is a low-cost, invisible laser


circuit to protect your house
from thieves or trespassers. A
laser pointer torch, which is easily available in the market, can be used to operate this device.
The block diagram of the unit shown
in Fig. 1 depicts the overall arrangement
for providing security to a house. A laser
torch powered by 3V power-supply is used

for generating a laser beam.


A combination of plain mirrors M1 through M6 is used
to direct the laser beam
around the house to form a
net. The laser beam is directed to finally fall on an
LDR that forms part of the
receiver unit as shown in Fig.
2. Any interruption of the
beam by a thief/
trespasser will result
into
energisation of
the alarm. The
3V power-supply
circuit is a conventional fullwave rectifier-filter circuit. Any
alarm unit that
operates on 230V
AC can be con-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

nected at the output.


The receiver unit comprises two identical step-down transformers (X1 and X2),
two 6V relays (RL1 and RL2), an LDR, a
transistor, and a few other passive com-

ponents. When switches S1 and S2 are


activated, transformer X1, followed by a
full-wave rectifier and smoothing capacitor C1, drives relay RL1 through the laser switch.
The laser beam should be aimed continuously on LDR. As long as the laser
beam falls on LDR, transistor T1 remains
forward biased and relay RL1 is thus in
energised condition. When a person
crosses the line of laser beam, relay RL1
turns off and transformer X2 gets
energised to provide a parallel path across
N/C contact and the pole of relay RL1.
In this condition, the laser beam will have
no effect on LDR and the alarm will continue to operate as long as switch S2 is
on.
When the torch is switched on, the
pointed laser beam is reflected from a definite point/place on the periphery of the
house. Making use of a set of properly
oriented mirrors one can form an invisible net of laser rays as shown in the
block diagram. The final ray should fall
on LDR of the circuit.
Note. LDR should be kept in a long
pipe to protect it from other sources of
light, and its total distance from the
source may be kept limited to 500 metres.
The total cost of the circuit, including the
laser torch, is Rs 400 or less.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

SIMPLE
WATER-LEVEL
INDICATORCUM-ALARM
PRADEEP G.

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

his water-level indicator-cumalarm circuit is configured around


the well-known CMOS input-compatible, 7-channel IC ULN2004
Darlington array.
As the water level rises in the tank,
it comes in contact with probes P1 through
P7 and thereby makes pins 7 through 1
high, sequentially. As a result, the corresponding output pins 10 through 16 go
low one after the other, and LED1
through LED7 light up in that order.
When water comes in contact with the

final probe P7, it results in sounding of


the piezo-buzzer connected to output pin

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

16 along with LED7.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

ACCESS-CONTROL SYSTEM
NA
ANJA
RUP

BHASKAR BANERJEE

he easy-to-construct access control


(code lock) circuit presented here
incorporates the following unique
features:
(a) Many people can use the same system with their own unique 6-digit code.
(b) A single-digit system code has been
included, which is common to all users of
the system. It can be easily changed with
the help of DIP switches.

DIP switch.
If any one or more of the six consecutive keyboard-entered digits do not conform to the predetermined code, an alarm
generator sounds the alarm to indicate
wrong code. If the result of final comparison of all the six digits is correct, a mono
multivibrator, serving as lock driver for
opening/closing a lock, gets activated for
a fixed preset duration.
The detailed description of individual
units, as shown in Fig. 2, is as follows:
Description
Keyboard and keyboard encoder.
The block diagram of the system shown The keyboard consists of 16 push-to-on
in Fig. 1 provides an overall view of its type keys in a 4x4 matrix format. It can
composition and working. A 16-digit key- be made using data switches or one can
pad is used for sequentially entering six use membrane-type keyboard at some exHex numbers, which are decoded by the tra cost. The keys should be numbered in
keyboard encoder into their equivalent bi- Hex as shown in the figure.
The encoder is built around 74C922
nary numbers and stored in separate data
(IC1), which is a 16-key keyboard encoder.
latches in binary form.
The first three Hex numbers are used It generates a 4-bit binary number correas an address for an EPROM, which stores sponding to the key pressed; for example,
a predetermined code at prefixed addresses shorting pin 1 (R1) with pin 11 (C1) genallocated to separate users or used for erates the binary equivalent of digit 0.
Whenever a key is pressed, the signal
separate purposes. The code data output
from EPROM (one byte/two nibbles) at a generated by this encoder IC is available
specified address is compared with the as logic high output at pin 12 and is
next two keyboard entries in two 4-bit used to activate a piezo-buzzer (PZ1) via
transistor T1 (BC547). The continuous
comparators that are cascaded together.
The resultant outputs of these two tone of PZ1 indicates that a key is pressed.
comparators are connected to the next The key-pressed signal is also used to
comparator stage, in which the last key- store data in the latches.
The output from pin 12 is connected
board digit (i.e. sixth Hex digit) is compared with the system code selected by to pin 13 of IC5 (CD4017 counter) for
clocking at its
trailing edge.
On each clocking, counter IC5
advances by one
count
and
thereby stores
data in separate
data latches one
after the other.
IC1 also holds
the last number
at its output
pins.
Fig. 1: Block diagram of the access-control system
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

Data latches. There are six data


latches formed from three CD4508 ICs
(IC2 through IC4). Each CD4508 contains
two completely independent 4-bit data
latches having a common power supply.
The 6-digit code is stored in these latches.
The 4-bit data bus originating from
the output of IC1 is connected to data
input pins of all the six latches in parallel. For example, pin 17 (QA) of IC1 is
connected to the corresponding pins 4 and
16 of all the latches as the LSB of 4-bit
binary output from IC1. Initially, pin 3 of
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- 74C922 16-key encoder
IC2-IC4
- CD4508 dual 4-bit latch
IC5
- CD4017 decade counter
IC6
- 27C32 EPROM
IC7-IC9
- CD4063 4-bit magnitude
comparator
IC10
- CD4528 dual retriggerable
monostable
IC11
- NE555 timer
IC12
- CD4069 Hex inverter
T1-T4
- BC547 npn transistor
T5
- SL100 npn transistor
T6
- 2P4M SCR
D1, D2, D4 - 1N4148 switching diode
D3
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
LED1-LED3 - Red LED
LED4
- Green LED
Resistors (-watt 5% carbon, unless stated
otherwise)
R1, R3, R4,
R15,
- 10-kilo-ohm
R2, R5, R8,
R21, R22
- 4.7-kilo-ohm
R6
- 18-kilo-ohm
R7
- 10-mega-ohm
R9
- 2.2-mega-ohm
R10, R11,
R17-R20
- 1-kilo-ohm
R12-R14
- 470-ohm
R16
- 47-kilo-ohm
R23
- 47-ohm
Capacitors:
C1, C7, C8,
C12
- 0.1F ceramic disc
C2
- 2.2F, 25V electrolytic
C3, C5, C6,
C9, C10
- 22F, 25V electrolytic
C4, C13
- 47F, 25V electrolytic
C11
- 470F, 25V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
S1
- Push-to-on switch
S2
- Push-to-off switch
- 4x4 keyboard matrix
PZ1
- Continuous tone-type piezobuzzer
RL1
- 9V, 200-ohm, 1 C/O relay
S3
- 4-way DIP switch
- Regulated 5V power supply
etc

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of access-control system

CONSTRUCTION

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

IC5 provides
a high output
to clear and
store pins 1
and 2 of IC2A,
thereby clearing its 4-bit
register.
When a
key
is
pressed, the
equivalent binary code is
present at
data input
pins of all the
latches. On
releasing the
key, pin 12 of
IC1 changes
its state from
high to low,
thereby generating the
required clock
pulse for IC5.
This clocking
makes pins 3
and 2 of IC5
low and high,
respectively,
causing the
binary data
corresponding
to the first
Hex digit keyboard entry to
be stored and
available at
the output of
IC2A.
Similarly,
when the second key is
pressed, new
data is stored
in IC2B without affecting
the previously
stored data in
IC2A. The
outputs from
first three
data latches
are connected
to address
pins
of
E P R O M
27C32 (IC6).
The outputs

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for access-control system

from fourth and fifth data latches are connected to two 4-bit magnitude comparators IC7 and IC8 (CD4063), and the output from sixth data latch is connected to
a similar 4-bit magnitude comparator IC9
for further processing.
The memory. All 8-bit codes, except
the 4-bit system code, are stored at different locations (addresses) in the EPROM
(IC6). Out of the six Hex digits, first five
digits are used as personalised code, and
out of these five digits, the first three are
used to form an address for EPROM.
The leftmost digit of the code is the
MSD (most significant digit) and the third
digit from left is the LSD (least signifi-

cant digit) of the 12-bit wide address for


IC6. The fourth and fifth digits from left
are to be the same as the data stored in
IC6 (beforehand) at that particular address. Thus, when a code is entered via
the keyboard, the fourth and fifth digits
are compared with the data stored at the
address formed by the first three digits.
(The EPROM can be programmed with
the help of Manual EPROM Programmer,
and may be replaced by an EEPROM for
better reliability.)
Code comparator. There are three
4-bit comparators (IC7 through IC9) used
in the circuit, which are cascaded together
to form a 12-bit comparator. Comparators
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

CONSTRUCTION

output from pin 3 of IC11 is used to drive


transistor T2 (BC547) to generate a longduration alarm tone from PZ1.
A common buzzer is used for key-press
audio indicator and alarm generator to
keep the cost low. The output from pin 3
of timer also drives LED2, which flashes
at the output frequency of the astable oscillator.
MMV and lock driver. When a valid
code is entered, pin 6 of IC9 becomes high
and triggers monostable multivibrator
CD4528 (IC10) via transistor T3. On triggering, pin 6 of IC10 becomes high and
remains in that state for a predetermined
time period. The output at pin 6 of IC10
drives transistor T5 (SL100) to operate
relay RL1. When the system is locked,
red LED1 glows, and when it is unlocked,
green LED4 glows.
The other half of IC10 is used to keep
the keyboard activated for a predetermined time. The keyboard is activated by
pressing switch S1. This feature improves
the security of the system.

Construction
Data input/output pins are to be connected
with utmost care because improper connection will force the system to work unpredictably. Also, care should be taken
while using IC1, as it is quite costly. The
points marked Vcc should be connected
to the power supply directly.
The system can be built on a generalpurpose PCB or a veroboard. A singlesided PCB layout for the circuit is, however, shown in Fig. 3, with its component
layout shown in Fig. 4.

Operation

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB

IC7 and IC8 compare the 8-bit data output of EPROM with the corresponding
fourth and fifth digits entered via the keyboard and stored in latches IC3B and IC4A.
While IC7 compares the upper 4-bit
output of IC6 with the contents of IC3B
(i.e. the fourth digit from left), IC8 compares the lower 4-bit output of IC6 with
the contents of IC4A (i.e. the fifth digit
from left). Similarly, IC9 compares the
last digit (i.e. the contents of IC4B) with
the code entered/formed by 4-way DIP
switch S3 (marked A through D), which
is referred to here as the system code.
This system code digit can be changed
from time to time.

The result of the comparison by the


three comparators is finally available from
IC9. If the entered code matches with the
stored data, pin 6 of IC9 goes high, indicating a correct code. Otherwise, either
of pins 5 and 7 goes high depending upon
the magnitude of the data. Pins 5 and 7
are connected together via diodes D1 and
D2 and used as the trigger for alarm circuit. The outputs from IC9 are available
only after entering the last digit.
Alarm generator. The alarm generator is built around a 555 timer (IC11).
The logic high output from pin 5 or pin 7
of IC9 triggers the SCR and applies Vcc
supply to IC 555 to make it oscillate. The
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

Initially, when IC1 is disabled by IC10,


no code can be entered. To activate the
keyboard, press switch S1 momentarily.
This will activate the keyboard for
a predetermined time. The code should
be entered within this time. Using the
4-way DIP switch S3, the system code
can be changed at any time for extra security.
If wrong code is entered, the buzzer
sounds alarm and the red LED starts
flashing. In this case, you can reset the
circuit by a momentary depression of
switch S2. It is to be noted that no display unit is used, to keep the code secret.
But if you still prefer to have one, the
same could be included.

C O N S T R U C T I O N

TELEPHONE LINE-INTERFACED
GENERIC SWITCHING SYSTEM
PART I

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

AJAY SUBRAMANIAN AND NAYANTARA BHATNAGAR

uite a few projects using DTMFto-BCD decoder ASIC MT 8870/


KT 3170 have appeared in EFY
during the past few years. The project
presented here also uses the same ASIC,
but it is used here as part of a circuit in
which a fairly advanced switching logic
with adequate foolproofing and authentication is implemented. The major features
of this circuit are:
Programmable password protection
over a public network
Foolproof mechanisms for events
such as time-out delays, incorrect password, and power-on initialisation
Expandable design
The primary objective of this circuit
is to make a fairly low-cost device for controlling up to a hundred household
switches remotely over any public/private
telephone network.

Description
The block diagram of the system is shown
in Fig. 1. It consists of the following three
units:
1. The interface and control unit
2. The authentication unit
3. The main device selection and
switching circuit

The interface and control unit provides control signals and BCD data to the
other two units. It handles interfacing
with the telephone line and also generates control signals for hanging up (HUP)
and a universal reset pulse, which is used
by the authentication circuit for its operation. Its design may be altered to
achieve connectivity to another network,
which is capable of providing certain control and data signal sequences.
The authentication unit stores four
presettable digits of code data and
compares the same against the 4-digit
DTMF code sent via the telephone lines
before the time-out occurs. If the 4-digit
code is found valid, the authentication
unit issues an authorisation signal to
the main device selection and switching
unit. However if an incorrect password
is entered, the device terminates the
call by returning to the off-hook condition.
The fifth DTMF digit determines the
address of the group to be selected, while
the sixth digit determines the device number that is to be selected within that
group. The selected device can be switched
on or switched off by a momentary depression of the telephone keypad switches
marked * (code1011 binary) and # (code

Fig. 1: Block diagram of telephone line-interfaced generic switching system


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

1100 binary), respectively. Thus you can


select any one of the hundred devices,
divided into ten groups, to be switched
on/off, as desiredone at a time.
The interface and control unit
(Fig. 2). This unit performs the following
functions:
Detects an incoming call. Counts up
to a programmable number of rings and
then simulates handset off-cradle condition.
Once off-hook, it must decode DTMF
signals on the telephone line within a fixed
time and generate appropriate BCD
data and StD pulse for indicating a valid
data condition. The positive edge of this
StD pulse is used for subsequent operations.
Generates a universal Reset signal
that includes a time-out and a power-onreset. This Reset signal is an active low
pulse of programmable duration.
Generates a hang-up (HUP) signal
on expiry of the time-out and uses this
signal internally to take the device offline.
When a call arrives, a 75-80V AC ring
signal is available on the lines. This ring
signal is coupled to optocoupler Opto-1
(MCT2E) via DC blocking capacitor C1
and current-limiting resistor R1. LED1
serves as a ring indicator and as an antiparallel diode to the in-built LED of the
optocoupler for working with AC ring signal. The output of optocoupler triggers
timer IC1, which is configured as a
monostable retriggerable flip-flop to provide a pulse output to be used as a clock
for decade counter IC2 (CD4017) with decoded outputs.
The pulse-width of monostable should
be slightly greater than 0.6 second to ensure that the pulse does not terminate
during the 0.2-second pause between a
pair of ring signals of 0.4-second dura-

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 2: Circuit diagram of the interface and control unit

tion. Thus the monostable produces one


pulse for each ring (in fact, a pair), which
clocks CD4017 counter.
IC2 will freeze after counting a preprogrammed number of rings. This number is determined by its output pin which
is tied to its pin 13. In Fig. 2 pin 9 (O8
output) is shorted to pin 13. Thus count
of IC2 is frozen at the beginning of the
eighth ring.

The first pulse from IC1 also triggers


the first stage of monostable multivibrator
74123 (IC5), which causes the Reset output to go high. As a result, CD4017 (IC2)
is enabled (which was otherwise reset,
when no ring signal was present). Also,
the authentication circuit is enabled to
receive BCD data and control signals, as
and when generated by CM8870 (IC4).
If the preset count is reached and
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

the call has not been answered yet (local telephone handset still on
cradle), the counter (IC2)
is frozen and D flip-flop
(IC3A) is set. This activates relay RL1 that
places a 220-ohm load
across the lines to simulate handset off-cradle
condition and also enables CM8870 (IC4) by
applying a low at its inhibit (active high) pin 5.
This causes the ring signal, in turn, to be taken
off the telephone lines
(by telephone exchange)
and establish a connection (analogous to the
maturity of a call). The
circuit is now ready to
receive signals from the
remote-end telephone.
In case the call is answered from the local
telephone before the preset count of IC2 is
reached, the ring ceases
as the local telephone is
in off-hook condition.
Since there is no other
way of re-triggering IC5,
a time-out eventually occurs and the device
reinitialises all units automatically. The device is
also protected against activation by dialing from
a parallel phone instrument, since the ring signal is necessary to power
up the ASIC MT8870 (after a pre-programmed
number of rings).
CM8870 (IC4) generates an StD pulse whenever fresh data is
latched onto its outputs.
This signal is used as a
data valid gate wherever appropriate.
Also, when a key is pressed, an ESt (Early
steering) pulse is generated at its pin 16,
which lasts till the key is pressed. This
ESt pulse is used for clocking IC12B in
the authentication and control unit and
retriggering monostable multivibrator
74123 (IC5), extending the duration of
Reset pulse. This ensures that the circuit will operate as long as the user

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 3: The authentication unit circuit diagram

used to trigger the second stage of monostable


multivibrator 74123
(IC5). The complemented
output 2Q of the second
stage of IC5 is a HUP
(hang-up) signal that
clears relay driver flipflop 74LS74 (IC3A), thus
causing the device to
hang up, and inhibit IC4.
It resets CD4017 (IC2)
counter that counts the
number of rings. Also, as
a Reset pulse goes low, it
resets the authorisation
circuit.
The additional circuitry around the input of
IC4 protects inbuilt opamp input terminals
within the chip.
The power-on-reset
circuit comprises resistor
R5 and capacitor C10. It
resets the device when
power to the circuit is
switched on. Since it is
low for some time after
power is switched on, it
resets the flip-flop (IC3A)
and decade counter
CD4017 (IC2). Fig. 4
shows the relative timing
waveforms pertaining to
this unit.
LED2 through LED5
are used to show the
BCD output for the
DTMF code received
over the telephone lines
(decoded after relay RL1
has energised).
The authentication
unit (Fig. 3). This circuit receives BCD data
and StD control signal
initially. It outputs
authorisation (Auth) signal only when the correct
security code has been
entered. Control pulses
can reach the main
switching unit only when this signal is
low (implying that authentication of the
four digit code sent over the telephone
lines has been verified).
Note that when a wrong code is received, IC9A clocks IC9B and a low is
latched by IC9B. As a result the Q2 out-

presses keys within preset time intervals,


or else a time-out is decreed and the device is reset.
The resetting process includes hangup (HUP) state, clearing the authentication circuit status, and consequently
deactivating the main switching circuit,

thus restoring the device to its initial


state. (The flip-flops, which control devices in the main device selection and
switching unit, are allowed to retain their
states.)
If the time-out period expires, the Reset pulse falls and the falling edge is
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 4: Signal waveforms of the interface and control unit

Fig. 5: Method of programming code using


DIP switches

put of IC9B goes high and saturates transistor T2 in the interface and control unit
and thereby shunts capacitor C10 to
ground, thus simulating a power-on-reset condition. As a consequence CLR signal (at output of IC6A) is activated and
the line interface circuit is initialised.
Also, since the monoshot IC5 is cleared,
Reset goes low (active) and resets the
authentication unit also. When the Authentication unit is initialised, IC9A and
9B are set, which causes Q2 output of
IC9 to be reset, and thus transistor T2 is
cut off again. Capacitor C10 now charges
through resistor R5 as it did when the
circuit was initially switched on.
The Reset signal is initially low. As a
result, this circuit is in its initialised state,
wherein IC13 (CD4017) is reset and ICs
9A and 9B (7474) are set (i.e. their Q
outputs are high and Q outputs are low).
Also, IC12A has its CLR pin low and it
is in reset state with its Q pin low. As
stated earlier, the Auth signal is initially
high.
The password consisting of four 4-bit
words is applied at the input pins D0_0
through D0_3 to D3_0 through D3_3 of
74LS244 ICs 15 and 14 respectively as
shown in Fig. 3. These words may be programmed using thumbwheel switches or
arrays of DIP switches with pull-down resistors as shown in Fig. 5.

As soon as the device establishes a


call (i.e. relay RL1 energises after a
preprogrammed number of rings), the authentication unit (and not the main device selection and control unit) is activated due to a high Reset pulse that is
generated as soon as the ring arrives and
also on every pressing of a key due to
(ESt) signal from IC4 via OR gate (IC7A),
which triggers IC5.
Now the caller is expected to enter
the 4-digit password sequence from the
remote telephone set in DTMF mode. Initially, only the first word (nibble) of the
array of tri-state buffer drivers (ICs
74LS244) is enabled by O0 output of IC13
(CD4017). As a result, the first 4-bit
programmed word is applied to the P
inputs of 4-bit comparator IC 74LS85
(IC8). LED7 through LED10 indicate the
preset data present at P inputs of the
comparator. The other 4-bit Q inputs
for comparison are obtained from the
BCD output decoded by IC4 upon pressing a DTMF telephone key at the remote
end. This comparator result is available
at pin 6 of IC8 before the arrival of StD
pulse.
On the arrival of StD pulse, the output of the comparator is latched into D
flip-flop (IC9A). Initially, both flip-flops
(IC9A and 9B) are set, as explained earlier. So the CLK input of the second flipflop (IC9B) is low.
If at any instant, a low is latched into
the first flip-flop IC9A (as a result of a
failed match between the preset code and
the code entered via the remote telephone
set), the second flip-flop (IC9B) is clocked,
and it latches a low at its Q output. This
resets decade counter IC13 via inverter
IC11F. The Q2 output of IC9B is normally low. But when a wrong password is
entered, this output goes high. As a result, transistor T2 (2N2222) of the interface and control unit, grounds the poweron-reset capacitor C10, as stated earlier.
Thus the unauthorized call is terminated
when the CLR signal (from the output of
IC6A) is activated. As a result, IC2 and
IC3A are reset (asynchronously) and the
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  APRIL 2001

off cradle simulation circuit is deactivated.


Also since the Reset signal is low, all other
units are initialised. This feature ensures
that a denial-of-service attack (wherein
unauthorised agents engage the system
and thus prevent authorised users from
using it) is discouraged.
However, if correct codes are entered,
each time when a StD pulse arrives, it
clocks CD4017 (IC13) counter so that the
next word is applied at the input of the
comparator. The result of the current comparison (high) is latched into the first D
flip-flop (IC9A).
When the user presses all four keys
in the correct sequence, the first flip-flop
always latches a high and the second
flip-flop is never clocked. At the end of
the sequence, when the last digit is compared and the result is latched, O4 output of CD4017 (IC13) goes high, and as
a result, IC12A is clocked and latches
a high at its Q output and the input to
inverter gate IC11E and D2 pin of flipflop IC12B goes high. Simultaneously, signal at the output of gate IC11E goes low.
This low signal at pin 12 of IC10D AND
gate disables the gate from accepting any
further StD pulses. So the authentication unit is bypassed and subsequent BCD
data and StD pulses are transmitted to
the main switching unit. The ESt pulse
associated with fifth BCD data, latches
the high signal at D2 input of IC12 to its
Q2 output, while its Q2 output (Auth)
goes low to activate the main device selection and switching unit at the start of
fifth code.
When the Reset signal goes high,
the output of inverter gate IC11F goes
low. This enables IC13 (CD4017) again by
taking its MR pin low. At the same time,
the high Preset signal at both the flipflops (IC9A and IC9B) keeps them enabled.
When the code is not entered within
preset period, the Reset signal goes low
on expiry of the time-out period, the circuit again goes back to its initial state by
taking the preset pin on the flip-flops
(IC9A and 9B) low and MR pin of CD4017
(IC13) high. Simultaneously, IC12A is
cleared (its Q output goes low). As a result, Auth output goes high and the
main device selection and switching
circuit is initialised and deactivated.
Since the initialised state is maintained
as long as the Reset signal is low, any
possibility of noise triggering is eliminated.
To be continued.

May

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

PRECISION INDUCTANCE AND


CAPACITANCE METER

MAR
IL KU
SUN

P. THANGAVEL

his circuit for measurement of inductance and capacitance can be


used to test whether the values
of inductors and capacitors quoted by the
manufacturer are correct.
The principle used in the circuit is
based on the transient voltages produced
across inductors and capacitors connected
as series R-L and R-C networks, respectively, across a constant voltage source.
The time constant for R-C and R-L networks is given by the relationships t=RxC
and L/R, respectively, where resistance R
is in ohms, capacitance C in Farads, inductance L in Henries, and time t in seconds.
The voltage
across capacitor
in R-C network
rises exponentially to 0.632 of
the applied voltage and voltage
across inductor in
R-L network degrades exponentially to 0.368 of
the applied voltage in one RxC
and one L/R time
(referred to as
time constant T
of the combination), respectively.
When the inductor/capacitor
under test is connected across terminals A and B
shown in the circuit, it is discharged through
the normallyclosed contacts of
two-way push-toon/off switch S1.

When switch S1 is pushed, the capacitors


voltage begins to grow (or the inductors
voltage begins to drop). Simultaneously,
the output of timer 555 IC, which is wired
as an astable multivibrator, is passed
through NOR gates N1 and N2 and applied to the counter circuit.
When the time constant (one CxR or
one L/R, as the case may be) reaches,
gate N2 is inhibited as its pin 2 goes high
and the counter circuit freezes. Mode
switch S2 is to be kept in position a1 for
capacitance measurement and in position
a2 for inductance measurement.
As series resistance R1 is 1 kilo-ohm,

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

the capacitance value is given by the relationship C=Tx103 while the inductor
value is given by the relationship
L=Tx103. The time period (1/frequency)
of timer 555 (IC2) is adjusted for 1 ms
and 1 s in b1 and b2 positions, respectively, of the range switch. The values of
capacitors and inductors covered in each
range, together with displayed values, are
shown in the table.
From the table it is obvious that this
circuit can measure capacitance from 1
nF to 9,999 F and inductance from 1
mH to 9999 H. While presets VR1 and
VR2 are to be adjusted for the in-circuit
value of 1.717 kilo-ohm each, the in-circuit value of preset VR3 is close to 4.7
kilo-ohm. If a regulated +5V is not used,
the measurement of capacitance and inductance will be imprecise.
Given below are some important
points to be taken care of:
1. The position of mode-select switch
S2 and range-select switch S3 should be
changed before switch S1 is pressed.
2. If the circuit is allowed to function

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

and when it is
in position a2,
555 IC
Capacitance
Displayed
inductances
Time period
range
value
C=Tx10 3
can be mea1 ms
When T=1 ms,
Capacitance in
sured.
(Switch S3 in C=1 F
F and inductance
4. When
position b1)
When T=
in H
range-select
9999 ms,
switch S3 is in
C=9999 F
1 s
When T=1 s,
When T=1 s,
Capacitance in nF position b1,
(Switch S3 in C=1 nF
L=1 mH
and inductance
the output of
position b2)
When T=9999 s, When T=9999 s,
in mH
555 IC will
C=9999 nF
L=9.999H
have a time
=9.999 F
=9999 mH
period of 1 ms
until it displays a constant value, the (frequency = 1 kHz), and when it is in
maximum time taken for measurement position b2, the output of 555 IC will
will be 10 seconds.
have a time period of 1 s. (EFY lab note.
3. When mode-select switch S2 is in The guaranteed frequency of NE555 is
position a1, capacitances can be measured, limited to 500 kHz, and hence it may not
TABLE
Inductance
range
L=Tx103
When T=1 ms, L=1H
When T=9999 ms,
L=9999 H

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

be possible to get 1s period. One may


therefore use a 2nF capacitor to get a
period of 2 s and multiply the displayed
value by 2, in b2 range.)
5. Use a breadboard for connecting
inductors or capacitors across terminals
A and B.
6. Using both the ranges for measuring an inductor or capacitor enables one
to obtain the accurate value. For example,
a 4.7F capacitor will display only 4 F
when measured in range b1 , while in b2
range it will display 4700 nF (or 4.7 F).
7. Dont press switch S1 before inserting the capacitor or the inductor between
terminals A and B.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

UNDER-/OVER-VOLTAGE BEEP
FOR MANUAL STABILISER

MAR
IL KU
SUN

K. UDHAYA KUMARAN
anual stabilisers are still popular because of their simple construction, low cost, and high reliability due to the absence of any relays
while covering a wide range of mains AC
voltages compared to that handled by automatic voltage stabilisers. These are used
mostly in homes and in business centres
for loads such as lighting, TV, and fridge,
and in certain areas where the mains AC
voltage fluctuates between very low (during peak hours) and abnormally high (during non-peak hours).
Some manual stabilisers available in
the market incorporate the high-voltage

eration is very irritating and inconvenient


for the user.
This under-/over-voltage audio alarm
circuit designed as an add-on circuit for
the existing manual stabilisers overcomes
the above problem. Whenever the
stabilisers output voltage falls below a
preset low-level voltage or rises above a
preset high-level voltage, it produces different beep sounds for high and low voltage levelsshort-duration beeps with
short intervals between successive beeps
for high voltage level and slightly longerduration beeps with longer interval between successive beeps for low voltage

auto-cut-off facility to turn off the load


when the output voltage of manual
stabiliser exceeds a certain preset high
voltage limit. The output voltage may become high due to the rise in AC mains
voltage or due to improper selection by
the rotary switch on manual stabiliser.
One of the major disadvantage of using a manual stabiliser in areas with a
wide range of voltage fluctuations is that
one has to keep a watch on the manual
stabilisers output voltage that is displayed
on a voltmeter and keep changing the
same using its rotary switch. Or else, the
output voltage may reach the preset autocut-off limit to switch off the load without
the users knowledge. To turn on the load
again, one has to readjust the stabiliser
voltage using its rotary switch. Such op-

level. By using these two different types


of beep sounds one can readily readjust
the stabilisers AC voltage output with the
help of the rotary switch. There is no need
of frequently checking voltmeter reading.
It is advisable to preset the high-level
voltage 10V to 20V less than the required
high-voltage limit for auto-cut-off operation. Similarly, for low level one may preset low-level AC voltage 20V to 30V above
minimum operating voltage for a given
load.
The primary winding terminals of
step-down transformer X1 are connected
to the output terminals of the manual
stabiliser. Thus, 9V DC available across
capacitor C1 will vary in accordance with
the voltage available at the output terminals of the manual stabiliser, which is
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

used to sense high or low voltage in this


circuit.
Transistor T1 in conjunction with zener diode ZD1 and preset VR1 is used to
sense and adjust the high-voltage level
for beep indication. Similarly, transistor
T2 along with zener ZD2 and preset VR2
is used to sense and adjust low voltage
level for beep indication.
When the DC voltage across capacitor C1 rises above the preset high-level
voltage or falls below the preset low-level
voltage, the collector of transistor T2 becomes high due to non-conduction of transistor T2, in either case. However, if the
DC voltage sampled across C1 is within
the preset high- and low-level voltage,
transistor T2 conducts and its collector
voltage gets pulled to the ground level.
These changes in the collector voltage of
transistor T2 are used to start or stop
oscillations in the astable multivibrator
circuit that is built around transistors T3
and T4. The collector
of transistor T4 is connected to the base of
buzzer driver transistor T5 through resistor R8. Thus when the
collector voltage of
transistor T4 goes
high, the buzzer
sounds. Preset VR3 is
used to control the
volume of buzzer
sound.
In normal condition, the DC voltage sampled across capacitor C1 is within the permissible window voltage zone. The base of transistor
T3 is pulled low due to conduction of diode D2 and transistor T2. As a result,
capacitor C2 is discharged. The astable
multivibrator stops oscillating and transistor T4 starts conducting because transistor T3 is in cut-off state. No beep sound
is heard in the buzzer due to conduction
of transistor T4 and non-conduction of
transistor T5.
When the DC voltage across capacitor C1 goes above or below the window
voltage level, transistor T2 is cut off. Its
collector voltage goes high and diode D2
stops conducting. Thus there is no discharge path for capacitor C2 through diode D2. The astable multivibrator starts

CIRCUIT

oscillating. The time period for which the


beep is heard and the time interval between two successive beeps are achieved
with the help of the DC supply voltage,
which is low during low-level voltage sampling and high during high-level voltage

IDEAS

sampling. The time taken for charging


capacitors C2 and C3 is less when the DC
voltage is high and slightly greater when
the DC voltage is low for astable
multivibrator operation. Thus during lowlevel voltage sensing the buzzer beeps for

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

longer duration with longer interval between successive beeps compared to that
during high-voltage level sensing.
This circuit can be added to any existing stabiliser (automatic or manual) or
UPS to monitor its performance.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

ULTRA-SENSITIVE SOLIDSTATE
CLAP SWITCH

MAR
IL KU
SUN

PRADEEP G.

ere is the circuit of a highly sensitive clap switch that can be


operated from a distance of up
to 10 metres from the microphone.
Signals picked up by the microphone
are amplified by transistors T1, T2, and

T3. Diode D1 detects clap signals and the


resulting positive voltage is applied to the
base of transistor T4. The output from
transistor T4 is further amplified by transistor T5, whose output is used to trigger
a monostable multivibrator wired around

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

the 555 timer (IC1).


The output of IC1 is used as a clock
for decade counter 4017 (IC2) that is wired
as a divide-by-two counter. For each successive clap, transistor T6 conducts and
cuts off alternately. As a result, for each
clap signal, the lamp is either switched
on or off.
Triac 8T44A (or ST044) can drive load
of up to 4-amp rating. The 12V DC for
operation of the circuit is directly derived
from the mains using rectifier diode D2,
current-limiting resistor R16, and 12V zener ZD1 shunted by filter capacitor C7.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

15-STEP DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY


ere is a simple circuit to obtain
variable DC voltage from 1.25V
to 15.19V in reasonably small
steps as shown in the table. The input
voltage may lie anywhere between 20V

down by closing switch S2.


The output of counter IC2 is used to
realise a digitally variable resistor. This
section consists of four N/O reed relays
that need just about 5mA current for their

ing resistor across the relay contacts gets


connected to the circuit.
The table shows the theoretical output for various digital input combinations.
The measured output is nearly equal to
the theoretically calculated output across
regulator IC3 (LM317). The output voltage is governed by the following relationship as long as the input-to-output differential is greater than or equal to 2.5V:
Vout = 1.25(1+R2'/R1')
Where, R1' = R15 = 270 ohms (fixed)

and 35V.
The first section of the circuit comprises a digital up-down counter built
around IC1 a quad 2-input NAND
schmitt trigger (4093), followed by
IC2 a binary up-down counter (4029).
Two gates of IC 4093 are used to generate up-down logic using push buttons S1 and S2, respectively, while the
other two gates form an oscillator to
provide clock pulses to IC2 (4029). The
frequency of oscillations can be varied
by changing the value of capacitor C1
or preset VR1.
IC2 receives clock pulses from the oscillator and produces a sequential binary
output. As long as its pin 5 is low, the
counter continues to count at the rising
edge of each clock pulse, but stops counting as soon as its pin 5 is brought to logic
1.
Logic 1 at pin 10 makes the counter
to count upwards, while logic 0 makes it
count downwards. Therefore the counter
counts up by closing switch S1 and counts

operation. (EFY lab note. The original


circuit containing quad bilateral switch
IC 4066 has been replaced by reed relays
operated by transistorised switches because of unreliable operation of the
former.) The switching action is performed
using BC548 transistors. External resistors are connected in parallel with the
reed relay contacts. If particular relay contacts are opened by the control input at
the base of a transistor, the correspond-

and R2' = R11 + R12 + R13 + R14


= 220 + 470 + 820 +1500 ohms
= 3,010 ohms (with all relays
energised)
One can use either the binary
weighted LED display as indicated by
LED1 through LED4 in the circuit or a
74LS154 IC in conjunction with LED5
through LED20 to indicate one of the 16
selected voltage steps of Table I. The input for IC4 is to be tapped from points

NAVEEN THARIYAN

RUP

ANJA

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

NA

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

TABLE
Binary
output
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

Equivalent
dec no.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

LED4
R14 (W)
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

LED3
R13 (W)
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
820
820
820
820
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
Shorted
820
820
820
820

marked A through D in the figure. This


arrangement can be used to replace the
LED arrangement at points A, B, C, and
D. This 74LS154 IC is a decoder/
demultiplexer that senses the output of
IC2 and accordingly activates only one of
its 16 outputs in accordance with the

LED2
R12 (W)
Shorted
Shorted
470
470
Shorted
Shorted
470
470
Shorted
Shorted
470
470
Shorted
Shorted
470
470

LED1
R11 (W)
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220
Shorted
220

R2' (W)
0
220
470
690
820
1040
1290
1510
1500
1720
1970
2190
2390
2540
2790
3010

Vout (V)
1.25
2.27
3.43
4.44
5.05
6.06
7.22
8.24
8.19
9.21
10.37
11.39
11.99
13.01
14.17
15.19

count value. LEDs at the output of this


IC can be arranged in a circular way along
side the corresponding voltages.

Working
When the power is switched on, IC2 re-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

sets itself, and hence the output at pins


6, 11, 14, and 12 is equivalent to binary
zero, i.e. 0000. The corresponding DC
output of the circuit is minimum (1.25V).
As count-up switch S1 is pressed, the
binary count of IC2 increases and the
output starts increasing too. At the highest count output of 1111, the output voltage is 15.19V (assuming the in-circuit resistance of preset VR2 as zero). Preset
VR2 can be used for trimming the output
voltage as desired. To decrease the output voltage within the range of 1.25V to
15.2V, count-down switch S2 is to be depressed.
Notes. 1. When relay contacts across
a particular resistor are opened, the corresponding LED glows.
2. The output voltages are shown assuming the in-circuit resistance of preset
VR2 as zero. Thus when the in-circuit resistance of preset VR2 is not zero, the
output voltage will be higher than that
indicated here.

CIRCUIT

MICROPHONE FOR
COMPUTER

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

VYJESH M.V.

uying a microphone for a computer is costly. Especially when


there is a need to have two microphonesone for modem and another
for sound cardor if the present microphone is not working properly and needs
to be replaced, you are likely to feel the
burden of extra cost. Here is a low-cost
microphone circuit that comes within your
budget.
All sound cards and modems have a

socket for microphone that is in compatible with stereo jack pins. The stereo socket
takes condenser microphone as
input and provides the necessary positive voltage for a condenser microphone. Before
building the full circuit, connect three wires to the jackpin,
switch on the computer, and
insert the jack pins; into the
socket of the sound card. With

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

the help of a multimeter, find out the


positive terminal out of the three wires.
There exists a potential difference of
4V or so between the positive and ground
terminals. The third terminal will obviously be for the signal input. The positive
terminal is used for biasing the condenser
microphone. After identifying all the terminals, connect them as shown in the accompanying circuit diagram.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

PROGRAMMABLE MELODY
GENERATOR - PART I

NA
ANJA
RUP

VYJESH M.V.

number of melody generator circuits based on chips like UM3481,


UM3482, UM34815A, UM66, etc
have appeared in EFY. All these UMC
chips contain preprogrammed masked
ROM and are not field-programmable as
such.
Here is the detailed design of a typical melody generator circuit using different types of memories, including EPROM,
RAM, and ROM (hard-wired).
As soon as the power is switched on
to UMXX series melody generators, a tune
is heard, which stops after a while. When
a switch on the melody generator is
pressed, the second tune is heard. If the
chip is capable of producing twelve tunes,
each successive depression of the switch
results in a new tune being played. After
the twelfth tune has been played, the next
depression of the switch causes the first
tune to repeat, and so on. The circuit presented here can be programmed exactly
the same way.

