You are on page 1of 14

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

MARK SCHEME
No Section
1

Description/explanation
Able to mark and label correctly
i DNA
ii. Bases
iii. Chromosomes

a.

Able to state the chromosome number


answer:
12

b.

c.

d (i)

(ii)

(iii)

e (i)

(ii)

1. a gene consists of a (short) segmen of DNA


molecule
2. genes carried genetic information in form of
sequence of nitrogenous base// A,G, T
any one
Able to name the unit of DNA
answer:
nucleotide

Marks

1
1
1

1
1

Able to determine K
answer:
(Pentose ) sugar

Able to complete the diagram base on following


criteria:
Correctly
1. paired base
2. position of polynucleotide
3. position of hydrogen bond

1
1
1

Able to determine the sex


answer:
female

1
1

Able to state the cause and explain the cause of


Cri-du-Chat Syndrome
Sample answer:
1. Chromosome mutation
2. a portion of chromosome number 5 was deleted//
break off
TOTAL

13

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

a (i)

(ii)

(b)

(c)

Able to name Q
answer:
vascular bundle

Able to state two tissues


answer:
1. xylem
2. phloem

1
1

Able to explain the adaptation of P base of the


following criteria
F : structure of cell
E : function of the structure
Sample anwer:
F : The palisade mesophyll cells are cylindrical//
they are vertically and closely packed
E1 : contain many chloroplast to enable them
E2 : to absorb maximum light for photosynthesis
Able to describe the distribution of stomata and
chloroplasts
sample anwer:
Aquatic plants e.g Hydrilla sp
1. do not have stomata
2. chloroplast are found in thr leaves and stems
of these plants//
water lilies
1. have large,round and flat leaves
2. the stomata are mostly distributed on the upper
surface of the leaves
any two
Dessert plant e.g cacti
1. sunken stomata to prevent from water loss
2. reduced leaves
3. chloroplast found in the succulent stem

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

any one
(d)

Able to explain the importance of green plant to


living organisme
sample answer:
F1 : green plant convert the energy of sunlight
chemical energy (stored within organism)
E1: organic molecule provide fuel for other

1
1

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

organism
F2 : plant remove carbon dioxide from the air and
produce oxygen
E2: The oxygen used by living organisme during
respiration
any F and P
F1 with E1
F1 with E2

1
2
1

TOTAL
3

(a)

(b)

(c)

Able to state the dominat trait


answer:
F :Free earlobe,
E : the number of children with free earlobe is
higher than attached earlobe
Able to determine the inherited trait
answer:
F: Not sex linkage inheritance
E: Both boy and girl inherit the trait
Able to draw a schematic diagram
answer:
Father

Parental
Phenotype

free earlobe

Genotype

Ee

Mother
free earlobe

Ee
Meiosis

Gametes

E,e

E,e

Fertilisation

Offspring
Genotype

EE

Offspring
Phenotype free
Earlobe

Ee

Ee

free
earlobe

ee

free
attached
earlobe earlobe

12

1
1

1
1

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

Parent genotype
Gamet
Meiosis
Fertilisation
Offspring genotype
Offspring phenotype

(c) (i)

(ii)

(d)

a)

b)

c)

d)

Able to state the type of variation


answer:
Discontinuos variation
Able to state the cause of variation
answer:
The trait is controlled by dominant and recessive gene,
no effect of environmental factor
Able to define mutation based on the diagram
answer:
A permanent change of white bodied moth to black
moth due to a change of environment//
adapt to the environment
TOTAL
Able to state the changes in the blood vessel
Answer:
increase
Able to explain the importance of having thick wall
Sample answer:
F : withstand the high pressure of blood
E1: (thick wall) have muscles that can contracts
and relax
E2: control blood flow (to cell according to the
the bodys need)
F with any E
Able to explain the role of nearby muscles
Sample answer:
F : nearby muscles contract and relax//nearby musles
squeeze the vein
E: push blood back towards the heart.
Able to explain the adaptation of blood capillaries based
on following criteria
F : structure of capillaries
E: explanation bases on structure of capillaries

1
1
1
1
1

12

1
1
1

Max 2

1
1

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

Sample answer :
F1: the walls of capillaries are only one cell thick
E1: substances do not have very far to
diffuse through them
E2: increase TSA for diffusion to occur
Any F and E
F1 with E1
F2 with E2
e) (i)

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

Able to sketch the graph

e)(ii)
Able to state the term and explain
Answer
F1: 120: refers systolic pressure
E1: (peak of pressure) that contracting ventricles
F2: 80 refers to diastolic pressure
E2: (the lowest arteriole blood pressure)when ventricles
are relaxing
Any 3
TOTAL
5

(a)

(b)

