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Hardness testing

Rockwell
Vickers
Brinell and Universal
ISO 6508 / ASTM E 18 ISO 6507 / ASTM E 384 ISO 6506 / ASTM E 10

application area:

indenter

pre-force [N]

total-load [N]

scale range

HRC

diamond cone

98.07

1471

2070 HRC

HRD

diamond cone

98.07

980.7

4077 HRD

HRA

diamond cone

98.07

588.4

6088 HRY

HRG

1/16" HM-ball

98.07

1471

3094 HRG

HRB

1/16" HM-ball

98.07

980.7

20100 HRB

HRF

1/16" HM-ball

98.07

588.4

60100 HRF

HRK

1/8" HM-ball

98.07

1471

40100 HRK

HRE

1/8" HM-ball

98.07

980.7

70100 HRE

HRH

1/8" HM-ball

98.07

588.4

80100 HRH

HR15N

diamond cone

29.42

147.1

7094 HR15N

HR30N

diamond cone

29.42

294.2

4286 HR30N

HR45N

diamond cone

29.42

441.3

2077 HR45N

HR15T

1/16" HM-ball

29.42

147.1

6793 HR15T

HR30T

1/16" HM-ball

29.42

294.2

2982 HR30T

HR45T

1/16" HM-ball

29.42

441.3

1072 HR45T

Conversion of hardness to hardness and hardness to tensile strenght for unalloyed and
low-alloy steels and cast iron (extract of ISO 18265 table A.1)
HRB

HB

Rm

HRA
62.4
62.0
61.6
61.2
60.7

HR45N
36.5
35.2
33.9
32.5
31.1
30.4
29.5
28.7
27.9
27.1
26.2
25.2

HV
340.0
330.0
320.0
310.0
300.0
295.0
290.0
285.0
280.0
275.0
270.0
265.0

HB
323.0
313.0
304.0
294.0
285.0
280.0
275.0
271.0
266.0
261.0
256.0
252.0

Rm
1095.0
1060.0
1030.0
995.0
965.0
950.0
930.0
915.0
900.0
880.0
865.0
850.0

HRC
24.0
23.1
22.2
21.3
20.3

HRD
43.1
42.2
41.7
41.1
40.3

HR15T

HR30T

HR45T

93.0
92.8
92.5
92.3
92.1
91.9
91.7
91.5
91.2
90.9
90.6
90.3
90.0
89.6
89.3
89.0
88.5
88.0
87.5
87.0
86.5
86.0
85.5
85.0
84.5
83.8
83.0
82.2
81.5
80.8
80.0
79.0
77.5
76.0
74.0

82.0
81.6
81.3
81.0
80.6
80.2
79.7
79.2
78.5
78.0
77.5
77.0
76.4
75.8
75.2
74.6
74.0
73.5
72.5
71.2
70.0
69.0
68.0
67.0
65.5
64.0
62.5
61.5
59.5
58.0
56.0
53.5
51.0
48.5
43.5

72.0
71.5
70.8
70.0
69.4
68.7
68.0
67.0
66.0
65.5
64.5
63.5
62.5
61.5
60.4
59.3
58.6
58.0
56.4
54.7
53.0
51.0
50.0
48.5
46.5
44.5
42.5
40.5
38.0
35.5
32.0
29.0
25.0
20.5
13.5

HV
260.0
255.0
250.0
245.0
240.0
235.0
230.0
225.0
220.0
215.0
210.0
205.0
200.0
195.0
190.0
185.0
180.0
175.0
170.0
165.0
160.0
155.0
150.0
145.0
140.0
135.0
130.0
125.0
120.0
115.0
110.0
105.0
100.0
95.0
90.0
85.0
80.0

HB
247.0
242.0
237.0
233.0
228.0
223.0
219.0
214.0
209.0
204.0
199.0
195.0
190.0
185.0
181.0
176.0
171.0
166.0
162.0
156.0
152.0
147.0
143.0
138.0
133.0
128.0
124.0
119.0
114.0
109.0
105.0
100.0
95.0
90.0
85.0
81.0
76.0

Rm
835.0
820.0
800.0
785.0
770.0
755.0
740.0
720.0
705.0
690.0
675.0
660.0
640.0
625.0
610.0
595.0
575.0
560.0
545.0
530.0
510.0
495.0
480.0
465.0
450.0
430.0
415.0
400.0
385.0
370.0
350.0
335.0
320.0
305.0
285.0
270.0
255.0

ASMEC Advanced Surface Mechanics GmbH


Bautzner Landstrasse 45
D-01454 Radeberg
Germany
Phone +49 (0) 351 2695 345
Fax +49 (0) 351 2695 346
www.asmec.de
info@asmec.de

Minimum Thickness Requirements

minimum specimen thickness (mm)


for Brinell

D=1
0.08
0.18
0.33
0.54
0.80

3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0

D=2.5

0.29
0.40
0.53
0.67
0.83
1.02
1.23
1.46
1.72
2.00

1.8

Ro

1.6

ck

1.4

HR

1.2

TS

up

erfi

we

ll D

oc

NS

0.8

lR

HR

iam

on

cia

1.0

.)