Basics of music
Generally, an electronic organ or piano is
played with both hands. Now imagine
playing a 32-key organ with a single
finger. In that case, only one key can
be pressed at a time and hence only one
note can be heard. Considering that the
time taken by the finger to move from
one key to another is very short, the re-

quired notes can be played properly and


hence the tune can be heard. The notes
can also have breaks in between. This
feature can be explained by considering
five notes written in the following two
ways:
1. SA RE GA MA PA
2. SA---RE GA---MA PA
In the first case the notes are continuous. In the second case there are
breaks (no sound), indicated by for a
stipulated amount of time, in between
SA and RE as well as GA and MA. Each
of the circuits explained in this project
incorporates the break (no sound) feature.
You should make sure that you have
access to a musician before attempting
any of the circuits. In addition, you would
need a computer and a frequency meter
or a digital multimeter. The computer is
required to test the tunes, i.e. to make
sure that the given notes match the tune
of a given song.
A brief on music from the software
article Generation of Indian Classical Music on a Microprocessor by Prof. V.V.
Athani, published in April 94 issue of
EFY, is as follows:
Taking into account only one electronic organ (piano), the number of notes
in music are only sevenSA RE GA MA
PA DHA NI. But these basic notes are
divided into three octaves (refer Fig. 4),
where each octave also has notes called

Fig. 1: Block diagram of EPROM-/RAM-based melody generator


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

half notes. So each octave has twelve


notes. On a piano keyboard, black keys
in between white keys produce the average frequency of adjacent keys. For
example, SA has a frequency of 595
Hz and RE has a frequency of 668 Hz.
When a black key in between them is
pressed, a frequency of 631.5 Hz is produced. These black keys are called halfnote keys.
Here we have selected a total of 28
notes, including all notes from the middle
octave, eleven notes from upper octave,
and a few from the lower octave. All the
28 notes with their respective frequencies are given in Table I.

Software and testing of notes


Before moving to the software program,
let us see how the notes for a tune can
be obtained. Give your musician the
song for which you need notes. Write
those notes in terms of SA RE GA etc,
making sure that all the notes of the
tune lie within the range of the 28 notes
given in Table I. No sound in between
the notes, including its duration, as
also the duration of each particular
note, should be taken into account. For
example, if in a tune the time period of
a note SA is 500 ms and that of RE 1500
ms, the two notes can be written as
SA RE RE RE. Similarly, no sound
in between can be written as SA RE-RESA.
The notes so obtained have to be converted into data characters. This can be
done directly by using Table I; for example, SA-RE RE GA---MA can be written as C-E E G---H.
Execute the program (refer Appendix
A for the source code of the program)
and enter the delay value (say, 300). Now
enter the first line of the tune and press
Enter key. The tune can be heard. This
tune can be repeated
by pressing R. If this
tune needs to be
changed, or a new tune
is to be entered, press
any key. In this way all
the lines in a tune are
tested line by line. After testing all the lines,
enter all the lines of the
tune once again and recheck the tunes until

CONSTRUCTION

you are satisfied. Press


E to quit the program.
Now convert the tunes
(data characters) to
hexadecimal values using Table I. These hexadecimal values are to be
entered into EPROM/
RAM at consecutive locations to get the tune.

Fig. 2: Main circuit of EPROM-/RAM-based melody generator

EPROM-/RAM-based
melody generator

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

Since most parts of the


circuits for EPROM- and
RAM-based melody generators are similar, the
main circuits for both
versions have been integrated in Fig. 2. Relevant changes have
been described appropriately.
The common block
diagram for EPROMand RAM-based melody
generators is shown in
Fig. 1. A low-frequency
oscillator followed by a
binary counter is used to
generate the addresses
for EPROM/RAM.
In the case of
EPROM,
the
preprogrammed data
output is directly
coupled to two 1-of-16
decoders (one for upper
nibble and the other for
lower nibble of data).
However, in RAM
based-circuit, a keyboard is deployed at the
time of writing the data
at specified locations
(addresses) into the
RAM. Thereafter the
keyboard is detached
and data output pins are
connected to two 1-of-16
decoders, as in EPROMbased circuit. Only 28
outputs (out of 32 outputs) of the two decoders, with each representing a unique note,
are used in conjunction
with individual presets
to control the oscillators

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Tone oscillator

Fig. 4: Piano keyboard

frequency and thus the resulting sound


from the loudspeaker.

EPROM-based circuit
In Fig. 2, NE555 timer (IC1) is wired in
astable mode, which provides clock pulses
for the 12-stage binary counter CD4040
(IC2). In the EPROM version, jumper J1
is used to permanently short pin 3 of IC1
and pin 10 of IC2, while there is no need
to operate push-to-on switches S2 and S3
and you can leave them open (i.e. in off
state).
An 8-bit, 4k EPROM 2732 is used for
IC3. Since its pin 21 is
address A11, switch S6 is
to be kept in position a
to connect it to O11 output of IC2. When clock
pulses are fed to IC2, it
starts counting up from
its reset state (all outputs
zero). The binary outputs
of IC2 serve as the address for memory locations in the EPROM,
where the data for the
notes is stored. For the
EPROM version, the pins
of connector K2(F) are to
be kept shorted to the
Fig. 5: Flow
corresponding pins of
chart of
connector K3(M). Suffixes
doorbell

F and M within parentheses indicate female and male connectors, respectively.


Data bits of the
lower nibble (D0
through D3) are connected from EPROM to
the address pins of 1of-16 decoder IC4
(CD4514) and those of
the higher nibble (D4
through D7) to the address pins of another 1of-16 decoder IC5
(CD4514).
The Hex value column in Table I indicates that either the
lower nibble or the upper nibble, or both
nibbles, of stored hex
data in memory will always be zero. It means
that at least one of the
two CD4514 (IC4 and
IC5) will have binary 0000 at its address
input. The Q0 output of these ICs is not
used for generating any note. The hex
data 00 (i.e. 0000 0000) is, in fact, used
for no sound. Similarly, hex values 01
(0000 0001) and 10 (0001 0000) are used

for Reset and Stop-clock functions.


The remaining 14 outputs from each
of the two CD4514 (IC4 and IC5) are
used together for generating one of the 28
notes corresponding to the hex data
stored and the output from a specific
memory location. The Q2 to Q15 outputs
of IC4 and IC5 are connected via diodes
D101 (and preset VR101) through diode
D128 (and preset VR 128), respectively, to
the tone oscillator circuit built around
timer NE555 (IC101), as shown in Fig. 3.
(EFY lab note. The numbering of diodes
and other components of this circuit has
been done for convenience.)
IC101 is wired with presets to form
an oscillator. At any time, only one of
diodes D101 to D128, depending on the
current note selected via EPROMs addressed location, will be forward biased
and its corresponding preset will form part
of the oscillator circuit. Each preset is adjusted to a value (refer Table I) to obtain
the frequency corresponding to the selected note.
No sound (00 hex). Breaks are necessary in between the notes to make a
tune sound perfect. The break period,
termed as no sound, is obtained by outputting hex value 00 from the EPROM.
During this input to the two 1-of-16 decoder ICs (IC4 and IC5), the Q0 outputs

Fig. 6: Actual-size single-sided PCB-1 layout for circuit of Fig. 2


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

CONSTRUCTION

input from
NAND gate
N1 and the
clock oscillator starts oscillating.
The flow
chart for a
doorbell
given in Fig.
5 shows the
order
in
which the
data is entered/read.
First, the
data pertaining to
the
first
tune
is
stored. Once
all the notes
(including
breaks/no
sound periods) for the
first tune
are stored, a
stop-clock
data
(10
hex)
is
stored at the
Fig. 7: Actual-size single-sided PCB-2 layout for circuit of Figs 3 and 11
end of tune1 that stops
of both decoder ICs go high.
after the first tune. Now on pressing
Since Q0 outputs are not connected push-to-off switch S1 momentarily, the
to the tone oscillator circuit (or anywhere clock advances to start the second tune
else), no note or sound is produced for (tune-2). Thus each tune is made to end
hex value 00, and there is only time with 10 hex code for stop signal. When
elapse. No sound code is used as break all tunes of the doorbell are exhausted,
between the notes.
the last stop-clock data is followed by a
Reset (01 hex). When the data out- reset data (01 hex), so that one goes to
put of EPROM corresponds to 01 (hex), the start of tune-1 (on reset), and the cycle
Q1 output of IC4 goes high. Since Q1 out- repeats.
put of IC4 is connected to MR (master
For instance, the hexadecimal value
reset) pin 11 of counter IC2 via resistor- of SA is 70H (refer Table I) or binary
capacitor network R2-C3, IC2 is reset 0111 0000, which means that binary data
when data 01 hex appears at the output at the input of IC4 and IC5 is 0000 and
of EPROM.
0111, respectively. As a result, only Q7
Stop-clock signal (10 hex). When output of IC5 goes high. This output
the data output of EPROM corresponds brings the associated preset resistor tuned
to 10 (hex), Q1 output of IC5 goes high, to the frequency of SA (595 Hz) into the
which after inversion by NAND gate N1 oscillator circuit. Simultaneously, data
is applied to pin 4 of IC1 via normally- 0000 at the input pins of IC4 causes its
closed contacts of push-to-off switch S1. Q0 pin to go high. But since Q0 is left
As a result, IC1 stops oscillating and pro- open, there is no effect.
ducing clock pulses. The active high Q1
Similarly, when binary data correoutput of IC5 is therefore referred to as sponding to note SA (05 hex) is output
stop-clock signal in this circuit. Pushing by the EPROM, Q5 of IC4 and Q0 of IC5
switch S1 at this stage removes logic high go high. The Q5 output of IC4 brings

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

PARTS LIST
(Common to EPROM, RAM and ROM)
Semiconductors:
IC101
- NE555 timer
IC201
- 7805 +5V regulator
D101-D128
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
D201-D204
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
Resistors (-watt 5% carbon, unless otherwise stated)
R101
- 5-kilo-ohm
VR101-VR128 - Refer Table I
VR129
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C101
- 0.1F ceramic disc
C102
- 0.22F ceramic disc
C103
- 10F, 12V electrolytic
C201
- 100F, 25V electrolytic
C202
- 1000F, 16V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
LS101
- 8-ohm, 4W loudspeaker
X201
- 230V AC primary to 0-6V,
500mA sec. transformer
(for EPROM and ROM)
Semiconductors:
IC1
- NE555 timer
IC2
- CD4040 counter
IC3
- (1) 2732 EPROM
- (2) 6116 RAM
IC4, IC5
- CD4514 1-of-16 decoder
IC6
- CD4011 quad NAND gate
T1-T8
- BC547 npn transistor
D1-D64
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
LED1-LED20
- Red LED
Resistors (-watt 5% carbon, unless otherwise stated)
R1, R7
- 10-kilo-ohm
R2
- 22-kilo-ohm
R3, R8
- 470-ohm
R4
- 1-mega-ohm
R5, R9-R16
- 1-kilo-ohm
R6
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R17, R18
- 100-ohm
R19
- 330-ohm
VR1
- 100-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1
- 22F, 12V electrolytic
C2
- 0.1F ceramic disc
C3
- 0.01F ceramic disc
C4
- 0.22F ceramic disc
Miscellaneous:
S1
- Push-to-off switch
S2-S5
- Push-to-on switch
S6
- SPDT switch
J1, J2
- Jumper
K1-K5
- Connectors

into circuit the corresponding preset tuned


to the frequency of SA (1190 Hz). The
Q0 output of IC5 has no effect, as Q0 is
open. In this way both the ICs (IC4 and
IC5) function in accordance with data at
their inputs to produce the corresponding
notes.
Power supply. The circuit shown in
Fig. 11 is used to obtain the regulated 5V
DC using IC 7805.

CONSTRUCTION

in the circuit diagram of Fig. 3, but adjusting the variable resistors to lower values in the table may be very tedious.
Any method may be used to adjust
all the variable resistors. But after playing a tune, it may be felt that the tune
doesnt sound proper, even if it sounded
right with computer. The reason can be
that the resistors were not properly tuned
or it may be due to minute imperfections
in output voltages from IC4 and IC5.
These imperfections can be overcome by
readjusting the resistors by the method
given below.
The imperfections can only be adjusted when data from the EPROM is
heard. But, the notes of a tune will not
be in an increasing frequency sequence.
The sequence should be PA , dha , ----- to
----- DHA , ni . To do this, include at least
two sets of sequence data from Table I
with 2-3 bytes of gap in between successive sequences, after all the tunes, as
shown in the flowchart of Fig. 10. This
method of readjustment is used only to
prevent disconnection of PCB of Fig. 7
from PCB of Fig. 6 and tuning the resistors again and again.
Remove jumpers J1 and J2. Switch
on the power supply. Press switch S4 to
provide clock pulses for IC2. Say, if the
EPROM contains 10 tunes, after the tenth
tune release S4. Now keep pressing S2
momentarily until the first note of the
sequence (PA ) sounds. Now connect the
frequency meter at the speaker terminals
(disconnect speaker if necessary) and adjust VR101 if the value of the frequency
meter reading is not consistent with the
value in the Table I. Press S2 again to
adjust VR102, and so on. After the readjustment process insert jumpers J1 and
J2 and press S3 to reset IC2.

Fig. 8: Component layout for PCB-1

The actual-size, single-sided PCB layouts for the circuits of Figs 2 and 3
(common for EPROM and RAM versions
of the melody generator) are shown in
Figs 6 (PCB-1) and 7 (PCB-2), respectively.
The component layouts for PCBs of Figs 6
and 7 are shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. The power supply circuit (Fig. 11)
has also been integrated in PCB-2.
This circuit can be used as a doorbell, or even as a car-reverse horn. The
flow chart for car-reverse horn is shown
in Fig. 12. The necessary connections are
shown in Fig. 13. When the circuit is used
as a car-reverse horn, data flows from
the next address location to where it
stopped earlier.

Preset adjustment
Connections to join the two PCBs should
be made only after the adjustment of presets on PCB-2 using any of the following
three procedures:
Using frequency meter. Assemble all
the components of PCB-2. Connect a probe
to the Vcc using a crocodile clip at the
other end. Switch on the 5V power supply
and connect the output from the tone
oscillator on the PCB to the frequency
meter. Now connect the probe to the anode of diode D101 and adjust preset resis-

tor VR101 for 446 Hz (refer Table I).


In this way all the variable resistors are
adjusted one by one by connecting +5V
from the probe to the corresponding diodes.
With the help of a musician. You
can seek the help of a musician if you
dont have access to a frequency meter or
a digital multimeter. Connect the output
from the tone oscillator to the speaker
and switch on the power supply. First,
choose the main notes in the middle octave. Connect the probe to the respective
diode of SA and tell the musician to
adjust the variable resistor to the frequency of SA. Now connect the probe
to the respective diode of RE and adjust
the variable resistor to the frequency
of RE, and so on. After adjusting main
notes, adjust half notes. (In Table I,
music notes shown in small letters are
half notes.) This method will be successful only if the musician is well trained in
music.
Using digital multimeter. First, assemble only preset resistors VR101
through VR128. Now adjust the variable
resistors to their respective values (shown
in column 6 of Table I) using a digital
multimeter. Use the variable resistors with
maximum value as given in column 7 of
Table I. You can also use the values shown
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

RAM-based circuit
The only difference between the EPROMand RAM-based circuits is the use of
RAM chip in place of EPROM and a keyboard for programming the RAM in RAMbased circuits. Besides, an LED panel is
used for displaying the selected RAM address.
Switch S2 is used to manually provide clock pulses to IC2. Similarly, switch
S3 is used to manually reset IC2 before
and after programming. Both switches (S2
and S3) are integrated into Fig. 2. The
connector K1 in between IC2 and IC3 is
used to connect to K5(M) connecter along

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 9: Component layout for PCB-2

with the associated LEDs as shown in


Fig. 14. EPROM 2732
(IC3) is replaced with an
8-bit, 2k SRAM (6116).
Pin 21 of 6116 is WE
(write enable active
low). Switch S6 is to be
kept in position b while
working with RAM.
At the time of writing (programming) data
into the RAM, there is
no connection between
connectors K2(F) and
K3(M). Also, jumper J1
is removed. To program
the RAM, K4(M) is to be
mated with K2(F). After
programming is over,
K2(F) is connected to
K3(M).
IC6 (CD4011) contains four NAND gates,
of which NAND gate N1
Fig. 10: Flow
is used for stop-clock sigchart for renals. It functions in the
adjustment

same manner as in an
EPROMbased circuit. The inputs of N1
are shorted
and
connected to
the ground
via resistor
R7. So the
output of N1
becomes
high, which
keeps IC1
oscillating.
After a
stop-clock
(active
high) signal
appears at
the input of
NAND gate
N1, its output
goes
low. When
switch S1 is
pressed, the
output of N1
goes high
and
IC1
starts oscillating again.
Gates N2 and N3 are used to provide read
and write logic for RAM. In read condition, the output of N3 is at logic 0 be-

Fig. 11: Power supply

The LEDs indicate


addresses
of
memory locations of
RAM. Glowing of
LED1
through
LED11 together
means that last
RAM location is being addressed. (We
are using a 2kB
RAM.)
Keyboard. The
circuit diagram of
keyboard is shown
in Fig. 15. Male connector K4(M) should
be connected to
Fig. 12: Flow chart
K2(F) during proof car-reverse horn
gramming.
The
circles shown with
the corresponding hex values are simple
metallic contacts (or tabs) that avoid
the use of a large number of switches.
To enter the hex data, the probe is
touched to the corresponding metallic contact tab.
The keyboard can be easily wired using a general-purpose board. To test the
keyboard after wiring, connect point A
to the ground via a 100-ohm resistor (R18)
as shown in Fig. 15. Now touch each and
every tab one by one using the metallic
probe and verify that the data shown by
the LEDs (LED13 through LED20) is consistent with the hex value shown on the
tab/circle. After checking, disconnect resistor R18.
Connector K3 should
be soldered to the PCB
by using a ribbon cable
of adequate length, so
that it could be easily
connected to K2(F) after
programming. The outputs from IC4 and IC5
go to preset-array part
of the tone oscillator.
Wiring is done similar to
that in an EPROM version.

cause its inputs are at logic 1. Pressing of switch S5 provides write


condition, since the output of gate N3
is at logic 1 and that of gate N2 at
logic 0.
LED connector. A separate male
connector K5(M) is fabricated with
LEDs as shown in Fig. 14. This connector should be connected to K1(F). Fig. 13: Wiring connections for car-reverse horn
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

CONSTRUCTION

TABLE I
Music
note

Frequency
of music
note
(Hz)

Data
character

Hex
value

Variable
resistor
(preset)
number

Variable
resistor
in-circuit
value (ohm)

Maximum
value of
variable
resistor

446
472
500
530
561

1
2
3
A
B

20
30
40
50
60

VR101
VR102
VR103
VR104
VR105

8274
7740
7230
6744
6288

10k
10k
10k
10k
10k

595
630
668
707
749
794
841
891
944
1000
1062
1120

C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N

70
80
90
A0
B0
C0
D0
E0
F0
02
03
04

VR106
VR107
VR108
VR109
VR110
VR111
VR112
VR113
VR114
VR115
VR116
VR117

5850
5445
5055
4698
4356
4029
3726
3438
3165
2910
2655
2445

10k
10k
10k
5k
5k
5k
5k
5k
5k
5k
5k
5k

1190
1260
1335
1414
1498
1588
1682
1782
1888
2002
2122

O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y

05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F

VR118
VR119
VR120
VR121
VR122
VR123
VR124
VR125
VR126
VR127
VR128

2220
2016
1824
1644
1473
1308
1158
1014
876
747
624

5k
5k
2k
2k
2k
2k
2k
2k
1k
1k
1k

Lower octave
PA
dha
DHA
ni
NI
Middle octave
SA
re
RE
ga
GA
MA
ma
PA
dha
DHA
ni
NI
Upper octave
SA
re
RE
ga
GA
MA
ma
PA
dha
DHA
ni
no sound

00

Reset 01
Stop-clock 10

Fig. 15: Keyboard and probe for programming RAM


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

Programming. Connect
LED connector
K5(M) to K1(F)
and keyboard
connector
K4(M)
to
K2(F). Press
switch S3 momentarily to
reset IC2. No
LED glows on
the LED connector, indicating the initial
address
as
zero.
Now
touch the tab
Fig. 14: LED indicator
marked 00
circuit
with the probe.
Press S5 momentarily and lift the probe.
Glowing of no LED on the keyboard indicates that 00 is entered in the initial
memory location. (It is good to enter 00
in the first memory location.)
Now get the hex dump values of the
tunes. Press switch S2 to go to the next
memory location, indicated by LED1 (corresponding to address line A0), on the
LED connector strip. Touch the appropriate tab with the probe to enter the corresponding hexadecimal value at memory
location 1. Press switch S5 and lift the
probe. The data entered into memory location 1 is shown by keyboard LEDs in
binary form.
Hex data values (refer Table I) are
such that any of the four LEDs corre-

CONSTRUCTION

Appendix A
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
void play(char *str,int d);
void main()
{
int f,d=200;
char ch1[180],ch2;
clrscr();
printf(\n Enter delay value:);
scanf( %d ,&d);
while(1)
{
printf(\n enter tune :);
scanf( %s ,&ch1);
play(ch1,d);
a:ch2=getch();
if (tolower(ch2)==r)
{ play(ch1,d);
goto a;
}
if (tolower(ch2)==e)
exit(0);

}
}
void play(char *str,int d)
{
int i=0;
while(str[i]!=\0')
{
switch(str[i])
{
case1':sound(446);
break;
case2':sound(472);
break;
case3':sound(500);
break;
caseA:sound(530);
break;
caseB:sound(561);
break;
caseC:sound(595);
break;
caseD:sound(630);
break;
caseE:sound(668);
break;

sponding to either D0 through D3 bits or


D4 through D7 bits would glow to show
the data entered. So it is easy to identify
whether the data entered is correct or
not. If necessary, make a table of binary
data along with corresponding hex values.
After entering all the tunes, disconnect keyboard from K2(F) and connect
K3(M) to K2(F). Now connect external
jumper J1 as shown in the circuit diagram.
Switch S4 across jumper J1 terminals

caseF:sound(707);
break;
caseG:sound(749);
break;
caseH:sound(794);
break;
caseI:sound(841);
break;
caseJ:sound(891);
break;
caseK:sound(944);
break;
caseL:sound(1000);
break;
caseM:sound(1062);
break;
caseN:sound(1120);
break;
caseO:sound(1190);
break;
caseP:sound(1260);
break;
caseQ:sound(1335);
break;
caseR:sound(1414);

is not necessary but it may prove useful if


any readjustment of variable resistors is
needed (as in the case of EPROM), or for
checking each and every tune one by one.
The programming steps are
summarised as below:
1. Press switch S3.
2. Touch tab 00 with the probe.
3. Press and release switch S5.
4. Lift the probe.
5. Press S2 to go to the next memory
location.
6. Repeat from step 2 onwards for the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

break;
caseS:sound(1498);
break;
caseT:sound(1588);
break;
caseU:sound(1682);
break;
caseV:sound(1782);
break;
caseW:sound(1888);
break;
caseX:sound(2002);
break;
caseY:sound(2122);
break;
case-:nosound();
break;
}
delay(d);
i++;
}
nosound();
}

next hex value programming.


7. After last data is entered, press S3.
8. Keep S4 pressed to check all the
tunes that have been entered.
9. Connect jumper J1 if all tunes are
entered.
The data table (Table I), writing of
musical notes, conversion of notes to hex
values, preset-array alignment, and flow
charts for door-bell and car-reverse tune
are also applicable for the RAM version.
(Stay tuned for the next issue)

C O N S T R U C T I O N

TELEPHONE LINE-INTERFACED
GENERIC SWITCHING SYSTEM
PART II

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

AJAY SUBRAMANIAN AND NAYANTARA BHATNAGAR

n Part I we had covered the interface and control unit and the authentication unit. Before we proceed
with the description of the next unit (main
device selection and switching unit) shown
in the block diagram of Fig. 1, the following modifications may be incorporated in
Part I:
1. In the interface unit (Fig. 2), replace 2-input AND gate IC6A (7408) with
a 3-input AND gate (7411) and connect
Reset signal from pin 13 of IC5 (1Q) to
the third input of the new 3-input AND
gate. This modification has been done so
that when Reset signal is low (active), no
part of the circuit is active. All ICs will
be asynchronously reset. To avoid any confusion, change in the input connections of
IC6A AND gate is shown in Fig. 6.
2. In the authentication circuit (Fig.
3), CLR2* pin 13 of IC12B is to be disconnected from +5V rail and joined with

Fig. 6: Modification

CLR1 pin 1 of IC12A, so that authentication signal AUTH is deactivated on system reset.
Main device selection and switching unit (Fig. 7). This circuit receives
StD control signal after a successful authentication of the four-digit code by the
authentication unit. The AUTH and its
inverse AUTH signals available on code
authentication are used in this circuit for
enabling various chips such as IC23 and
IC24 (74LS195), IC25 (CD4017), IC27
through IC29 (74LS154), and StD gate
IC19C (7408).
A combinational logic circuit, comprising three 3-input NOR gates inside 7427
(IC16) and two inverter gates (IC17B and
17C) of 7404, has been used to discriminate between an address (numeric digit)
and a switching signal (* for on and #
for off). DTMF digit switches 1 through
9 and 0 (0 on the telephone keypad stands
for decimal 10 and the decoded output from
MT8870 is the equivalent
binary number 1010) generate a logic-1, R_EN
(register enable) signal,
while keys marked * and
# generate a logic-1,
S_EN (switching enable)
signal. Thus this combinational logic differentiates between register enable (R_EN) and device
switching enable (S_EN)
signals. The R_EN and
S_EN outputs for various
key depressions of the
telephone keypad are
shown in Truth Table.
The combinational
logic circuit is followed
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- NE555 timer
IC2, IC13, IC25 - CD4017 decade counter
IC3, IC9, IC12,
IC21, IC22
- 7474 dual D flip-flops
IC4
- MT8870 DTMF decoder
IC5
- 74123 dual retriggerable
monostable multivibrator
IC6
- *7411 triple 3-input AND
gates
IC7
- 7432 quad OR gates
IC8
- 74LS85 4-bit magnitude
comparator
IC10, IC19
- 7408 quad 2-input AND
gates
IC11, IC17
- 7404 hex inverters
IC14, IC15
- 74LS244 octal buffers/line
drivers
IC16
- 7427 triple 3-input gates
IC18
- 7400 quad 2-input NAND
gates
IC20
- 74125 quad bus buffers
IC23, IC24
- 74195 4-bit parallel access
shift registers
IC26
- 7414 hex Schmitt inverters
IC27-IC29
- 74LS154 4-line to 16-line
decoders
Opto-1
- MCT2E opto-coupler
T1,T2
- 2N2222 npn transistor
D1,D2
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
D3, D4
- 1N4148 switching diode
ZD1, ZD2
- Zener diode 5.1V
LED1-LED10 - Red LEDs
Resistors (1/4W 5% carbon, unless specified otherwise)
R1, R2, R5, R29 - 10-kilo-ohm
R3, R12, R30
- 100-kilo-ohm
R4
- 220-ohm
R6-R9
- 51-kilo-ohm
R10
- 39-kilo-ohm
R11
- 56-kilo-ohm
R13
- 330-kilo-ohm
R14-R18
- 1.2-kilo-ohm
R19
- 20-kilo-ohm
R20, R27, R28 - 1-mega-ohm
R21-R24,
R31-R34
- 470-ohm
R25,R26
- 1-kilo-ohm
R31-R34
- 4.7-kilo-ohm
Capacitors:
C1
- 0.47F, 160V polyester
C2,C4-C6
- 0.01F ceramic disc
C3, C9, C13
- 10F, 16V electrolytic
C7, C8, C14
- 0.1F ceramic disc
C10
- 100F, 16V electrolytic
C11, C12
- 47F, 16V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
Xtal
- 3.57946MHz quartz crystal
RL1
- Relay 6V, 100-ohm, 1 C/O
- 5V, 1A regulated power
supply
- Berg stick/FRC connectors
- Ribbon cable etc.
*Note. IC 7408 is replaced with 7411 (refer
Fig. 6).

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 7: Main device selection and switching unit


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Fig. 8: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for the circuits in Figs 2 and 3

Fig. 9: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for the circuit in Fig. 7


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

by the RCLK and SCLK generation circuitry comprising ICs 18, 19, 25, and 26,
which allows the following functions to
be performed:
After AUTH signal at Q (pin 8 of
IC12B in Fig. 3) goes low (active), one
can select a group and a device within
the selected group by next two DTMF
switch depressions on the telephone keypad, while a third key depression of * or
# results into switching on or off of the
desired device.
Multiple devices can be switched
on/off one after the other, once
authorisation signal AUTH becomes active (low) without a system reset.
The system can be reset after or
before switching on/off of the desired
device with the help of remote telephone
keypad. This feature can also be used for
avoiding switching on/off of a device if
the user perceives that he has selected a
wrong device.
When R_EN signal is logic 1, IC25
(CD4017) is clocked at the leading edge
of StD pulse, while one of the 74LS195
registers (IC23 or IC24, as enabled by
one of the Q outputs of IC25) is latched
at the trailing edge of the delayed Std
pulse (RCLK) as indicated by the direction of arrow on RCLK pulse in Fig. 7.
The resistor-capacitor combinations R26C11 and R25-C12 wired around Schmitt
inverter gates A through D of IC26 (7414)
provide the necessary delay for reliable
latching of the data in IC23 and IC24.
Resistors R27 and R28 across capacitors
C11 and C12, respectively, serve as bleeders for discharging the respective capacitors.
When S_EN signal is logic 1, clocking
of 7474 D flip-flops via active 74LS125
gates occurs corresponding to the leading
edge of Std (SCLK) pulses, while the trailing edge resets IC25 via capacitor C14, to
enable receiving of fresh group and device selection data.
(EFY note. The circuit comprising
IC25 and IC26 includes some modifications by EFY Lab to improve the timing
of RCLK and SCLK for reliable operation
of the RCLK and SCLK generation part
of the circuit.)
Group selection. When any of DTMF
numeric keys 1 through 9 and 0 on the
remote telephone keypad is depressed immediately after AUTH signal goes active
low, R_EN signal goes to logic 1 (while
S_EN is logic 0). As a result, Std pulse
passing through NAND gates IC18B and

C O N S T R U C T I O N

IC18C clocks IC25 with its leading edge.


IC25 is in reset condition before code authentication due to high AUTH signal,
and its Q0 (pin 3) is high. On clocking,
shifting of high state from Q0 to Q1 (pin
2) enables AND gate IC19B, while AND
gate IC19 is still disabled. Thus the trailing edge of RCLK passes through IC19B
to latch the MT8870-decoded data corresponding to the mentioned numeric key
depression, which is available at the input of group select register IC24, at its
output. This is the group select address.
The group select address is applied
to the address lines of 4-line-to-16-line
decoder IC29 (group selector). In the normal telephone keypad, we use only ten
numeric keys (1 through 9 and 0) and
hence only ten outputs (Y1 through Y10)
are available from IC29. The other six
outputs Y0 and Y11 through Y15 are not
used. Thus we can select any of the
groups 1 through 10 via outputs marked
Y1 through Y10 of IC29.
The output corresponding to the address present at IC29s input pins goes
low (active). This low (active) output selects/enables another IC 74LS154 representing the corresponding group. (Please
note that this is only a demo version
circuit, wherein only two groups, out of
ten possible groups, can be accessed using IC27 and IC28. Pin 19 of IC27 and
IC28 can be connected to any of the group
select pins Y1 through Y10 of IC29, as
desired. Once connected, the specific
group numbers will get allocated to IC27
and IC28.)
Device selection within the selected group. The next DTMF number
key depression (i.e. the sixth after
energisation of relay RL1 or the second
after the 4-digit authentication code)
causes shifting of high on pin 2 (Q1) of
IC25 to pin 4 (Q2) in synchronism with
the leading edge of StD pulse clocking
IC25. As a result, AND gate IC19A is
enabled while AND gate IC19B is disabled.
The trailing edge of delayed StD pulse
(RCLK) causes the data corresponding to
the mentioned numeric key to be latched
at the output of device select register
IC23. This device select address is applied to address input pins of all group
ICs (IC27 and IC28, here) in parallel.
However, since only one group IC is in
selected condition (as explained earlier),
the device control output corresponding
to the device select address present at

Fig. 10: Component layout for PCB-1

Fig. 11: Component layout for PCB-2


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Switching on or
off refers to Q output of the corresponding D flip-flop
(7474) going high or
low, respectively.
You may suitably
use the flip-flop outputs to energise a relay or fire a triac or
control the corresponding device/devices.
If you press any
number key (1
through 9 or 0) instead of * or # key on
the DTMF keypad, IC25 will receive a
clock pulse via AND gates IC18B and
IC18C, and the high state will shift from
Q2 to Q3 (pin 7 of IC25). Since Q3 output
is
coupled
to
the
base
of transistor T2 via diode D4, it will result into a system reset (as explained
in Part I). A system reset implies that
you have to redial the local telephone
number from remote telephone. When relay RL1 again energises, redial the fourdigit authentication code, followed by
group select, device select, and switch on
(*) or switch off (#) codes, as explained
earlier.
Thus, after dialing two digits identifying the group and the device within that
group, if we press a third numeric digit
instead of * or # on the remote telephone keypad, a system reset can be
achieved remotely. This feature can also
be utilised to bypass switching operation
if the user realises that he has selected a
wrong group/device.
Operation summary. The entire operation can be summarised as below:
Using the remote telephone keypad, dial the local number of the
telephone to which the circuit is connected.
If the local handset is lifted before
the programmed number of rings, a normal conversation can ensue.
If the handset is not lifted before
the programmed number of rings, wait
for simulated off-hook status of the local
telephone handset (indicating energisation
of relay RL1).
Now dial the four digits of the preset authentication code in a proper sequence from the remote keypad within
the preset duration. A system reset will
occur in case the 4-digit code is not
dialed within the preset duration or

Truth Table for Device Selection and Switching


Keypad
Decoded data input
Switch and register
Key
from MT8870
enable outputs
No.
D3
D2
D1
D0
S_EN
R_EN
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
1
0
1
4
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
1
0
1
0
1
6
0
1
1
0
0
1
7
0
1
1
1
0
1
8
1
0
0
0
0
1
9
1
0
0
1
0
1
0(10)
1
0
1
0
0
1
* (11)
1
0
1
1
1
0
#(12)
1
1
0
0
1
0

the active group input is pulled low. This


active low output is used as the control
signal for a corresponding tri-state gate
of 74LS125 (IC20).
We have shown only four gates, out
of possible 100, in this circuit. The output pins of tri-state gates are connected
to the clock inputs of the corresponding
D flip-flops (only four out of possible 100
are shown). The clock pins of IC21 and
IC22 have been pulled high to avoid any
noise triggering when tri-state buffers are
in high-impedance state.
Switching the selected device. Only
one device corresponding to the digit in
the registers IC24 for group address and
IC23 for device address is enabled to be
affected by the signal (* or #) as the
seventh (or the third after authentication) code. On pressing DTMF keypad
switch * or #, the selected device is
switched on or switched off depending on
the key pressed. D0 bit of the decoded
switching signals * and # is applied
to data pins of all 7474 flip-flops in
parallel. Only the data corresponding
to the selected device gets clocked via
the corresponding tri-state gate of
74LS125.
The Q2 output of IC25 is still high
when SCLK is generated and, as a result, AND gate IC18D is enabled to allow application of SCLK to all 74LS125
gates on depression of either * or # on
the remote keypad. Switching takes place
at the trailing edge of SCLK pulse, while
the trailing edge of SCLK pulse causes
resetting of IC25, thereby creating conditions that were unavailable just before
the previous group selection. Subsequently, you can select any other (or the
same) group and any other (or the same)
device. You can switch on or off the selected device by following the same procedure.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  MAY 2001

the code used is wrong, which causes


de-energisation of the relay and creates
conditions similar to on-hook state of
the local telephone handset. So you will
have to repeat all steps from the beginning.
If the 4-digit authentication code
matches the preset code, you can dial the
next two digits identifying the group and
the device within that group selected for
the purpose of switching on or off (or even
as a dummy operation for the purpose of
forcing a system reset).
Dialing * from the remote telephone keypad will result into switching
on of the selected device, while dialing #
will result into switching off of the selected device. (Dialing any number, 1
through 9 or 0, causes a system reset.
Relay RL1 will be de-energised, and you
will have to restart from the initial step.)
You can proceed with the same procedure
to switch on/off the next selected device.
The procedure can be repeated for any
number of devices (one-at-a-time) without affecting the status of non-selected
devices.
Testing. It is recommended that the
circuit be built in stages, verifying proper
operation at each stage. The main switching circuit may be assembled conventionally, with logic operation tested at various points. The authentication circuit is
also self-contained and may be assembled
and debugged independently.
However, care must be taken while
assembling the interface and control unit.
The ASIC must be assembled first and
tested for proper operation and output levels, followed by rigging and testing of
monostable multivibrators in the 74123.
The ring pulse generator and decade
counter, CD4017, comes next. Finally, interface connections between the various
circuits should be made after verifying
the proper functioning of each circuit in
isolation.
A single-sided PCB for the circuits in
Figs 2 and 3, and including modification
referred in Fig. 6, is shown in Fig. 8,
while another single-sided PCB for the
circuit in Fig. 7 is shown in Fig. 9. The
component layouts for both the PCBs are
given in Figs 10 and 11, respectively.
Suitable connectors are provided to enable isolation and joining of individual
circuits using jumpers/connectors, for
easy testing and fault analysis during assembly.

June

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

VERSATILE ZENER DIODE TESTER


K. UDHAYA KUMARAN

ener diodes available in the market are specified according to their


breakdown voltage as well as tolerance. The tolerance may vary from 5
per cent to 20 per cent. The circuit of a
versatile zener diode tester presented here
enables you to verify the specified breakdown voltage and tolerance values. In addition, you can check the dynamic impedance of a zener diode.
The dynamic impedance characteristics of a
zener diode determine
as to how well the zener diode regulates its
own breakdown voltage.
Thus this circuit can be
used to compare the dynamic impedance characteristics of zener diodes from a lot and segregate/categorise them
accordingly.
For full-fledged zener diode testing you
will have to refer to the manufacturers
datasheet to check zener diode parameters
such as zener voltage, power, and current (maximum/nominal) ratings. In addition, temperature coefficient and dynamic impedance have also to be checked
if zener diode is to be used for critical
functions such as voltage reference for
TABLE I
Minimum and Maximum Test Current
Values
Zener diode values
IT(min)
IT(max)
3.3V to 4.3V
10mA
15mA
4.7V to 18V
5mA
10mA
20V to 39V
2mA
4mA
Note: Zener diode power ratings are 250 mW,
400 mW, and 500 mW.
TABLE II
Minimum and Maximum Test Current
Values
IT(max)
Zener diode values
IT(min)
3.3V to 12V
10mA
15mA
13V to 27V
5mA
10mA
30V to 43V
2mA
5mA
47V to 75V
1.5mA
3mA
82V to 120V
1mA
2mA
Note: Zener diode power rating is 1 watt.

digital voltmeters, control systems, and


precision power-supply circuits. However,
for a common hobbyist it is not necessary
to check zener diodes critically, and only
checking its dynamic impedance characteristic is sufficient.
Dynamic impedance implies the degree of change in a zener diodes voltage
with the change in current. Expressed in
ohms, it equals the small change in zener

operation. In quick-test mode, you can


perform a rough check of zener diodes
breakdown voltage up to 47 volts. In quality-test mode, you can check dynamic impedance characteristic for zener diodes
from 3.3V to 120V.
Commonly available step-down transformers X1 and X2 (230V AC primary to
9V AC, 750 mA sec. each) are connected
back-to-back as shown in the figure. A
bridge rectifier followed by filter capacitor C1 converts the output from X2 transformer to DC. Neon lamp L1 indicates
the presence of higher DC voltage (220V
approximately) across capacitor C1, which
is used to test various zener diode values
from 3.3V to 120V.

voltage divided by the corresponding


change in zener current (centered around
the test current figure prescribed in
datasheets by manufacturers). From
datasheets it is observed that test current value is high for low-voltage zener
diodes and low for higher-voltage zener
diodes. However, the dynamic impedance
value will be low for low-voltage zener
diodes and vice versa for higher-voltage
zener diodes.
To test 3.3V to 120V zener diodes by
the practical dynamic impedance method,
you need to have a variable voltage (0 to
above 120V) and current (1 mA to 150
mA) supply source. Designing this type of
power supply is quite complicated and is
prone to damage if excess current is
drawn accidentally.
The zener diode tester circuit presented here has been designed considering the above factors. It is capable of testing zener diodes of breakdown voltage ratings of upto 120V and wattage ratings of
250 mW, 400 mW, 500 mW, and 1W.
The circuit can be deployed in quicktest mode as also in quality-test mode of

An advantage of using this high-voltage circuit is that the current gets restricted to a low value. It delivers only 3
mA (approx.) when testing zener diodes
with higher breakdown values (e.g. 120V
zener diode), but while testing zener diodes of low breakdown values, such as
3.3V, it delivers a current slightly above
20 mA. Such power-supply characteristics suit our requirement, as stated earlier. Since a small current is used for testing of zener diodes, there is no danger of
zener diodes getting damaged during testing using the dynamic impedance method.
Before using the circuit, check DC voltage across test terminals A and B without
connecting any zener diode and then flip
toggle switch S2 to quick-test position. DC
voltage available across terminals A and
B will be around 200V DC. Now put toggle
switch to quality-test position. DC voltage
can now be adjusted from 6V DC to 200V
DC (approx.) with the help of potentiometer VR1. After these preliminary checks,
the circuit is ready for operation.
To test zener diode by quick-test
method, connect zener diode across termi-

MAR
IL KU
SUN

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

CIRCUIT

nals A and B and flip switch S1 to on


position. Note down DC voltage in digital
multimeter M2, which is the rough breakdown voltage. In quick-test method you
can test zener diode values up to 47 volts
safely. For higher-value zener diodes you
will have to increase the value of resistor
R3 suitably. If zener diode presents a short,
digital multimeter M2 will read 0 volts.
To perform quality test on the same
zener diode, turn switch S1 off and remove zener diode from across terminals A
and B. Now turn switch S1 on and adjust
potentiometer VR1 to obtain DC voltage
(on digital multimeter) across terminals A

IDEAS

and B equal to the one found during quick


test method. Now keep potentiometer VR2
in mid position and connect zener diode
across terminals A and B.
(Note. Before testing zener diode, refer Table I and Table II for the minimum
test current (ITmin) and maximum test
current (ITmax) required for various zener diode values, depending upon their
wattage rating.)
Test current is adjusted using potentiometer VR2 and measured using meter
M1 (A 0-25mA analogue milliampere
meter or a 0-20mA digital multimeter can
be used.)