Able to explain the competition


Sample answer:
F: intraspecific competition
E: Plants that grow quickly,obtain sufficient light will
survive at theexpense of others
Able to state the factors and explanationn
Sample answer
F1: light intensity
E1: light is important for photosynthesis that
Produce energy for a crop plants and weed

12

1
1

1
1
1

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

F2: water
E2: to replace the water lost caused transpiration

(c)(i)

(c)(ii)

(a)(i)

Able to choose the species correctly


Answer :
Species A
Able to explain the succesfull species due to the
number of adult beetles
Sample answer
1. number of adult species is higher than species B.
2. after 300 days the number of species B decrease but
species A1 increase
Able to explain the effectof the parasite
Sample answer:
1. species B more succesful/survive in the
Competition
2. parasite destroyed species A

TOTAL
SECTION B
Able to name cell division process and the significants
Sample answer:
1. mitosis
2. replacing dead cell/repair the damaged tissue/organ
3. increases the number of cells(for
growth/development in living organisme)
4. asexual reproduction (for unicellular organisms)
5. maintain the chromosomal number(of daughter cells)

1
1

1
1

11

1
1
1
1
1

Point 1-compulsory
Point 2-5
max 3

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

(a)(ii)

Able to draw and explain the phases involved in mitosis


Sample answer:
Diagram
Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

telophase

Explanation
Chromosomes become
Condense , shorter/
thinker

Choromosomes are
line up on a metaphase
plate

Sister chromatids of
each chromosomes
separate at the
centromere

1,1

1,1

1,1

Set of chromosomes
reach the opposite
poles of the cell
1,1

Cytokinesis

The cytoplasm of the


cell divide to form two
daughter cells.
1,1

The diagram must be in sequence.


If not, maximum mark is 3

b)

Able to describe the formation of cancerous cells .


Sample answer:
1. the exposure damage the DNA of the cell
2. a cell divides through mitosis repeatedly.
3. produces cancerous cell
4. due to (severe ) distruption to the mechanism
that controls the cell cycle
5. cancerous cells divide freely / uncontrollably
7

1
1
1
1
1

10

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

heeding the cell cycle control


6. (these cells ) compete with surrounding normal
cells to obtain nutrient / energy (for growth)
7. invade / destroy neighbouring cells
8. (they can spread to other organ and) initiate
cancers there .
any 6 points
TOTAL
7

(a)

1
1
1

Max 6

20

Able to describe process 1 to 5 based on diagram.


P1 Ovulation releases a secondary oocyte , which

enters the oviduct.


P2 - The secondary oocyte starts meiosis II which
progresses until metaphase II.

P3 - The nuclei of a sperm cell (n) and the ovum (n)


fuse and form a diploid zygote (2n). // A sperm fertilize
the ovum to form a zygote.

1
P4 - Zygote begins to divide repeatedly by mitosis as it
travels along the fallopian tube towards the uterus.
P5 - Morula is form followed by blastula.

P6 - Implantation occur / The blastocyst attaches itself 1


to the endometrium.
Any 4 points
b)

Able to explain why Pregnant woman are advised not


to smoke and avoid from drugs and alcohol.
Sample Answer :
P1 Cigarette contain nicotine / DDT / lead particles.

P2 - The wall of maternal blood capillaries and the


wall of foetal blood capillaries are semi-permeable.

P3 - Nicotine, drugs and alcohol are small in sizes.

P4 - Nicotine, drugs and alcohol can diffuse from


maternal blood capillaries to foetal blood capillaries /

P5 through the placenta

Max 4

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

P6 The substances carried by umbilical vein to the


foetus.

P7- Nicotine, drugs or alcohol can effect the


development of foetus

1
1

Max 6

P8 (example) cause disable / miscarriage . birth defect/


illness in the resulting baby.
Any 6 points
c)
Able to explain the technique
Sample Answer:
P1 : Modern technique that can be used :
The couple can use the in-vitro fertilization (IVF)

method.
P2 : mother undergoes hormonal treatment to

produce more secondary oocycte


P3 : In this method a fine laparoscope is used to

remove the secondary oocyte from her ovary.


P4 : The secondary oocyte are placed in a Petri dish of

culture solution .
P5 : Then ( concentrated ) sperms from the husband

are added to the secondary oocyte.


P6 : The sperms and ova fuse and develop into

embryos/zygote // fertilization occurred to form zygote


P7 : After two to four days when the embryos have

reached the eight-cell stage


P8 : they are inserted into the uterus through the cervix
P9 : for implantation on the uterine wall.

1
1

P10 : If the procedure is successful, the embryos

develop to foetus.

P11 : Babies conceived this way are sometimes called


test-tube babies.

