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DEVELOPING PROJECT PLAN-I

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Work Breakdown Structure


How am I gonna eat this elephant?

Obviously in small bites.

BREAKING TASKS INTO BITE SIZED CHUNKS

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


Humans Find It Difficult To Analyse, Plan And
Execute Large, Complex Tasks
Complex Tasks Take A Long Time To Complete
Deadlines That Are A Long Way Away Tend Not To Trigger
Immediate Action
Its Difficult To Know Where To Start
Its Difficult To Know How Much More You Have Got To Do

Answer
Break It Down To Bite Size Chunks You Can Deal With

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


A breakdown of the total project task into
components helps to establish
How work will be done?
How people will be organized?
How resources would be allocated?
How progress would be monitored?
Break down a project only to a level sufficient to produce an
estimate of the required accuracy
Generally WBS includes 6-7 levels. May also vary based on
situation.
WBS should be developed before scheduling & resource
allocation are done

SOURCES OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES:


BRAINSTORMING

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES


Work Breakdown Structures helps:
Organize the activities required to meet the
objectives of the project.
Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the
project) to its sub-deliverables, and in turn, their
relationships to work packages
May be organized:
By phase of the project
By component

WORK PACKAGES
9 Lowest level of WBS is called a Work Package if

further deconstruction into activities is


possible.
May be assigned as a subproject
May be subordinated into WBS structure for
estimating purposes
9 Activities at this level become the basis for time

and duration estimates.

WORK PACKAGES (WP)


It is output-oriented and:
Defines work (what)
Helps identify time to complete a task of WP (how long)
Identifies a time-phased budget to complete a WP (cost)
Identifies resources needed to complete a WP (how much)
Identifies a single person responsible for units of work
(who)

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


THE BITE SIZED ACTIVITIES

HOW WBS HELPS PROJECT MANAGER


Facilitates evaluation of cost, time, and technical performance of
the organization on a project
Identifies the relationships between tasks
Provides management with each department level information
appropriate.
Helps in the development of the organization breakdown structure
(OBS), which assigns project responsibilities to organizational
units and individuals
Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the
various project elements
Increases the probability that every requirement will be accounted
Can be used to track the costs of each element
Can be used to monitor progress by completion of tasks
Though it does not yet incorporate time and precedence info, it
helps in defining and managing the plan, schedule, and budget

SIX CRITERIA CAN HELP DETERMINE


IF A WBS IS COMPLETE
1.

Measurable Status Is each task defined in a way to help monitor its


status toward completion?
Typically requires some kind of measurement to assess percent completion

2.

Bounded Is each task clearly bounded by start and stop events?


What event marks the start and stop of each task?

3.

Deliverable Does each activity have a clearly defined deliverable?


What output should the activity produce?

4.

Cost and Time Estimate Is each activity defined in a way that allows
a meaningful estimate of its calendar time and completion cost ?
Often software cost is largely driven by the labor cost, and hence the amount of
effort needed to develop it

5.

Acceptable Duration Limits Most activities should be broken down


into tasks which are reasonably small
There can be exceptions to this rule

6.

Activity Independence Are the activities defined to be independent


of each other as much as practical?
Avoid activities that are too complex, or the other extreme, micromanaging

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

The WBS helps you identify and specify all the tasks
associated with the project.

A good WBS is based upon


A well defined scope for the project
A set of system requirements
A good understanding of the project priorities

WBS may need to be refined/updated for each project


phase

A complete and well organized WBS will help assure good


schedule and cost estimates

APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING WBS

Guidelines: Some organizations provide guidelines for


preparing WBSs.

Analogy approach: Review WBSs of similar projects


and tailor to your project.

Top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the


project and break them down.

Bottom-up approach: Start with the specific tasks and


roll them up.

Mind-mapping approach: Write tasks in a non-linear,


branching format and then create the WBS structure.

SAMPLE MIND-MAPPING APPROACH

MIND MAP FOR WBS


Investigate
past events

Interview
running
club
members

Produce
ads

TV and
radio ads

Research

Promotion

Purchase
air time
Monitor
airings

Flyers
Print

Design

Mailings
Mail
promo

Distribute
Prepare
mailing
To schools

To sports
retailers

Acquire
address
lists

SAMPLE INTRANET WBS


ORGANIZED BY PHASE

PBS FOR SOFTWARE PROJECT


DEVELOPMENT

Coding the WBS


for the Information System

CODING THE WBS


FOR THE INFORMATION SYSTEM
WBS Coding System
Defines:
Levels and elements of the WBS
Organization elements
Work packages
Budget and cost information
Allows reports to be consolidated at any level in
the organization structure

INTRANET WBS IN TABULAR FORM


1.0 Concept
1.1 Evaluate current systems
1.2 Define requirements
1.2.1 Define user requirements
1.2.2 Define content requirements
1.2.3 Define system requirements
1.2.4 Define server owner requirements
1.3 Define specific functionality
1.4 Define risks and risk management approach
1.5 Develop project plan
1.6 Brief Web development team
2.0 Web Site Design
3.0 Web Site Development
4.0 Roll Out
5.0 Support

INTRANET WBS & GANTT CHART IN


MICROSOFT PROJECT

Integrating the WBS


with Organization

INTEGRATING THE WBS


WITH THE ORGANIZATION
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
Depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its
work responsibility for a project
Provides a framework to summarize organization
work unit performance
Identifies organization units responsible for work
packages
Ties the organizational units to cost control
accounts

INTEGRATION OF WBS AND OBS

RESPONSIBILITY MATRICES

Also called a linear responsibility chart

Summarizes the tasks to be accomplished and who


is responsible for what on the project
Lists project activities and participants
Clarifies critical interfaces between units and
individuals that need coordination
Provide an means for all participants to view their
responsibilities and agree on their assignments
Clarifies the extent or type of authority that can be
exercised by each participant

RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX FOR THE


CONVEYOR BELT PROJECT

RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX FOR A


MARKET RESEARCH PROJECT

THANKYOU
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