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

Now adjust potentiometer VR2 and


note down changes in zener voltage during ITmin and ITmax conditions. If the required current is not available, increase
DC voltage by adjusting potentiometer
VR1 suitably. While changing test current
from ITmin to ITmax, the voltage variation
across zener diode should be less than 1
volt for lower-value zener diodes and a
few volts for higher-value zener diodes. A
voltage variation of more than this value
indicates that zener diode is not properly
regulating. When comparing zener diodes
of same values, the zeners showing less
voltage deviation would regulate better.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

DTMF PROXIMITY DETECTOR


DTMF-based IR transmitter and
receiver pair can be used to realise
a proximity detector. The circuit
presented here enables you to detect any
object capable of reflecting the IR beam
and moving in front of the IR LED photodetector pair up to a distance of about 12
cm from it.

column 1 (pin 12) get connected together


via transistor T2 after a power-on delay
(determined by capacitor C1 and resistors R1 and R16 in the base circuit of the
transistor) to generate DTMF tone (combination of 697 Hz and 1209 Hz) corresponding to keypad digit 1 continuously.
LED 2 is used to indicate the tone

from an object, falls on photodetector diode D1. (The photodetector is to be


shielded from direct IR light transmission path of IR LED1 by using any opaque
partition so that it receives only the reflected IR light.) On detection of the signal by photodetector, it is coupled to
DTMF decoder IC2 through emitter-follower transistor T1.
When the valid tone pair is detected
by the decoder, its StD pin 15 (shorted to
TOE pin 10) goes high. The detection of

The circuit uses the commonly available telephony ICs such as dial-tone generator 91214B/91215B (IC1) and DTMF
decoder CM8870 (IC2) in conjunction with
infrared LED (IR LED1), photodiode D1,
and other components as shown in the
figure. A properly regulated 5V DC power
supply is required for operation of the circuit.
The transmitter part is configured
around dialer IC1. Its row 1 (pin 15) and

output from IC3. This tone output is amplified by Darlington transistor pair of T3
and T4 to drive IR LED1 via variable resistor VR1 in series with fixed 10-ohm
resistor R14. Thus IR LED1 produces
tone-modulated IR light. Variable resistor VR1 controls the emission level to vary
the transmission range. LED 3 indicates
that transmission is taking place.
A part of modulated IR light signal
transmitted by IR LED1, after reflection

the object in proximity of IR transmitterreceiver combination is indicated by


LED1. The active-high logic output pulse
(terminated at connector CON1, in the
figure) can be used to switch on/off any
device (such as a siren via a latch and
relay driver) or it can be used to clock a
counter, etc.
This DTMF proximity detector finds
applications in burglar alarms, object
counter and tachometers, etc.

K.S. SANKAR

RUP

ANJA

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

NA

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL


JAYDIP APPASAHEB DHOLE

simple, low-cost hardwired step


per motor control circuit that can
be used in low-power applications,
such as moving toys etc is presented here.
The circuit comprises a 555 timer IC
configured as an astable multivibrator
with approx. 1Hz frequency. The frequency is determined from the following
relationship:
Frequency = 1/T = 1.45/(RA + 2RB)C
Where RA = RB = R2 = R3 = 4.7 kilo-ohm
and C = C2 = 100 F.
The output of timer is used as clock
for two 7474 dual D flip-flops (IC2 and
IC3) configured as a ring counter. When
power is initially switched on, only the
first flip-flop is set (i.e. Q output at pin 5
of IC2 will be at logic 1) and the other
three flip-flops are reset (i.e. their Q outputs will be at logic 0). On receipt of a
clock pulse, the logic 1 output of the first
flip-flop gets shifted to the second flipflop (pin 9 of IC2). Thus with every clock
pulse, the logic 1 output keeps shifting
in a ring fashion.
Q outputs of all the four flip-flops are
amplified by Darlington transistor arrays

MAR
IL KU
SUN

inside ULN2003 (IC4) and connected to


the stepper motor windings marked A
through D in the figure. The common

point of the winding is connected to +12V


DC supply, which is also connected to pin
9 of ULN2003. The colour code used for
the windings is shown in the figure.
When the power is switched on, the
control signal connected to SET pin of the

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

first flip-flop and CLR pins of the other


three flip-flops goes active low (because
of the power-on-reset circuit formed by
R1-C1 combination) to set the first flipflop and reset the remaining three flipflops. On reset, Q1 of IC2 goes high while
all other Q outputs go low. External reset can be activated by pressing the reset
switch. By pressing the reset switch, you

can stop the stepper motor. On releasing


the reset switch, the stepper motor again
starts moving further in the same direction.

CIRCUIT

LOW-COST INTERCOM

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

PRADEEP G.

he intercom circuit described here


uses two transistors, an audio
transformer, and a few passive

components in addition to condenser microphone and low-wattage speaker (refer


Fig. 1). The complete unit can be made
on a general-purpose veroboard.
The microphone signals are
amplified by a
two-stage transistor amplifier,
while the speaker
is driven through
an audio output
transformer (similar
to the one used in
transistor radios).
When ring button
(push-to-on switch
S1) is pressed, ca-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

pacitor C3 gets connected between the


base of transistor T2 and the top end of
primary winding of audio output transformer. As a result, the amplifier circuit

wired around transistor T2 gets converted


into a Hartley oscillator and produces an
audible tone for call-bell.
To build a two-way intercom set, make
two identical units with the speaker of
each circuit installed near the other unit
as shown in Fig. 2.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

HIGH-POWER CAR BATTERY


ELIMINATOR

MAR
IL KU
SUN

T.K. HAREENDRAN

cuit is added. If the output voltage exceeds 15V due to some reason such as
component failure, the SCR fires because
of the breakdown of zener ZD2. Once SCR
fires, it presents a short-circuit across the
unregulated DC supply, resulting in the
blowing of fuse F1 instantly. This offers
guaranteed protection to the equipment

o operate car audio (or video) system from household 230V AC


mains supply, you need a DC
adaptor. DC adaptors available in the
market are generally costly and supply
an unregulated DC. To overcome these
problems, an economical and reliable circuit of a high-power, regulated DC adaptor using reasonably low number of components is presented here.
Transformer X1 steps down 230V AC
mains supply to around 30V AC, which is
then rectified by a bridge rectifier comprising 5406 rectifier diodes D1 through
D4. The rectified pulsating DC is
smoothed by two 4700F filter capacitors
C1 and C2.
The next part of the circuit is a series-transistor regulator circuit realised
using high-power transistor 2N3773 (T1).
Fixed-base reference for the transistor is
taken from the output pin of 3-pin regulator IC1 (LM 7806). The normal output
of IC1 is raised to about 13.8 volts by
suitably biasing its common terminal by
components ZD1 and LED1. This simple
arrangement provides good, stable volt-

age reference at a low cost. LED1 also


works as an output indicator.
Finally, a crowbar-type protection cir-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

connected and to the


circuit itself.
This circuit can
be assembled using a
small general-purpose PCB. A goodquality heat-sink is
required for transistor T1. Enclose the
complete circuit in a
readymade big adaptor cabinet as shown
in the figure.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATOR


PRIYANK MUDGAL

he circuit presented here waters


your plants regularly when you
are out for a vacation.
The circuit comprises a sensor part
built using only one op-amp (N1) of quad
op-amp IC LM324. Op-amp N1 is configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil containing plants. As long as the soil is wet, conductivity is maintained and the circuit remains off.
When the soil
dries out, the resistance between the
copper wires (sensor
probes A and B) increases. If the resistance increases beyond a preset limit,
output pin 1 of op-amp
N1 goes low. This
triggers timer IC2
(NE 555) configured
as a monostable
multivibrator. As a result, relay RL1 is activated for a preset
time. The water pump starts immediately
to supply water to the plants.
As soon as the soil becomes suffi-

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

ciently wet, the resistance between sensor probes decreases rapidly. This causes
pin 1 of op-amp N1 to go high. LED1
glows to indicate the presence of adequate
water in the soil. The threshold point at
which the output of op-amp N1 goes low
can be changed with the help of preset
VR1.
To arrange the circuit, insert copper
wires in the soil to a depth of about 2 cm,
keeping them 3 cm apart. When the soil

gets dried, adjust VR1 towards ground


rail until LED1 turns off and relay RL1
is energised. The motor starts pumping

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

the water. LED1 glows up as the water


reaches the probes.
For small areas a small pump such
as the one used in air coolers is able to
pump enough water within 5 to 6 seconds. The timing components for IC2 are
selected accordingly. The timing can be
varied with the help of preset VR2.
The circuit is more effective indoors
if one intends to use it for long periods.
This is because the water from reservoir
(bucket, etc) evaporates rapidly if it is
kept in the open. For regulating the flow
of water, either a tap can be used or one
end of a rubber pipe can be blocked using M-seal compound, with holes punc-

tured along its length to water several


plants.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

PROGRAMMABLE MELODY
GENERATOR - PART II

RUP

ANJA

NA

VYJESH M.V.

art I of this article dealt with the


design of EPROM and RAM versions of a programmable melody
generator. In this concluding part we shall
study a programmable melody generator
using home-brewed ROM.
There were only a few differences between the circuits of RAM- and EPROMbased programmable melody generators
and as such we could integrate the common portion of the two circuits into a
single schematic/PCB design. However,
the circuit of a ROM-based programmable
melody generator is totally a new one.
The ROM, as stated earlier, is home-built
using discrete components, which can be
used for storage of 100 bits (100 notes).
The block diagram of the ROM-based
melody generator is shown in Fig. 16.
Note that the last block comprising
variable resistor array is identical to that
used in EPROM/RAM version (refer Fig.
3 in Part I of the article). The powersupply circuit shown in Fig. 11 can also
be used for ROM-based melody generator. Thus PCB and component layouts
shown in Figs 7 and 9 can be used without any modification in this system.

ROM-based circuit
The circuit diagram of ROM-based melody
generator is shown in Fig. 17. Here timer
NE 555 (IC1) is wired as an astable
multivibrator. The output pulses from IC1
are used as clock for decade counter
CD4017 (IC2). The ten sequential outputs
from IC2 are applied to npn BC547 transistors T1 through T10.

Similarly, the outputs from another


similar decade counter IC3 are connected
to pnp BC558 transistors T11 through
T110 via inverter gates N1 through N10
of IC3 and IC4 (CD4069). Each of these
100 transistors (T11 through T110)
provides one bit for one note. The outputs are taken from the collectors of
transistors and connected to the variableresistor array and tone oscillator circuit.
(Note: Collectors of transistors representing identical notes are shorted together.)
As in the previous circuits of RAMand EPROM-based melody generators,
here also Stop-clock and Reset signals
are made available. You may program
any/all of the hundred transistors T11
through T110 for 28 notes as well as for
the Stop-clock and Reset functions. However, both Stop-clock and Reset func-

Stop-clock and Reset functions) are to


be strapped (shorted) together for connection to the corresponding input points of
the variable-resistor array and tone osPARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- NE555 timer
IC2, IC3 - CD4017 decade counter
IC4, IC5 - CD4069 hex inverters
T1-T10 - BC547 npn transistor
T11-T110 - BC558 pnp transistor
Resistors (-watt 5% carbon, unless otherwise stated)
R1
- 10-kilo-ohm
R2
- 100-kilo-ohm
R3
- 680-ohm
R4
- 1-mega-ohm
R5
- 1-kilo-ohm
R6
- 68-ohm
Capacitors:
C1
- 2.2F, 12V electrolytic
C2, C3
- 0.01 ceramic disc
Miscellaneous:
S1
- Push-to-off switch
*Parts List of tone oscillator and power supply is given in Part I of the article (published
in May issue).

cillator circuit, while the Stop-clock and


Reset lines are to be connected as shown
in Fig. 17.
We can have a maximum of 30 output lines (28 for
the notes and two
for Stop-clock
and Reset functions) from the
100-transistor array. Transistors
Fig. 16: Block diagram of ROM-based melody generator
T1 through T10
are used to switch
tions are optional, depending upon the on Vcc to transistors T11 through T110.
number of tunes and number of notes.
For Stop-clock function, the output from
Operation
a transistor is applied to inverter N11
whose output is connected to reset pin 4 Initially, when power is switched on to
of IC1. Similarly, for Reset function, the the circuit, IC2 and IC3 are in Reset conoutput from a transistor is applied to pins dition. So only pin 3 (Q0) of IC2 and IC3
will be at high logic. These high outputs
15 of IC3 and IC4.
The collectors of transistors pro- are applied to the base of transistor T1
grammed for each specific note (including and the input of inverter N1. As a result,

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 17: Schematic diagram of ROM-based melody generator

transistor T1 is switched on and +5V Vcc


is available at the emitter of transistor
T1. This potential is extended to the emitters of T11, T21, T31, , T91 and T101.
Simultaneously, the output of inverter N1
will be at logic 0, which is applied to the
bases of pnp transistors T11 through T20.
Since transistor T11 is the only transistor that has both Vcc at its emitter
and nearly 0V at its base simultaneously,
it gets forward biased and its collector is
pulled toward its emitter voltage (Vcc).

Thus initially, on powering the circuit,


transistor T11 is activated and its collector goes high.
The initial state lasts for a few
seconds and as soon as IC1 generates a
clock pulse (which is applied to the clock
pin of IC2), Q1 (pin 2) of IC2 goes high
and pin 3 goes low, while no change takes
place in IC3. Now transistor T2 is
switched on.
Since the base of transistor T12 is at
low potential, the positive voltage will be

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

available at its collector. Thus transistors


T11 through T20 will be switched on and
off sequentially with the arrival of each
new clock pulse.
At the beginning of tenth pulse, the
carry-output pulse from pin 12 of IC2 is
applied to clock pin 14 of IC3. Now pin 3
(Q0) of IC2 and pin 2 (Q1) of IC3 go high.
Therefore, transistors T21 through T30
are now switched on and off in a sequential fashion. In this way one out of
100 transistors is switched on sequen-

CONSTRUCTION

maining components.

Programming

Fig. 18: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for the circuit

tially to produce an output to drive the


resistor-array tone oscillator according to
the tune data. Thus when power is
switched on, the tune is produced.

PCB layout and assembly


The PCB design should ideally be doublesided for such types of transistor arrays.
However to keep the cost down, we have
included only a single-sided PCB layout,
which is shown in Fig. 18 with its component layout in Fig. 19.

First, assemble transistors T11


through T110. Solder the transistors, leaving a length from the PCB. Now take a
thin, bare wire and connect the emitter
leads of transistors T11, T21... T91 and
T101 together from the components side.
Similarly connect emitters of other rows
of transistors. Suitable pads for the purpose have been provided on the PCB.
Similarly the collectrors of transistors T1 through T10 may be connected
together using bare wire from the components side. Now assemble all the re-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

In this circuit, programming means hard


wiring. You should have a lot of patience
to do all the hard wiring. No hexadecimal
values are required. Before starting with
the wiring, label diodes D101 through
D128 of variable resistor array oscillator
PCB (Fig. 7 and 9 in Part 1) in terms of
their respective notes i.e. label D101 as

PA, D102 as dha, ..., D128 as NI , and so


on.
Now starting from transistor T11 connect the transistor outputs (refer PCB of
Fig. 18) to diodes D101 through D128 according to the tune note that each transistor (T11 through T110) sequentially
represents. Extreme care should be taken
while wiring, because if any error occurs,
it will be very tedious to find out.
Let us consider the example of five
notes SA RE GA SA PA. In this case
programming can be done as under:
Connect
T11SAD6
T12RED8
T13NO connection, leave open (because the data is no sound)
T14GAD10
T15SAD6 (Again to D6)
T16PAD13
Reset. With this circuit a maximum of
100 notes are feasible. However if all notes
are not utilised, Reset is necessary after
the last utilised note. Because if the total
number of notes is less than 98, for example, 86, then after 86th note there are 14
more bits to reach for an automatic reset
to occur. (The circuit automatically resets
itself after 100th bit.) So there is a big delay
for the tune to get repeated. To skip the
delay, we use Reset. For this, the output
from the next transistor after the last note
is connected to point marked RESET on
PCB. When the pulse appears at pin 15 of
IC2 and IC3, the circuit resets.
Stop-clock. Stop-clock is used when
more than one tune is to be programmed.
If the clock is to be stopped, say, after the
1st tune, we use stop-clock. For this, the

CONSTRUCTION

output from the


next transistor after
the last note of the
tune is connected to
the stop-clock point
in the PCB. Please
refer to flow charts
of Fig. 20 and 21,
Fig. 20: Flow chart
which
show
for repetitive playing
occurance
of
autoof 99 notes (single
matic reset and use
tune)
of stop-clock and reset functions.
Housing. There is a
lot of wiring in between
the ROM circuit of Fig.
17 and the resistor-array
oscillator. So the enclosure must have enough
space for all the wires to
fit properly without getting detached from the
PCB while installing.
[EFY note. To overcome
this problem to some exFig. 21: Flow
tent, a 28-pin (16+12)
chart for
SIP connector (with pins
repetitive
playing of a
projecting towards both
number of
sides of the PCB) may be
tunes
used. This will obviate
the need to run loose wires between ROM
PCB and variable-resistor array oscillator PCB. Wires originating from the collectors of the transistor array may be connected to one side of the connector on
ROM PCB itself and a ribbon cable with
28-pin SIP connector on both sides can
be used between the two PCBs.]

Fig. 19: Component layout for the PCB

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

CONSTRUCTION

AUTO CONTROL FOR


3-PHASE MOTORS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

D. DINESH

nduction motors widely used in workshops, irrigation pump sets, etc require a 3-phase supply. Normally,
these motors are connected to 3-phase
supply from electricity boards using thermal bimetal relays and relay contactors.
Thermal relays protect the motor from
overload. Relay coils having hold-on contacts with push-to-on and push-to-off
switches are used for activating and deactivating the relay contacts.
Single-phasing, line dropout, and reverse phasing are harmful for 3-phase motors. In the event of line dropout and singlephasing, the motor draws a heavy current
from the existing phases, and during phase
reversal the motor simply rotates in reverse direction. Further, an operator (attendant) for switching on/off the motor
is always not possible, especially when the
motor has to be operated round the clock.
Also the protection provided by the thermal relay in the starter assembly is inadequate, since it involves some delay in activation. Thus some damage to the windings of the motor can take place, especially
if overload conditions occur frequently.
The circuit presented here incorporates the following features to overcome
all the above-mentioned problems:
Electronic sensing of phase sequence

with under-frequency cut-out.


Current sensing for single-phasing
prevention.
Current sensing for overload cutout.
Automatic starting/tripping.
Programmable timer with battery
backup to count the motors run time.
Latching circuit to prevent the motor from frequently starting and tripping.
Easy operation with just two
switches for time set and reset.
The phase-sequence detector protects
the motor before starting, while the current-sensing circuit protects it during running. This double protection makes the
motor operation really safe.

Circuit description

The schematic circuit diagram of induction motor controller is shown in Fig. 1.


3-Phase sequence checker. The voltage from each of the three phases is connected to optocouplers IC1 through IC3
via rectifier diodes D1 through D3. The
outputs from the optocouplers are halfwave rectified DC pulses with a phase difference of 120 (during the conduction period of diodes), which are applied to a positive-edge-triggered, dual JK flip-flop IC4.
When the red phase rises, the output
TABLE I
of IC1 goes from low to high, resulting
Phase sequence
Signal OK LED
RL1
in clearing of both flip-flops FF1 and FF2
Correct
On
On
through 0.1F capacitor C1. While the red
Incorrect
Off
Off
phase is still high, the yellow phase rises,
resulting in the
TABLE II
output of IC2 going
Motor
Core
Core
Primary
Secondary
high and providHP
size
area
Max
SWG Turns
SWG Turns
ing a clock pulse to
(Max)
amps
FF1. As a result, Q
6
17
0.25
10
14
14
38
170
output of FF1 goes
20
23
0.56
22
11
9
38
110

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1-IC3
- MCT2E optocoupler
IC4
- CD4027 J-K flip-flop
IC5, IC6
- NE555 timer
IC7, IC9, IC10 - CD4017 decade counter
IC8
- CD4060 14-stage counter
and oscillator
IC11
- 7805 5V regulator
D1-D30
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
ZD1, ZD2
- 3.3V zener diode
LED1-LED4
- Red LED
Resistors (1/4W 5% carbon, unless specified otherwise)
R1-R3
- 100-kilo-ohm, 0.5 watt
R4-R6, R16,
R18-R23, R25,
R30, R31, R38,
R47, R49
- 4.7-kilo-ohm
R7, R24
- 27-kilo-ohm
R8-R10 R17,
R26, R29, R32,
R37, R39, R43,
R44, R46, R48,
R51-R53
- 10-kilo-ohm
R11, R28, R34 - 1-kilo-ohm
R12
- 220-kilo-ohm
R13, R41
- 1-mega-ohm
R14, R35, R36,
R45, R50
- 470-ohm
R15
- 470-ohm, 0.5 watt
R27
- 180-kilo-ohm
R33
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R40
- 22-kilo-ohm
R42
- 82-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 4.7-kilo-ohm preset
VR2
- 47-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1-C3, C6,
C13
- 0.1 ceramic disk
C4, C7, C11, C17- 100F, 63V electrolytic
C5, C14-C16,
C18, C19
- 10F, 25V electrolytic
C8, C10, C12
- 47F, 25V electrolytic
C9
- 1000F, 63V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
X1-X3
- Current-sensing transformers
X4
- 0-230V AC primary to
12V-0-12V, 500mA
secondary transformer
S1
- On/off switch
S2
- SPDT switch
S3
- 7-way rotary switch
- 1.5V X4 battery
- Starter assembly
- Cabinet

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of auto control for 3-phase motor

low (since J1 input of FF1 is already


high when the clock pulse arrives at
CLK1 pin). Now, when the blue phase
rises, the output of IC3 goes high, while

the output of IC2 is already high, resulting in the output Q of FF2 going low.
The above process repeats once during each 50Hz cycle. If Q outputs of both
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

FF1 and FF2 are low, the phase sequence


is correct and both diodes D28 and D29
are in blocking mode. The base of transistor T1 is pulled towards ground via re-

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for the circuit

sistor R11 and transistor T1 starts conducting. As a result, IC5 is triggered and
hence sequence OK LED connected to
pin 3 of IC5 via resistor R14, glows.
IC5 is a popular 555 timer wired as a
retriggerable monoshot. Its time period
is set at 25 milliseconds (approx.). If the
monoshot is not retriggered within 25 milliseconds, the sequence OK signal goes
low. The circuit operates smoothly at fre-

quencies up to 42 Hz.
If any of the phase fails, the phase
sequence is disturbed, resulting in the output of IC5 going low and sequence OK
LED goes off. The LED status in relation
to the phase sequence is shown in Table I.
The output of IC5 is also used for driving
relay RL1 via transistor T2 (SL100).
Normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1 are wired in series with off

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

switch of starter assembly as shown


in the Fig. 1. Thus when phase sequence is correct and the frequency is
above 42 Hz, the relay is in energised
state and it is feasible to switch on
the starter by momentary energisation
of relay RL2, whose N/O contacts are
wired in parallel with the on switch
of starter assembly.
Auto-starter and current-sensing circuit. As soon as the phase sequence is detected to be correct (as
explained in the previous section), the
output of IC5 goes high. This output,
via resistor R15, is used to reset IC7
and enable IC6, besides acting as a
clock for decade counter IC10.
IC6 is an NE555 timer wired in
astable mode to provide clock pulses
to decade counter CD4017 (IC7). Eventually, when Q8 output of CD4017
(IC7) goes high, relay RL2 energises
through transistor T9 (SL100). N/O
contacts of RL2 are connected across
on switch of starter assembly, as
stated earlier and the starters relay
coil energises. The next clock pulse to
IC7 deactivates relay RL2, but starter
remains in on state due to hold-on
contact (the fourth contact of contactor
in starter assembly). When Q9 (pin 11)
of IC7 goes high, its CK pin 14 is
muted due to conduction of transistor
T8 (which pulls it to ground) to prevent further counting. The Q9 output
of IC7 is also used in the motor on/
off timer circuit, explained later.
The supply to starter is connected
through primaries of three small current transformers used for sensing
the load in each phase. These transformers can be constructed using common EI laminations generally used for
power transformers. Core number 23 or
17 may be employed as per details given
in Table II.
The secondaries of these transformers
are connected to the current-sensing circuit wired around transistors T3 through
T5. If any phase goes off, it cuts off the
corresponding transistor and thereby provides forward bias to transistor T6.
The outputs of transistors T3 through

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Component layout for the PCB

T5 are wired-OR via diodes D15, D16, and


D17. Any excessive increase in load current (overload) results in forward biasing
of transistor T7. The excess current limit
can be set with the help of preset VR1.
The conduction of transistors T6 and/
or T7 causes their common collector junctions to be pulled low. This low signal is
coupled to transistor T2 via diode D30.
As a result, relay RL1 deactivates to trip

the starter and thus stop the induction


motor. The above conditions are
summarised in Table III.
Motor on/off counter and latch.
Frequent start and stop operations subject the motor to lot of fatigue due to
heavy currents, which may damage the
motor. In this circuit, automatic restarting of motor is limited to three attempts
for each power on, by using another de-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

cade counter CD4017 (IC10). It monitors each on-off cycle of the motor by
advancing the count of decade counter
by one on every start.
The clock for IC10 is obtained from
the output of IC5 via resistor R15. This
point i.e. the junction of resistor R15
and diode D30 is also used as supply
point for transistors T6, T7, T12 and
T13 as also for reset pin of timer IC6.
On the third start, pin 7 (Q3) goes high
and transistor T13 gets forward biased.
As a result, CK pin 14 of IC10 is pulled
low to stop any further clock to the
decade counter, which thus gets latched
and LED3 glows to indicate the latched
state of the counter. Simultaneously,
this low signal causes transistor T2 to
cut off and de-energise relay RL1. Thus
the motor cannot restart automatically
and only complete resumption of power
can reset the latch.
Motor on-off timer. A timer is provided to run the motor for a predetermined time. It counts run time of the
motor and thereafter switches off the
motor automatically. The signal from
pin 11 (Q9) of IC7 is connected to the
base of transistor T11 via resistor R38
(as referred in auto-starter and curresensing circuit). Thus the collector of
transistor T11 goes low to activate the
oscillator circuit of CD4060 (IC8), while
the motor is running. Prior to that, the
oscillator circuit of CD4060 was inactive because its pin 11 was at logic 1,
being connected to +ve rails via resistors R39, R40 and diode D22. The frequency of oscillation is set by R-C network comprising 47F capacitor C8 and
resistor R42 in series with preset VR2.
A timing of either 30 minutes or 60
minutes can be selected with the help
of switch S2 for the output of on/off timer
to go from low to high state.The output
from the pole of switch S2 is connected to
the clock input of decade counter IC9. The
outputs of IC9 go high sequentially after
30/60-minute time intervals, depending on
the selection made via switch S2. Thus
multiples of 30-/60-minute basic timing
can be selected with the help of 7-way
rotary switch S3. (The 7-way rotary switch

CONSTRUCTION

power in standby mode


TABLE III
Truth Table of Current Sensing Circuit
and is powered by four
T7
RL1
1.5V cells as standby Phase R Phase Y Phase B T6
supply. A battery-low (ON)
(ON)
(ON)
R.B. R.B. Energised
(ON)
(OFF)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
indicator is provided to (ON)
(OFF)
(OFF)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
warn the user about (ON)
(OFF)
(OFF)
(ON)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
the low battery condi- (OFF)
(ON)
(OFF)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
tion.
(ON)
(OFF)
(ON)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
(ON)
(ON)
F.B. R.B. De-energised
Power supply. (OFF)
The normal DC power In case of overloading

X
F.B. De-energised
supply for the circuit in any phase
is provided by a small Note: R.B. = Reverse bias; F.B. = Forward bias; X = Dont care
step-down transformer
X4 connected between R (red) phase once again. Then after a delay of 15 secand neutral, followed by rectifier and onds, relay RL2 should again energise for
filter capacitor. The unregulated volt- one second. Now short momentarily pin
age is used for operation of the relays, 14 of counter CD4017 (IC10) to ground
while the 5V regulated supply is used thrice. On the third touching, Q3 of IC10
for the remaining circuit.
will go high and LED3 will glow, folFig. 4: Layout of cabinet for mounting
transformer relays and the PCB
lowed by de-energisation of relay RL1. The
mains should be interrupted completely
Construction and testing
may be substituted with decade thumbto reset IC10.
wheel switch, if desired.)
An actual-size, single-sided PCB for the
Current transformers X1 through X3,
The output available at the pole of motor controller circuit of Fig. 1 is shown step-down transformer X4, and relays RL1
rotary switch S3 goes high after the se- in Fig. 2, with its component layout shown and RL2 may be mounted side by side in
lected duration to forward bias transistor in Fig. 3. It is recommended to use bases a compact box as shown in Fig. 4. The
T12, which, in turn, causes de- for ICs.
PCB may be mounted over the transformenergisation of relay RL1. Also, when
Before connecting the circuit to starter ers and relays using insulated spacers.
the selected run time is over, the oscilla- assembly, a bench test is required for the Current transformers are to be connected
tor of IC8 (CD4060) gets inhibited because adjustment of timer. Apply 3-phase power before the starter relay contacts.
oscillator pin 11 of IC8 goes high due to to the circuit. Observe pin 3 of IC5
Over-current adjustment can be done
(NE555), which should go only after connecting the load. Connect
high, provided the sequence all the wires to the starter point and the
is correct. Else, interchange load. Keep wiper contact of VR1 towards
any two phase wires. As se- ground side and switch on the 3-phase
quence OK signal at pin 3 of supply. Relay RL1 activates. After 5 secIC5 goes high, relay RL1 onds, relay RL2 also activates and the
energises and IC6 (IC555) is motor starts running. Now slide the wiper
activated. As a result, relay of VR1 and mark the position just before
RL2 energises after a delay the motor trips. (Remember that such
of 15 seconds for one second.
trips will be counted by latching counter.)
Now adjust preset VR2
Caution. Some parts of this circuit
such that 30-minute-duration contain live 3-phase voltages. So avoid
Fig. 5: Creation of virtual neutral from 3-phaes 3-wires
pulse train (time period 60 touching the circuit with bare hands.
system
minutes) is available at pin
Note. In the case of non-availability
the feedback from the pole of switch S3 14 of IC8 (CD4060). Flip switch S2 to 30- of neutral terminal, assembler a circuit
via resistor R43 and diode D23. LED1 minute position. Select the required run as shown in Fig. 5. Connect N marked
glows to indicate that run time is over. time using rotary switch S3. On comple- wire (shown in Fig. 1) to two more transTo restart the motor, IC8 and IC9 can be tion of the selected run time, time over formers X5 and X6 that are identical to
manually reset by closing and then open- LED should glow and the timer should X4. The secondaries of these transforming switch S1. The timer may be bypassed stop. Relay RL1 should de-energise.
ers (X5 and X6) are kept open, while the
After resetting the timer with the help secondary of X4 is connected to the powerby keeping switch S1 closed.
The timer section requires very low of switch S1, relay RL1 should energise supply circuit as shown in Fig. 1.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JUNE 2001

July

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

PC-BASED DIAL CLOCK-CUMELECTRONIC ROULETTE


RUP

NA
ANJA

VIJAYA KUMAR P.

his hardware-cum-software project


is meant to control hardware
through software. The hardware
using LEDs to simulate both dial clock
and electronic roulette is rather simple.
Of the two 4-line-to-16-line decoders
used in the circuit, the first (IC1) drives
hour LEDs and the other (IC2) drives
minute LEDs. These decoders are interfaced directly to the PCs printer port provided on its backside.
Data output lines D0 to D3 (pins 2
through 5 of 25-pin D connector) of the

printer port are connected to four address


inputs of the decoder used for minute display, while data output lines D4 to D7
(pins 6 through 9) are connected to four
data inputs of the decoder used for hour
display.
Since the outputs of these decoders
are active-low, the positive terminals of
LEDs are made common. This obviates
the need to use additional inverters. In
accordance with 4-bit binary address at
inputs A through D of decoders, only one
of the 16 outputs at a time goes active-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

low to light the corresponding LED.


Since a dial clock requires only 12
LEDs, only 12 of 16 outputs of 74154 decoders are used in this circuit. Only the

minute decoder (IC2) is used for electronic


roulette.
The dial clock and electronic roulette
functions, which can be selected via the
software program, are explained below:
Dial clock. When dial clock is selected, system time is displayed on the
LED panel. The hour-indicating LED
glows continuously, while minute-indicating LED blinks for each odd second (i.e.
1, 3, 5,. , and so on). The clock incorporates hourly chime and alarm setting features. Chime and alarm sound can be distinguished from the duration for which it
will sound.
Electronic roulette. Roulette is a
game of chance that basically comprises
a circular wheel divided into a number of
sectors that are numbered serially and a
pointer. There exists a relative motion between the pointer and the wheel. The rotation is initiated by mechanical means.
The wheel is allowed to stop itself and
the number indicated by the pointer decides the winner.
This game can also be arranged electronically by using sequential running
lights, which will simulate the rotating
wheel, and making them to stop at random position. The chance of a number to
be winner is 1 out of 12 in the PC-based
electronic roulette explained here. The
software for dial clock and electronic roulette is written in C language.
For simulation of dial clock, the software uses gettime () function to read time
from the computer, which is then stored

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

DialCLK.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define PORT 0x0378
main()
{ int k=0;
clrscr();
gotoxy(30,10);
printf(1.(D)ial Clock\n);
gotoxy(30,12);
printf(2.(R)un Electronic Roulette \n);
gotoxy(30,14);
printf(3.(E)xit\n);
do
{
k=getch();
k=toupper(k);
if(k==D)
{
Aclock(0,0,0);
}
if(k==R)
{
Roulet();
}
}
while(k!=E);
clrscr();
printf(By Vijaya kumar.P,3rd Sem,E&C,
K.V.G.C.E,Sullia\n);
printf(Dedicated to Father of Electricity
Michael Faraday who is my favorite
Scientist.\n);
exit(0);
}
Aclock(int shor,int smin,int ssec)
{
int ho,sc,mn,mnt,k,i=0;
struct time tim;
clrscr();
do
{
gettime(&tim);
gotoxy(30,8);
ho=tim.ti_hour;
mn=tim.ti_min;
sc=tim.ti_sec;
mnt=mn;
if(ho>12)

{
ho=ho-12;
}
if(ho==0)
{
ho=12;
}
i=sc % 2;
mn=mn*i; /*Making minute LED to blink*/
mn=mn/5;
outportb(PORT,ho*16+mn);
printf(hour:min:sec = %02d:%02d:%02d\n,
ho,mnt,sc);
gotoxy(30,10);
printf(1.(G)oto MAIN MENU\n);
gotoxy(30,12);
printf(2.(S)et Alaram\n);
if(shor==ho&&smin==mnt&&ssec==sc)
{
alarm(15);
}
if(mnt==0&&sc==0)
{
alarm(1);
}
if(bioskey(1)) /* To check Whether any key is
pressed */
k=getch();
k=toupper(k);
if(k==S)
{
setala();
}
}
while(k!=G);
{
outportb(PORT,0);
main();
}
}
setala() /*Function to set Alarm*/
{
int hrs,mns,scs;
clrscr();
printf(Enter hour\n);
scanf(%d ,&hrs);
printf(Enter Minute\n);
scanf(%d ,&mns);
printf(Enter seconds\n);

scanf(%d ,&scs);
Aclock(hrs,mns,scs);
}
alarm(int beps) /*Function to produce beeping
sound*/
{
int i;
for(i=0;i<beps;i++)
{
sound(1500);
delay(100);
nosound();
delay(100);
}
}
Roulet()/*Function for Roulette Wheel*/
{
int i,k=0;
clrscr();
gotoxy(30,10);
printf(1.Press any key to Reset\n);
gotoxy(30,12);
printf(2.(P)lay\n);
gotoxy(30,14);
printf(3.(G)oto MAIN MENU\n);
k=getch();
k=toupper(k);
do
{
for(i=1;i<13;i++)/* To generate decimal
number from 1 to 12*/
{
if(bioskey(1))
k=getch();
k=toupper(k);
if(k==P)
break;
outportb(PORT,i);/*outputting binary
equivalents of i
through Data pins of LPT port*/
delay(50);
}
}
while(k!=G);
outportb(PORT,0);
main();
}

in a variable. This time is written into


the parallel-port as 8-bit binary number
by using outportb () function. To make
minute-indicating LED to blink, minute
variable is multiplied by (second % 2).
The multiplication result comes out to be
1 for odd seconds and 0 for even seconds.
i=sc%2;
mn=mn*i;
The binary equivalent of minute variable is written into data pins D0 to D4 of
the parallel-port. Hour variable is multi-

plied by 16 to write the binary equivalent


of hour into data pins D5 to D7.
Outportb (0x0378,ho*16+mn);
Simulation of roulette wheel is quite
simple. The software uses a decimal number (1 through 13) generator whose binary equivalents are written into data
pins D0 to D4 of the parallel port using
outputb () function. The roulette can be
reset by initialising decimal number generator that simulates running lights.
The decimal number generator can be

stopped at random for play. The speed of


running can be adjusted by using delay ()
function. The delay time has to be selected appropriately, as it should not be
either too low or too high. Keeping the
delay time very low is undesirable, since
it will cause continuous glowing of LEDs.
Similarly, a very high delay time is also
undesirable, since the player can stop the
wheel at his winning position.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

CIRCUIT

SIMPLE TELEPHONE
RING TONE GENERATOR

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
N
U
S

K. UDHAYA KUMARAN, VU3GTH


ere is a simple telephone ring
tone generator circuit designed
using only a few components. It
produces simulated telephone ring tone
and needs only DC voltage (4.5V DC to
12V DC). One may use this circuit in ordinary intercom or phone-type intercom.

tor (CMOS IC CD4060B) is used to generate three types of pulses, which are
available from pin 1 (O11), pin 3 (O13), and
pin 14 (O7), respectively. Preset VR1 is
adjusted to obtain 0.3125Hz pulses (1.6second low followed by 1.6-second high)
at pin 3 of IC1. At the same time, pulses
available from pin 1 will be of 1.25 Hz

The sound is quite loud when this circuit


is operated on +12V DC power supply.
However, the volume of ring sound is adjustable.
The commonly available 14-stage binary ripple counter with built-in oscilla-

(0.4-second low, 0.4-second high) and 20


Hz at pin 14. The three output pins of
IC1 are connected to base terminals of
transistors T1, T2, and T3 through resistors R1, R2, and R3, respectively.
Transistors T1 through T3 are cas-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

caded in such a way that the positive voltage available at the emitter of transistor
T1 is extended to the collector of transistor T3 when the outputs of all the three
stages are low. As a result, transistors
T1 through T3 are forward biased for 0.4,
1.6, and 0.025 seconds, respectively and
reverse biased for similar durations.
Using a built-in oscillator-type piezobuzzer produces around 1kHz tone. In this
circuit, the piezo-buzzer is turned on and
off at 20 Hz for ring tone sound by transistor T3. 20Hz pulses are available at
the collector of transistor T3 for 0.4-second duration. After a time interval of 0.4
second, 20Hz
pulses become
again available for another 0.4-second duration.
This is followed by two
seconds of nosound interval. Thereafter the pulse
pattern repeats itself.
Refer the figure that indicates waveforms available at various points including the collector of transistor T3. Preset
VR2 can be used for adjusting the amplitude of the ring tone.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

DUAL-INPUT HIGH-FIDELITY
AUDIO MIXER

MAR
IL KU
SUN

PRASAD J.

he circuit described here is based


on the superior characteristics of
dual-gate MOSFET (metal-oxide
semiconductor field-effect transistor). It
exhibits a very high input impedance that
lends for good sensitivity and very less
loading of the input signal source. Low
cross-modulation characteristic leads to
minimal distortion of the output with respect to the input signals. Also, the
MOSFET offers low feedback capacitance
and high transconductance. All these advantages make the MOSFET the most effective for high-quality mixer and converter applications.
This dual-input audio frequency mixer
circuit employs a single dual-gate
MOSFET 3N200. One may, however, substitute it with any other dual-gate
MOSFET such as 3N187 and BF966. (It
is to be noted that BF966 is not gateprotected and hence calls for suitable precaution in handling it.)
The audio frequency (AF) input from
the first channel (CH1) is applied on
gate 1 (G1) of the MOSFET through 500kilo-ohm potentiometer VR1. The AF input from the second channel (CH2) is applied on gate 2 (G2) of the MOSFET
through another 500-kilo-ohm potentiometer VR2. Potentiometers VR1 and VR2
serve as gain controls for the mixer in-

puts.
Gate 1 receives the negative bias resulting from the voltage developed by the
current passing through resistor R1 that
is in series with the source. Gate 2 receives the positive bias produced across
resistor R3 by the voltage divider formed
by resistors R3 and R4.
The mixed common output signal de-

veloped across drain load resistor R2 is


coupled to the output through capacitor
C5. This output can be, in turn, fed to
any audio amplifier system for further
amplification.
The input impedance at each signal
input is approximately 500 kilo-ohm,
which is determined largely by the resistance of potentiometers VR1 and VR2.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

Higher input impedance may be obtained


by substituting higher-resistance potentiometers, but this will lead to the pickup
of stray signals.
The current drain of this circuit at 6V
DC is less than 3 mA. The open-circuit
voltage gain is 10 for each channel. The
maximum amplitude of input signals at
gates G1 and G2 is 0.1V RMS. Signals of
higher amplitudes are reduced by the adjustment of potentiometers VR1 and VR2,
hence evading the output signal peak-clipping. The corresponding output signal amplitude is 1V RMS.
The entire circuit can be built on a
general-purpose PCB or veroboard. The
complete assembly
is shielded using a
metal container.
The two input jacks
should be fixed on
the opposite sides of
the
container
against the output
jack.
This simple circuit can be utilised
for various combinations of devices at
the input end. A few
examples are two microphones, two audio players, or one audio player and one
microphone, etc.
Note. Adequate precautions should be
taken to prevent the destruction of
MOSFET due to static electricity. The use
of a grounded tip for the soldering iron is
recommended.