Max
10

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

Any 10 points
TOTAL 20

(a)

SECTION C
Able to explain the assimilation of digested food of
glucose , amino acids and lipids
Sample answer
Glucose
P1 : Excess of glucose in the blood is converted to
glycogen and stored in the liver
P2 : In the liver , if glucose level in blood is low
glycogen is converted to glucose
P3 : Excess of glycogen is converted to lipids by the
liver
P4 : Reaching the body cells , glucose is oxidized to
release energy in cellular respiration
Amino acids
P5 : In liver , synthesized of plasma protein from amino
acids
P6 : In liver excess of amino acids ( cannot be stored in
the body but) undergo deamination process.
P7 : Urea is then eliminated by the kidney
P8 : In body cells , amino acids is used to synthesise
new protoplasm and repair of damaged tissues
P9 : In body cell , amino acids is used to synthesise
enzymes/antibodies/hormones

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

Lipids
1
P10 : Excess lipids is stored in adipose tissues
P11 : Phospholipids and cholesterol make up the plasma 1
membrane
Any 10 points

(b)

Able to calculate the energy value taken daily


Sample Answer
Total energy value is
5250+1500+2400+2400+750+2500+400+600=15800KJ 1

10

10

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

Able to explain the consequences of the habit when


taking the menu daily for a long time
Sample answer
P1 : The menu is not a balanced diet // does not contain
the 7 classes of food in appropriate ratio

P2 : Menu is highly rich in carbohydrates and fats // no

vegetables and lack of vitamins

//
Higher energy intake compare to energy requirement
for a girl aged 15
Consequences
Sample Answer
P3 : Constipation
1
P4 : lack of fiber , faeces moving to slowly through the
colon
1
P5 : Scurvy
P6 : lack of vitamin C //any other vitamins deficiency
with explanation

1
1

P6 : Obesity
P7 : increase in body weight drastically due to energy
requirement is less then energy intake

1
1

P8 : Diabetes mellitus
P9 : excess of glucose contain in blood , food is highly
rich in carbohydrates

1
1

P10 : Arteriosclerosis
P12 : fats deposited in the lumen of blood vessel
P13 : Heart attack
P14 : blockage in the coronary artery //
Any other cardiovascular diseases with explanation

1
1
1
1

Any 4 consequences
Max 7
TOTAL

11

20

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

(a)

Able to explain based on following criteria :


F : name of the tissue
P : explanation
Sample answer:
F1 : Tissue P is a ligament
P1 : strong and elastic
P2 : it binds two bone together at the joints
P3 : prevents dislocation of bones at the joints during
movement / walking / running
F1 with any two P

1
1
1
1

F2 : Tissue Q is a tendon
P1 : strong and inelastic
P2 : binds skeletal muscles to the bones across the joints
P3 : it passes the pulling force of the muscle to the skeleton /
limbs
F2 with any two P

1
1
1
1

F3 : Tissue R is a (skeletal) muscle

1
1
1

P1 : which has the ability to contract


P2 : during which it will exert the pulling force on the bones
across the joints
1
P3 : and causes the limbs / arms / legs to flex / bend or to be
extended / straightened
F3 with any two P

P4 : The socket and ball joint in the elbow

P5 : enables the movement of the arm in all direction / angle 1


of rotation of 3600
any one point
TOTAL

(b)

Samples answer

P1 : drugs are psychomotor substances / chemicals


which may interfere nervous coordination / locomotion. 1
P2 : frequent use of drugs / steroids over a long period
of time may lead to certain complications / side effects /
12

10

Able to explain the good and bad effects of drugs and


steroid.

About drugs and steroids


F1 : they are chemicals that may activate / promote
cellular activities / anabolism in cells like / muscle cells

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

drug or steroid abuse

P3 : which is harmful / may produce bad effects to general


health / body growth

P4 : hormones like testosterone, adrenaline are few examples


of steroid hormones

F with any 3 P
Steroids on muscle growth
F : some anabolic steroids promote muscle growth /
enlargement
P1 : frequently consumed by athletes to get a stronger muscle
Effect of drugs on impulse transmission:
F : repeated / prolonged impulse transmission at synapses /
neuromuscular junction
P1: it may stop/delay impulse transmission across the
synapses
P2 : results in hallucination, impaired body movement /
balance or perception
F with any one P
Other Alternatives:
F : regular exercises

1
1

1
1
1

P1: help to maintain the structure, texture / strength and


function of muscles

P2 : better blood supply / nutrients / oxygen supply to muscle


cells / nerve cells

P3 : for better / more efficient of impulse transmission along


the nerve fibers
F with any P
TOTAL

10

20

END OF MARK SCHEME

13

Mark Scheme, BIOLOGY Paper 2, Trial SBP 2007

14