HR30N
54.4
53.6
52.3
51.3
50.2
49.7
49.0
48.4
47.8
47.2
46.4
45.7

tc

Intelligent Testing

HR15N
77.4
76.8
76.2
75.6
74.9
74.6
74.2
73.8
73.4
73.0
72.6
72.1

,e
RF

2180.0
2145.0
2105.0
2070.0
2030.0
1995.0
1955.0
1920.0
1880.0
1845.0
1810.0
1775.0
1740.0
1700.0
1665.0
1630.0
1595.0
1555.0
1520.0
1485.0
1455.0
1420.0
1385.0
1350.0
1320.0
1290.0
1255.0
1220.0
1190.0
1155.0
1125.0

HRB
101.0
100.0
99.5
98.8
98.1
97.4
96.7
96.0
95.0
94.0
93.5
92.5
91.5
90.5
89.5
88.3
87.1
86.0
85.0
83.2
81.7
80.2
78.7
76.8
75.0
73.0
71.2
69.0
66.7
64.5
62.3
59.3
56.2
52.0
48.0
41.0

HRD
51.1
50.2
49.4
48.4
47.5
47.1
46.5
46.0
45.3
44.9
44.3
43.7

H
B,

618.0
608.0
599.0
589.0
580.0
570.0
561.0
551.0
542.0
532.0
523.0
513.0
504.0
494.0
485.0
475.0
466.0
456.0
447.0
437.0
428.0
418.0
408.0
399.0
389.0
380.0
370.0
361.0
351.0
342.0
332.0

105.0
104.5
104.0
103.0
102.0
101.5

HRC
34.4
33.3
32.2
31.0
29.8
29.2
28.5
27.8
27.1
26.4
25.6
24.8

HR

HV
940.0
920.0
900.0
880.0
860.0
840.0
820.0
800.0
780.0
760.0
740.0
720.0
700.0
690.0
680.0
670.0
660.0
650.0
640.0
630.0
620.0
610.0
600.0
590.0
580.0
570.0
560.0
550.0
540.0
530.0
520.0
510.0
500.0
490.0
480.0
470.0
460.0
450.0
440.0
430.0
420.0
410.0
400.0
390.0
380.0
370.0
360.0
350.0

HRB

(
les
ca

HR45N
75.4
74.8
74.2
73.6
73.1
72.2
71.8
71.0
70.2
69.4
68.6
67.7
66.7
66.2
65.7
65.3
64.7
64.1
63.5
63.0
62.4
61.7
61.2
60.5
59.9
59.3
58.6
57.8
57.0
56.2
55.6
54.7
53.9
53.1
52.2
51.3
50.4
49.4
48.4
47.4
46.4
45.3
44.1
42.9
41.7
40.4
39.1
37.8

HRA
67.6
67.0
66.4
65.8
65.2
64.8
64.5
64.2
63.8
63.5
63.1
62.7

application area:

ll S
Ba

HR30N
84.4
84.0
83.6
83.1
82.7
82.2
81.7
81.1
80.4
79.7
79.1
78.4
77.6
77.2
76.8
76.4
75.9
75.5
75.1
74.6
74.2
73.6
73.2
72.7
72.1
71.7
71.2
70.5
70.0
69.5
69.0
68.3
67.7
67.1
66.4
65.7
64.9
64.3
63.5
62.7
61.9
61.1
60.2
59.3
58.4
57.4
56.4
55.4

Measurement
Measurement
Position
position

minimum specimen thickness:

ell

HR15N
93.2
93.0
92.9
92.7
92.5
92.3
92.1
91.8
91.5
91.2
91.0
90.7
90.3
90.1
89.8
89.7
89.5
89.2
89.0
88.8
88.5
88.2
88.0
87.8
87.5
87.2
86.9
86.6
86.3
86.0
85.7
85.4
85.0
84.7
84.3
83.9
83.6
83.2
82.8
82.3
81.8
81.4
80.8
80.3
79.8
79.2
78.6
78.0

d:h 7:1

2.5d 3d

kw

HRD
76.9
76.5
76.1
75.7
75.3
74.8
74.3
73.8
73.3
72.6
72.1
71.5
70.8
70.5
70.1
69.8
69.4
69.0
68.7
68.3
67.9
67.5
67.0
66.7
66.2
65.8
65.4
64.8
64.4
63.9
63.5
62.9
62.2
61.6
61.3
60.7
60.1
59.4
58.8
58.2
57.5
56.8
56.0
55.3
54.4
53.6
52.8
51.9