CIRCUIT

ANTI-THEFT SECURITY
FOR CAR AUDIOS

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

T.K. HAREENDRAN
his small circuit, based on popular CMOS NAND chip CD4093,
can be effectively used for protecting your expensive car audio system
against theft.
When 12V DC from the car battery is

Whenever an attempt is made to remove the car audio from its mounting by
cutting its connecting wires, the
optocoupler immediately turns off, as its
LED cathode terminal is hanging. As a
result, the oscillator circuit built around

applied to the gadget (as indicated by


LED1) through switch S1, the circuit goes
into standby mode. LED inside
optocoupler IC1 is lit as its cathode terminal is grounded via the car audio (amplifier) body. As a result, the output at
pin 3 of gate N1 goes low and disables
the rest of the circuit.

gates N2 and N3 is enabled and it controls the on/off timings of the relay via
transistor T2. (Relay contacts can be used
to energise an emergency beeper, indicator, car horns, etc, as desired.)
Different values of capacitor C2 give
different on/off timings for relay RL1 to
be on/off. With 100F we get approxi-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

mately 5 seconds as on and 5 seconds as


off time.
Gate N4, with its associated components, forms a self-testing circuit. Normally, both of its inputs are in high state.
However, when one switches off the ignition key, the supply to the car audio is
also disconnected. Thus the output of gate
N4 jumps to a high state and it provides
a differentiated short pulse to forward bias
transistor T1 for a short duration. (The
combination of capacitor C1 and resistor
R5 acts as the differentiating circuit.)
As a result, buzzer in the collector
terminal of T1 beeps for a short duration
to announce that
the security circuit is intact.
This on period
of buzzer can be
varied by changing the values of
capacitor C1
and/or resistor
R5.
After construction, fix the
LED and buzzer
in dashboard as
per your requirement and
hide switch S1
in a suitable location. Then connect lead
A to the body of car stereo (not to the
body of vehicle) and lead B to its positive
lead terminal. Take power supply for the
circuit from the car battery directly.
Caution. This design is meant for car
audios with negative ground only.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

UNIPOLAR/BIPOLAR TRIANGULAR
AND BIPOLAR SQUARE
WAVE GENERATOR
YOGESH KATARIA

he circuit given here is capable of


generating unipolar and bipolar
triangular waves as well as bipolar square waves. In unipolar mode, the
output frequency is double that of
bipolar mode (using identical component
values).
When switch S1 is closed, the circuit
generates bipolar triangular as well
as bipolar square waves, and when switch
S1 is open, it generates unipolar triangular and bipolar square wavesboth hav-

ing double the frequency in the first


case.
Op-amp 301 acting as a comparator produces bipolar square
wave with output swinging between
+Vcc and V EE. The square wave
output is fed to op-amp 741 that is
configured as an integrator to produce a triangular waveform.
Figs 2 and 3 show the waveforms with switch S1 in closed and
open positions, respectively, using
0.047F capacitor C and
in-circuit
value of preset
VR1 as 28
kilo-ohm. The
circuit is capable of working on a few
hertz
to
around 250
kHz.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

TELEPHONE REMOTE
CONTROL

MAR
IL KU
SUN

The circuit
At the remote telephone end, the ringing
signal is detected by a high-input-imped-

JUNOMON ABRAHAM

Operation
Instead of straightway proceeding with
the circuit description, we shall start with
the operation as this would help us in
understanding the circuit better. The operation is as follows:
1. From the local telephone, dial the
TABLE I(A)
A2
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H

Input
A1
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H

WR

A0
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H

Output
Qn = addressed
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7

TABLE I(B)
Q
Addressed
L
L
= DATA
L
H
= DATA
H
L
hold
H
H
L
H = High; L = Low

Q
un-addressed
hold
L
hold
L

number of the
remote telephone
to
which the circuit is connected. In a
short while
you will hear
a
musical
note indicating that the
circuit connected to the
remote telephone is active.
2. Now if
you want to
switch on a
particular relay/device,
press * button on the
telephone
keypad followed by any
one of digits 1
to 7 corresponding to
the device/relay number
that you desire to switch
on.
The
switching on
of the relay
will be acknowledged/
indicated by a
musical note.
Now you may
keep
the
handset on
the cradle.
3. If you
want
to
switch off

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of the telephone remote control

elephone remote control implies


control of devices at a remote
location via a circuit interfaced to
the remote telephone line/device by dialing specific DTMF (dual-tone multi-frequency) digits from a local telephone. The
telephone remote control system described
here has the following features:
1. It can control multiple channels/
relays.
2. It provides you feedback when the
circuit is in energised state and also sends
an acknowledgement indicating action
w.r.t. the switching on of each requested
relay and switching off of all relays (together).
3. It can selectively switch on any one
or more relays one after the other and
switch off all relays simultaneously.

the relays, press * and then press key


for digit 8. A musical note is heard, which
indicates that all the relays have been
switched off. Keep the handset on cradle.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Actualsize, single-sided PCB for the circuit

Fig. 3: Component layout for the PCB

ance op-amp CA3140E that is wired as a


comparator. Since this op-amp output is

open-collector type, the output pin has


been pulled towards Vcc via 10-kilo-ohm

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

resistor R21. IC2 (NE556) comprises two timers (NE555 type) that
have been configured as
monostables.
When a ring is detected by IC1,
its output triggers one of the timers in IC 556. The output of the
timer after inversion by one of the
NAND gates of IC3 (CD4011), enables IC4 (CD4060) by taking its
reset pin 12 low. (IC4 is an oscillator-cum-14-bit binary counter.) As
a result, IC4 starts counting when
the ring signal strikes the input of
the circuit.
After some time, decided by the
setting of preset VR3, Q12 output
of IC4 goes high. This output
coupled to pin 8 of a NAND gate
inside IC3 will enable it. The detected ring signal (if the ring signal is still persisting) applied to pin
9 of the same NAND gate (after
inversion by another NAND gate)
will pass through it to trigger the
second monostable inside IC2
(NE556) as well as IC5 (NE555),
which is again wired as a
monostable. This arrangement
avoids the circuit from being triggered by any transients or false ring
signals on the telephone line.
The output of the second
monostable of IC2, available at its
pin 9, drives transistor T2 and
shunts the telephone line with 220ohm resistor (R20). As a result, the
telephone line voltage drops to
around 10 to 12 volts. This is
equivalent to the lifting of the telephone handset of the remote telephone. As mentioned earlier, both
IC5 and the second monostable of
IC2 are triggered simultaneously.
The output of monostable IC5 starts
melody generator IC6 (UM66) and
the musical note obtained from it
is coupled to the telephone line.
This informs the caller that the remote circuit is in energised state.
As the remote circuit is in energised
condition, the next step for the operator

CONSTRUCTION

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- CA3140E op-amp
IC2
- NE556 dual timer
IC3
- CD4011 quad NAND gate
IC4
- CD4060 14-stage counter/
oscillator
IC5
- NE555 timer
IC6
- UM66 melody generator
IC7
- CM8870 DTMF-decoder
IC8
- CD4099 8-bit addressable
latch
IC9
- 7805 regulator +5V
T1
- BC548 npn transistor
T2-T9
- BC547 npn transistor (only
T2 and T6 shown)
LED1, LED2 - Green LED
LED3
- Yellow LED
LED4
- Red LED
D1, D2
- 1N4148 switching diode
D3-D10
- 1N4007 rectifier diode (only
D3 and D4 shown)
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
otherwise stated)
R1, R16, R17 - 150-kilo-ohm
R2, R21
- 10-kilo-ohm
R3
- 33-kilo-ohm
R4
- 680-kilo-ohm
R5
- 560-ohm
R6, R10
- 22-kilo-ohm
R7
- 1-mega-ohm
R8, R15
- 390-ohm
R9, R12
- 15-kilo-ohm
R11
- 270-ohm
R13, R14
- 3.3k-kilo-ohm
R18
- 330-kilo-ohm
R19, R22-R27 - 4.7-kilo-ohm (R22-R27 not
shown in the figure)
R20
- 220-ohm
VR1
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
VR2
- 1-mega-ohm preset
VR3
- 220-kilo-ohm preset
VR4
- 470-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitor:
C1
- 0.22F ceramic disk
C2
- 220F, 10V electrolytic
C3
- 100F, 10V electrolytic
C4, C5, C8
- 0.01F ceramic disk
C6, C11, C12 - 0.1F ceramic disk
C7
- 10F, 10V electrolytic
C9
- 0.02F ceramic disk
C10
- 0.47F, 100V polyester
Miscellaneous:
- 3.58MHz crystal
XTAL
- 6V, 150-ohm 1C/O relay
RL1-RL7
(only RL4 shown)

at local telephone is to press the * button, which makes the local telephone to
operate in the tone-dialing mode. The digits that are pressed after pressing the *
button are converted to DTMF tones.
The tone is decoded by IC7 and its
three LSBs (covering binary equivalent
of decimal digits 0 through 7) are connected to the address inputs, while the
MSB line is connected to reset pin 2 of
IC8 (CD4099, an 8-bit addressable latch).
When a valid DTMF tone is detected at
the input of IC7, its pin 15 goes high to
enable IC8 after inversion by NAND gate
of IC2. At the same time, it triggers IC5
for informing the caller that his key-press
is accepted.
Numbers 1 to 7 on the local keypad
cause latching of the corresponding relays, while number 8 causes reset operation, which means that we can switch on
seven relays independently one by one and
switch off all relays simultaneously by
pressing number 8. The output of IC8
drives the relays via the relay driver transistor. Truth tables I(A) and I(B) of
CD4099 indicate relay operation.

Alignment
1. Connect the circuit to the telephone
line.
2. Adjust preset VR1 so that the ringing pulse causes LED1 to flicker. For better performance, set the voltage at pin 3
of IC1 at approximately 2 volts.
3. The time required to activate/
energise the circuit is adjusted by preset
VR3 with the help of LED2.
4. The time available for remote
switching action can be set by preset VR2
with the help of LED4. Indirectly, the setting of preset VR2 determines the charge
that will have to be paid to the telecom
department.
5. The period of the musical note can
be controlled by the adjustment of VR4
with the help of LED3.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED
SCHOOL TIMER

NA
ANJA
RUP

U.B. MUJUMDAR

he basic requirements of a realtime programmable timer generally used in schools and colleges
for sounding the bell on time are:
Precise time base for time keeping.
Read/write memory for storing the
bell timings.
LCD or LED display for displaying real time as well as other data to
make the instrument user-friendly.
Keys for data entry.
Electromechanical relay to operate the bell.
We are describing here a sophisticated, yet economical, school timer
based
on
Motorolas
20-pin
MC68HC705J1A microcontroller.

Description
The pin assignments and main features
of the microcontroller are shown in
Fig.1 and the Box, respectively. The
complete system is divided into four
sections, namely, the time keeping section, the input section (keyboard), the
output (display, indicators, and relay
driving) section, and power supply and
battery backup.
The time-keeping section. Accurate time-keeping depends on the
accuracy of time base used for driving
the microcontroller. In this project, the

Fig. 1: MC68HC705J1A pin assignment

This provides the timing reference for


timer functions.
The programmable timer status and
control register (TSCR) is used for deciding the interrupt rate. It can be programmed to give interrupts after every
16,384, 3,2768, 65,536, or 131,072 clock
cycles. In Table I, the control word is
set to provide the interrupts after every 16,384 cycles. For a 32,768MHz
crystal, the interrupt period will
be 10 ms. Thus, timer interrupts will
be generated after every 10 ms (100
Hz). That is, 100 interrupts will make
1 second.
Now time-keeping becomes very
simple. As we are having a precise
1-second time count, a real-time clock
can be easily built.
The MC68HC705J1A has a 64 byte
RAM that is used for data storage. Real
time (in terms of seconds, minutes,

Main features of MC68H705JIA

14 bidirectional input/output (I/O) lines.


(All the bidirectional port pins are programmable as inputs or outputs.)
10mA sink capability on four I/O pins (PA0-PA3).
1,240 bytes of OTPROM, including eight bytes for user vectors.
64 bytes of user RAM.
Memory-mapped I/O registers.
Fully static operation with no minimum clock speed.
Power-saving stop, halt, wait, and data-retention modes.
Illegal address reset.
A wide supply voltage range from 0.3 to 7 volts.
Up to 4.0MHz internal operating frequency at 5 volts.
15-stage multifunction timer, consisting of an 8-bit timer with 7-bit pre-scaler.
On-chip oscillator connections for crystal, ceramic resonator, and external clock.
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- 68HC705JIACP
microcontroller
IC2
- CD4532 8-bit priority
encoder
IC3
- 74LS138 3-line to 8-line
decoder
IC4
- 74LS47 BCD-to-7-segment
decoder/driver
T1-T3
- BC547/BC147 npn
transistor
T4-T7
- 2N2907 pnp transistor
D1- D7
- 1N4007 diode
ZD1
- 5.6V, 0.5watt zener
Resistors (-watt, 5% carbon, unless stated
otherwise)
R1
- 210-ohm, 0.5 watt
R2
- 27-ohm
R3, R12-R14,
R24-R27
- 1-kilo-ohm
R4-R8
- 100-kilo-ohm
R9 -R11,
R23,R29
- 10-kilo-ohm
R15-R22
- 47-ohm
R28
- 10-mega-ohm
Capacitors:
C1
- 350F, 25V electrolytic
C2, C3
- 1F, 16V electrolytic
C4, C5
- 27pF ceramic disk
C6
- 0.1F ceramic disk
Miscellaneous:
S1-S5
- Push-to-on switch (key)
S6
- On/off switch
PZ1
- Piezo buzzer
RL1
- Relay 12V, 300-ohm, 1C/O
XTAL
- 3.2768MHz AT-cut crystal
X1
- 230V AC primary to 12V0-12V, 500mA secondary
transformer
DIS.1-DIS.4
- LTS542 common-anode
display
- 4 x 1.2V Ni-Cd cells

microcontroller is driven by AT-cut parallel resonant crystal oscillator that is


expected to provide a very stable clock.
A 3.2768MHz crystal provides a time
base to the controller. The frequency
(fosc) of the oscillator is internally divided by 2 to get the operating frequency (fop). This high-frequency clock
source is used to control the sequencing of CPU instructions.
Timer. The basic function of a timer
is the measurement or generation
of time-dependant events. Timers usually measure time relative to the internal clock of the microcontroller. The
MC68HC705J1A has a 15-stage ripple
counter preceeded by a pre-scaler that
divides the internal clock signal by 4.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of the microcontroller-based school timer

C O N S T R U C T I O N

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

hours, days of a month, and months)


is stored in this RAM. Thus an accurate real-time clock is generated.
The input section. For setting the
real-time clock and storing operating
times, the timer requires to be programmed externally. Data is fed using the keyboard.
Press-to-on type keys are interfaced to the microcontroller using an
8-bit priority encoder CD4532. This encoder detects the key-press operation
and generates the equivalent 3-bit binary data. Its truth table is shown in
Table II. The priority encoder is interfaced to port A of the
microcontroller.
Various keys used in the timer,
along with their functions, are described below:
Time (4): For setting real time in
minutes and hours.
Bell (5): For setting the bells operating timings.
Digit Advance (6): Data setting is
done digitwise (hours digit followed
by minutes digit). The Digit Advance
key shifts the decimal point to the
right.
Store (7): For storing the data (real
time or bell time).
Delete (3): For deleting a particular bell timing.
Here, the figures within parentheses indicate the decimal equivalents
of 3-bit binary data from the keyboard.
Set and run modes. Data setting
is possible only in set mode. Set mode
or run mode can be selected by toggle
switch S6. By using a lock switch for
S6, the timer can be protected from
unauthorised data entry/storage.
In run mode if you press Bell key
once, the display shows the bells various operating timings one after the
other, in the same order in which
these had been previously stored. In
case you want to discontinue seeing
all the bell timings, you may press
Time key at any stage to revert back
to the display of real time.
The output section. Seven-seg-

C O N S T R U C T I O N

Power supply
and battery backup.
The microcontroller
and the associated IC
packages require a
5V DC supply, while
the relay and the
buzzer require 12V
DC supply. A simple
rectifier along with
zener diode-regulated
power supply is used.
The microcontroller is
Fig. 3: Power supply circuit for the school timer
fed through a batment displays are used for data dis- tery-backed power supply, so that in
play. As LEDs are brighter, these have the case of power failure the functionbeen used in the system. There are two ing of the controllers timer section is
techniques for driving the displays: (i) not affected. During power failure the
driving each display using a separate timer is taken to low power mode
driver (like 74LS47 or CD4511) and (ii) (called wait mode). In this mode the
controller draws a very small current.
using multiplexed displays.
The first technique works well, but So small Ni-Cd batteries can provide a
practically it has two problems: it uses good backup.
A simple diode-resistance (27-ohm,
a large number of IC packages and consumes a fairly large amount of current. 1/4-watt) charger maintains the charge
By using multiplexed display both the of the battery at proper charging rate.
problems can be solved. In multiplexing, only one input is displayed at any
Software
given instant. But if you chop or alter
inputs fast enough, your eyes see the Motorola offers Integrated Development
result as a continuous display. With Environment (IDE) software for proLEDs, only one digit is lighted up at a gramming its microcontroller and comtime. This saves a lot of power and plete development of the system.
also components, making the system The development board comes with
economical.
Editor, Assembler, and Programmer
Generally, displays are refreshed at software to support Motorolas device
a frequency of 50 to 150 Hz. Here, dis- programmer and software simulator.
plays are refreshed at a frequency of The ICS05JW in-circuit simulator
100 Hz (after every 10 ms). The dis- along with development board (pod)
play-refreshing program is an interrupt forms a complete simulator and
service routine program. BCD-to-7-seg- non-real-time I/O emulator for simument decoder/driver 74LS47, along with lating, programming, and debugging
transistor 2N2907, and 3-line-to-8-line code for a MC68HC705J1A/KJ1 family
decoder 74LS138 are used for driving device.
common-anode displays.
When you connect the pod to your
In multiplexed display, the current host computer and target hardware,
through the segments is doubled to you can use the actual inputs and
increase the displays brightness. outputs of the target system during
74LS47 is rated for sinking a current simulation of the code. You can
of up to 24 mA. As the current persists also use the ISC05JW software to edit
for a very small time in multiplexed and assemble the code in standalone
display, it is peaky and can be as high mode, without input/output to/from pod.
as 40 mA per segment.
The pod (MC68HC705J1CS) can be inThe decimal point is controlled terfaced to any Windows 3.x- or Winindividually by transistor BC547, dows 95-based IBM computer using seas 74LS47 does not support the deci- rial port.
mal point. PA0 and PA1 bits of port
The software for the timer has been
A are used for controlling the electro- so developed that the system becomes
mechanical relay and buzzer, respec- as user-friendly as possible. The main
tively.
constraint is read/write memory (RAM)
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

C O N S T R U C T I O N

TABLE I
Timer Status and Control Register (TSCR)
Bit

Signal
TOF
RTIF
TOIE
Reset
0
0
0
TOF: Timer overflow flag
RTIE: Real-time interrupt enable
RTI
0
0
1
1

RTO
0
1
0
1

Interrupt period
fop 214
fop 215
fop 216
fop 217

RTIE
TOFR
RTIFR
RTI
RTO
0
0
0
1
1
RTIF: Real-time interrupt flag
RTI and RTO: Real-time interrupt select bit.
For 3.2768MHz crystal
Frequency of operation (fop)
= 3.2768x106/2 = 1.638x106MHz
For RTI=RTO=0
Interrupt period = 10ms (100Hz)

The software routines for the timer,


along with their Assembly
language
codes, are listed in a
folder. (Note: This
folder,
containing
source code (.asm) and
listing file (.lst) will
form part of the EFYCD provided with the
August issue. As files
are quite large, it is
not feasible to include
them here.) Basically,
the following functions are performed
by the software program:
1. Initialisation of
ports and the timer.
2. Reading of keypressed data.
3. Storing of real
time and bell timings.
4. Comparison of
real time and bell
time. If the two
match, the bell rings.
5. Display of data.
6. Time-keeping.
For a user-friendly
Fig. 4: Actual-size single-sided PCB for the circuits in Figs 1 and 2
system, the associated
space. As mentioned earlier, the software is required to perform many
microcontroller has only 64 byte RAM. data manipulation tricks and internal
About twenty bell operating timings are branching. The operation and logic can
required to be stored. So the efficient be understood from the Assembly language listings. The software is mainly
use of RAM becomes essential.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

divided into the following modules:


Keyboard. When a key is pressed,
CD4532 sends the corresponding data.
After reading the data, the controller
decides on the action. Set/ Run key
(S6) is connected to port PA4.
Bell. This part of the program is
used for displaying the bell operating
timings stored in the RAM. The operating timings are displayed one by one
with a delay of 5 seconds between two
consecutive timings.
Set. The real time and bell timings
are stored using this part of the software. Data is entered digitwise; for example, 08:30 a.m. will be stored as 0,
followed by 8, followed by 3, and finally
0. Data is stored in 24-hour format.
Data fed from the keyboard is converted into equivalent hex and stored
in RAM. Any particular operating timing can be deleted from the memory
using Delete key, provided the timing
is already stored in the memory.
Run. Here the real time is compared with bell operating time. If the
two match, the relay is operated.
DataCon. This part of the software
is used for finding out the decimal
equivalent of hex data. The
microcontroller manipulates the hex
data and converts it into BCD format
for display.
Timer. The timer of the
microcontroller is initialised to give an
interrupt after every 10 ms. A realtime clock is generated using the interrupt. Also the display is refreshed during the interrupt service routine.
For real-time systems battery
backup is very essential, because power
failure affects the time keeping. In interrupt service routine, the availability
of power supply is checked. If the power
is available, displays are refreshed and
the timer operates normally. However,
during the power-failure period, displays are off and system is taken to
low power mode. In this mode only
the timer part of the microcontroller
remains activated while operations of
all other peripherals are suspended.

C O N S T R U C T I O N

This considerably reduces the power


consumption. When the supply gets restored, the controller starts operating
in normal fashion.

Operating procedure
When the power is switched on, the
display shows 12.00. Two settings are
required in the timer: (a) setting of real
time and (b) setting of bell operating
timings. For setting real-time clock
Time key is used, while for setting
bell timings Bell key is used.
Storing of real time. To store real
time, say, 05:35 p.m., flip Run/Set
key (S6) to set mode. The display will
show 0.000. Press Time key. Further

Fig. 5: Component layout for the PCB

TABLE II
Truth Table for Priority Encoder CD4532
Keys

E1

D7

D6

D5

D4

D3

D2

D1

D0

Q2

Q1

Q0

Store
Digit Adv.
Bell
Time
Delete

1
1
1
1
1

1
0
0
0
0

X
1
0
0
0

X
X
1
0
0

X
X
X
1
0

X
X
X
X
1

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

1
1
1
1
0

1
1
0
0
1

1
0
1
0
1

pressing of Time key will increment


the data, like 0.000, 1.000, 2.000, and
thereafter it will repeat 0.000, etc.
To select the digit, press Digit Advance. This stores the present digit
and the next digit is selected as indicated by the decimal pointer. Data is
stored in 24-hour format. The time to
be stored is 17.35, of
which the first digit
will be 1.000. The
second, third, and
fourth digits can be
stored in similar
fashion. After the
fourth digit, press
Digit Advance key
once more. The display will show 1735
(with no decimal).
Now press Store to
store the data.
Storing of bell
timings. The procedure to store bell operating timings is
similar to that of setting real time. The
only difference is that
here data is changed
by Bell key in place
of Time key. Any
number of bell timings (<20) can be
stored in the same
fashion. If the number of bell operating
timings exceeds 20,
the timer will not accept any new bell
timing until one of

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  JULY 2001

the previously stored timings is deleted.


Deletion of bell operating timings. For deleting a particular timing,
first store this timing using the steps
given above. Then press Delete key to
delete the specific data from the memory.
Display of real time. If Run/Set
key is taken to run mode, real time
will be displayed.
Checking of bell operating times.
For checking the bell operating times,
press bell key in Run mode only. The
stored bell operating timings will be displayed one by one with a delay of 5
seconds between two consecutive timings.

Programming
There are two ways to program the
EPROM/OTPROM (one-time programmable ROM):
1. Manipulate the control bits in the
EPROM programming register to program the EPROM/OTPROM on a byteby-byte basis.
2. Program the EPROM/OTPROM
with Motorolas MC68HC705J in-circuit
simulator.
The author has used the second
method for programming the OTPROM.
(EFY note. Readers who wish to
acquire a Pod for 705KJ1/J1A
microcontrollers, along with the required software, may contact Vinay
Chaddha at gvc@vsnl.com.)
An actual-size, single-sided PCB
for the circuits in Figs 2 and 3 is shown
in Fig. 4, with its component layout
shown in Fig. 5.

August

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

LONG-RANGE CORDLESS
BURGLAR ALARM

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

T.K. HAREENDRAN

his long-range cordless burglar


alarm circuit makes use of a
cordless telephone (CLT) unit with
paging facility and a few low-cost discrete
components. The circuit is so simple that
even a novice can easily construct it without any difficulty.
When the page button on a CLT is
pressed and held in that position, the
handset starts beeping to indicate that
somebody is calling. This function is used
here to build the gadget. The system consists of three sub-assemblies:
1. Wireless beeper. The handset of
the CLT.
2. Infrared transmitter. A number
of IR transmitter circuits based on the

Fig. 1

well-known 555 chip have been published


earlier in EFY. Just select one circuit with
a modulating frequency of 36 to 38 kHz
and assemble it on a veroboard. After that,
enclose it in a proper cabinet. (EFY note.
A typical IR transmitter circuit used during testing is shown in Fig. 1.)
3. Infrared receiver-cum-control
unit. The circuit diagram of this unit is
shown in Fig. 2. Front end of this block is
Sharps GP1U561X integrated infrared receiver module (or TK1836/
TSOP1836 from Temic/ Fig. 3
Telefunken, etc). This module can demodulate 36kHz
modulated IR beam to produce an active-similar low
output. You may also use
any other module, provided
it has an active-low output.
The modulated IR beam
from the transmitter is received by the receiver module and its output at pin 2
goes low. The rest of the circuit is in sleep mode as it
does not get power for its operation. The SCR here plays

the role of an electronic switch.


When the infrared beam is interrupted, the output of the receiver module
goes high to apply a forward bias to the
base of transistor T1. As a result, the gate
of SCR gets sufficient forward bias to conduct (and latch). The astable multivibrator
built around IC1 starts working to control the on/off relay timings. Diode D1
prevents the relay from latching and diode D2 works as a free-wheeling diode.
Normally open (N/O) contacts of the
relay are used to close the page button
contacts until the circuit is reset by pressing push-to-off switch S1 (N/C type). One
may replace switch S1 with a key-lock
switch to avoid its unauthorised operation. The astable circuit helps the handset user to distinguish between a normal

paging call and an intrusion warning


alarm.
After construction, fix the transmitter and receiver modules at opposite sides in the door frame as shown
in Fig. 3. Carefully open the CLT and
solder two wires to the page button
terminals with their free ends connected to the relay contacts (N/O). Now
your cordless burglar alarm with a
wireless monitoring range of about 500
metres (actual range is based on the
CLTs paging range) is ready to detect
an intruder.
EFY note. The author has successfully tested his prototype with the following CLT makes:
1. Panasonic KX-T 3611 BH (made
in Japan)
2. Panaphone WT-3990 (made in
China)
3. Citizen JRT-5400 (made in India)

Fig. 2

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

WATER-LEVEL CONTROLLER

transistor T1 gets forward biased and


starts conducting. This, in turn, switches
transistor T2 on. Initially, when the overhead tank is empty, transistors T3 and
T5 are in cut-off state and hence pnp tran-

ter level touches probe L in the overhead


tank, transistor T5 gets forward biased
and starts conducting. This, in turn, reverse biases transistor T6, which then cuts
off. But since transistor T6 is bypassed
through the relay contacts, the pump continues to run. The level of water continues to rise.
When the water level touches probe

sistors T4 and T6 get forward biased via resistors


R5 and R6, respectively.
As all series-connected transistors T2,
T4, and T6 are forward
biased, they conduct to
energise relay RL1
(which is also connected
in series with transistors
T2, T4, and T6). Thus
the supply to the pump
motor gets completed via
the lower set of relay
contacts (assuming that
switch S2 is on) and the
pump starts filling the
overhead tank.
Once the relay has
energised, transistor T6
is bypassed via the upper set of contacts of the
relay. As soon as the wa-

H, transistor T3 gets forward biased and


starts conducting. This causes reverse biasing of transistor T4 and it gets cut off.
As a result, the relay de-energises and
the pump stops. Transistors T4 and T6
will be turned on again only when the
water level drops below the position of L
probe.
Presets VR1, VR2, and VR3 are to be
adjusted in such a way that transistors
T1, T3, and T5 are turned on when the
water level touches probe pairs C-S, C-H,
and C-L, respectively. Resistor R4 ensures
that transistor T2 is off in the absence
of any base voltage. Similarly, resistors
R5 and R6 ensure that transistors T4 and
T6 are on in the absence of any base
voltage. Switches S1 and S2 can be used
to switch on and switch off, respectively,
the pump manually.
You can make and install probes on
your own as per the requirement and facilities available. However, we are describ-

JOYDEEP KUMAR CHAKRABORTY

n most houses, water is first stored


in an underground tank (UGT) and
from there it is pumped up to the
overhead tank (OHT) located on the roof.
People generally switch on the pump
when their taps go dry and switch off the
pump when the overhead tank starts overflowing. This results in the unnecessary
wastage and sometimes non-availability
of water in the case of emergency.
The simple circuit presented here
makes this system automatic, i.e. it
switches on the pump when the water
level in the overhead tank goes low and
switches it off as soon as the water level
reaches a pre-determined level. It also
prevents dry run of the pump in case
the level in the underground tank goes
below the suction level.
In the figure, the common probes connecting the underground tank and the
overhead tank to +9V supply are marked
C. The other probe in underground tank,
which is slightly above the dry run level,
is marked S. The low-level and high-level
probes in the overhead tank are marked
L and H, respectively.
When there is enough water in the
underground tank, probes C and S are
connected through water. As a result,

MAR
IL KU
SUN

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

CIRCUIT

ing here how the probes were made for


this prototype.
The author used a piece of non-metallic conduit pipe (generally used for domestic wiring) slightly longer than the
depth of the overhead tank. The common
wire C goes up to the end of the pipe

IDEAS

through the conduit. The wire for probes


L and H goes along with the conduit from
the outside and enters the conduit through
two small holes bored into it as shown in
Fig. 2.
Care has to be taken to ensure that
probes H and L do not touch wire C di-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

rectly. Insulation of wires is to be removed


from the points shown. The same arrangement can be followed for the underground
tank also. To avoid any false triggering
due to interference, a shielded wire may
be used.

CIRCUIT

INVISIBLE BROKEN
WIRE DETECTOR

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

K. UDHAYA KUMARAN, VU3GTH

ortable loads such as video cameras, halogen flood lights, electrical irons, hand drillers, grinders, and cutters are powered by connecting long 2- or 3-core cables to the mains
plug. Due to prolonged usage, the power
cord wires are subjected to mechanical
strain and stress, which can lead to internal snapping of wires at any point. In
such a case most people go for replacing
the core/cable, as finding the exact loca-

tion of a broken wire is difficult. In 3-core


cables, it appears almost impossible to detect a broken wire and the point of break
without physically disturbing all the three
wires that are concealed in a PVC jacket.
The circuit presented here can easily
and quickly detect a broken/faulty wire
and its breakage point in 1-core, 2-core,
and 3-core cables without physically disturbing wires. It is built using hex inverter CMOS CD4069. Gates N3 and N4
are used as a pulse generator that oscillates at around 1000 Hz in audio range.

The frequency is determined by timing


components comprising resistors R3 and
R4, and capacitor C1. Gates N1 and N2
are used to sense the presence of 230V AC
field around the live wire and buffer weak
AC voltage picked from the test probe.
The voltage at output pin 10 of gate N2
can enable or inhibit the oscillator circuit.
When the test probe is away from any
high-voltage AC field, output pin 10 of
gate N2 remains low. As a result, diode
D3 conducts and inhibits
the oscillator circuit from
oscillating.
Simultaneously, the output of gate
N3 at pin 6 goes low to
cut off transistor T1. As a
result, LED1 goes off.
When the test probe is
moved closer to 230V AC,
50Hz mains live wire, during every positive halfcycle, output pin 10 of gate
N2 goes high.
Thus during every
positive half-cycle of the
mains frequency, the oscillator circuit is allowed
to oscillate at around 1 kHz, making red
LED (LED1) to blink. (Due to the persistence of vision, the LED appears to be
glowing continuously.) This type of blinking reduces consumption of the current
from button cells used for power supply.
A 3V DC supply is sufficient for powering the whole circuit. AG13 or LR44
type button cells, which are also used inside laser pointers or in LED-based continuity testers, can be used for the circuit.
The circuit consumes 3 mA during the
sensing of AC mains voltage.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

For audio-visual indication, one may


use a small buzzer (usually built inside
quartz alarm time pieces) in parallel with
one small (3mm) LCD in place of LED1
and resistor R5. In such a case, the current consumption of the circuit will be
around 7 mA. Alternatively, one may use
two 1.5V R6- or AA-type batteries. Using
this gadget, one can also quickly detect
fused small filament bulbs in serial loops
powered by 230V AC mains.
The whole circuit can be accommodated in a small PVC pipe and used as a
handy broken-wire detector. Before detecting broken faulty wires, take out any connected load and find out the faulty wire
first by continuity method using any multimeter or continuity tester. Then connect
230V AC mains live wire at one end of
the faulty wire, leaving the other end free.
Connect neutral terminal of the mains
AC to the remaining wires at one end.
However, if any of the remaining wires is
also found to be faulty, then both ends of
these wires are connected to neutral. For
single-wire testing, connecting neutral
only to the live wire at one end is sufficient to detect the breakage point.
In this circuit, a 5cm (2-inch) long,
thick, single-strand wire is used as the
test probe. To detect the breakage point,
turn on switch S1 and slowly move the
test probe closer to the faulty wire, beginning with the input point of the live wire
and proceeding towards its other end.
LED1 starts glowing during the presence
of AC voltage in faulty wire. When the
breakage point is reached, LED1 immediately extinguishes due to the non-availability of mains AC voltage. The point
where LED1 is turned off is the exact
broken-wire point.
While testing a broken 3-core rounded
cable wire, bend the probes edge in the
form of J to increase its sensitivity and
move the bent edge of the test probe closer
over the cable. During testing avoid any
strong electric field close to the circuit to
avoid false detection.

CIRCUIT

PC-BASED MULTI-MODE
LIGHT CHASER

IDEAS

RUP

ANJA

NA

VIJAYA KUMAR P.

or those who want to use their PC


for various electronic functions,
here is a circuit that converts a
PC to a multi-mode light chaser. The advantage of this light chaser over other
light chasers is that users can define their
own patterns (designs) of running lights
by altering the source program that requires a simple hardware. The program
given here produces 24 different patterns
of running light.
The circuit shown in Fig. 1 is mainly
used to physically isolate the PC hardware from the mains supply and to make
it capable of driving 230V loads. The PCs
parallel port (LPT1) provided on its back
is used to interface with the circuit. LPT

port is terminated in a 25-pin D type


female connector. Its pin configuration is
shown in Table I.
Triacs are used to drive 230V bulbs.
Triac BT136 used here can take up a load
of up to 800 watts. If you want to drive
higher loads, BT136 (4A) can be replaced
with triacs of higher current ratings, like
BT139 (16A). Since we are using triacs to
drive 230V bulbs, the mains supply would
also appear on the PC. Optocouplers have
been used to isolate the PC from 230V
mains supply.
The circuit can be assembled on a
general-purpose dotted PCB and can be
linked to the PCs LPT port (female) using a 25-pin male D type connector along

TABLE I
Pin Configuration
Pin
Description
1
*Strobe
2
Data bit 0
3
Data bit 1
4
Data bit 2
5
Data bit 3
6
Data bit 4
7
Data bit 5
8
Data bit 6
9
Data bit 7
10
Acknowledge
11
*Busy
12
Paper end
13
Select
14
*Auto feed
15
Error
16
Initialise
17
*Select input
18-25
Ground
Note: *indicates that pins are internally
(hardware) inverted.

with a 25-core cable. Instead of connecting 230V bulbs you can connect small
6.2V miniature lamps, which are easily
available in electrical shops. Connections
are shown in Fig. 3. While using
6.2V miniature lamps, 50 miniature
lamps must be connected in series
and the net combination of 50 bulbs
in series should be connected to
each channel (channel 1 through
channel 8).
Since LEDs require very small
current, parallel ports can directly
drive LEDs. Software can be tested
using simple hardware as shown in
Fig. 2.
C language provides a built-in
outportb() function to output binary
data to a hardware port. To understand this, let us consider the following program:
#include <dos.h>
main()
{
int i;
printf(Input a decimal number);
scanf (%d,&i);
outportb() (0x0378,i);
}

The above program is used to


output a binary equivalent of the
decimal number entered. Scanf function is used to take the input decimal number from the keyboard. The
outportb() function directly outputs
the binary equivalent of the decimal
number to LPT1 (Port ID is 0x0378).
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

main()
{
int temp=0,i,ch,PORT = 0x0378;
printf(Press x to exit);
run:
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
{
tempb=pow(2,i);
outportb(PORT,temp); /* outputs BINARY no.
to LPT1 */
delay(2000); /*using delay to control speed */
if(bioskey(1))/*To check whether any key is
pressed */
ch=getch();
ch=toupper(ch);
if(ch==X)
{

For example, if the number entered is 15,


its binary equivalent 00001111 is written
into data pins D0 to D7 of the parallel
port.
To understand the logic of multi-mode
light chaser, first consider the following
simple sequential running light program:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <math.h>

exit(0);
}
}
goto run;
}

In the above program, for loop is used


to increment i in steps of 1 up to 7. As
these values of i get substituted in
temp=pow(2,i), numbers temp= 20=1, 21=2,
22 =4, 23=8, 24=16, 25=32, 26=64, and 27=128

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

are generated. The outportb() function is


used to write binary equivalents of 1, 2,
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 to data pins D0
to D7, with D0 as the least significant
digit and D7 as the most significant digit.
The binary equivalents of numbers
obtained by incrementing powers of 2 up
to 7 are given below:
Decimal number
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128

Binary equivalents
00000001
00000010
00000100
00001000
00010000
00100000
01000000
10000000

It is clear from the table that the resulting binary numbers will produce the
running light effect. Delay function defines the speed of running. Go to statement is used to take control unconditionally to for loop, so as to repeat the running process.
By changing the formula of producing
binary number patterns, one can get different actions. The multi-mode light
chaser program is divided into a number
of cases. Each case will produce two or
more actions. These cases are made to
switch automatically using switch statement and one for loop. Further, by changing the delay time, one can increase or
decrease the speed of running lights.
EFY note. The complete source-level
program of multi-mode chaser lights in
C language has been published in Software Section of this issue on page No.
86. It will also be included along with
the executable version of the program in
the next months EFY-CD.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

FUSE STATUS INDICATORS


FOR POWER-SUPPLIES

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

the bottom part of the LED gets the supply and therefore only the red part of the
LED is lit. The formulae for working out
the values of current-limiting resistors for
each colour LED are shown in Table I.
These relationships are applicable to the
circuits of Figs 1 and 2.

M.K. CHANDRA MOULEESWARAN

use status indicators are very


simple to construct using a few
components. These go very nicely

with all sorts of power-supplies and


other instruments that use powersupply sections. The logic and the
formula, if any, used with
each circuit/figure are shown
in the corresponding
truth tables.
Fig. 1 shows the
use of a 3-pin bicolour LED. When
the fuse is intact,

TABLE I (REFER FIG. 1)


Indicator Details
Fuse status
Bias to LED1
A1-red anode
A2-green anode
Intact
Forward
Forward
Blown
Forward
Nil
Relationship to evaluate R1 and R2 in Figs 1 and 2:
DCVin-VLED % ILED=R1 or R2 in ohms
where Vin and VLED are in volts, ILED in amperes
In Fig. 2, VLED=VD2+VLED for flasher LED path

Colour of LED1
Red+green=yellow
Red

TABLE II (REFER FIG. 2)


Indicator Details
Fuse status
Bias to LED1 and LED2
LED2-anode A1-red anode A2 green anode
Intact
Forward
Forward
Forward

Blown

Forward

Forward

Nil

both red and


green parts of
the LED are lit
and the LED
emits a yellow
light. With the
fuse in blown
condition, only

Colour of
LED1 and LED2
Continuous green LED1+
flash red LED1+flash red
LED2=green and yellow
alternate+flash red
Flashing red LED1 and LED2

TABLE III (REFER FIG. 3)


Indicator Details
Bias to LED1
Colour of LED1
A1-red anode
A2-green anode
Intact
Forward
Forward
Red+green=yellow at 50Hz flicker
Blown
Forward
Nil
Red at 50Hz flicker
Note. Approximate DCVin at C of D1 or D2 is 200 volts

Supply input
DC
AC

TABLE IV (REFER FIG. 4)


Indicator Details
Polarity of
Polarity to LED1
the supply
at P1
at P2
Forward
Positive
Negative
Reverse
Negative
Positive
Alternates
Alternates
at 50Hz/s
at 50Hz/s

Colour of LED1
Red-continuous
Green-continuous
Alternates between red
and green at 50 Hz and
appears yellow

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

Fig. 2 employs an additional flashing


LED in series with the red part of the bicolour LED. So the fuse failure is indicated by the flashing of LED as well as
the red part of the bi-colour LED.
Fig. 3 shows the use of a bi-colour
LED in the AC mains supply circuit. The
unique feature of this circuit is that just
by altering the resistor values, it can be
used in low-voltage AC circuits or DC circuits.
The AC is converted into pulsating
DC using rectifier diodes before application to the LED sections via current-limiting resistors. For higher power dissipation in current-limiting resistors, a series
combination of resistors can be used. Because of the pulsating voltage, the LEDs
would produce a flickering effect. The total series resistance with each LED section may be calculated by dividing 200
volts with the desired LED current (say,
10 mA).
Fig. 4 shows the use of a 2-pin bicolour LED. The two LEDs are internally
connected in reverse, so they glow both

CIRCUIT

ways of the supply polarity connections


and can be easily used for AC circuits as
indicators. The correct polarity is indicated by green and the reverse polarity
by red. The AC supply is shown by yel-

IDEAS

low, which, in fact, is due to the turning


on of both the colours at the AC mains
frequency. When the frequency is more
than 20 Hz, the two colours combine to
produce yellow light. Pin identification of

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

this LED is done usually by using a current-limiting resistor and DC supply only.
All the circuits can be effectively altered to suit an individuals requirement.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

DIGITAL CAPACITANCE-CUMFREQUENCY METER

MAR
IL KU
SUN

PRATAP CHANDRA SAHU

ere is an inexpensive circuit of


a digital capacitance-cum-frequency meter that can measure
capacitance in the range of 1 pF to 10,000
F and frequency in the range of 0 to 100
kHz. With a slight modification, this circuit can be used as an article counter or
a time meter.
The principle. In a frequency
counter, the unknown input is ANDed
with a known time-base period, so that
the numbers of cycles passed over the
time-base period are counted. The time
period can be measured similarly if a
known frequency is gated with the unknown time period. The same instrument
can also determine the time period of a
periodic waveform or the time elapsed between two events.
In this circuit, the capacitance measurement is nothing but the measurement
of the time between two events in a charging capacitor. An R-C (resistor-capacitor)
circuit works as a time generator and the
time is directly proportional to capacitance
value under suitable conditions. In the
present case the condition being satisfied
is that the time period (T) is equal to the
product RxC, where R is the value of the
charging resistor in ohms and C the capacitance value in farads.
Capacitance measurement. One
RxC time (seconds) is required to charge
a capacitor to 63 per cent (approximately
two-third) of its final value (applied voltage).
Consider the following example:
If C = 470 pF and R = 1 mega-ohm,
then one RC time period T = 470x106
seconds = 470 microseconds.
If we select the external frequency for
the counter as 1 MHz (time period = 1
microsecond), the counter progresses by
one count every microsecond and the
counter reading is 470, as the gate will
be open for 470 microseconds for the
above-mentioned R and C under testing.

We get the capacitance value directly from


the readout of the counter in picofarads.
Similarly, if we take R = 1 mega-ohm
and external frequency = 1 kHz, we can
read the value of the capacitor under test
(CUT) directly in nanofarads. With R = 1
kilo-ohm and frequency = 1 kHz, we can
read the value of the CUT directly in microfarads.
Frequency measurement. This involves passing the unknown frequency signal for a known time base period through
the counter. In a 4-digit counter with a
time base of one second, the maximum
display will be 9999, which means that
we cannot read a frequency of more than
9999 Hz (10 kHz). However, if we reduce the time base to 0.1 second, the frequency reading can go up by a factor of
ten to 99.99 kHz (100 kHz) as the time
base virtually divides the input frequency
by 10. For low-frequency measurement,
we can increase the resolution by a factor
of ten by increasing the time base period
to 10 seconds, which is equivalent to the
multiplication of the input frequency by a
factor of 10.

Circuit and operation


The capacitance measurement mode.
During the capacitance measurement
mode, switches S1 through S5 are kept
slided towards position C. The unknown
capacitor is placed across CUT terminals.
Ganged switches SR1 and SR2 are used
for capacitance measurement. Position 1
is used for capacitance range of 1 pF to
9999 pF (10 nF), position 2 for capacitance range of 1 nF to 9999 nF (10 F),
and position 3 for capacitance range of 1
F to 9999 F.
Switch SR1 selects 1 mega-ohm charging resistor in its positions 1 and 2, while
switch SR2 selects a frequency of 1 MHz
in position 1 and a frequency of 1 kHz in
position 2 for the counter operation. In
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

position 3, 1-kilo-ohm charging resistor


R6 is selected by SR1, while SR2 selects
1 kHz as the frequency for counter operation.
Ganged rotary switches SR3 and SR4
are used for frequency measurement mode
only. (EFY note. As decimal indication
is not required during capacitance measurement, one might have an additional
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- NE555 timer
IC2, IC3
- CA3140 high-input
impedance op-amp
IC4 (A-D)
- 7408 AND gate
IC5
- MM74C925 4-digit counter/
7-segment driver
IC6
- 74LS121 monostable MV
IC7-IC9
- 74LS90 decade counter
(divide-by-10)
IC10
- 7476 JK flip-flop
IC11
- 7805 regulator +5V
D1-D5
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
D6
- 1N4148 switching diode
LED1
- Red LED
T1-T5
- BC547B npn transistor
T6
- BS107 FET
Resistors (all watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise)
R1
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R2, R5
- 1-mega-ohm
R3, R8, R24 - 4.7-kilo-ohm
R4, R20
- 10-kilo-ohm
R6, R7, R18
R21
- 1-kilo-ohm
R9-R16
- 220-ohm
R17
- 20-kilo-ohm
R19
- 100-kilo-ohm
R22, R23
- 560-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 1-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1
- 15F, 25V electrolytic
C2
- 0.01F ceramic disk
C3
- 10nF ceramic disk
C4
- 10F, 250V electrolytic
C5
- 1000 F, 25V electrolytic
C6
- 100F, 25V electrolytic
C7, C8
- 22 pF ceramic
C9
- 0.01F ceramic
Miscellaneous:
X1
- 230 AC primary to 9-0-9 volt,
500mA secondary transformer
XTL
- 1MHz quartz crystal
S1-S5
- Slide switch
S6, S7
- Push-to-on switch
SR1-SR2
- Ganged 3-way, 2-pole rotary
switch
SR3-SR4
- Ganged 3-way, 2-pole rotary
switch
DIS1-DIS4 - LT543 common-cathode,
7-segment display

Fig. 1: Circuit diagram for digital capacitance-cum-frequency meter

CONSTRUCTION

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Internal block diagram and functional description for IC 74C925

off position for SR3/SR4 ganged rotary


switch.)
IC1 is a monostable multivibrator
based on timer NE555 and is meant for
capacitance measurement only. In normal
condition, the low output of the
monostable turns on the FET (BS107)
switch. So the capacitor under test gets

shorted via the FET switch. As and when


triggered by the momentary push-to-on
operation of start switch S6, the
monostable provides a pulse of 15-second
duration. As soon as its output goes high,
it switches off FET switch. Simultaneously, it takes pin 5 of AND gate IC4A
high.

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for digital capacitance-cum-frequency meter


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

Now let us examine the conditions at


IC2 and IC3 (both CA3140 op-amps). The
voltage across CUT, after being buffered
by IC2, is fed to the inverting input of
IC3 wired as a comparator. The non-inverting input of IC3 is biased at 0.63Vcc,
which is set accurately by 1-kilo-ohm preset VR1. Now the capacitor begins to
charge. As soon as the voltage across the
capacitor crosses 0.63Vcc (i.e. 3.15 volts
with Vcc = 5 volts), the output of IC3
goes low. Thus the output of IC3 and also
that of AND gate IC4A remains high until the capacitor charges to 63 per cent of
Vcc in one RC time.
Latch-enable (LE) pin 5 of counter IC5
(74C925) connected to pin 6 of IC4A remains high to pass the clock selected via
rotary switch SR2 and coupled to CL
(clock) pin 11 of IC5 via AND gate IC4B.
It goes low after one CR time to latch its
count as the output of IC3 goes low. Thus
the number of cycles from the frequency
source passed over one CR time is recorded in the counter and gets displayed.
For precise generation of 1MHz frequency, a 1MHz crystal oscillator is wired
around Schmitt inverter gates N3 and N4.
The oscillator output is routed via AND
gate IC4C to slide switch S2 and rotary
switch SR2 position 1. In capacitance (C)
position of switch S2, this signal, after
division by three decade counters IC7,
IC8, and IC9 (7490), which are common
to both frequency and capacitance meter
modes, provides 1kHz signal at pin 12 of
IC9, which, in turn, is extended to positions 2 and 3 of switch SR2. (Note. The
outputs of IC10 are not used during capacitance measurement. IC10 comes into
play only during the frequency measurement as explained later.)
The NE555 timer used as a monoshot
ensures the capacitance measurement in
an easy and automatic manner. The LED
connected to AND gate IC4D glows during the charging of the capacitor. During
the measurement of high-value capacitances, it may take several seconds to
charge to 0.63Vcc. For low-value capacitances, the LED glows for just a moment
after pressing start switch S6. If the LED
goes off after the start button is pressed,
it indicates that the measurement is over.
You can reset NE555 timer using
switch S7 if you want to make another
measurement. If this switch is not provided/operated, you would have to wait
for at least 15 seconds until NE555 timer
becomes normal. Alternatively, you will

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB

have to switch off the complete circuit


and then switch it on again.
Frequency counting. In place of
1MHz oscillator, a 100Hz full-wave rectified (pulsating DC) after being shaped by
Schmitt inverter N2, is used as the master clock to provide the required time
bases. The voltage divider network of resistors R20 and R21 protects gate N2

against high voltage.


R21 is test selected to get proper 100
Hz rectangular wave form at the output
of gate N2. This 100Hz signal is divided
by decade counters IC7, IC8, and IC9 to
obtain 10Hz, 1Hz, and 0.1Hz frequencies.
The frequency selected via rotary switch
SR3 is then divided by 2 by JK flip-flop
7476 (IC10) so as to provide a gate time

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

of 0.1 second, 1 second, or 10 seconds in


positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively, of
switch SR3. Q output of IC10 is used to
enable counter IC5.
The resetting of counter-cum-display
IC5 is accomplished by the narrow output pulse from IC6 (74121), which is generated by the leading (rising) edge of Q
output of IC10 connected to its B input
(pin 5) via switch S5. Thus at the beginning of each counting period, IC5 is reset.
IC5 (74C925) is TTL-compatible with
a multiplexed 4-digit, 7-segment display
driver. Its internal block diagram and
functions are described in Fig. 2. The
maximum frequency display in positions
1, 2, and 3 of ganged switches SR3 and
SR4 is limited to 99.99 kHz, 9.999 kHz,
and 999.9 Hz. The decimal point position
is fixed by switch SR4.
Calibration and testing. Connect a
multimeter to the non-inverting terminal
of IC3 and set the point at 0.63Vcc = 3.15
volts using 1-kilo-ohm preset VR1. To test
the capacitance meter, use a 470pF polystyrene capacitor with one per cent tolerance.
Precaution. Try to screen the mains
transformer from the input. Place the
transformer at a place where the chances
of its interference with the input are minimal or nil. While measuring the frequency, the frequency source under test
should not be touched or loaded to avoid
affecting its frequency due to stray capacitance associated with the test leads.
An actual-size, single-sided PCB for
the circuit of Fig. 1 is shown in Fig. 3,
with its component layout shown in
Fig. 4.

CONSTRUCTION

FLUID-LEVEL CONTROLLER
WITH INDICATOR

RUP

ANJA

NA

BHASKAR BANERJEE

he fluid-level controller circuit presented here allows you to set the


lower and upper fluid levels at
the desired specific positions between two
extreme levels. The total fluid level is divided into ten equal parts. Any two of
these ten positions may be defined as low
and high level, respectively. The system
shows the preset levels on the two 7-segment displays and the current fluid level
at any instant on a 10-LED bar graph
indicator. The same circuit could also be
used for controlling temperature in a similar fashion.

The circuit
The main part of the circuit as shown in
Fig. 1 is dot/bar graph driver LM3914
(IC1). This IC is linearly scaled and is
intended for use in LED voltmeter application where the number of illuminated
LEDs indicates the value of input voltage. It contains a floating 1.2V reference
source between pins 7 and 8 that may be
used as the reference input for the IC.
The voltage from the sensor is fed to the
input of IC1 at pin 5.
The output of the sensor may vary

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of fluid-level controller with indicator


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

from ground level (0V) to supply voltage.


Thus the reference voltage source should
be externally preset, which is feasible with
the help of IC1. This IC can also display
the input voltage on a linear scale using
ten LEDs in the bar graph or the dot
mode. Here we have used the bar graph
mode.
The outputs of IC1 are active-low and
hence they sink current to illuminate
LEDs. Inverters are used between the outputs of IC1 and the inputs of IC3 and IC4
to invert the active-low outputs of IC1.
There are ten outputs available from IC1,
of which only five are used here. One may
use up to eight outputs of IC1 since IC3
and IC4 (4051) are 1-of-8 data selectors.
(Note. If 4067 were used in place of 4051,
all the ten outputs could be used. It is
also possible to get more than ten outputs by cascading LM3941 ICs.)
Using this circuit, the maximum fluid
level can be divided into four equal parts
giving five different level readings from

CONSTRUCTION

0 (empty/
low level)
to 4 (full/
high level).
Thus the
five levels
are empty,
one-fourth,
half, threefourth, and
full. This
division is
meant only
for controlFig. 2: Optical sensor
ling the
level, while all levels
including the intermediate levels are
constantly displayed
on LED bar graph.
The lower level
can be set anywhere
between 0 and 3 in
steps of 1 and high
Fig. 3: Sensor
level can be set beusing float
tween 1 and 4. The
operated potmeter
fluid level can be
maintained between any two levels by using IC3 and IC4. IC3 selects the high level
and gets inputs of levels 1, 2, 3, and 4,
while IC4 selects the low level and gets
inputs of levels 0, 1, 2, and 3. All other
unused input pins of IC3 and IC4 are
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- LM3914 bar/dot display
driver
IC2
- 4069 hex inverter
IC3, IC4, IC5 - 4051 8-channel analogue
multiplexer
IC6
- 4520 dual binary counter
IC7
- 555 timer
IC8
- 4081 quad 2-input AND
gate
IC9, IC10
- 4511 BCD-to-7-segment
latch/decoder/driver
LED1, 3, 5, 7, 9 - Green LED
LED2, 4, 6, 8,
10, 11
- Red LED
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon unless
stated otherwise):
R1-R10,
R16-R31
- 470-ohm
R11-R15
- 10-kilo-ohm
R32-R33
- 47-kilo-ohm
R34
- 1-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1, C2
- 22F, 25V electrolytic
C3, C4
- 10F, 25V electrolytic
C5
- 1F ceramic disk
Miscellaneous:
DIS1, DIS2
- Common-cathode
7-segment display
S1, S2
- Push-to-on switch

Fig. 4: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for fluid-level controller with indicator

grounded.
The selection takes place according to
the binary word preset at the select input
pins (pin 9, 10, and 11) of IC3 and IC4.
The required binary word is generated by
a dual divide-by-16 counter IC6 (4520).
(IC6 can be replaced by a divide-by-10
counter 4518, if desired.) Half of IC6 is
used for high level and the other half for
low level. IC6 gets its counting pulse from
a 555 timer (IC7) used for generation of
approximately 1Hz pulse train.
The high level is set by pressing
switch S1, while the low level is set by
pressing switch S2. IC6 is reset when the
power is switched on. This power-on-reset function is realised using capacitors
C1 and C2, and resistors R12 and R13.
The part of IC6 connected to high-level
selector also gets reset when the count is
5 (101 binary). This reset pulse is generated using AND gates of IC CD4081.
The selected minimum and maximum
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

levels are displayed by two 7-segment displays DIS1 and DIS2 that are controlled
by two BCD-to-7-segment decoders 4511
(IC9 and IC10, respectively).
The outputs of IC3 and IC4 are fed to
the select input pins of IC5 (4051). The
output of IC5 is fed back to one of its
select inputs through an inverter. IC5 determines the control logic. The pump (or
the heater in temperature controller)
should be on when the fluid (or temperature) level is below the minimum level
and should remain on until the maximum level is reached. It must not start if
the fluid level falls below the maximum
level but remains above the minimum
level. This function is realised by IC5 that
can operate a pump (or an alarm, or a
flow valve, or a heater, as required) according to this control logic. For this, the
input lines of IC5 are set to appropriate
logic levels, which must not be disturbed.
Sensor. To control the fluid level (say,

CONSTRUCTION

water level in a tank), an optical sensor


as shown in Fig. 2 may be used. This
optical sensor consists of a small filament
lamp (generally used in torch or an IR
LED as light source) and an LDR or a
photodiode as the sensor. The filament
lamp may be powered using the same
step-down transformer that is used to
power the circuit. Alternatively, a separate step-down transformer may be used
for the purpose, but taking into account
the voltage and current ratings of the
lamp.
One may also use the sensor described
in Digital Water Level Meter in Circuit
Ideas section of the February 2000 issue
of EFY. Use that sensor (VR4) as part of
a voltage divider network as shown in
Fig. 3. If the circuit is used as a temperature controller, a temperature sensor using the popular LM35 IC may be built
(refer Circuit Ideas published in March
1993 issue of EFY).
Operation. The lower or the minimum level is set by pressing switch S2
and the upper or the maximum level by
pressing switch S1. The two switches
should be kept pressed until the required
level is displayed. For example, if the
lower level is selected 1 and the upper
level 3, the pump (or heater or a flow
valve) will start when the fluid falls below level 1 and will stop when the fluid
reaches level 3.
Assembly and testing. The circuit
may be built on a veroboard. However,
an actual-size, single-sided PCB and its
component layout are shown in Figs 4
and 5, respectively. Switches used, should
be of good quality. After assembling, the
circuit may be tested using a voltage divider (potentiometer) that could be var-

Fig. 5: Component layout of PCB

ied between ground and positive supply.


While testing, set preset VR1 to increase or decrease the reference voltage
taking into account the maximum output
available from the actual sensor. In case

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  AUGUST 2001

of power failure, there should be proper


battery back-up. Otherwise, the system
will not behave as desired. Red and green
LEDs are arranged in alternate fashion
to make the bar display look attractive.

September

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

A HIERARCHICAL
PRIORITY ENCODER

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

DR BHASKARA RAO N.

normal priority encoder encodes


only the highest-order data line.
But in many situations, not only
the highest but the second-highest priority information is also needed. The circuit presented here encodes both the highest-priority information as well as the second-highest priority information of an 8line incoming data. The circuit uses the
standard octal priority encoder 74148 that
is an 8-line-to-3-line (4-2-1) binary encoder
with active-low data inputs and outputs.
The first encoder (IC1) generates the
highest-priority value, say, F. The activelow output (A0, A1, A2) of IC1 is inverted
by gates N9 through N11 and fed to a 3line-to-8-line decoder (74138) that requires
active-high inputs. The decoded outputs
are active-low. The decoder identifies the
highest-priority data line and that data
value is cancelled using XNOR gates (N1
through N8) to retain the second-highest
priority value that is generated by the
second encoder.
To understand the logic, let the incoming data lines be denoted as L0 to L7.
Lp is the highest-priority line (active-low)
and Lq the second-highest priority line
(active-low). Thus Lp=0 and Lq=0. All
lines above Lp and also between Lp and
Lq (denoted as Lj) are at logic 1. All lines
below Lq logic state are irrelevant, i.e.
dont care. Here p is the highest-priority
value and q the second-highest-priority
value. (Obviously, q has to be lower than
p, and the minimum possible value for p
is taken as 1.)
Priority encoder IC1 generates binary
output F2, F1, F0, which represents the
value of p in active-low format. The
complemented F2, F1, and F0 are applied
to 3-line-to-8-line (one out of eight outputs is active-low) decoder 74138. Let the
output lines of 74138 be denoted as M0
through M7. Now only one line is activelow among M0 through M7, and that is
Mp (where the value of p is explained as
above). Therefore the logic level of line
Mp is 0 and that of all other M lines 1.
The highest-priority line is cancelled
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

using eight XNOR gates as shown in the


figure. Let the output lines from XNOR
gates be N0 through N7. Consider inputs
Lp and Mp of the corresponding XNOR
gate. Since Mp = 0 and also Lp = 0, the
output of this XNOR gate is Np = complement of Lp = 1. All other Ls are not changed
because the corresponding Ms are all 1s.

CIRCUIT

Thus data lines N0 through N7 are same


as L0 through L7, except that the highestpriority level in L0 through L7 is cancelled
in N0 through N7.
The highest-priority level in N0
through N7 is the second-highest priority
leftover from L0 through L7, i.e. Nq=0 and
Nj=1 for q<j7. Now these N lines are applied to priority encoder 2 (IC3) to gener-

IDEAS

ate S2, S1, S0, which represent q. Thus


the second-highest priority value is extracted. Through cascading one can recover
the third-highest priority, and so on.
For example, let L0 through L7 = X X
X 0 1 1 0 1. Here the highest 0 line is L6
and the next highest is L3 (X denotes
dont care). Thus p=6 and q=3. Now the
active-low output of the first priority en-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

coder will be F2 F1 F0 = 0 0 1. The input


to 74138 is 1 1 0 and it outputs M0
through M7 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1. Since
M6=0, only L6 is complemented by XNOR
gates. Thus the outputs of XNORs are
N0 through N7 = X X X 0 1 1 1 1. Now
N3=0 and the highest priority for N is 3.
This value is recovered by priority encoder 2 (IC3) as S2 S1 S0 = 1 0 0.

CIRCUIT

DIGITAL MAINS
VOLTAGE INDICATOR
PRATAP CHANDRA SAHU

ontinuous monitoring of the mains


voltage is required in many applications such as manual voltage stabilisers and motor pumps. An analogue voltmeter, though cheap, has many
disadvantages as it has moving parts and
is sensitive to vibrations. The solidstate
voltmeter circuit described here indicates
the mains voltage with a resolution that
is comparable to that of a general-purpose analogue voltmeter. The status of
the mains voltage is available in the form
of an LED bar graph.

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

Presets VR1 through VR16 are used


to set the DC voltages corresponding to
the 16 voltage levels over the 50-250V
range as marked on LED1 through
LED16, respectively, in the figure. The
LED bar graph is multiplexed from the
bottom to the top with the help of ICs
CD4067B (16-channel multiplexer) and
CD4029B (counter). The counter clocked
by NE555 timer-based astable
multivibrator generates 4-bit binary address for multiplexer-demultiplexer pair
of CD4067B and CD4514B.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

The voltage from the wipers of presets are multiplexed by CD4067B and the
output from pin 1 of CD4067B is fed to
the non-inverting input of comparator A2
(half of op-amp LM358) after being buffered by A1 (the other half of IC2). The
unregulated voltage sensed from rectifier
output is fed to the inverting input of comparator A2.
The output of comparator A2 is low
until the sensed voltage is greater than
the reference input applied at the noninverting pins of comparator A2 via buffer
A1. When the sensed voltage goes below
the reference voltage, the output of comparator A2 goes high. The high output
from comparator A2 inhibits the decoder
(CD4514) that is used to decode the out-

CIRCUIT

put of IC4029 and drive the LEDs. This


ensures that the LEDs of the bar graph
are on up to the sensed voltage-level proportional to the mains voltage.
The initial adjustment of each of the
presets can be done by feeding a known
AC voltage through an auto-transformer

IDEAS

and then adjusting the corresponding preset to ensure that only those LEDs that
are up to the applied voltage glow.
(EFY note. It is advisable to use additional transformer, rectifier, filter, and
regulator arrangements for obtaining a
regulated supply for the functioning of

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

the circuit so that performance of the circuit is not affected even when the mains
voltage falls as low as 50V or goes as
high as 280V. During Lab testing regulated 12-volt supply for circuit operation
was used.)

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

ELECTRONIC DICE

RUP

ANJA

NA

VIJAYA KUMAR P.

ere is a small circuit of an electronic dice to interface with your


PC. The circuit simulates a digital dice and uses the parallel-port LPT1
provided on the back of the PC. LPT employs a 25-pin D type female connector.
C language provides a built-in
outportb() function to output binary data
to the hardware port. To understand this,
let us consider the following program:

the truth table shown. Fig. 3 shows the


Karnaugh Map simplification of minterms.
When the software program using C
language is run after compilation, it
prompts you to press letter T for simulating an action equivalent to throwing of
dice by generating/outputting a random

#include <dos.h>
main()
{
int i;
printf(Input a decimal number);
scanf (%d,&i);
outportb(0x0378,i);
}

The above program is used to output


the binary equivalent of a decimal number entered via the keyboard. Scanf function is used to take the input decimal
number from the keyboard. The
outportb() function directly outputs the
binary equivalent of decimal number to
LPT1 (port ID is 0x0378).
For example, after you convert the
above program into an executable file using Turbo C compiler and run it, the program prompts you to Input a decimal
number. Suppose you enter 15 , then its
binary equivalent 00001111 is output
(written) to data pins D0 through D7 (pins
2 through 9) of the 25-pin parallel port.
If LEDs are connected to the output pins
of the parallel port, along with resistors
of 220-ohm in series, they can be directly
driven to indicate the binary output number, as the parallel port can directly support the current required for driving the
LEDs.
The electronic dice program generates
a random decimal number that is output
through data-output lines D0 through D2
(pins 2 through 4) of the LPT port in the
form of a 3-bit binary number.
Fig. 1 shows the hardware interface
circuit of a BCD-to-decimal converter employing a 7-segment display driver IC 7447,
which directly converts the input BCD
number into 7-segment display. Fig. 2
shows the circuit simulating the electronic
dice with dot pattern display that satisfies

Fig. 2

TRUTH TABLE
Throw

Data pins
Logic state
D2
D1

State of LEDs
D0

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

ON

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

ON

ON

ON

ON

ON

ON

ON

ON

OFF

Fig. 1

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

Display

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

Fig. 3

number, or press letter X to exit the program. The program is given below:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
int ran,PORT = 0x0378;

int gd=DETECT,gm,ch,x,y;
initgraph(&gd,&gm , ); /* initializes graphics
mode */
/* Decorating the screen */
x = getmaxx();
y = getmaxy();
setbkcolor(BLUE);
rectangle(10,y-10,x-10,10);
setcolor(YELLOW);
settextstyle(TRIPLEX_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,3);

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

outtextxy(175,20,**ELECTRONIC DICE**);
setcolor(GREEN);
settextstyle(DEFAULT_FONT,HORIZ_DIR,2);
outtextxy(x/5,180,1.Press T to Throw Dice);
outtextxy(x/5,230,2.Press X to Exit);
/* Actual program */
do
{
ch= getch();
ch= toupper(ch);
if(ch==T)
{
randomize ();
ran=random(6); /* to generate random
number between 0&7 */
ran=ran+1;
outport(PORT,ran); /* outputs BINARY no. to
LPT1 */
}
}
while(ch!=X);
closegraph();
printf(By Vijaya Kumar.p);
exit(0);
}

CIRCUIT

LIGHT-OPERATED ORGAN

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

PRADEEP G.

ere is a circuit based on a


unijunction transistor (UJT)
2N2646 or its equivalent that
can be used as a light-operated organ.
Wired as a relaxation oscillator, it can
oscillate independently without a tank circuit or complicated RC feedback network.
A light-dependent resistor (LDR) is included in the emitter circuit of T1 as
shown in the diagram. When LDR receives
light from a light source, such as an elec-

tric bulb, a sharp and


pleasing audio tone
is heard from the
speaker. The intensity
of light falling on LDR
can be varied by waving a hand to and fro
between the lamp and
the LDR. As a result,
the frequency of the
output sound changes.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

MGMAA MIGHTY GADGET


WITH MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS
A. JEYABAL

GMA, pronounced as migma, is


a versatile and multi-purpose
gadget. It can be used for a
range of applications, from a simple toy
to domestic and workbench applications.
It measures time, compares light output,
temperature, resistance and capacitance,
etc. You can use this gadget in a number
of ways, depending on your imagination
and creativity.
Basically, MGMA is a resistance-capacitance-controlled oscillator that counts
the pulses for a specific period. If any
transducer, such as light-dependent resistor (LDR) or heat-dependent resistor
(thermistor), is connected to it, the display shows the value corresponding to its
resistance. Contact or break (normally
open or closed) type transducers can also
be used with MGMA.
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the
MGMA circuit. Block 1 is an oscillator

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

that is controlled by block 2. Block 2 contains another oscillator whose frequency


is much lower than that of the former.
The differentiator circuit in block 3 resets the decade counters periodically.
Blocks 4 and 5 count the pulses, which,
in turn, are displayed by blocks 6 and
7. Digit 9 in tens counter is decoded
by block 8, and its output disables the
counting process and triggers the aural
indicator in block 9. Block 10 comprises
the regulated power supply to run the
gadget.

Circuit
Oscillator. In Fig. 2, Schmitt trigger input NAND gate N1 of IC1 (CD4093), capacitor C1, and potmeter VR1 form the
oscillator circuit. Let us presume that capacitor C1 is in discharged state and pin
2 of gate N1 is in high state. As the input

Fig. 1: Block diagram of the MGMA circuit


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

pin is low, output pin 3 is high and capacitor C1 starts charging through
potmeter VR1.
When the voltage across capacitor
C1 reaches above half of the supply
voltage, input pin 1 of gate N1 goes high
and output pin 3 goes low. Now capacitor C1 discharges through potmeter
VR1. When the voltage across capacitor
C1 falls below half of the supply voltage,
pin 1 of gate N1 goes low and the output
pin goes high. Now capacitor C1 starts
charging again and the cycle repeats
itself.
The pulses from the output of gate
N1 reach counter IC2 through resistor
R1. Switch S1 is provided to stop the
counting manually by grounding the
pulses through R1 when switch S1 is
pressed.
Counter and display. The output of
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- CD4093 quad 2-input
Schmitt trigger NAND gate
IC2, IC3
- CD4033 decade counter/
7-segment decoder
IC4
- 7805 +5V regulator
T1
- BC557 pnp transistor
T2
- SL100 npn transistor
D1-D7
- 1N4148 switching diode
D8, D9
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
LED1
- Red LED
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise)
R1, R6-R9
- 100-kilo-ohm
R2
- 220-kilo-ohm
R3
- 470-kilo-ohm
R4
- 3.3-kilo-ohm
R5, R10, R11 - 330-ohm
VR1
- 1mega-ohm pot., linear
VR2
- 47-kilo-ohm pot., linear
Capacitors:
C1, C3
- 0.001F ceramic disk
C2
- 4.7F, 10V tantalum
C4
- 1000F, 25V electrolytic
C5, C6
- 0.1F ceramic disk
Miscellaneous:
X1
- 230V AC primary to 9-0-9V
AC, 100mA secondary
transformer
S1, S2
- Push-to-on switch
S3
- SPST switch, 230V AC
DIS1, DIS2 - LT543 7-segment, commoncathode type LED display
SOC1 - SOC4 - Earphone socket
SOC5
- DC IN socket
PZ1
- Piezo-buzzer
- IC bases, knobs, mains
chord, cabinet
- Banana-type earphone plugs

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of MGMA

the oscillator is connected to clock input


pin 1 of IC2 (CD4033, a decade counter
for unit digits). The carry-out pin 5 of
IC2 is connected to the clock input of decade counter IC3 that is meant for tens
digits. The segment outputs of both IC2
and IC3 go to the respective seven segments of DIS1 and DIS2 (LT543) for disTABLE
Count Decoded output of IC CD4033
a
b
c
d
e
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
2
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
0
4
0
1
1
0
0
5
1
0
1
1
0
6
1
0
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
0
0
8
1
1
1
1
1
9
1
1
1
1
0

f
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

playing the number of pulses.


Lamp-test (LT) pin 14 of both IC2 and
IC3 is grounded through 100-kilo-ohm resistor R8. The test-point (TP) may be used
to check the display. When a high-level
voltage (5V) is applied to the test-point,
all segment outputs go high and the display shows 88.
The display is blanked out
when the number to be displayed is 0, provided the ripple
g
CO
blanking input (RBI) pin 3 is
0
1
held low. So on reset, only
0
1
DIS1 (unit digit) will show zero
1
1
as RBI pin 3 of IC3 is
1
1
grounded.
1
1
Switch S2 is provided to
1
0
reset the counter manually.
1
0
Current-limiting resistors R5
0
0
and R10 provided with DIS2
1
0
and DIS1, respectively, are
1
0
used to reduce the component
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

count and ensure the proper operation of


digit-9 decoder circuit.
Display controller and differentiator. For accurate reading of the
counter, it must be reset periodically
and the pulses must be counted for a
specific period. For this an oscillator circuit comprising gate N2, diodes D1 and
D2, resistor R2, potmeter VR2, and capacitor C2 is used. This oscillator also
works like the previous one, but its charging and discharging paths are separated
by diodes D1 and D2. Its on time (highlevel output) can be controlled by
potmeter VR2.
When output pin 4 of gate N2 goes
from low to high state, the differentiator
circuit comprising capacitor C3 and resistor R9 produces a sharp pulse that resets
counters IC2 and IC3. At the same time,
gate N1 is enabled as output pin 4 of gate
N2 is connected to input pin 2 of gate N1,

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB pattern


the circuit in Fig. 2

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB

and it outputs clock pulses. These pulses


are counted by IC2 and IC3 and displayed
on DIS1 and DIS2, respectively. So the

oscillator around gate N1


is enabled and disabled
during the high and low
states, respectively, of the
output of gate N2.
The counters retain
their last count for reading until the output goes
high once again. This
reading time is about 2
to 3 seconds, which is set
by resistor R2. Any increase in the value of R2
will increase the reading
time and vice versa. Resistor R3 connected in
parallel across capacitor
C3 is used to discharge it
quickly and diode D3 is
used to block the DC voltage (when switch S2 is
pressed) going to gates
N1 and N3, and other
parts of the circuit.
Digit 9 decoder and
aural indicator. It is
very useful to sound an
suggested for
alarm for a certain reading or otherwise, say, for
a particular temperature
or light output or resistance value, etc. A permanent number 90 is chosen
for simplicity of the decoding circuit. When the
display shows 90, the
counter must be disabled
and the buzzer enabled.
From the table of decoded outputs of IC 4033
it is found that for number 9, at least one of the
segment outputs is low (a,
b and f are high, while e
is low). For number 8,
segment e is inverted by
transistor T2. As RBI pin
3 of IC3 is grounded, all
the segment outputs go
low for 0. The clock-enable (CE) pin 2 of IC3 is
pulled up by resistor R7.
Pin 2 is also connected to a, b, f and e segment outputs of IC3
through diodes D5, D6,
D7, and transistor T2, respectively, that altogether act as AND
gate and bring the CE pin to ground for
numbers 0 through 8. When the number
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

is 9, the segment outputs a, b, and e are


high, except the segment output e, which
is inverted by transistor T2. As a result,
CE pin of IC2 goes high and the counters
are disabled.
Simultaneously, this high-level output
is inverted by gates N3 and N4. The inverted output from gate N4 forward biases transistor T1 to drive the piezobuzzer, while the inverted output from
gate N3 grounds the resetting pulses.
Diode D4 prevents the high output of
N3 from reaching the reset pins of IC2
and IC3.
Power supply. In 5V DC power supply shown at the bottom in Fig. 2, IC
7805 (IC4) is employed for better regulation. DC input/output socket (SOC5) is
provided to operate the gadget with external 9V battery. LED1 acts as a poweron indicator.