c
Ro

HRC
68.0
67.5
67.0
66.4
65.9
65.3
64.7
64.0
63.3
62.5
61.8
61.0
60.1
59.7
59.2
58.8
58.3
57.8
57.3
56.8
56.3
55.7
55.2
54.7
54.1
53.6
53.0
52.3
51.7
51.1
50.5
49.8
49.1
48.4
47.7
46.9
46.1
45.3
44.5
43.6
42.7
41.8
40.8
39.8
38.8
37.7
36.6
35.5

minimum specimen thickness:

Definition
HB = 0.102 F/A
= 0.102 2F/ ( D(D-D-d))
F ... Test load in N
A ... Indentation surface in mm
D ... ball indentor dia. in mm
d ... arithmetic average from two
measured indentation

application area:

token

HRA
85.6
85.3
85.0
84.7
84.4
84.1
83.8
83.4
83.0
82.6
82.2
81.8
81.3
81.1
80.8
80.6
80.3
80.0
79.8
79.5
79.2
78.9
78.6
78.4
78.0
77.8
77.4
77.0
76.7
76.4
76.1
75.7
75.3
74.9
74.5
74.1
73.6
73.3
73.0
72.3
71.8
71.4
70.8
70.3
69.8
69.2
68.7
68.1

Measurement
Measurement
position
position

Loading
position
position

indentation distances:

kw

upe

ell

0.6

rfici

Sc

ale

Sc

s(

HR

al R

ale

ock

0.58
0.69
0.80
0.92
1.05
1.19
1.34
1.50
1.67
2.04
2.46
2.92
3.43
4.00

HR

C,

wel

0.4

A,

D=5

et

l Sc

c.)

ales

average indentation
diameter

D=10

1.17
1.38
1.60
1.84
2.10
2.68
3.34
4.08
4.91
5.83
6.86
8.00

d (mm)
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.4
4.8
5.2
5.6
6.0

0.2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

Hardness
The above graphs are based on the internationally accepted recommendation that specifies a minimum thickness, not less than ten times (fifteen times) the depth indentation using a cone indenter (ball indenter). It is also
recommended that the indentation causes no visible mark or deformation on the under surface of the test piece.

Indentec Hardness Testing Machines Limited


Unit 30 Navigation Drive, Hurst Business Park,
Brierley Hill, West Midlands, DY5 1UT
UK
Phone +44 (0) 1384 484 070
Fax +44 (0) 1384 481 074
www.indentec.com
sales@indentec.com

Zwick GmbH & Co. KG


August-Nagel-Strasse 11
D-89079 Ulm
Germany
Phone +49 (0) 73 05-10-0
Fax +49 (0) 73 05-10-200
www.zwick.com
info@zwick.com

No responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information. All data at ambient temperature. All rights reserved. Copyright by Zwick 2012

10h = cone
15h = ball

2.5d 3d (steel, copper)




5d 6d (light metal)

Measurement quantity
Brinell hardness HB. Two diameters, at right angles to one another,
of the remaining indentation in the
specimen surface are measured.

8h

HR...N,T = 100 - h/0.001

minimum thickness:
d2

HRG,B,F,K,E,H = 130 - h/0.002

Definition
HV = 0.102 F/A
= 0.1891 F/d
F ... Test load in N
A ... Indentation surface in mm
d ... Arithmetic average value of
the diagonal lengths in mm

Loading
Loading
position
position

FF

d2

HRC,D,A = 100 - h/0.002

3 mm 3 mm HRC, D, A,


1 oder 2 mm 3 mm HR...N/T

indentation distances:

ZHU250

Measurement
Measurement
position
position

Measurement quantity
Vickers hardness HV.
The lengths of both diagonals of
the remaining test indentation are
measured.

FF

UNAT Nano tester

ZHU2.5/zwicki-Line

Minimum Thickness

Loading
position
position

Definition
HR = N - h/S
N ... Numerical value (determined
for each Rockwell method)
h ... Remaining indentation depth
in mm
S ... Scale value in mm
This value is the change in indentation depth in mm that corresponds to one Rockwell unit.

ZHV10

d
1

indentation distances:
Measurement quantity
Rockwell hardness HR. The indentation depth h is measured in mm.

FF00

ZHU topLine

10h
1.5d

Initial
Initial
position
position

ZHV30-m

ZHV

FFm
m

ZHR Jominy

F0
0

Reference
Referencelevel
level

ZHR valve testing

ZHV30/zwicki-Line

d
1

ZHR 4150AK

ZHV, ZHR
handling system