Construction
Figs 3 and 4 show suggested actual-size,
single-sided PCB layout and component
layout, respectively, for the circuit in Fig.
2. Solder the components in the order of
IC sockets, jumpers, resistors, capacitors,
diodes, LED, and transistors. Then connect the rest of the components through
wires. Fig. 5 shows the proposed frontpanel layout of MGMA.
Before connecting VR1 and VR2 to the
PCB, mark the dials using a digital multimeter. Both dial 1 and dial 2 (refer Fig.
5) are calibrated in terms of resistance
for the variable resistance values of 1
mega-ohm in case of VR1 and 47 kiloohm in case of VR2, respectively, using a
digital multimeter. (Note. There may be
dead-ends on both ends of the potmeter,
and it may vary in construction from
manufacturer to manufacturer.) Mark the
dials for every ten units for easy reading
and setting.

Applications
For high-resistance and low-resistance
transducers, use earphone-type sockets
SOC1 and SOC3, respectively. For lowcapacitance and high-capacitance testing,
use earphone-type sockets SOC2 and
SOC4, respectively. For SOC1 and SOC2,
the reading will decrease for the increasing value of resistance and capacitance,
and vice versa for SOC3 and SOC4.
Strength-0-meter. This game requires two small rods or prods. Connect

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 5: Proposed front-panel layout of MGMA

Fig. 6: Connections for water level monitor

them to an earphone plug using a pair of


wires half a metre long. Then insert the
plug into SOC1. Hold the rods in each
hand between forefinger and thumb. Adjust dials 1 and 2 such that the buzzer
beeps. Then rotate dial 1 slightly in the
anti-clockwise direction to read around 70,
a point where the buzzer is silent. Now
ask your friends one by one to grip the
rods firmly. The winner is the one who
sounds the buzzer or scores higher on the
meter. This depends on how hard one
holds the rod, the internal resistance of
the body, and dampness of the fingers.
Plant tender. You can use MGMA to
indicate the time of watering in order to
avoid excessive watering of plants. For
this, insert two metal strips on both sides
of the plant. Connect them to an earphone
plug using wires and insert the plug into
socket SOC3. Since soil-resistance increases with loss of water, the alarm can
be set/activated for a specific moisture
level. Adjust dials 1 and 2 such that the
buzzer sounds when the plant needs to
be watered. The buzzer stops in a short
while on sprinkling water over the soil
supporting the plant. The next time the
buzzer will sound automatically when the
plant needs to be watered.
Game of quick hands. This game

requires an earphone plug with its two


terminals shorted. Inserting this plug into
SOC4 grounds input pins 5 and 6 of
Schmitt NAND gate N2 via the shorted
plug in SOC4. Since output pin 4 is always in high state, its periodic action of
disabling gate N1 is no longer there.
Connect a 0.1F capacitor to SOC2
using an earphone plug. Since its capacitance value is higher than that of capacitor C1, the frequency of the oscillator decreases. The display shows a reading
on momentarily pressing start/reset
button S2 and then quickly depressing stop button S1. Adjust the dial to
read 50 in the display. Now tell your
friends to press button S2 momentarily and then S1. One who scores
less is more quicker than the others,
and hence the winner.
Water-level monitoring. Five resistors R12 through R16 are connected in series and the junctions of
the resistors are extended to the five
levels of the water tank using wires
(refer Fig. 6). A reference rod is also
fitted with its lower end just below
level 1.
Plug-in a dummy resistor of 100k
into SOC1 and rotate dial 1 to the zeroresistance position. Adjust dial 2 to read
55 in the display. Cover the unit digit
with an opaque tape, so that only the
tens digit is visible. Now remove the
dummy resistor. Connect the other end
of five-resistor ladder and the reference
probe to SOC1. The display will show
the water levels from one-fifth to fivefifth of the tank, depending on the actual
level at that time.
Measuring resistance. The idea is
simple. First, VR1 (dial 1) is excluded from
the circuit by rotating it to zero reading.
Then an unknown resistor is connected
to SOC1 and dial 2 is adjusted to read a
number just below 90. Now VR1 (dial 1)
is reinstated and rotated to display the
same reading. As dial 1 is marked for
resistance values, the position of dial 1
indicates the value of unknown resistor.
With MGMA, up to 2-mega-ohm resistor can be measured. Connect the unknown resistor to SOC1 using crocodile
clips. Rotate dial 1 to the zero-resistance
position without touching the resistor, otherwise your body resistance will get included in the measurement. Adjust dial 2
such that the display reads around 90.
The resistor is open if the display shows
0, and shorted if youre unable to set the
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

reading near 90.


Remove the unknown resistor. Without disturbing dial 2, slowly rotate dial 1
to get the same reading. Now dial 1 shows
the value of unknown resistor.
If the resistor value is less than 40k,
use SOC3 and repeat the same procedure
with dial 2 instead of dial 1 for accurate
measurement. The resistance value can
be read from dial 2.
Checking and measuing capacitance. Using MGMA you can measure
capacitances from 0.001 F to 5 F. First
check for the usability of the unknown
capacitor. Adjust dials 1 and 2 to read 50
in the display. Now check the unknown
capacitor using SOC2 for unipolar or
SOC4 for electrolytic/tantalum capacitors
with the inner and the outer terminals of
the socket for positive and negative terminals of the capacitor. If there is no
change in the reading it means the capacitor is shorted and a higher reading
implies it is good.
To find the value of an unknown nonelectrolytic (unipolar) capacitor, connect
the same to SOC2. Adjust dials 1 and 2
to read a number around 80 in the display. Now, without disturbing the dials
insert the known capacitors one by one
in SOC2. The unknown capacitor value is
equal to the value of the known capacitor
for which the display shows the same
reading or near the number 80.
The procedure is same for electrolytic
and tantalum capacitors, except that
SOC4 is to be used in place of SOC2, ensuring that the inner and the outer terminals of the socket are used for positive
and negative terminals of the capacitor,
respectively.
Testing a diode. Rotate dial 1 to
high-resistance position and adjust dial 2
such that the display shows a flickering
45. Test the diode in SOC3 using an earphone plug in the same manner as mentioned earlier. Interchange the leads and
test again. A shorted diode will not make
any change in the reading, while a good
one gives a reading of around 60 and 90
in both the tests. And for the open diode,
the display shows 90 in both the tests.
While checking the diodes, a parallel
resistance of 100k is required across the
diode. Our body resistance may also do.
Other utilities. Heat alarm, fire
alarm, security alarm, strain gauge, intruder alarm, rain alarm, number game,
timer, and many other circuits can be
realised using this MGMA circuit.

CONSTRUCTION

TRAFFIC AND STREET


LIGHT CONTROLLER

RUP

ANJA

NA

RAJESH GUPTA

his circuit of an adjustable traffic


and street light controller can control the timings of four sides of
traffic lights separately. It can also control the changeover from continuous traffic light mode to blinking yellow light
mode (at night), and from blinking yellow
light mode to continuous traffic light mode
(during day). In addition, this circuit also
controls the automatic switching off/on of
the streetlights in the mornings and evenings with flexible settingsdefining the
morning and evening time. In order to
prevent false triggering of streetlight circuitry due to some shadow or light on the
sensor, some time delay is taken into consideration before sending the control signal for streetlight operation. Its operation does not require any software and
hardware knowledge.

This circuit can also be adopted for


synchronisation with the signals of adjacent traffic lights by introduction of appropriate delay in traffic light signals timings.

The circuit
The circuit has two partsthe first for
generation of control signals for streetlight
and traffic light modes and the second for
generation of four sides of traffic light signals.
The circuit for streetlight and traffic
light modes (Part I) controls the switching
time of streetlights in evenings and mornings and the time to changeover from continuous traffic light mode to blinking yellow light mode (at night), and from blinking yellow light mode to continuous traffic

Fig. 1: Block diagram of traffic and street light controller


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

light mode (in daytime). Thus it decides


the mode of operation.
The circuit for four sides of traffic
lights (Part II) also controls the time allowed for each side of traffic. It is further
classified into continuous traffic light
mode (for day) and blinking yellow light
mode (for night).
Part I Circuit. The block diagram of
the circuit for signal generation for
streetlight and traffic light modes is
shown above the dotted line in Fig. 1. A
natural light-dependent voltage and a reference voltage, which determines the
evening and morning times are connected
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- LM358 op-amp
IC2
- 7404 Hex inverters
IC3, IC6, IC12 - NE555 timer
IC4
- 74LS93 4-bit binary
counter
IC5
- 74LS164 8-bit serial shift
register
IC7-IC9
- 7476 dual JK master-slave
flip-flop
IC10
- 7400 Quad 2-input NAND
gates
IC11
- 7410 Triple 3-input NAND
gates
IC13
- 7408 Quad 2-input AND
gates
IC14-IC17
- 7402 Quad 2-input NOR
gates
T1-T6
- SL100 npn transistor
D1-D14
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
LED1, LED3,
LED6, LED9,
LED12
- 3mm red LED
LED2, LED5,
LED8, LED11 - 3mm green LED
LED4, LED7,
LED10, LED13 - 3mm yellow LED
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1, R2,
R18-R21
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R3-R5, R8,
R12-R17,
R22-R25
- 100-kilo-ohm
R6
- 47-kilo-ohm
R7, R9, R11
- 10-kilo-ohm
R10
- 100-ohm
R26
- 47-ohm
R27
- 22-kilo-ohm
R28
- 6.8-kilo-ohm
VR1, VR2,
VR4-VR7
- 1-mega-ohm preset
VR3
- 100-kilo-ohm preset
VR8
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1
- 220, 10V electrolytic
C2, C4, C6
- 0.01 ceramic
C3, C5
- 6.8, 10V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
LDR1
S1
- Push-to-on switch

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram for the traffic and street light controller
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

individually to the two inputs of a comparator. Low and high states of the comparator output decide morning and
evening timings, respectively. The output
of comparator is properly delayed for obtaining the signals for streetlight and traffic light modes.
In the detailed circuit diagram shown
above the dotted line in Fig. 2, a natural
light-dependent voltage is obtained at the
junction of light-dependent resistor LDR1
and resistor R7. Resistor R6 is used in
parallel with LDR1 to limit the variation
of the LDR. Light-dependent voltage and
variable reference voltage are connected
to the inverting and non-inverting terminals respectively of comparator IC1(a).
In the evening, voltage at the inverting terminal of the comparator decreases
with time due to the increasing resistance
of LDR1. At a particular natural light intensity (determined by variable reference
voltage, which can be adjusted with the
help of preset VR8), it becomes less than
the voltage at the non-inverting terminal. This drives the comparator into positive saturation region. Similarly, in the
morning the comparator goes into negative saturation region at the same natural light intensity. In this way, the comparator gives high voltage (logic 1) for
evening and low voltage (logic 0) for morning.
IC1(b), with the non-inverting terminal biased at about 1/3rd Vcc, is simply
used as an inverter (though wired as comparator). The inverted output of comparator IC1(a) is coupled to transistor T1
through resistor R4, while its direct output is coupled to transistor T2 via resistor R5.
It is observed that transistor T1 is
cut off in the evening and Vcc is applied
to pin 7 of timer IC3 (wired in astable
multivibrator mode) via resistor combination RA1 (=R2+R3+VR1), while in the
morning T2 is cut off and Vcc is applied
to pin 7 of IC3 via RA2 (=R1+R8+VR2).
In other words, the time period of IC3 is
dependent on RA1 from the evening and
RA2 from the morning.
The diode pair of D1 and D2 or D4
and D5 is used to effectively isolate pin 7
of IC3 from being pulled towards ground
via the conducting transistor (T2 in the
evening and T1 in the morning). Time
period of 555 clock in astable mode can
be determined from the following relationship:
T = RA (C/1.44) + 2 RB (C/1.44)

where RA = RA1 from the evening and


RA = RA2 from the morning, while RB =
R9 = 10 kilo-ohm and C = C1 = 220 F.
Clock-1 output of IC3 is connected to 4bit negative-edge-triggered counter
74LS93 (IC4).
Period of output QD of IC4 is 16 times
the clock-1 time period. This QD output
(low for first eight clock-1 cycles and high
for the next eight clock-1 cycles, and repeating thereafter) of IC4 is connected to
the clock input of an 8-bit (positive-edgetriggered) serial shift register 74LS164
(IC5).
The output of IC1(a) forms the data
(D) input for the shift register. The data
(D) at QA output is available after eight
clock-1 cycles, while that at QH is available after 120 clock-1 cycles. Thus morning/evening (low/high) data is available
at QA and QH outputs after 8 and 120
clock-1 cycles, respectively. Note that the
clock-1 period itself differs for morning
data and evening data.
Streetlight indicator (LED1) is connected to QA output of shift register IC5.
The evening data (high) from comparator
IC1(a) passes to the streetlight after eight
clock cycles of clock-1. This delay is taken
into consideration in order to prevent false
signals to the streetlight due to some
shadow or light on the sensor.
The delayed high QH output provides
the control signal for night to the second
part of circuit and changes continuous
traffic light mode to blinking yellow light
mode. In this way the time at which night
functioning of traffic light starts can be
adjusted by choosing appropriate time period for clock-1 by adjusting the value of
RA1. Similarly, the time at which day

functioning of traffic light starts (stop


blinking yellow light mode and start continuous traffic light mode) can be adjusted
by RA2.
Low (delayed morning signal) and
high (delayed evening signal) QH outputs
go to the second part of circuit for selecting the mode of traffic light. Table I
summarises the functioning of the circuit
for signal generation for streetlight and
traffic light modes.
Part II Circuit. The block diagram
of the circuit for signal generation for four
sides of traffic lights is given below the
dotted line in Fig. 1. Here, the 4-bit and
2-bit counters are joined together to form
a 6-bit counter. Outputs of the 2-bit
counter, representing two MSB digits, are
connected to a decoder that has two control inputs and four outputs. The decoder
activates one of the four outputs depending upon the input (00 or 01 or 10 or 11)
of 2-bit counter.
Each output of the decoder can drive
clock-2 at a different frequency. These four
outputs are connected to the four sides of
traffic lights and select each side one after another. The time in which the preceding 4-bit counter counts from 0000 to
1111 (16 counts) is the time allowed for
each side of traffic lights.
First, when the 4-bit counter counts
from 0000 to 0001 (two counts), yellow
light of the selected side will turn on.
From count 0010 to 1101 (12 counts),
green light will turn on. Again from 1110
to 1111 count (two counts), yellow light
will turn on. Meanwhile, in the other
three sides of traffic lights that are not
selected by the decoder, red light will be
on. Similar operation will repeat for each

TABLE I
Functional Summary of Part I Circuit
Time
Output Output at Output at Activated RA Street Traffic
Light Light
of IC1(a) QA of IC5 QH of IC5 Resistance
(LED1) Mode
Evening
HIGH
LOW
LOW
RA1
OFF
A
After 8 cycles of clock-1
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
RA1
ON
A
(Delay time for streetlight)
After 120 cycles of clock-1 HIGH
HIGH
HIGH
RA1
ON
B
(Delay time for night)
Morning
LOW
HIGH
HIGH
RA2
ON
B
After 8 cycles of clock-1
LOW
LOW
HIGH
RA2
OFF
B
(Delay time for streetlight)
After 120 cycles of clock-1 LOW
LOW
LOW
RA2
OFF
A
(Delay time for day)
Evening
HIGH
LOW
LOW
RA1
OFF
A
Delay times and evening/morning times are adjustable.
A: Continuous traffic light mode B: Blinking yellow light mode
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for the circuit in Fig. 2

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 5: Connections for vehicular traffic lights and pedestrians signals

of the selected side in its turn.


Reset pin of clock-3 and clear pins of
the 6-bit counter are controlled by output
QH from IC5 of Part I. At night, QH will go
high and the 6-bit counter will clear, while
clock-3 becomes active. As a result, yellow lights of the four sides of traffic light
will blink simultaneously.
The detailed circuit diagram is given
below the dotted line in Fig. 2. The ac-

tive-low, clear input signal for the 6-bit


counter (formed by dual J-K flip-flops
inside IC7 through IC9) is provided
from the output of NOR gate E1, whose
one input is connected to QH output of
shift register IC5 of Part I and the other
input is connected to the output of inverter gate N3. The input of inverter
gate N3 is connected to push-to-on reset
switch S1.

Fig. 6: The traffic and street light controller


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

Thus the 6-bit counter will clear when


QH output is high or the reset button is
pressed. The reset key, when pressed, also
causes counter IC4 and shift register IC5
of Part I to be cleared. QH output of IC5
is connected to reset pin 4 of clock-3
(IC12). The output of this clock is connected to inverter gate N4. Low QH (during day) activates the 6-bit counter and
deactivates clock-3. Due to this, the output of inverter gate N4 will be high during the day. This output is connected to
one of the inputs of four AND gates H1
through H4. Each of these AND gates is
a part of one side of traffic light circuit.
NAND gates B1, B2, and B3 are connected to the outputs of flip-flops F2, F3,
and F4 of the 6-bit counter. The final output of this circuit (the output of gate B2)
will be high whenever the first four bits
of the counter are 1110 or 1111 or 0000
or 0001 (14 or 15 or 0 or 1), otherwise it
will be low. Accordingly, inverter N5 output will be low for the above contents of
the counter and high for the remaining
contents (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
or 13).
The output of NAND gate B2 and its
complement (the output of inverter N5)
are connected to NOR gates X2 (=E2, J2,
K2, and M2) and X3 (=E3, J3, K3, and
M3) of the each side of traffic light, respectively. Other inputs of X2 and X3
NOR gates are common.
The last two flip-flops (F5 and F6) of
the 6-bit counter are connected to four
NAND gates G1 through G4 in such a
way that the output of G1, G2, G3, and
G4 will be low when last two counter bits
are 00 (0), 01 (1), 10 (2) and 11 (3), respectively. For example, when last two
bits of counter contents are 01 (1), only
output of NAND gate G2 will be low and
others (G1, G3 and G4) will be high.
The complements of these four NAND
gate outputs (obtained from collectors of
transistors T3 through T6) are connected
to the four RA resistors of 555 clock-2.
Other terminals of these four resistors
are connected to the anodes of diodes D8,
D10, D12, and D14, while their cathode
terminals are all connected to pin 7 of
555 clock-2 (IC6). This is analogous to
the fashion in which RA1 and RA2 have
been connected in Part I in the clock-1
circuit.
When last 2-bit counter contents are
00, RA3 (=R21+R25+VR7) will become active and other three resistors RA4, RA5,
and RA6 will become inactive. Therefore

CONSTRUCTION

TABLE II
Daytime Functions of Part II Circuit
Counter
Decoder output
Activated RA
Glowing LEDs
contents
G1 G2 G3 G4
resistance
000000 0 1 1 1
RA3
4,6,9,12 (Yellow light of 1st side and
000001
red light of other sides)
000010 0 1 1 1
RA3
2,6,9,12 (Green light of 1st side and
001101
red light of other sides)
001110 0 1 1 1
RA3
4,6,9,12 (Yellow light of 1st side and
001111
red light of other sides)
010000 1 0 1 1
RA4
3,7,9,12 (Yellow light of 2nd side and
010001
red light of other sides)
010010 1 0 1 1
RA4
3,5,9,12 (Green light of 2nd side and
011101
red light of other sides)
011110 1 0 1 1
RA4
3,7,9,12 (Yellow light of 2nd side and
011111
red light of other sides)
100000 1 1 0 1
RA5
3,6,10,12 (Yellow light of 3rd side and
100001
red light of other sides)
100010 1 1 0 1
RA5
3,6,8,12 (Green light of 3rd side and
101101
red light of other sides)
101110 1 1 0 1
RA5
3,6,10,12 (Yellow light of 3rd side and
101111
red light of other sides)
110000 1 1 1 0
RA6
3,6,9,13 (Yellow light of 4th side and
110001
red light of other sides)
110010 1 1 1 0
RA6
3,6,9,11 (Green light of 4th side and
111101
red light of other sides)
111110 1 1 1 0
RA6
3,6,9,13 (Yellow light of 4th side and
111111
red light of other sides)
Note. The two MSB digits determine the side, while the next four digits determine the time for
which the mentioned LEDs are on.

the time period of clock-2 of the 6-bit


counter will be dependent upon RA3.
Similarly, when last 2-bit counter contents are 01 or 10 or 11, the time period
of clock-2 will be dependent upon RA4
(=R20+R24+VR6), RA5 (=R19+R13+VR5),
and RA6 (=R18+R12+VR4), respectively.
The output of NAND gate G1 is connected to the common input of NOR gates
E2 and E3 of the first side of traffic light
and complements of the outputs of other
three NAND gates G2, G3, and G4 are
connected to one of the inputs of NOR
gates J1, K1, and M1, respectively. The
other inputs of these NOR gates are connected to QH output of IC5. Red and green
lights are connected to the outputs of NOR
gates X4 (=E4, J4, K4, and M4) and X2
(=E2, J2, K2, and M2), and yellow light is
connected to AND gate of each side of the
traffic light.
During daytime, the outputs of AND
gates (which are connected to yellow
lights) will be the same as the outputs of
NOR gates X3(=E3, J3, K3 and M3) of
each side, because one of the inputs of
AND gates is high in daytime. Low QH
(during daytime) forces NOR gates J1,
K1, and M1 to work as the inverter gate
for the other inputs. Therefore the common input of NOR gates X2 and X3 of

sides 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be the same as


the output of NAND gates G1, G2, G3,
and G4, respectively.
Let us suppose that initially the contents of the 6-bit counter are 000000.
When the counter counts up from 000000
to 001111, the output of NAND gate
G1 will be low and that of other NAND
gates G2, G3, and G4 high. Due to this,
RA3 will be active and the time period of
clock-2 of the counter will be according
to RA3.
The high output of NAND gates G2,
G3, and G4 forces the output from NOR
gates J2, K2, M2 and J3, K3, M3 to low
state. These low outputs are input to NOR
gates J4, K4, and M4, due to which the
output of these gates will be high. It
means yellow and green lights will be off
and red light will be on in the remaining
three sides of the traffic light.
Due to the low output of NAND gate
G1 (which is connected to the common
input of NOR gates E2 and E3 of first
side), the output of NOR gates E2 and E3
of first side will depend on the output of
the three-NAND gate circuit (comprising
gates B1, B2, and B3).
When the 6-bit counter counts from
000000 to 000001, the output of the threeNAND gate circuit will be high, which is
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

connected to NOR gate X2 of each side


and its complement is connected to NOR
gate X3 of all sides. Due to this, the output of NOR gate E3 will be high and those
of NOR gates E2 and E4 low. In short,
during the count period 000000 to 000001
yellow light of the first side of traffic light
and red light of the other three sides will
be on.
When the counter counts up further
from 000010 to 001101, the output of the
three-NAND gate circuit will be low and
its complement will be high. Due to this
reason, the output of NOR gate E2 will
go high and that of NOR gates E3 and E4
low. Therefore, when counter contents increment from 000010 to 001101, green
light of first side and red light of all the
other sides will be on.
Again from 001110 to 001111, the output of three-NAND gate circuit will go
high, due to which yellow light of first
side and red light of the other sides will
turn on. The time in which the counter
counts from 000000 to 001111 can be adjusted by RA3. The functioning of the
other three sides of the traffic light is
similar.
Daytime functional summary of the
circuit for signal generation for four sides
of traffic light is given in Table II. Change
in RB resistance (VR3+R11) of clock-2,
being common for all sides, will change
the time allowed for each side of traffic
light by an equal amount.
At night, QH output of IC5 will be high,
due to which the 6-bit counter will clear
and clock-3 will start working. The output of NOR gates J1, K1, and M1 and
NAND gate G1, and the complement of
the output of the three-NAND gate circuit will be low. This forces the output of
NOR gate X3 of each side to high state.
This high output will turn off all the red
lights and give high signal to one of the
inputs of AND gates H1 through H4. The
other input of these AND gates is connected to the complement of clock-3, due
to which all the four sides of yellow light
will blink.
The four sides of traffic light signals
can be used for driving vehicular traffic
signals for straight, right, and left turns
and pedestrians signals. Fig. 5 shows
one of such possible connections of vehicular and pedestrians signals. The complete
circuit in model form is shown in Fig. 6.
Actual-size, single side PCB for the circuit
shown in Fig. 2 is given in Fig. 3 with its
component layout in Fig. 4.

CONSTRUCTION

Calibration
Set preset VR8 in such a position that the
output of comparator IC1(a) switches from
one state to the other at a particular intensity of natural light. Variable resistors
VR1 and VR2 can be calibrated on a time
scale using the following relationships:
VR1 = (1/120) (1.44 TNight/220) 106
(122.2) 103
VR2 = (1/120) (1.44 TDay/220) 106
(122.2) 103
where TDay and TNight are delay times in
seconds (time interval between switching
of comparator IC1(a) and when the traffic light switches its mode) corresponding
to day and night, respectively.
Variable resistors VR4 through VR7
can be calibrated on a time scale by the
following relationship:
VR (4,5,6,7) = (1/16)(1.44 T/6.8) 106
(122.2) 103 2 VR3
where T is the time allowed (in seconds)
for the side of traffic light in which the
corresponding variable resistance is connected.
Possible enhancements. Stepper
motor-driven wiper can be used for clean-

ing the dust over the light sensor during


night time. Control signal for this can be
obtained from the shift register.
Also, time-controlling variable resistors VR4 through VR7 of Part II can be
replaced by LDRs with a small light
source whose light intensity varies according to the strength of traffic on each side.
Implementation of this system requires
traffic-sensing sensors. This system will

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  SEPTEMBER 2001

change the time of each side of traffic


light according to the strength of traffic.
Further, the present circuit being only
a demonstration model uses LEDs for
lights. To drive high-wattage lights, one
can easily boost the signals used for driving the LEDs to operate solidstate or
electomechanical relays.

The author is an M.Tech. from IIT, Delhi,


and is currently pursuing his Ph.D studies.

October

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

DIGITAL FAN REGULATOR

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

SUNIL P.B.

he circuit presented here can be


used to control the speed of fans
using induction motor. The speed
control is nonlinear, i.e. in steps. The
current step number is displayed on a
7-segment display. Speed can be varied
over a wide range because the circuit can
alter the voltage applied to the fan motor
from 130V to 230V RMS in a maximum
of seven steps.
The triac used in the final stage is
fired at different angles to get different
voltage outputs by
applying short-duration current pulses at
its gate. For this purpose a UJT relaxation oscillator is
used that outputs
sawtooth waveform.
This waveform is
coupled to the gate of
the triac through an
optocoupler
(MOC3011) that has
a triac driver output
stage.
Pedestal voltage
control is used for
varying the firing
angle of the triac.
The power supply for
the relaxation oscillator is derived from
the rectified mains
via 10-kilo-ohm, 10W
series dropping/limiting resistor R2.
The
pedestal
voltage is derived
from the non-filtered
DC
through
optocoupler 4N33.
The conductivity of
the Darlington pair
transistors inside
this optocoupler is
varied for getting the
pedestal voltage. For
this, the positive supply to the LED inside
the optocoupler is

connected via different values of resistors


using a multiplexer (CD4051).
The value of resistance selected by the
multiplexer depends upon the control input from BCD up-/down-counter CD4510
(IC5), which, in turn, controls forward biasing of the transistor inside optocoupler
4N33. The same BCD outputs from IC5
are also connected to the BCD-to-7-segment decoder to display the step number
on a 7-segment display.
NAND gates N3 and N4 are config-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

ured as an astable multivibrator to produce rectangular clock pulses for IC5,


while NAND gates N1 and N2 generate
the active-low count enable (CE) input using either of push-to-on switches S1 or S2
for count up or count down operation, respectively, of the BCD counter.
Optocoupler 4N33 electrically isolates
the high-voltage section and the digital
section and thus prevents the user from
shock hazard when using switches S1 and
S2. BCD-to-7-segment decoder CD4543 is
used for driving both common-cathode and
common-anode 7-segment displays. If
phase input pin 6 is high the decoder
works as a common-anode decoder, and if
phase input pin 6 is low it acts as a
common-cathode decoder.

CIRCUIT

Optocoupler 4N33 may still conduct


slightly even when the display is zero,
i.e. pin 13 (X0, at ground level) is switched

IDEAS

to output pin 3. To avoid this problem,


adjust preset VR1 as required using a
plastic-handled screwdriver to get no out-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

put at zero reading in the display.

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

STEREO TAPE HEAD PREAMPLIFIER


FOR PC SOUND CARD
MAR
IL KU
SUN

T.K. HAREENDRAN
ere is a stereo tape head preamplifier circuit for your PC sound
card that can playback your
favourite audio cassette through the PC.
Audio signals from this circuit can be di-

The amplified and equalised signals


available at output pins 3 and 6 of IC1
are coupled to the inputs of line amplifier
circuit built around transistors T1 (via capacitor C5, potmeter VR1, resistor R8, and

rectly connected to the stereo-input (lineinput) socket of the PC sound card for
further processing.
The circuit is built around a popular
stereo head preamp IC LA3161. Weak
electrical signals from the playback heads
are fed to pins 1 and 8 of IC1 via DC
decoupling capacitors C1 and C6, respectively. Components between pins 2 and 3
and pins 6 and 7 provide adequate
equalisation to the signals for a normal
tape playback.

capacitor C12) and T2 (via capacitor C10,


potmeter VR2, resistor R19, and capacitor C16), respectively. Left and right playback levels can be adjusted by variable
resistors VR1 and VR2. The audio signals
are finally available at the negative ends
of capacitors C13 and C17.
The circuit wired around relay driver
transistor T3 serves as a simple source
selector. This is added deliberately to help
the user share the common PC sound card
line-input terminal for operating some

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

other audio device as well.


When the preamplifier is in off state,
switching relay RL1 is off and it allows
connection of external signals to the sound
card. When the preamplifier is turned on,
the relay is energised by transistor T3
after a short delay determined by the values of resistor R21 and capacitor C23. On
energisation, the relay contacts
changeover the signals to internal source,
i.e. the head preamplifier.
After constructing the whole circuit
on a veroboard, enclose it in a mini metallic cabinet with level controls and sock-

ets at suitable points. Use a regulated


1A, 12V DC power supply for powering
the whole circuit including the tape deck
mechanism. (A 1A, 18V AC secondary
transformer with 4700F, 40V electrolytic
capacitor and 78M12 regulator is sufficient.)
You can use any kind of tape deck
mechanism with this circuit. Use of goodquality playback head and well-screened
wires are recommended.

CIRCUIT

RUNNING LIGHTS AND


RUNNING HOLES

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

VIJAYA KUMAR P.

his four-channel, two-mode light


chaser circuit produces effects of
running holes and running lights.
Each effect, i.e. running lights or running

astable multivibrator for generating clock


signals for decade counter CD4017 (IC2).
The speed of running lights can be varied
using preset VR1. CD4030 (IC3) is a quad

holes, is repeated five times. Applications


include decorating photographs using
LEDs or driving 230V bulbs via triacs.
Fig. 1 shows the circuit for driving
the bulbs using triacs, while Fig. 2 is a
modification of Fig. 1 for driving LEDs
without using triacs.
In Fig. 1, timer 555 is used as an

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

XOR gate that can be used both as an


inverting and a non-inverting gate by tying any one of the XOR gate inputs high
and low, respectively (refer the table).
For every fourth clock to IC2, its pin
7 goes high, which, in turn, clocks IC4.
Since the first five outputs of IC4 are
connected together (wired ORed) using
diodes D3 through D7, the output at
the tied end remains high for every five
clock pulses at IC4. This output is coupled
to one of the inputs of all the four XOR

CIRCUIT

gates.
When the output of IC4 (Q) goes
high, the outputs of IC2 get inverted and

IDEAS

produce the running hole effect. And when


the output of IC4 (Q) goes low, XOR gates
act as non-inverters and the outputs of

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

IC2 remain as original and produce the


running light effect.

CIRCUIT

HEART BEAT MONITOR

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

PRADEEP G.

ere is a simple and low-cost circuit of heart beat monitor using


readily available components. It
uses the piezo-electric plate of audible
piezobuzzers as the sensing device, which
can be purchased for around Rs 2 only
from component vendors.
The sensor is pressed against human
body near the heart region. It should make
a solid contact with your palm to convert
heart beat sound into low-frequency electrical variations. These electrical variations are amplified by transistor T1 that
is configured as a common-emitter amplifier. Amplified signals are coupled to transistor T2 for driving the audio power amplifier stage. The speaker reproduces heart

beat notes as audible sound.


The two BEL188 silicon transistors

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

used in the power output stage are freely


available. In case you use AC188/128 germanium transistors in place of BEL188
silicon transistors, replace 220-ohm resistors with 47-ohm resistors and 680-ohm
resistors with 1-kilo-ohm resistors.

CIRCUIT

12V, 3A POWER SUPPLY

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

D. PRABAKARAN

his circuit provides a 12V regulated power supply with output


current up to 3 amperes. It is specially designed for use with 2m handheld
rigs with linear power amplifier and CB

portable QRP rigs.


The circuit uses monolithic IC CA3085
voltage regulator in 8-lead TO-5 package.
Its salient features include good load and
line regulation, output current up to 100

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

mA (which can be increased to several


amperes with additional pass transistors),
output short-circuit protection, and lower
input voltage.
A low power dissipation is achieved
by driving external series-pass transistor
2N4241 (T1) from pin 2 of CA3085. Normal output pin 8 is returned to ground
via diodes D3 and D4 to ensure error amplification operation in the linear region.
Ripple rejection is approximately 50 dB
on no load and 35 dB on full load.
A 2x2x2.5cm aluminium heat sink fastened onto a 1.5mm blackened aluminium
sheet of 12.5cm2 area on 2N4241 helps
the circuit in dissipating heat without exceeding maximum device ratings.
CA3085 can dissipate up to 650mW
power in free air, without any heat sink.
AFCO-make C-05-4 heat sink is suitable
for this IC. An improper heat sink may
cause device junction temperature to exceed the limit, resulting in progressive
deterioration of the device.

CIRCUIT

A SIMPLE TRANSISTOR
TESTER

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

J. BALAJI

S1 as per base current requirement for


the transistor. Two different coloured
(green and red) LEDs are used for indication.
Green LED glows if the npn transistor under test is good, otherwise not. Likewise, when a pnp transistor is tested, the
glowing of red LED indicates that the

his simple-to-construct circuit is


useful for testing both npn and
pnp low-power transistors. It comprises a few resistors, LEDs, diodes, and
a mains step-down transformer.
The 230V mains voltage is stepped
down to about 6 volts before application
to the circuit. The leads of transistor under test are inserted in the test terminals
(sockets) marked E, B, and C (for emitter, base, and collector, respectively) appropriately, i.e. the emitter of the
transistor is to be inserted in terminal E,
the base of the transistor in terminal B,
and the collector of the transistor in terminal C.
The resistor to be connected in series

with the base terminal is selected with


the help of a 6-position rotary switch

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

transistor is good and no glowing indicates that the transistor is bad.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

LEAD-ACID BATTERY CHARGER


WITH ACTIVE POWER CONTROL
MAR
IL KU
SUN

M.K. CHANDRA MOULEESWARAN

igh-power lead-acid battery chargers usually employ constant


voltage charging method. In such
chargers the charging is monitored
against the battery terminal voltage. Constant voltage at a constant current results in a very large initial current in a
flat battery and a very low current in a
partially charged battery. To overcome
this problem, the charger should be made
to vary the charging current in accordance

is automatically selected at successive different battery terminal voltages. And when


the battery gets fully charged, the charger
switches over to trickle-charge mode.
The circuit consists of the following
sections:
1. The DC power supply section.

with the existing terminal voltage


of the battery.
In the circuit presented here
the charging current is adjusted
against the terminal voltage in such
a way that any battery with any
level of charge can be connected to
the charger without requiring any
manual adjustment. The charging
voltage is held constant, while an
appropriate charging current range

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of lead-acid battery charger


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

Fig. 2: Charging current versus battery terminal


voltage

CONSTRUCTION

2. The series DC voltage regulation


section.
3. The battery status indication-cumcharge current regulation section.
The DC power supply section. The
230V AC mains supply is connected to a
step-down transformer with a secondary
rating of 24V AC, 5A through DPDT toggle
switch S1. When switch S1 is in off position, the availability of mains supply is
indicated by green LED1. When switch S1
is toggled to on position, red LED2 glows
to indicate that the charger is on. The

four 15-kilo-ohm resistors R1, R2 and R3,


R4 in the path of LED1 and LED2, respectively, are rated at 1 watt each.
The output from the secondary of
transformer X1 is rectified by the bridge
rectifier comprising 1N5408 diodes D3
through D6, rated at 800V, 3A. The rectified output is smoothed by three capacitors C1, C2, and C3 before being applied
to the rest of the circuit. The 4.7-kilo-ohm
resistor R6 acts as a bleeder resistance.
LED7 indicates that DC is available at
the output of this section.

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB for battery charger

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

The series DC voltage regulation


section. This section is configured around
power Darlington transistor TIP142 (T1)
that functions in conjunction with transistor T3 (BC549) and preset VR2 to regulate the output voltage from the DC voltage regulator section.
Since zener diode ZD1 conducts only
after the output voltage reaches 15 volts,
the output voltage needs to be adjusted
in the vicinity of 15 volts with the help of
preset VR2. When transistor T3 conducts
fully, the base of transistor T1 is pulled
towards ground via resistor R8 and
it stops conducting after the output
voltage exceeds a specific value.
Transistor T2 (also a BC549)
helps in current limit adjustments.
Low-value, high-wattage resistors
R15 (shunted by R14) through R19
connected in series form a currentlimiting resistor network at the output of transistor T1. This resistor
network limits the charging current
depending on the energisation/deenergisation state of relays RL1
through RL4 that select the current range. The resistors are either
shorted or added by respective relay contacts RY1 through RY4 depending on the charging current requirement from the regulator.
The battery status indication-cum-charge current regulation section. In this circuit, a quad
op-amp LM324 (IC1) is wired as a
four-stage comparator to indicate
the battery voltage with the help of
four LEDs (LED3 through LED6),
while at the same time selecting
and driving corresponding relays to
set the charging current range.
The 6.8V reference voltage developed across zener diode ZD2 is
proportionately applied to the inverting terminals of comparators A1
through A4, while the sampled battery voltage is proportionately applied to the non-inverting terminals
of all the comparators.
Preset VR3 may be adjusted to
obtain the reference voltages as
shown in Fig. 1. Preset VR4 may be
adjusted by applying an external
fixed voltage of 10.5V, 11.5V, 12.5V,
or 13.5V across the batterys screw
terminals, ensuring that the corresponding LEDs (and relays) light
up (energise) in accordance with the
table.

CONSTRUCTION

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- LM324 quad op-amp
T1
- TIP142 power Darlington
transistor
T2, T3
- BC549 npn transistor
T4-T7
- 2N2222A npn transistor
D1, D2,
D7-D11
- 1N4007 rectifier diodes
D3-D6, D12 - 1N5408 rectifier diodes
LED1
- Green LED
LED2
- Red LED
LED3
- Bright yellow LED
LED4, LED5 - Bright green LED
LED6, LED7 - Bright red LED
ZD1
- 15V, 1W zener diode
ZD2
- 6.8V, 1W zener diode
Capacitors:
C1, C2
- 2200F, 40V electrolytic
C3
- 1000F, 40V electrolytic
C4
- 470F, 25V electrolytic
C5
- 100nF ceramic
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon unless
stated otherwise)
R1-R4
- 15-kilo-ohm, 1W
R5
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R6
- 4.7-kilo-ohm, 0.5W
R7, R10, R12 - 1-kilo-ohm
R8
- 100-ohm
R9
- 470-ohm
R11
- 4.7-kilo-ohm
R13
- 47-ohm
R14-R15
- 0.66-ohm, 3W wirewound or
fusible
R16
- 0.67-ohm, 3W wirewound or
fusible
R17
- 0.20-ohm, 3W wirewound or
fusible
R18
- 0.47-ohm, 3W wirewound or
fusible
R19
- 1.0-ohm, 1W wirewound
R20-R23
- 470-ohm, MFR 0.5% or 0.1%
R24
- 820-ohm, MFR 0.5% or 0.1%
R25
- 10-kilo-ohm, MFR 0.5% or
0.1%

R26-R28
R29
VR1-VR2
VR3
VR4
Miscellaneous:
RL1-RL4
-

1.2-kilo-ohm
1.5-kilo-ohm
2.2-kilo-ohm preset
10-kilo-ohm preset
15-kilo-ohm preset

24V DC, 500-ohm relay


contacts at 10A DC
- 230V AC primary to 0-24V,
5A secondary transformer
- DPDT toggle switch
- 750mA cartridge glass fuse

X1
S1
F1

In the charge characteristic curve of


Fig. 2, it can be seen that the terminal
voltage is compared by the comparators

selected only when the battery has


reached a safe level of terminal voltage.
Later, as the battery starts charging
and its terminal voltage starts rising, the
charging current is decreased in proper
steps. Upon reaching the full voltage of
13.5 volts, the charger switches to the
trickle charge mode with resistor R19
coming into the charging path. Optionally, one can switch off the charger on
energisation of relay RL4 by just removing resistor R19 from the circuit. Whenever the terminal voltage level of the battery goes low, the charger automatically

TABLE
LED/Relay Operation and Charging Resistance
Battery
voltage

LED/Relay status
LED3
LED4
LED5
/RL1
/RL2
/RL3
<10.5V
Off
Off
Off
10.5V
On
Off
Off
11.5V
On
On
Off
12.5V
On
On
On
13.5V
On
On
On
* 0.5A is taken as the trickle charging current.

against the preset values and the charging current is selected accordingly. Thus
a battery of any charge level can be connected and left unattended under the control of this charger circuit.
When the battery is flat with terminal voltage below 10.5 volts, the initial
charging current is selected at just one
ampere because a higher initial charging
current may cripple both the battery and
the charger. A higher charging current is

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

LED
/RL4
Off
Off
Off
Off
On

Charging
resistance

Preset
current

1 ohm
0.33 ohm
0.53 ohm
1 ohm
2 ohms

1A
3A
2A
1A
0.5A*

resumes charging.
Figs 3 and 4 show the actual-size,
single-sided PCB and the component layout, respectively, of the charger circuit.
Note. To ensure proper functioning
of the circuit, use good-quality relays and
precise-value resistors (R14 through R24)
with tolerance as mentioned in the Parts
List. Connect the metal housing of the
charger circuit to the earth line of the AC

mains supply for personal safety.

CONSTRUCTION

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED
DIGITAL CLOCK

Hardware
NJA
UPA

NA

A.P. PHATAK AND P.W. DANDEKAR

n most applications, a microcontroller


unit (MCU) can satisfy all system
requirements with no additional
integrated circuits. Due to their low
cost and a high degree of flexibility, new
powerful MCUs are finding way into

many applications that were previously


accomplished by mechanical means or
by combinational logic. One such application is digital clock using Motorolas
MC68HC705P6A that has been described
here.

Fig. 1: The microcontroller-based digital clock circuit


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

Motorolas 4MHz 68HC705P6A (IC1) has


21 input/output lines, including eight lines
of port A (PA0 through PA7), eight lines
of port C (PC0 through PC7), three lines
of port B (PB5 through PB7), and two
lines of port D (PD5 and PD7).
Fig. 1 shows the complete clock circuit. The 12V DC power supply is provided
to the input of 3-terminal LM7805 (IC2)
regulator using external AC/DC adaptor.
IC2 converts any unregulated DC voltage
between +9V and +12V to stable +5V,
which is fed to all the ICs on the board.
The +5V Vdd supply to 28-pin DIP

CONSTRUCTION

Time signal generation


MC68HC705P6A doesnt have any standard clock output. Therefore we are generating an interrupt every 125 ms using
the inbuilt capture/compare capabilities
of timer inside MC68HC705P6A.
The 16-bit free running counter (FRC)
rolls over every 262,144 internal clock
cycles. Its resolution with a 4MHz crystal
is 2 s. Whenever the value of FRC matches
the value written in output compare register (OCR), an interrupt is generated.
On entry to relevant interrupt service
routine (ISR), timer registers are re-initialised so that the timer will generate the
next interrupt after current time+125 ms.
To generate a timer interrupt every
125 ms, we need to have a count differ-

Fig. 2: Flow-chart for timer interrupt

IC1 is given at pin 28 and pin 14 is


grounded. A 4MHz crystal is connected
to the internal oscillator across pins 26
and 27. R4-C1 combination provides the
necessary slowly rising power-on-reset signal. It is double buffered through two inverter gates of 7406 (IC4) connected in
cascade to generate an active-low poweron-reset (PONRST) signal that is connected to pin 1 of IC1.
PA0 through PA7 lines form an 8-bit
bidirectional data bus that is routed to
the following destinations:
LCD data lines D0 through D7.
Latch 74LS374 (IC3) inputs D0
through D7 (only PA1 from IC1 is presently made use of).
Scan columns for switch matrix
(only PA0 is presently made use of).
Port-B lines PB6 and PB7 are used
as control lines. PB6 goes to register-select (RS) input. PB6 and PB7 control signals decide the data transfer from IC1 to
LCD module and whether destination of
D0 through D7 inside the module is data
register or control register.
Since pin 5 (R/W) is connected to
ground, LCD module is always in write
mode. Thus whenever E line goes from
low to high, data present at D0 to D7
input lines is stored in the designated register inside the display module. (EFY Lab
note. For more information and instruction set of LCD module, refer the article

on page 47 in April 97 and caller-ID


project in April 99 EFY issues.)
Port-D line PD5 is connected to strobe
(/clock) input pin 11 of latch 74LS374.
Whenever PD5 line makes a low to high
transition, the contents on data input pins
3, 4, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, and 18 are latched to
output pins 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 16, and 19 of
octal latch IC3. The output of the latch
corresponding to PA1 input available at
pin 5 of IC3 is fed to open-collector inverter gate N3 of IC4. The output of N3
drives a piezobuzzer to provide an audio
indication. Thus the buzzer can be
switched on or off by the software. (Note.
Octal latch IC3 was originally intended
for operating a number of relays. However, since we are presently using IC3 for
latching only a single input (PA1 signal
from MCU) by taking strobe pin 11 from
low to high, readers may replace IC3 by
any simpler latch circuit, if desired).
Key switches S1 through S3 are connected between scan column line PA0 and
three scan return rows PC0 through PC2
as follows:
Time key (S1)
Store/up key (S2)
Down key (S3)

Between PA0 and PC0


Between PA0 and PC1
Between PA0 and PC2

Each of the three inputs PC0, PC1,


and PC2 has a 33-kilo-ohm pull-up resistor connected between these pins and Vcc,
which ensures that the input to the port
is set to 1 when not in use.
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

continued...

Fig. 3(a): System flow-chart

CONSTRUCTION

contd...

Fig. 4: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for the circuit in Fig. 1

Fig. 3(b): System flow-chart

ence of 62,500 between the OCR and the


FRC, so that this count multiplied by 2 s
per count produces a delay of 125,000 s
or 125 ms. This is achieved by capturing
the current value of the FRC and adding
62,500 to it. The carry is ignored and the
sum is stored in the OCR. The FRC rolls
over and hence the sum without carry
ensures that the difference is maintained.
The ISR maintains four different
counters as follows:
Name
TIME
SS
MM
HH

Range
0-7
0-59
0-59
0-23

Frequency of increment
Every 125 milliseconds
Every second
Every minute
Every hour

In case Time counter has become 8,


it rolls over to 0 and seconds counter (SS)
is incremented. In case, SS becomes 60,
it rolls over to 00 and minutes counter
(MM) is incremented. When MM reaches
60, it rolls over to 00 and hours counter
(HH) is incremented. When HH becomes
24, it is reset to 00. If the outcome is NO
in any of these four comparisons for limit
checking, the control exits from the ISR.
Fig. 2 shows the flow-chart for interrupt subroutine called ISR_OCR.
The ISR sets four flags, namely,
125ms time over, 1-second time over, 1minute time over, and 1-hour time over,

Fig. 5: Component layout for the PCB

in Flagloc memory location. These flags


are set when the corresponding time period is over, as indicated by rolling over
of the previous counter in the chain. These
may be used in background programs like
Main routine to test and initiate periodic
time-triggered functions.
System flow-chart (Fig. 3). Immediately after switching on the equipment,
the system is initialised and the LCD
starts showing time in HH:MM:SS format. Since no time is set, the display
will start from 00:00:00. The user can set
any time by pressing time key.
On pressing time key, the display
shows SET MIN HH:MM:SS, where
HH:MM:SS will normally be 00:00:00 on
power-on-reset that start incrementing.
You can set the value of minutes by usELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

ing up and down keys.


Every closure (followed by release) of
up key causes the minutes value to be
incremented by one, while the closure of
down key (followed by release) causes
the minutes value to be decremented by
one. After you are satisfied with the value
of minutes, press time key once again.
The unit responds by showing SET
HOUR HH:MM:SS on the LCD. Just like
minutes, you can now set the value of
hours using up and down keys. After
youre satisfied, press time key once again.
This causes the unit to display TIME
SET HH:MM:00, where the seconds are
automatically set to 00.
In all key closures, it is the key release operation that acts as the working
edge or trigger. Thus the actions are un-

CONSTRUCTION

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
- 68HC705P6A Motorola
microcontroller
IC2
- LM7805 regulator +5V
IC3
- 74LS374 octal latch
IC4
- 7406 hex inverter (opencollector)
D1
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon unless
stated otherwise):
R1
- 4.7-mega-ohm
R2, R3
- 10-kilo-ohm
R4-R7
- 33-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 2-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1, C6
- 10F, 16V electrolytic
C2
- 0.22 ceramic disk
C3
- 1F, 16V tantalum
C4, C5
- 33pF ceramic disk
C7
- 10F, 35V electrolytic
Miscellaneous:
LCD
- LCD module (16 characters
x 1 row)
Pz1
- Piezobuzzer
S1-S3
- Tactile switch
XTL
- 4MHz quartz crystal
- 9 -12V, 200mA supply
source

dertaken by the unit when a key is


pressed and then released, and not immediately after the key is pressed.
After one minute, the TIME SET
message is cleared and only the time is
displayed.
The program shown in the flow-chart
is an infinite loop, as the system is designed to work continuously.

Software
The complete software is assembled and
tested using WINIDE (Windows-based integrated development environment) that
allows seamless integration of several different program modules into one development environment. Its edit utility is
used to create the assembly file (.Asm) in
text mode.
The .Asm file is created only when
there are no errors and produces two files
with extensions, namely, .Lst and .S19.
The .Lst is a listing file in text mode that
includes variable, addresses, code, etc. The
.S19 file contains information relating to
address, code/data, start and termination

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  OCTOBER 2001

of program which is used by the WINIDE


for programming the OTPROM/EPROM
inside the microcontroller.
The WINIDE has an inbuilt simulator
that can be used to test various sub-routines and logic. After testing the software
offline, hardware tests are carried out.
Source code. The complete code along
with detailed comments is given in
digclock.asm file. (EFY note. The
digclock.asm file, along with .Lst and
.S19 extensions, will be included in the
next months EFY-CD.)
The software routines to convert binary numbers to binary-coded decimal
(BCD) numbers and activate LCD and audio indicators are included in the code,
but have not been explained as these are
beyond the scope of this article.
The actual-size, single-sided PCB for
the digital clock is shown in Fig. 4 with
its component layout in Fig. 5.

Col.(Retd.) A.P. Phatak is professor in


electronics & telecommunications and P.W.
Dandekar is vice pesident at Impetus
Computing, Indore

November

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

SPELLER EFFECT
SIGN DISPLAY

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

VIJAYA KUMAR P.
he circuit described here uses lowcost and easily available IC
CD4017 to produce a speller type
light display. In such displays, each letter of the sign sequentially lights up, one
after the other, until all letters are glowing. After a few seconds, the letters switch
off and the cycle repeats. This circuit provides a maximum of nine channels and
therefore can be used to spell a word or
sign having up to nine characters.
Timer IC1 (555) is configured in

CD4017 is a decade counter having


ten outputs, of which one output is high
for each clock pulse. However, this produces running lights effect. To change this
sequence to get the speller effect, pnp
transistors T1 through T9 are wired as
shown in the figure. Nine triacs (triac 1
through triac 9) are used to drive 230V
bulbs. (In place of 230V bulbs, miniature
lamps connected in series in the form of
characters or letters can also be used, provided the voltage drop across the series

astable mode to produce clock signal for


triggering IC2 (CD4017). Speed of switching on the display can be controlled by
varying preset VR1.

combination is 230 volts.)


When any of the outputs of IC2 goes
high, the corresponding transistor connected to the output goes off. When Q0 is

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

high, transistor T1 goes off and its output at the collector goes low. Since the
emitter of transistor T2 is connected to
the collector of transistor T1, and collector and emitter terminals of transistors
T1 through T9 are connected in series,
all transistors next to transistor T1, i.e.
transistors T2 through T9, do not get supply and hence all their outputs go low.
Next, when Q1 output goes high, transistor T2 goes off. Thus outputs of transistors T2 through T9 remain low. Since
Q0 output at this instant is low, transistor T1 is forward biased and its output
goes high to light up the first character.
Similarly, when Q2 output goes high,
Q0 and Q1 outputs are low and therefore
outputs of transistors T1 and T2 go high
to light up the first and second characters.
This process continues until all transistors turn on, making all the characters

to light up. The cycle repeats endlessly,


producing the speller type light effect.

CIRCUIT

DARKROOM TIMER

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

D. PRABAKARAN

he timer circuit described here provides a pleasant musical tone in


your darkroom at 1-second intervals. The circuit takes up very little space
and can be easily converted into a metronome.

Unijunction transistor (UJT) T1 functioning as a relaxation oscillator triggers

the phase-shift audio oscillator circuit


built around transistor T2, turning it on
and off. As capacitor C1 is charged
through preset VR1 and resistor R1, the
emitter voltage of UJT rises toward the
supply voltage.
When
the
emitter voltage
becomes sufficiently positive,
the emitter becomes forward biased and discharges capacitor
C1 through the
emitter-base 1
(B1) junction and
resistor R2. The
voltage
drop
across R2 forward
biases transistor
T2 and turns it
on. As capacitor
C1 becomes discharged, the current through resistor R2 drops and transistor T2 is cut
off.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

A tone signal is generated by transistor T2 and R-C coupled phase-shift oscillator. Part of the signal taken from the
collector of transistor T2 is coupled to a
small speaker through a transistor-radio
type output transformer.
The 22-kilo-ohm value of resistor R3
represents a compromise between tone duration and intensity. You can use resistors having a value anywhere between 10
kilo-ohms and 25 kilo-ohms for different
durations and intensities of the output
signals.
Since the unijunction transistor is
functioning as the oscillator trigger,
changing the values of one or more components in the UJT circuit will change
the rate of the tone burst. The tone frequency can be varied by changing the
value of any or more of capacitors C2
through C4 and resistors R5 and R6 in
the phase-shift network.
The primary winding of transformer
X1 can be tuned for a slight increase in
the output, using capacitor values between 0.05 and 0.25 F for C5 by trialand-error method. Tone pulses should begin about ten seconds after the unit is
turned on. After a minute or so, adjust
preset VR1 for 1-second beats by comparing the timing of the beats with the seconds needle on your wristwatch.

CIRCUIT

LONG-RANGE
TARGET SHOOTER

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

PRATAP CHANDRA SAHU

racticing target shooting using a


real gun is both expensive and
risky. Also, it is not possible for

everybody to have a gun. The circuit presented here makes you feel the excitement of shooting a target situated at a

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

distance of more than 100 metres without any risk or much expenditure.
The circuit simply uses a laser pointer
(also referred to as laser torch) as the
transmitter at the gun end. Laser pointers can reach a maximum of 1 kilometre
distance but it is advisable to limit the
range within, say, 200 metres.
While constructing the gun no change
has to be made in the readymade pointer.
Just tightly fit the pointer inside the toy
gun, so that the triggering switch can activate the press-to-on button of the laser
pointer, as shown in Fig. 1.
The receiver comprises a counter-cum7-segment display driver IC (CD4033)
with a debouncer formed by 555 timer
and an LDR sensor at the input. The
counter works as a scoreboard and directly
shows the number of successful hits.
The LDR senses the pointers laser
beam and activates the monostable
multivibrator wired around 555 timer IC.
To increase the sensitively of the receiver,
the LDR current is amplified by transistors T1 and T2. The timer pulse-width is
set at around 100 milliseconds so as to
work as a debouncer. The timer output is
coupled to IC CD4033.
CD4033 is a serial decade countercum-7-segment decoder/driver. With every output pulse from monostable IC1,
the count in CD4033 gets incremented by
one. Thus the output of IC2 reflects the
latest score by a competitor. Pressing reset switch resets the display too.
You can increase the size of the
display board manyfolds using the additional circuit shown in Fig. 3. This mul-

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

tiplexed board avoids higher power


consumption and is necessary if you are
using the module for long-range shooting.
For each segment, you can wire up to
ten LEDs in parallel. Short the anodes of
LEDs of all segments as it is a commonanode type display. (The output from
ULN2003 will be active-low.)
For proper functioning of the receiver,
the LDR should be kept covered in such
a way that no external light falls on it.
Further, the receiver should be fixed
at least two metres from the ground so
that the laser beam is accidentally not
directed towards anybodys eyes. The
game can be played both in daylight as
well as at night.
Caution. Never look or stare at the
beam source and do not bounce the beam
on a mirror.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

CIRCUIT

IDEAS

ACTIVE SHORTWAVE ANTENNA


PRAVEEN SHANKER

he circuit presented here boosts


weak shortwave signals so that
these can be heard with enhanced
clarity over a shortwave receiver. Further,
the receiver doesnt require any physical
connection as its placement in the vicinity (within 6 to 7 cm) of the circuit will
suffice. The circuit works well over a wide
range of supply voltage from 3 volts to 12
volts.
Low-noise transistor T1 (BF494 or
BF495) is connected as shown in the figure. Resistor R1 gives the DC bias to T1.
R1s value may lie anywhere between l00
kilo-ohms and 22 kilo-ohms; it determines
the quiescent base-emitter current for
transistor T1. Resistor R2 limits the current flowing through transistor T1 and,
in conjunction with capacitor C2, determines the operating point for its stable

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

operation.
The number of turns in inductor L1
would have to be reduced as operation
area shifts towards the upper end of the
high-frequency band. A 180H RFC in se-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

ries with positive supply rail, along with


a bypass capacitor to the ground, is recommended for reducing signal loss in the
power supply.
The current consumption is well below 10 mA. The transistor works well at
maximum supply and so reduction of resistor R1s value below 22 kilo-ohm is not
recommended, as otherwise the transistor may burn off.
This circuit works satisfactorily for
boosting signals in 13m-49m band. However, as the frequency increases, its performance deteriorates. The same happens
when the frequency decreases below that
of the shortwave range. For input use a
long wire as the antenna, while the output antenna wire may be limited to about
30 cm.
Note. The circuit is prone to selfoscillations if the aerial (input) wire picks
up stray radiations from the power supply wires or from the output. So keep the
power supply and output wires well isolated from the input.

CIRCUIT

POWER SUPPLY FOR


WALKIE-TALKIES

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
.
C
.
S

PRADEEP G.

ere is a simple power supply circuit that can be used for citizen-band and VHF walkie-talkies of power rating up to 10 watts. The
circuit uses a step-down transformer, followed by bridge rectifier, filter, regulator, and current booster stages.
A pnp power transistor is added to
the circuit to increase its current sourcing capabilities. Regulator 7812 can support around 100 mA current. When the
current flowing through R1 nears 100mA
value, the voltage (>0.65V) across the
emitter-base junction makes transistor T1
to conduct and provide a path for additional current.
The circuit can source around one ampere of current at 12+1.4 volts=13.4 volts.

Both the regulator IC and the power tran-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

sistor must be mounted on heat sinks.

CIRCUIT

HIGH-PERFORMANCE
INTERRUPTION DETECTOR

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

he circuit presented here detects


interruption in security systems.
Its features include no false triggering by external factors (such as sunlight and rain), easy relative positioning
of the sensors and alignment of the circuit, high sensitivity, and reliability.
The circuit comprises three sections,
namely, transmitter, receiver, and power
supply. The transmitter generates modulated IR signals and the receiver detects

is adjusted by preset VR2. For making


the duty cycle less than 50 per cent, diode 1N4148 is connected in the charging
path of capacitor C7.
The output of astable multivibrator
modulates the IR signal emitted from IR
LEDs that are used in series to obtain a
range of 7 metres (maximum). To increase
the range any further, the transmitted
power has to be raised by using more
number of IR LEDs. In such a case, it is

brief period gives rise to pulsed operation


of the sensor module.
Once monostable IC2 gets triggered,
its output goes high and stays in that
state for the duration of its pulse width
that can be controlled by preset VR1.
The high output at pin 3 of the monostable
makes the musical IC to function. Voltage divider comprising R2 and R3 reduces
the 555 output voltage to a safer value
(around 3V) for UM66 operation. The duration of the musical notes is set by preset VR1 as stated earlier.
For proper operation of the circuit,
use 7.5V to 12V power supply. A battery
back-up can be provided so that the circuit works in the case of power failure

the change in IR intensity. Power supply


provides regulated +5V to the transmitter and the receiver.
The power supply and the speaker are
kept inside the premises while the transmitter and the receiver are placed opposite to each other at the entrance where
the detection is needed. Three connections
(Vcc, GND, and SPKR) are needed from
the power supply/speaker to the receiver
section, while only two connections (Vcc
and GND) are required to the transmitter.
The transmitter is basically an astable
multivibrator configured around NE555
(IC3). Its frequency should match the frequency of the detector/sensor module (36
kHz for the module shown in figure) in
the receiver. The transmitter frequency

advisable to use another pair of IR LEDs


and 33-ohm series resistor in parallel with
the existing IR LEDs and resistor R5
across points X and Y.
The receiver unit consists of a
monostable multivibrator built around
NE555 (IC2), a melody generator, and an
IR sensor module. The output of the IR
sensor module goes high in the standby
mode or when there is continuous presence of modulated IR signal.
When the IR signal path is blocked,
the output of the sensor module still remains high. However, when the block is
removed, the output of the sensor module briefly goes low to trigger monostable
IC3. This is due to the fact that the sensor module is meant for pulsed operation.
Thus interruption of the IR path for a

also. Potmeter VR3 serves as a volume


control.
The transmitter, receiver, and power
supply units should be assembled separately. The transmitter and the receiver
should have proper coverings (booster) for
protection against rain. The length of the
wire used for connecting the IR sensor
module and IR LEDs should be minimum.
Note. The heart of the circuit is the
IR sensor module (usually used in VCRs
and TVs with remote); the circuit works
satisfactorily with various makes of sensors. The entire circuit can be fixed in
the same cabinet if the connection wires
to the sensors are smaller than 1.5
metres. The reflection property of IR signals can also be used for small-distance
coverage.

JUNOMON ABRAHAM

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT OF
SUB-MICROSECOND PULSES
ANIL KUMAR MAINI

RUP

ANJA

NA

receive input pulses greater than 100 mV


(which is the same as the reference voltage set for comparator IC3, LM319) but
less than or equal to 10 volts.
With switch S1 closed, the input pulse
amplitude may be anywhere between 1
volt and 100 volts. The closure of the
switch causes division of the input voltage by a factor of 10 due to the arrange-

pulse or a repetitive train of


pulses is one of the most frequently encountered electronic
signals, and the conventional way to determine its peak amplitude is to have an
oscilloscope display of the waveform. An
oscilloscope that has the required bandwidth to correctly display sub-microsecond-wide pulses is an expensive instrument, and is often beyond the reach of
most electronics enthusiasts, hobbyists,
and small-scale units. The circuit presented here allows you to measure the
peak amplitude of a single pulse as well
as of a repetitive train of pulses with a
conventional multimeter.
The circuit is capable of measuring
peak amplitude of pulses as narrow as
100 nanoseconds (ns) up to a maximum
of 100V amplitude. There is practically
no limit on the maximum value of the
pulse width. It can also be used to measure the peak amplitude of a repetitive
pulsed waveform as long as the time interval between two successive pulses is
greater than 100 microseconds (s).

The circuit
The pulse under measurement is fed to
the input of a cascaded arrangement of
two unity-gain peak detection stages built
around IC1 and IC2 using high-speed opamps AD829, as shown in Fig. 1. The opamp has a guaranteed unity-gain bandwidth of 120 MHz and a slew rate of 230
V/s, and it is capable of driving highly
capacitive loads. This makes it ideal for
receiving input pulses as narrow as 100
ns. D1 and D2 (1N914) are high-speed
switching diodes having a response time
of the order of 2 ns to 3 ns.
The input pulse gets stretched to
about 10 s at the output of the first peakdetection stage built around IC1 and to
about 100 s at the output of the second
peak-detection stage built around IC2.
With switch S1 open, the circuit can

Fig. 1: Circuit for measuring sub-microsecond pulses


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

feeding the
same to the
analogue input of IC5
(ADC-type
AD0808). This
ensures that
for the maximum input
pulse amplitude of 100
volts, the ADC
analogue input is limited
to 5 volts,
which is the
maximum amplitude it can
accept.
The output of the first
peak detector
stage after a
division by a
factor of 2 by
the arrangement of resistors R11 and
R12
feeds
comparator
Fig. 2: Waveforms at various points of the circuit
LM319 (IC3).
The leading edge of the pulse output from
ment of resistors R1 through R3.
The peak amplitude of the stretched the comparator coincides with the leadpulse at the output of the second peak ing edge of the input pulse. The leadingdetector is the same as the input pulse edge comparator output triggers monoshot
peak amplitude. This output amplitude is 74121 (IC4) to produce a 1s pulse (as
halved by resistors R9 and R10 before determined by timing components R17-

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-side PCB layout for the circuit


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB

C10) at its Q-output, with its leading edge


coinciding with the leading edge of the
input pulse.
The monoshot output is passed
through an appropriate NAND gate logic
circuit built around 7400 (IC9) and it acts
as the start-of-conversion pulse for analogue-to-digital converter IC5 (ADC0808).
The NAND logic is used here to incorporate the reset feature.
The clock generator circuit for IC5 is
built around 74HCT04 (IC8) to provide
1MHz clock. The clock frequency is decided by R24, R25, and C18. The latched
digital output from IC5 feeds the corresponding inputs of DAC0808 (IC6). The

Photograph of authors prototype

DAC output, which is a latched DC current, is converted into a proportional voltage in the current-to-voltage circuit built
around op-amp LF356 (IC7). This DC voltage is connected to the multimeter for
indication of peak amplitude of the input
pulse to the circuit. Potentiometer VR1 is
meant for calibration.

Operation
Every time there is a pulse at the input,
there is a stretched pulse appearing at
the analogue input of the ADC, with its
leading edge coinciding with the leading
edge of the input pulse. Fig. 2 shows waveforms available at various test points marked A,
B, C, D, and E in the circuit shown in Fig. 1.
Also, there is a start-ofconversion pulse appearing at the relevant input
of the ADC. The conversion starts at the trailing edge (test point E) of
this pulse 1 s after the
leading edge of the input
pulse.
Since the stretched
pulse is about 100s
wide, the peak amplitude
of the pulse 1 s later is
almost the same as the
actual peak amplitude.
At the same time, this
small delay ensures that
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1, IC2
- AD829 op-amp
IC3
- LM329 comparator
IC4
- 74121 monostable
multivibrator
IC5
- AD0808 analogue-to-digital
converter
IC6
- DAC0808 digital-toanalogue converter
IC7
- LF356 op-amp
IC8 (N1-N3)
- 74HCT04 hex inverter
IC9 (N4-N7)
- 7400 NAND gate
D1, D2
- 1N914 high-speed switching diode
ZD1
- 2.5V zener diode
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1, R2
- 18-kilo-ohm
R3, R16
- 1-kilo-ohm
R4
- 12-kilo-ohm
R5, R6
- 22-kilo-ohm
R7, R8
- 15-kilo-ohm
R9-R12
- 100-kilo-ohm
R13
- 470-ohm
R14
- 220-kilo-ohm
R15, R18, R19,
R24, R25
- 10-kilo-ohm
R17
- 2.2-kilo-ohm
R20, R21
- 2.7-kilo-ohm
R22
- 4.7-kilo-ohm
R23
- 33-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 50-kilo-ohm preset
Capacitors:
C1, C2, C4, C5,
C7-C9, C11-C17
C19
- 0.1F ceramic disk
C3, C10
- 0.001F ceramic disk
C6
- 0.01F ceramic disk
C18
- 56 pF ceramic disk
Miscellaneous:
S1, S2
- On/off switch (SPST)
Meter
- Multimeter

the analogue input is already present on


the relevant input at the start of conversion.
The latched digital output from the
ADC feeds the corresponding inputs of the
DAC0808 (IC6) as stated earlier. The output of the DAC, after conversion into the
proportional voltage by LF356 (IC7), is
fed to the multimeter (set to appropriate
DC voltage scale) for measurement of
peak pulse amplitude. Potentiometer VR1
is used for calibration.
The display holds the peak amplitude
of the last pulse until it is reset using
switch S2 or it is updated by another pulse
at the input. The accompanying photograph shows the assembled circuit that
the author used for performance evaluation.
An actual-size, single-side PCB for the
circuit is shown in Fig. 3 and its component layout in Fig. 4.

CONSTRUCTION

AUTOMATIC SUBMERSIBLE
PUMP CONTROLLER

MAR
IL KU
N
U
S

K.C. BHASIN

number of construction projects as


well as circuit ideas for water-/
fluid-level control have appeared
in EFY over the years, but so far no dedicated project has appeared for automating the control of submersible water
pumps. Looking into the demand for such
a project from readers, we present here a
circuit for automating the operation of an
electrical submersible pump (ESP) based
on the minimum and the maximum levels in the overhead tank (OHT). This cir-

2850 rpm typically.


The ESP body is made of cast iron or
stainless steel. For low and medium
range, one can use 3-phase or split-phase
(also referred to as 2-phase) supply. ESPs
of 3 HP or higher rating invariably use 3phase supply.
Let us consider a typical case of 1.5HP
ESP with 100mm bore diameter, using a
split-phase motor. The motor draws a running current of 10 to 11 amp, while the
starting current is around 2.5 to three

Fig. 1: Line diagram of control panel for manual operation of ESP motor

cuit can be interfaced to the existing


manual control panel of an ESP and can
also be used as a standalone system after
minor additions.

ESP basics
Electrical submersible pumps are singleor multiple-stage radial-flow pressure series impeller pumps that are close coupled
to the motor for low and medium heads.
These find applications in domestic, industrial, irrigation, air-conditioning, and
various other systems.
The ESPs are classified by the bore
diameter (which generally varies from 100
mm to 200 mm), horse-power (from about
0.5 HP to 40 HP), and discharge rate (typically 120 litres per minute for 0.5 HP to
about 2000 litres per minute for 40 HP).
These are run at a fixed speed, which is

tor, the run capacitor value can be calculated using the simple thumb rule (70 F
per HP), while the start capacitor value
may be determined from Table I.
Manual operation of ESP motor
(Fig. 1). The control panel comprises an
isolator switch, push-to-on single-/dual-section start button, push-to-off stop button, a triple-pole moulded case circuit
breaker (MCCB) for motor protection with
magnetic trip and resetting facility (with
an adjustable current range of 12 to 25
amperes), start and run capacitors, ampere-meter, voltmeter, neon indicators, etc.
(Note. The MCCBs used for motor
control are termed as motor circuit protectors (MCPs). These are classified/catalogued by number of poles, continuous
ampere rating, and magnetic trip range
(current). For details, you may visit Cutler-Hammers Website or contact Bhartia
Cuttler-Hammer dealers.)
Fig. 1 shows a simplified control panel
diagram, along with ESP motor wiring.
The start pushbutton (green), which is
normally open, and the stop pushbutton
(red), which is normally closed, are in series with the live or phase line.
The isolator switch is normally in on
position. When start button is momentarily pressed, the contactor energises via
the closed contacts of off button. One of
the contact pairs of the contactor is used
as the hold contact to shunt on button
and provide a parallel path to the
Motor rating
in HP

Start capacitor value (F)


230V AC (working)
275V AC (surge)
20-25
30-40
40-60
60-80
80-100
100-120
120-150
150-200
200-250

times the running current value.


To obtain a higher initial torque, the
1/6
1/5
run winding is connected in series with a
1/4
parallel combination of 120-150F, 230V
1/3
AC bipolar paper electrolytic capacitor and
1/2
72F, 440V AC run-mode capacitor. Af3/4
ter two or three seconds of running, when
1
1
the motor has picked up sufficient speed,
2
the start capacitor goes out of the circuit
because of the opening of the
centrifugal switch inside the
TRUTH TABLE FOR RELAY OPERATION
motor, while the run capaci- Water level
Relay operation (2.5 3 sec.)
Pump motor
tor stays in the circuit per- in tank
RL1 (stop)
RL2 (Start)
operation
manently. For ESPs that Below
dont have an integral cen- low level
No
Yes
Starts
trifugal switch arrangement, Above
a dual-section start switch low level
(explained later) can be used but below
No
No
Remains on
to perform the function of the high level
Reaches
centrifugal switch.
high level
Yes
No
Stops
For the split-phase moELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Circuit diagram for automatic control of ESP motor via control panel (Fig. 1)

contactor coil, which thus latches.


The supply to the motor gets completed
via the other N/O contacts of the contactor
and the pump motor starts. When the motor gains sufficient speed (around 80 per
cent of the normal running speed), the
centrifugal switch opens to take the start
capacitor out of the circuit and only the
run capacitors (2x36 F) permanently stay
in series with one of the two stator windings of the ESP motor.
In case the ESP is not provided with
an integral centrifugal switch, a second

section in start button (shown in light


shade in Fig. 1) can be used to shunt
points E and F. Since this switch section has no hold on contacts, the start
capacitor will go out of circuit as soon as
start button is released. The motor can
be switched off by momentarily depression of off button, which interrupts the
supply to the contactor coil.
To interface the control circuit shown
in Fig. 2, we use circled points A and B
(in parallel with on button) and C and D
(formed by disconnecting one of the wires

going to off button terminal, i.e. in series with off button). Points E and F will
be used if the ESP does not have an integral centrifugal switch.
It may be recalled, by referring to Fig.
1 of the project Auto Control for 3-phase
Motor published in EFYs June issue, that
wiring of on and off buttons of 3-phase
(4-wire system) and split-phase motors are
identical. Hence the control circuit described here can equally be used for 3phase motors of up to about 10 HP. For
motors of higher HP, one must use stardelta type starter configuration.

The circuit
As shown in Fig. 2, the 230V AC mains
(tapped from the same points from which
it is fed to the control panel of Fig. 1) is
stepped down to 12V-0-12V by transformer X1. The rectified output smoothed
by capacitor C1 is used for operation of
heavy-duty 24V, 250-ohm relays RL1 and
RL2 having contact rating of 30 amp. The
relay contacts identified by letters A
through F in Fig. 2 are to be connected
to identically marked points in Fig. 1.
Note that point C in Fig. 1 is created

Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-sided PCB layout for Fig. 2


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

by breaking the connection going to point


D on the stop switch. We have used relay RL1 with single changeover contacts.
If you need higher current rating, use relays with double changeover contacts by
interconnecting N/C, N/O, and pole of one
set to the corresponding terminals of the
other set. The circuit, except for the relay
drivers, is operated with regulated +12V
supply developed across capacitor C2.
The +12V supply is fed to the common probe in the overhead tank/storage
tank via 10-kilo-ohm resistor R1 and diode D9. Low-level and high-level probes
are connected to the input of CMOS inverter gates N3 and N1, respectively, via
10-kilo-ohm resistors.
The final low-level output at pin 10 of
gate N5 goes high when the water level
in the overhead/storage tank is below the
low-level probe. The final high-level output at pin 4 of gate N2 goes high as soon
as the water touches the high-level probe.
Both IC1 and IC2 have been configured as monostables with a pulse width
of about 2.5 to 3 seconds. This period is
found to work optimally for start and
stop switch operation of the manual control panel. The respective monostables for
low level (IC2) and high level (IC1) get
triggered via transistors T2 and T1 when
the final output at pin 10 of gate N5 or
pin 4 of gate N2, respectively, goes high.
The connection of reset pins of IC2
and IC1 to the outputs of gates N1 and
N2, respectively, ensures that no false
triggering of monostables takes place due
to the noise generated during changeover
of relay contacts, and also that the two
relays never operate simultaneously.
In the case of mains failure, the pump
stops if it was already running. When the
mains supply resumes, the pump starts
only when the water goes below the low

level. In such a situation, you can restart


the motor by manual operation of start
button on the control panel.
The connections for the ammeter and
the voltmeter, not shown in Fig. 1, can be
made easily. Connect the voltmeter across
the incoming live and neutral lines, and
insert the ammeter in series with the stop
switch by breaking the live line connection after the stop switch.
Transformer, relays, switches, fuse,
and neon indicator (with integral resistor) are to be mounted on the cabinet.

Precautions
The following are the vital points to be
borne in mind during wiring, assembly,
and installation:
1. One-watt resistor R18 should be
mounted leaving some space below it.
2. Use multistrand insulated copper
wires of 15-amp rating for taking connections from relay terminals and terminate
them on a tag block, marking each terminal properly. Similarly, terminate the
points to be extended to the OHT/storage
tank on a tag block (TB) using 25-28SWG
wire, marking them suitably.
3. Mount the relays inside the body of
a suitable metallic enclosure. The enclosure should be properly earthed via the
earth lead of the mains. Also mount the
step-down transformer inside the same
enclosure/cabinet. Use a TB for incoming
live, neutral, and earth connections from
the mains (to be taken from the manual
control panel of ESP motor).
4. After assembly, position the cabinet as close to the manual control panel
of ESP motor as possible and extend connections from tag blocks for relay and
power supply to the corresponding points,
as explained earlier, using cables of cor-

Fig. 4: Component layout for the PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  NOVEMBER 2001

PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1, IC2
- NE555 timer
IC3
- CD4049 hex inverter/buffer
T1, T2
- BC548 npn transistor
T3, T4
- BD139/SL100 npn transistor
D1-D4, D7-D9 - 1N4007 rectifier diode
D5, D6
- 1N4001 rectifier diode
ZD1
- 12V, 1W zener diode
Resistors (all -watt 5% carbon unless
stated otherwise)
R1, R3, R5,
R7, R9, R12,
R14
- 10-kilo-ohm
R2, R6, R11,
R15-R17
- 1-kilo-ohm
R4, R13
- 220-kilo-ohm
R8, R10
- 330-kilo-ohm
R18
- 330-ohm
Capacitors:
C1
- 470F, 63V electrolytic
capacitors
C2
- 470F, 25V electrolytic
capacitors
C3, C7
- 47, 25V electrolytic
capacitors
C4, C6
- 0.01F ceramic disk
C5, C8
- 10F, 25V electrolytic
capacitors
Miscellaneous:
X1
- 230V AC primary to 12V-012V, 1amp
Secondary transformer
L1
- NE2 (neon bulb with inbuilt
resistor)
S1
- On/off switch
F1
- 3amp fuse
RL1
- 24V, 250-ohm, 1 c/o relay,
30A contact rating

rect ratings.
5. For probes, use stainless steel rods
of about 10cm length and 5 to 8 mm diameter with arrangement for screwing the
telephone-type 25/26 SWG wire to be used
for extending the probes connections to
the circuit. Teflon-insulated wires are,
however better as they would last longer.
The joint may be covered by epoxy.
6. The probes can be hung from the
lid of the tank to appropriate levels using
the same wire. Make sure that the common probe goes up to the bottom of the
tank/storage tank.
7. All the wires from tank to the TBs
in the cabinet should be routed in such a
way that they do not interfere with any
mains wiring. The length of the wires
hardly matters as the CMOS gates used
for terminating the wires from probes
have very high input impedance.
EFY note. The above circuit is being
used with ESP motor control panel at EFY
head office and is performing satisfactorily for over two months now.

December

2001

Circuit Ideas

2001

CIRCUIT

DIGITAL RELAY TESTER


FOR RAX AND MAX

IDEAS

his high-speed relay tester is intended for testing 12V DC 2C/O


(changeover) and 4C/O PCBmounted relays used in RAX (smallcapacity rural automatic exchange) and
MAX (main automatic exchange) of CDOT origin. It is a reliable tool for testing relays in bulk. For other than 2C/O
and 4C/O contact relays, slight modification in the circuit is required.

functioning as they should during operate and release conditions, the tester immediately displays fail on 7-segment display. If the relay under test is good, the
display shows pass on 7-segment display.
When the mains supply is connected
to the circuit by closing switch S1, 5V DC
supply goes to the ICs, transistors (collectors), and common points (poles) of the
relay under test, and 12V DC supply goes

The high output of gate N1 goes to


pin 1 of gate N3 of IC4 (7400), while the
low output of gate N2 goes to pin 2 of
gate N3 of IC4. As a result, the output of
gate N3 becomes high and transistor T1
conducts to complete the path for supply
to the coil of the relay under test.
For a good relay, the output of gate
N4 is high before its energisation. After
energisation of the relay, the output of
gate N3 remain high whereas the output
of gate N4 goes low. This signal is inverted by gate N5 to display pass. The
output of gate N5 is further inverted by
gate N6 to display fail.
The common segments of pass and
fail characters are illuminated by OR gating via diodes D5 and D6, while exclusive
pass and fail segments are illuminated

As soon as the relay is inserted in 28pin ZIF socket and test pushbutton S2 is
pressed, the tester displays pass or fail
on 7-segment display. If the relay coil is
open or N/O and N/C contacts are not

to one of the terminals of the coil of relay


under test. The outputs from four N/C
and four N/O contacts are alternately applied to N1 and N2 gates, respectively, of
dual 4-input AND gate IC3 (74LS21).

directly through resistors R12 and R13


(whichever is high), respectively.
For testing 2C/O relays, keep the knob
of push switch S3 (wiring of S3 to relay
socket is shown separately) pressed to by-

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

KRISHNA SHARMA

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

CIRCUIT

pass two C/O contacts out of four C/O


contacts.
The test procedure is summarised below:
1. Switch on the power supply to the

IDEAS

tester.
2. Insert the relay to be tested into
ZIF socket and lock it.
3. For 4C/O relay leave knob S3 released, and for 2C/O relay keep the knob

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

pressed.
4. Press test switch S2 and observe
the display for pass/ fail.
5. Unlock ZIF socket and segregate
the relay as per the result.

CIRCUIT

DECORATIVE SIGNBOARD
PRATAP CHANDRA SAHU

his eye-catching signboard can be


used for special occasions such as
birthdays and marriage ceremonies. The characters in the display board
are illuminated one by one, each for one
second. After the last character is illuminated, the entire board gets illuminated
for 4 to 5 seconds. The above two sequences are repeated continuously.
Timer 555 (IC1) generates 1Hz pulses,
which are applied to decade-counter

IDEAS

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

CD4017B (IC5). The output from pin Q9


of IC5 triggers 4- to 5-second (pulse width)
monostable multivibrator IC2. The output of IC2 is ANDed in gate A1 with
100Hz stepped down/pulsating DC supply available at the output of the bridge
rectifier comprising diodes D1 through D4.
The output of AND gate A1 drives second
decade counter IC4, whose outputs (Q1
through Q8) are ORed with the corresponding outputs of first counter IC5.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

(Note. Only eight of the ten outputs of


CD4017s have been used.)
Driving characters at 1 Hz ensures
that the characters are illuminated one
by one for one second each. Similarly,
100Hz signal driving IC4 ensures that the
characters are refreshed rapidly for a continuous glow effect due to persistence of
vision. AND gate A2 is used to block 1Hz
signal reaching the first counter (IC5)
while the second counter (IC4) is active,
i.e. when the output of IC2 is high. When
IC2 output goes low after 4-5 seconds, it
enables gate A2 to pass 1Hz clock to the
first counter (IC5) and disables the second counter (IC4) via its reset pin 15.
Transistor T1 acts as an inverter.

CIRCUIT

For illuminating more than one message, use two rows of characters wired
reverse to each other. This sequence of
characters in opposite directions gives a
special effect.
The characters can be made by wiring

IDEAS

LEDs/torch bulbs (6V, 200mA type) in series/parallel combination or densely


painted glass or transparent plastic illuminated by torch bulbs. The bulbs should
be placed behind each painted character.
Each of the eight outputs of ULN2803

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

can sink a maximum of 500 mA at supply


voltage of up to 50 volts.
Note. The supply for ULN2803 can be
a separate one or the same as used for the
rest of the circuit. However, ensure the
ground reference is same in both the cases.

CIRCUIT

OVERLOAD PROTECTOR
WITH RESET BUTTON

IDEAS

transistor inside the optocoupler senses


this voltage and its collector current increases proportionally. When the current
reaches the required designed value, voltage drop across resistor-preset combina-

ward voltage drop at the base-emitter


junction of transistor T1), it causes forward biasing of transistor T1. This results in the collector of transistor T1 to
be pulled down to ground and trigger
IC555, which is connected in bistable
mode.
The output of IC1 causes overload indicating LED1 to glow and forward biases transistor T2 to energise relay RL1.
Once the output of bistable IC1 goes high,
it continues to remain high, unless reset
pushbutton S1, which is connected be-

tion R3-VR1 also increases. (Note. The


power dissipated in 1-ohm resistor for
500W load is just 2.1 watts, which is negligible compared to the maximum power
rating of the load. To use this circuit for
1kW load, select R1 as 0.5-ohm, 10W.)
Overload limiting point can be set by
preset VR1. When the potential at wiper
of preset VR1 becomes greater than
VZ+VBE (where VZ is the breakdown voltage of zener diode ZD1 and VBE the for-

tween Vcc and threshold terminal (pin 6)


of timer 555, is pressed. On pressing S1,
a high pulse is applied to the threshold
pin that resets the flip-flop output to low
state. The circuit can be reset after removing unwanted loads.
Note. Since the circuit is very sensitive, fluctuations in AC mains can also
trigger the circuit undesirably. This effect can be eliminated by using 4.7F bypass capacitor C1 as shown in the figure.

MAR
IL KU
SUN

VIJAY KUMAR P.

n applications like inverters and


UPS, the load must not exceed the
rated output power since it can cause
excess heating of output transformer
windings and active driving devices and
thereby damage them.
The circuit presented here can
be used as overload protector for
inverters or as an electronic fuse
in AC mains supply. The mains
supply to the load is routed via
the the N/C (normally closed) contacts of relay RL1. In an inverter,
the relay contacts could be used
as inverter oscillator on/off control. Whenever overload occurs, it
inhibits inverter oscillator circuit,
which, in turn, stops generation
of power.
Resistor R1 is used as the
overload sensing element. When
the load exceeds the maximum
rated value, it draws current in
excess of its rated value. This
causes the potential drop across resistor
R1 to increase. An optocoupler is used to
sense this voltage drop. The optocoupler,
in addition, isolates the AC mains part
from the rest of the circuit physically.
Resistor R1 is selected as 1 ohm for
230V, 500 watts (max.) load capacity.
When the load just exceeds 500 watts,
the current through R1 is approximately
2.1 amperes, producing a potential difference of 2.1 volts across R1. The inbuilt

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

CIRCUIT

FASTEST FINGER
FIRST INDICATOR

IDEAS

uiz-type game shows are increasingly becoming popular on television these days. In such games,
fastest finger first indicators (FFFIs) are
used to test the players reaction time.
The players designated number is displayed with an audio alarm when the
player presses his entry button.

When a contestant presses his switch,


the corresponding output of latch IC2
(7475) changes its logic state from 1 to 0.
The combinational circuitry comprising
dual 4-input NAND gates of IC3 (7420)
locks out subsequent entries by producing the appropriate latch-disable signal.
Priority encoder IC4 (74147) encodes

anode 7-segment LED display (DIS.1,


FND507 or LT543).
The audio alarm generator comprises
clock oscillator IC7 (555), whose output
drives a loudspeaker. The oscillator frequency can be varied with the help of
preset VR1. Logic 0 state at one of the
outputs of IC2 produces logic 1 input condition at pin 4 of IC7, thereby enabling
the audio oscillator.
IC7 needs +12V DC supply for sufficient alarm level. The remaining circuit
operates on regulated +5V DC supply,
which is obtained using IC1 (7805).
Once the organiser identifies the con-

The circuit presented here determines


as to which of the four contestants first
pressed the button and locks out the remaining three entries. Simultaneously, an
audio alarm and the correct decimal number display of the corresponding contestant are activated.

the active-low input condition into the corresponding binary coded decimal (BCD)
number output. The outputs of IC4 after
inversion by inverter gates inside hex inverter 74LS04 (IC5) are coupled to BCDto-7-segment decoder/display driver IC6
(7447). The output of IC6 drives common-

testant who pressed the switch first, he


disables the audio alarm and at the same
time forces the digital display to 0 by
pressing reset pushbutton S5.
With a slight modification, this circuit can accommodate more than four contestants.

EDI
DWIV
S.C.

P. RAJESH BHAT

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

CIRCUIT

CONDENSER MIC
AUDIO AMPLIFIER

IDEAS

MAR
IL KU
SUN

D. PRABAKARAN

he compact, low-cost condenser


mic audio amplifier described here
provides good-quality audio of 0.5
watts at 4.5 volts. It can be used as part
of intercoms, walkie-talkies, low-power

transmitters, and packet radio receivers.


Transistors T1 and T2 form the mic
preamplifier. Resistor R1 provides the necessary bias for the condenser mic while
preset VR1 functions as gain control for

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

varying its gain. In order to increase the


audio power, the low-level audio output
from the preamplifier stage is coupled via
coupling capacitor C7 to the audio power
amplifier built around BEL1895 IC.
BEL1895 is a monolithic audio power
amplifier IC designed specifically for sensitive AM radio applications that delivers
1 watt into 4 ohms at 6V power supply
voltage. It exhibits low distortion and
noise and operates over 3V-9V supply voltage, which makes it ideal for battery operation. A turn-on pop reduction circuit
prevents thud when the power
supply is switched on.
Coupling capacitor C7 determines low-frequency response of
the amplifier. Capacitor C9 acts
as the ripple-rejection filter. Capacitor C13 couples the output
available at pin 1 to the loudspeaker. R15-C13 combination
acts as the damping circuit for
output oscillations. Capacitor C12
provides the boot strapping function.
This circuit is suitable for lowpower HAM radio transmitters to
supply the necessary audio power
for modulation. With simple modifications it can also be used in
intercom circuits.

CIRCUIT

SMOKE ALARM

IDEAS

EO
I TH
SAN

PRADEEP G.

he smoke alarm circuit presented


here is based on the readily available photon-coupled interrupter

module and timer IC NE555. The photo


interrupter module is used as the smoke
detector, while timer 555 is wired in
astable configuration as an
AF oscillator for sounding
alarm via a loudspeaker.
In the absence of any
smoke, the gap of photo interrupter module is clear
and the light from LED
falls on the phototransistor
through the slot. As a result, the collector of
phototransistor is pulled towards ground. This causes
reset pin 4 of IC 555 to go
low. Accordingly, the timer
is reset and hence the
alarm does not sound.

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

However, when smoke is present in


the gap of the photo interrupter module,
the light beam from LED to the
phototransistor is obstructed. As a result,
the phototransistor stops conducting and
pin 4 (reset) of IC 555 goes high to activate the alarm.
Note. The unit must be housed inside
an enclosure with holes to allow entry of
smoke.

Construction

2001

CONSTRUCTION

TRANSISTOR CURVE TRACER


MAR
IL KU
SUN

A. SARAVANAN

ransistor is the basic component


of all electronic equipment. A good
design of electronic circuitry requires proper knowledge of the characteristics and parameters of transistors.
Due to such factors as changes in doping
level of impurities and physical dimensions, production imperfections, and environmental (ambient temperature, humidity, etc) changes, no two transistors
can have the same characteristics.
Transistor is an active device and even
a very small change in its parameters
causes a large drift in its operation. This
affects the overall efficiency and the reliability of an equipment. Hence for an efficient, reliable, and trouble-free design/
operation of the electronic equipment, the
designer must know the characteristics
and parameters of each transistor used
in the equipment.
The
manufacturer
provides
generalised family characteristics of transistors bearing specific part numbers.
These characteristics are drawn under
specific test conditions such as 25oC temperature and 10mA collector current IC.

But as the circuit designed may need to


be operated at different conditions (for example, at an ambient temperature of 40oC
and collector current of 10 mA), the
manufacturers data is no longer adequate.
The manual procedure to draw the characteristics of a transistor is tedious and
cumbersome. Further, using the manual
procedure, it is not feasible to draw the
dynamic characteristics of a transistor.
The transistor curve tracer circuit presented here enables one to draw the input and output characteristics of npn transistors in common-emitter configuration
on a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO). It
can be constructed and calibrated by the
designer himself. This circuit costs around
Rs 1500 and is designed to satisfy the
requirements of most circuit designers.
The circuit can be upgraded to draw
the characteristics of both npn and pnp
transistors, field effect transistors (FETs),
metal-oxide semiconductor field effect
transistors (MOSFETs), unijunction transistors (UJTs), silicon-controlled rectifiers
(SCRs), TRIACs, etc. In general, it can be
upgraded for any two- or three-terminal

Fig. 1: Block diagram for tracing transistor output characteristics

Fig. 2: Block diagram for tracing transistor input characteristics


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

analogue electronic device that has a


single control terminal unlike op-amps.

Block diagram
The transistor curve tracer is built around
the ramp generator and the current-tovoltage converter. The ramp generator
produces a linear ramp that is applied to
the transistor under test either as the
collector-emitter voltage (VCE) or the baseemitter voltage (VBE). The ramp is also
used to deflect the electron beam horizontally (along x-axis) on the screen of
the CRO. Similarly, the current-to-voltage converter converts either the collector current (IC) or the base current (IB)
into a proportional voltage that is used to
deflect the electron beam vertically (along
y-axis) on the screen.
The signal conditioning and switching circuits, along with the ramp generator and current-to-voltage converter, make
a complete curve tracer for the input and
output characteristics of an npn transistor.
Output characteristics (Fig. 1). The
ramp and clock generator generates a linear ramp and 1 kHz clock pulses. The
ramp is amplified by the ramp buffer amplifier to 0 to 5 volts. This amplified ramp
is applied to the collector of the transistor under test as the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) through the current-to-voltage
converter.
The current-to-voltage converter gives
an output voltage proportional to collector current IC that is applied to the CRO
to deflect the beam in y-axis. The 0-5V
ramp output is applied to the CRO to deflect the beam in x-axis. Hence we can
trace the output characteristics of the
transistor with the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) on x-axis and IC on y-axis.
To trace the output characteristic
graph for various base current (IB) values, the generators clock output fed to
the counter is incremented for each clock
pulse. The count sequence is 000, 001,
010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111 (0 to 7
decimal). After 111, the counter resets automatically to 000 and the sequence repeats. The lower three bits of the counter
are applied to the base-current control circuit.
The base-current control circuit sets
IB in eight discrete 100A steps, i.e. 0 A,

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 3: Circuit diagram of transistor curve tracer

100 A, 200 A, 300 A, 400 A, 500 A,


600 A, and 700 A. Adjust the step width
(100 A) using a potentiometer such that
the output characteristics of various npn
transistors with various current gains ()
are traced/accommodated.
Input characteristics (Fig. 2). Here
again, the ramp and clock generator generates a linear ramp and 1kHz clock
pulses. The ramp is amplified by the ramp
buffer amplifier to 0-5V. This amplified
ramp is attenuated and amplified as required to get 0-1V ramp and applied to
the base of the transistor under test as
the base-emitter voltage (VBE) through the
current-to-voltage converter.
The current-to-voltage converter gives
an output voltage proportional to base current IB that is applied to the CRO to deflect the beam in y-axis. The 0-1V ramp
output is applied to the CRO to deflect
the beam in x-axis. Hence we can trace
the input characteristics of the transistor
with VBE on x-axis and IB on y-axis.
To trace the input characteristics
graph for various VCE values, the clock
output of the generator is fed to the
counter and switching circuit. The counter

counts the number of pulses in the binary form. Q0 output of the counter is
used as the collector-emitter voltage control that toggles VCE with 0 volt and 10
volts for every clock pulse. Thus we can
trace the input characteristics for VCE = 0
volt and VCE = 10 volts.

The circuit
The transistor curve tracer circuit (Fig.
3) comprises power supply, ramp and clock
generator, ramp buffer and offset null,
current-to-voltage converter, counter, base
current control, and switching sections.
1. The power supply section. The
circuit operates on 12V regulated power
supply. The input AC mains supply is
stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver a secondary supply of 15-0-15V AC
at 1 ampere. The output of the transformer is rectified by a bridge rectifier.
The 1000F, 35V capacitors act as filters
to eliminate ripples and provide unregulated DC output voltage.
The unregulated dual DC voltage is
converted by three-terminal ICs AN7812
and AN7912 into 12V regulated power
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

supply. (Note. Connect 0.1F decoupling


capacitors between the supply terminals
and ground of every IC in order to suppress unwanted noise signals in the supply voltage.)
2. The ramp and clock generator
section. The ramp and clock generator
uses a constant current source (LM334)
and a capacitor, in conjunction with timer
NE555 (IC3) wired as an astable
multivibrator, to generate a linear ramp.
The control terminal of timer 555 (pin 5)
is held at a reference voltage of 5 volts by
a zener diode so that the upper threshold
(VUTP) is at 5 volts and the lower threshold (VLTP) at 2.5 volts.
The output current from IC LM334
can be controlled with the help of potentiometer VR1. This current charges the
capacitor linearly in the form of a linear
ramp. As soon as the voltage across the
capacitor exceeds the upper threshold voltage (VUTP), the output of timer 555 changes
its state and goes low. This activates the
discharge terminal (pin 7) of timer 555
and hence the capacitor quickly discharges
through the timer.
As the voltage across the capacitor

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 4: Actual-size, single-side PCB layout for transistor curver tracer

Fig. 5: Component layout for the PCB


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 6: Waveforms at various points in the circuit

drops below the lower threshold voltage


(VLTP), the output of timer 555 changes
its state and goes high to disable the discharge terminal and further discharging
of capacitor stops. Once again the capacitor gets charged linearly through the constant current source and the sequence repeats. Thus the potential across the capacitor is a positive linear ramp between
2.5 volts and 5 volts. The ramp frequency
can be controlled by varying the charging
current using potentiometer VR1. (EFY

Lab note. During lab testing, we used


AD590 temperature transducer in place
of LM334H as the constant current source,
and the method of using the same is
shown in Fig. 3 within dotted lines.)
3. The ramp buffer and offset null
section. Since the output impedance of
the ramp source is very high, we cannot
load it. Also, a DC offset voltage equal to
the lower threshold voltage (VLPT = 2.5V)
is present in the ramp output. In order to
nullify the offset voltage of the ramp and
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

to source the current from the ramp, use


a buffer amplifier. An op-amp in non-inverting amplifier configuration is used to
achieve this function.
As the input impedance of the noninverting amplifier is very high, it will
not load the ramp source. Also, it is possible to nullify the DC offset voltage
present in the ramp output with the help
of ramp offset adjustment preset VR2.
By adjusting feedback preset VR3, the
output of ramp buffer can be set to deliver a linear 0-5V ramp. This output is
used as VCE for the transistor under test
to source the collector current (IC).
To draw the input characteristics of
the transistor, the base-emitter voltage
(VBE) should be varied linearly. For this
we require a linear 0-1V ramp with sufficient current sourcing capability. In order to achieve this, a ramp attenuator
(voltage divider) and an amplifier are
used.
The 0-5V ramp output of ramp buffer
is attenuated by the potential divider network (comprising resistors R4 and R5) followed by an op-amp (IC5) connected in
non-inverting configuration. The gain of
the op-amp can be adjusted using preset
VR5 connected in the feedback path.
In order to nullify the offset voltage
of the op-amp, balancing preset VR4 is
connected between the offset null terminals of the op-amp. The output of the opamp is 0-1V linear ramp, which is used
as the base-emitter voltage (VBE) for sourcing the base current (IB) of the transistor
under test.
4. The current-to-voltage converter
section. The spot on the CRO screen is
deflected in proportion to the potential
applied to its input. Hence in order to
deflect the beam along y-axis, which is
the current axis (collector current IC in
the transistor output characteristics and
base current IB in the transistor input
characteristics), the current component is
to be converted into a proportional voltage.
The current to be measured is passed
through series resistor R7 of 10-ohm, 1%
MFR (metal film resistor). Potential drop
Vout across the resistor, according to the
Ohms law, is proportional to current I
through it and is given by the following
relationship:
V = IR
where Vout = 10xI
Hence, there is a potential drop of 10
mV per mA of the current through the

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 7: Actual output curves on CRO (shown


without retrace)

Fig. 8: Actual input curves on CRO (shown


without retrace)

circuit. We cannot apply this small floating potential directly to the CRO for a
significant deflection. Therefore we use a
differential amplifier to have an output
voltage with respect to the ground that is
proportional to the current though the circuit. The differential amplifier has a gain
of 100 that can be fine-tuned with the
help of gain adjust preset VR7 in the feedback path.
The current-to-voltage converter converts the current of 1 mA into a potential difference of 1 volt that can be applied to the CRO to deflect the beam in
vertical axis. In order to nullify the offset voltage of the op-amp, connect a balancing preset to the offset null terminals
of the op-amp.
5. The counter section. The base current (IB) is to be changed in discrete steps
for every ramp to enable the transistors
output characteristics for various IB values simultaneously on the CRO screen.
In the counter circuit, the output of
timer 555 (IC3) from pin 3 is a square
wave that intimates the end of ramp. This
output is used as clock pulse for the
counter wired around CMOS binary/decade, up/down IC MC14029B or CD4029B
(IC7).
IC7 is wired as a 3-bit binary upcounter so that the output of the counter
(Q2, Q1, and Q0) is incremented by bi-

nary 1 for every clock pulse. The count


sequence is 000, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110,
and 111, i.e. 0 through 7 decimal. After
111, the counter is automatically reset to
000, and once again the count sequence
repeats. Hence we get eight discrete logic
levels, and accordingly we can set the base
current (IB) using a base current control
circuit.
Similarly, to draw the input characteristics of the transistor under test for
various collector-emitter voltage (VCE) values, the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) is
to be changed for each ramp. The least
significant bit (Q0) of the counter is used
to toggle the collector-emitter voltage (VCE)
from 0 volt to 10 volts. Thus we can view
the input characteristics of the transistor
for VCE= 0 volt to VCE= 10 volts simultaneously on the screen of the CRO.
6. The base current control section.
This section receives the input from the
counter circuit and varies the base current (IB) of the transistor. The output of
counter IC7 in series with a high-value
resistor acts as the constant current
source. The high-level outputs of the
counter are fairly constant at 10 volts.
When we connect a resistor of 100
kilo-ohms in series with Q0 output of the
counter, it supplies a constant current of
100 A during its logic 1 state. Similarly,
when we connect a resistor of 50 kiloohms (two 100 kilo-ohm resistors in parallel) in series with Q1 output of the
counter, it supplies a constant current of
200 A during its logic 1 state. Using 25kilo-ohm resistor in series with Q2 output we can get a constant current source
of 400 A.
When more than one current source
are connected in parallel, the result is
similar to having a current source equal
to the sum of individual source currents.
If we use the base current (IB) setting
as it is for a transistor with large current
amplification factor (), its collector current (IC) gets saturated for much smaller
values of IB and only two or three traces
appear on the screen of the CRO. To get
the maximum number of traces, reduce
the base current by increasing the series
resistor values through IB SET potentiometer VR8. With the help of VR8, we
can adjust the base current in incremental steps from 10 A to 100 A.
(Note. Connect two 100-kilo-ohm resistors in parallel to get 50-kilo-ohm resistor. Similarly, connect four 100-kiloohm resistors in parallel to have 25-kiloELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

ohm resistor. This method has been shown


in Fig 3.)
7. The switching section. Certain
circuits are common in tracing both the
output characteristics and input characteristics. The ramp and clock generator,
ramp buffer and amplifier, and counter
circuits are retained at their places for
both output and input characteristics. But
to trace the output characteristics the current-to-voltage converter is to be connected in the collector of the transistor
under test and to trace the input characteristics it is to the connected in the base
of the transistor (refer Figs 1 and 2 for
output and input characteristics, respectively).
To have minimum complexity, the collector and the base circuits of the transistor are switched suitably using a
changeover switch on the front panel. The
switching details are obvious from the circuit diagram in Fig. 3.

Construction
Wire the circuit on a 2.5mm, IC-type general-purpose printed circuit board (PCB)
as shown in Fig. 3. The use of glass-epoxy PCB is recommended. An actual-size,
single-side PCB for the circuit is shown
in Fig. 4, with its component layout shown
in Fig. 5.
Carefully solder all the components
and use sockets for ICs. All range resistors used should be stable, close-tolerance
type (preferably MFRs). Preferably use
linear-type IB SET potentiometer and
mount it on the front panel of the instrument. Enclose the circuit board, power
transformer, and other circuit components
in a metal box having approximate dimensions of 22x17x7.5 cm. Extend input
and output leads to the corresponding
points in the circuit. Terminate the outputs for connection to the CRO in BNC(F)
connectors.

Calibration
After construction, check the circuit thoroughly for short circuits, breaks, and open
circuits on the PCB. After switching on
the instrument, let it warm up for a few
minutes before commencing with the calibration. Calibration procedure of the circuit is as follows:
1. Check and ensure 12V regulated
voltage with respect to ground.
2. Connect a CRO to shorted pins 2

CONSTRUCTION

and 6 of timer 555 (ramp output). A linear ramp with positive slope is observed
on the screen of the CRO. By adjusting
frequency control potentiometer VR1, set
the frequency of the ramp at 1 kHz (refer
waveform 1 in Fig. 6).
3. Connect the CRO to the output of
ramp buffer. Adjust preset VR2 to nullify
the DC offset voltage in the output of
ramp buffer. Adjust preset VR3 to set the
amplitude of ramp output to 0 to 5 volts
(refer waveform 2 in Fig. 6).
4. Connect CRO at the output of ramp
attenuator and amplifier. Adjust preset
VR4 to nullify the DC offset voltage in
the output of ramp buffer. Adjust preset
VR5 to set the amplitude of ramp output
to 0 to 1 volt (refer waveform 3 in Fig. 6).
5. Calibrate the current-to-voltage converter by connecting a 1-kilo-ohm. 1%
metal film resistor between the collector
and emitter terminals of the transistor
under test. Connect the output of the current-to-voltage converter to a CRO. By
observing the ramp waveform on the
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1
IC2
IC3
IC4, IC6
-

IC7
IC8
ZD1

7812, +12V regulator


7912, 12V regulator
NE555 timer
A741 op-amp (IC OP-07
op-amps can be used in
place of A741 with
advantage)
- MC14029B/CD4039 binary/
decade up-/down-counter
- LM334H/AD590 temperature sensor
- 1N4007 rectifier diode

Resistors (all -watt, 1% MFR, unless stated


otherwise):
R1, R5, R6,
R8, R9
- 1-kilo-ohm
R2, R4
- 22-kilo-ohm
R7
- 10-ohm
R3, R10, R11
(A,B), R12(A-D) - 100-kilo-ohm
VR1
- 1-kilo-ohm potmeter
VR2
- 2.2-kilo-ohm preset
VR3, VR4,
VR5, VR6
- 10-kilo-ohm preset
VR7
- 150-kilo-ohm
VR8
- 1-mega-ohm potmeter
Capacitors:
C1-C4, C9
C5, C6
C7, C8
C10

0.1F ceramic disk


1000F, 35V electrolytic
100F, 25V electrolytic
0.01F ceramic disk

Miscellaneous:
X1
- 230V AC primary to
15V-0-15V AC, 500mA
secondary transformer
S1
- On/off switch
S2
- DPDT switch

screen of the CRO, nullify DC offset voltage using preset VR6 and adjust the amplitude of the observed ramp waveform
to 0-5 volts with the help of preset VR7.
Calibrate the current-to-voltage converter
to convert 1 mA of current into 1 volt
(refer waveform 4 in Fig. 6). Then check
the clock output by connecting the CRO
to pin 3 of timer 555 (refer waveform 5 in
Fig. 6).
6. Verify the outputs of the counter
by using a dual-trace oscilloscope. Connect one input channel of the CRO with
clock pulses at pin 3 of IC3 and the outputs at pins 6, 11, and 14 of counter IC7
to the other input of the CRO sequentially (refer waveforms 5, 6, 7, and 8 in
Fig. 6).
7. Short-circuit the base-emitter terminals of the transistor under test. Select input/output characteristics switch S2
to output characteristics position and connect the CRO to the output of the current-to-voltage converter. By adjusting IB
SET potentiometer VR8 on the front panel
of the instrument, check proper operation of the base-current section by observing stair-case ramp of varying amplitude
on the screen of the CRO (refer waveform 9 in Fig. 6).

Operation
After calibration, the instrument is ready
for use to trace the input and output characteristics of npn transistors. Follow the
operating procedure given below every
time to get correct traces of input and
output characteristics of the transistor:
1. Connect the x-axis and y-axis BNC
pins of the transistor curve tracer to the
corresponding inputs of the CRO.
2. Plug in the AC cord of both the
CRO and the transistor curve tracer and
switch them on.
3. Set the CRO inputs to ground.
4. Allow warm-up time of at least 10
minutes for the circuit components to get
stabilised.
5. Set the CRO for X-Y mode of operation.
6. Adjust intensity and focus controls
to get a sharp spot on the screen of the
CRO.
7. Set the volts/div control of x-axis to
0.5 volt/div.
8. Set the volts/div scale of y-axis to 2
volts/div.
9. Adjust the position controls of the
CRO to position the spot on the left botELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

tom of the screen ((0,0) position in the


graph).
10. Set the inputs for DC coupling to
the CRO.
11. Connect the transistor whose characteristics are to be traced to the transistor curve tracer, ensuring correct pin configuration.
12. Set the selector switch for input/
output characteristics to the output characteristics position.
13. Release the CRO inputs from
ground and switch them over to connect
inputs.
14. Now view the output characteristics of the transistor. Fine-tune the IB set
potentiometer to get eight traces on the
screen of the CRO.
15. To trace input characteristics of
the transistor, change the input/output
characteristics selector switch to the input characteristics position.
16. Set the volts/div control of x-axis
to 0.1 volt/div and observe the input characteristics likewise.
Figs 7 and 8 show a typical transistors
output and input characteristics, respectively, on the CRO screen (without retrace).

Conclusion
To draw the characteristics of pnp transistors, insert an inverter circuit in the
ramp path of collector-emitter voltage VCE
and base-emitter voltage VBE, and invert
the output of the current-to-voltage converter.
By using a potential divider and
buffer amplifier circuit in place of the
base-current control circuit you can draw
the characteristics of FETs and
MOSFETs.
To trace the forward characteristics
of diodes, connect the anode of the diode
to the base terminal and the cathode to
the emitter terminal. Set the transistor
curve tracer to draw input characteristics, and the CRO screen displays the
forward characteristics of the diode.
Similarly, with simple add-on circuits
to the motherboard, you can draw the
characteristics of UJTs, SCRs, TRIACs,
etc.
Thin and faint retrace lines visible
along with the characteristic traces can
be removed by connecting a retrace blanking circuit to the Z-mod input of the CRO.
Almost all CROs exceeding 30MHz bandwidth have the Z-mod input facility.

CONSTRUCTION

TRIPPING SEQUENCE
RECORDER-CUM-INDICATOR

MAR
IL KU
SUN

R.G. THIAGRAJ KUMAR AND S. RAMASWAMY

n applications like power stations and


continuous process control plants, a
protection system is used to trip
faulty systems to prevent damages and
ensure the overall safety of the personnel
and machinery. But this often results in
multiple or cascade tripping of a number
of subunits.
Looking at all the tripped units doesnt
reveal the cause of failure. It is therefore
very important to determine the sequence
of events that have occurred in order to
exactly trace out the cause of failure and
revive the system with minimal loss of
time.
The circuit presented here stores the
tripping sequence in a system with up to
eight units/blocks. It uses an auxiliary relay contact point in each unit that closes
whenever tripping of the corresponding
unit occurs. Such contact points can be
identified easily, especially in systems using programmable logic controllers (PLCs).
This circuit records tripping of up to
eight units and displays the order in
which they tripped. A clock circuit, however fast, cannot be employed in this circuit because the clock period itself will be
a limiting factor for sensing the incidence
of fault. Besides, it may also mask a number of events that might have occurred
during the period when the clock was low.
Hence the events themselves are used as
clock signals in this circuit.
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the
tripping sequence recorder-cum-indicator.

The inputs derived from auxiliary relay


contacts (N/O) of subunits or push-to-on
switches are latched by RS flip-flops when
the corresponding subunits trip, causing
the following four actions:
1. The latch outputs are ORed to activate audio alarm.
2. The latch outputs are differentiated
individually and then ORed to provide
clock pulses to the counter to increment
the output of the counter that is initially
preset at 1 (decimal).
3. Each individual latch output activates the associated latch/decoder/driver
and 7-segment display set to display the
number held at the output of the counter,
which, in fact, indicates the total number
of trips that have taken place since the
last presetting.
4. LEDs associated with each of the
latch, decoder, and driver sets remain lit
to indicate the readiness of the sets to
receive the tripping input. LEDs associated with the tripped unit go off.

The circuit
IC1 and IC2 (CD4043) Quad NOR RS flipflops in Fig. 2 are used to capture and
store the information pertaining to the
tripping of individual units. Reset pins of
all the eight flip-flops and sub-parallel enable (PE) pin 1 of BCD up-/down-counter
CD4510 (IC3) are returned to ground via
10-kilo-ohm resistor R22, while set pins
of all RS flip-flops are returned to ground

Fig. 1: Block diagram of tripping sequence recorder-cum-indicator


ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

via individual 10-kilo-ohm resistors R14


through R21.
Initially, all the eight Q outputs of
IC1 and IC2 are at logic 0. The auxiliary
relay contacts of the subunits, which are
depicted here by push-to-on switches S1
through S8, connect the set terminal of
the corresponding stage of RS flip-flop to
+12V whenever tripping of a specific subunit occurs. This makes the output of the
associated flip-flop go high. Thus whenever a sequence of tripping of subunits
occurs, the corresponding outputs (1Q to
8Q) go high in the order of the tripping of
the associated subunits.
All the eight Q outputs are connected
to the corresponding latch-enable inputs
of BCD latch-cum-decoder-driver ICs
(CD4511). These Q outputs are also ORed
using diodes D1 through D8 to activate
an audible alarm and also routed to a set
of differentiator networks (comprising capacitors C1 through C8 and resistors R2
through R9).
A differentiator provides a sharp pulse
corresponding to the tripping of a subunit. All such differentiated pulses are
ORed via diodes D9 through D16 and
coupled to the counter stage formed by
IC3 (CD4510, a synchronous up-/downcounter with preset) after amplification
and pulse shaping by transistor amplifier
stages built around transistors T2 and T3.
These pulses serve as clock to count the
number of trippings that occurred after a
reset.
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1, IC2
- CD4043 quad NOR RS latch
IC3
- CD4510 BCD up-/downcounter
IC4-IC11
- CD4511 BCD-to-7-segment
latch/decoder/driver
T1-T11
- BC547 npn transistor
T12-T19
- BC557 pnp transistor
D1-D16
- 1N4007 rectifier diode
DIS1-DIS8 - LT543 common-cathode
7-segment display
Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon, unless
stated otherwise):
R1-R11,
R13-R38
- 10-kilo-ohm
R12, R39-R46 - 1-kilo-ohm
R47-R102
- 470-ohm
Capacitors:
C1-C8
- 0.01F ceramic disk
Miscellaneous:
S1-S8
- Push-to-on switch or relay
contacts (N/O)
S9
- Push-to-on switch
PZ1
- Piezobuzzer
- 12V, 500mA power supply

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of tripping sequence recorder-cum-indicator

Operation
Let us assume that three units,
say, E, H, and A (fifth, eighth,
and first), tripped in that order
following a fault.
When the system is reset (before any tripping), the outputs of
all RS flip-flops (1Q through 8Q)
are low. This LE* active-low
makes latches IC4 through IC11
transparent and as the counter
is preset to 1 (since P1 input is
high while P2, P3, and P4 are
low) with the help of switch S9,
all the latches hold that 1 and
their decoded b and c segment
outputs go high.
However, the common-cathode drive is absent in all the 7segment displays because driver
transistors T4 through T11 are Fig. 3: Actual-size, single-side PCB of the main control portion of tripping sequence controller-cumcut off due to the low outputs of indicator circuit
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 4: Component layout for Fig. 3

Fig. 5: Actual-size, single-side PCB for


latch decoder/driver and display circuit of
one subunit

all RS flip-flops and hence the displays


are blank. At the same time, the low outputs of all RS flip-flops (1Q through 8Q)
forward bias pnp transistors T12 through
T19 associated with LED1 through LED8
of each of the displays. As a result, all
these LEDs glow, indicating no tripping.
Now when unit E trips, output 5Q of
RS flip-flop IC2 goes high to provide the
base drive to common-cathode drive transistor T8. This, in turn, activates DIS5
(fifth from left in Fig. 2) to display 1,

Fig. 6: Component layout for Fig. 5

indicating that unit E tripped first. The


corresponding LED5 goes off as transistor T16 is cut off. Also, latch IC8 is disabled due to logic 1 on its pin 5 and therefore it does not respond to further changes
in its BCD data input. Simultaneously,
the buzzer goes on to sound an audible
alarm, indicating the emergency situation
at the plant.
The differentiator formed by C5 and
R6 responds to the low-to-high transition
of 5Q and generates a short pulse. This
pulse passes through diode D13 and tran-

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  DECEMBER 2001

sistors T2 and T3 and reaches


clock pin of counter IC3. The
counter counts up and its output
becomes 0010 (decimal 2).
As mentioned earlier, all the
display units other than E have
the drive signal on segments a,
b, g, e, and c now but are off
because of the missing commoncathode drive. When the next
subunit H trips, output 8Q experiences a low-to-high transition
and the corresponding display
(DIS8) shows digit 2. The above
sequence of operation holds true
for any further subunit tripping
with the displayed digit
incrementing by one for each sequential tripping.
In the prototype, LEDs D17
through D24 were fixed below the
corresponding 7-segment displays
pertaining to subunits A through H to
provide a visual indication that these units
are ready to respond to a tripping.
The circuit works satisfactorily with
twisted-pair wires of length up to 5 metres.
In electrically noisy environments, the
length of the cable has to be reduced or a
shielded twisted-pair cable can be used.
An actual-size, single-side PCB layout for the main control portion of the
tripping sequence recorder-cum-indicator
circuit is shown in Fig. 3 and its component layout in Fig. 4. The PCB layout for
the indicator set comprising IC4, DIS1,
transistors T4 and T12, LED1, etc is
shown in Fig. 5 and its component layout
in Fig. 6. The indicator set of Fig. 5 can
be connected to the main PCB of Fig. 3
using Bergstrip type SIP (single-inlinepin) connectors as per requirements.
This tripping sequence recorder-cumindicator circuit can also be used in quiz
games to decide the order in which the
teams responded to a common question.
For this, provide push-to-on switches on
the tables of individual teams and a master reset to the quiz master. Modify the
alarm circuit suitably with a retriggerable
monostable stage so that the audible
alarm stops after a short interval.

The End