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ME 452: Machine Design II

Fall Semester 2004


Solution to Homework Set 9
Problem 14-15.
Since the pinion and the gear of the given spur gearset have the same material properties then the
power that the gearset can transmit is governed by the failure of the pinion. The problem is to
determine: (i) the power that can be transmitted considering pinion tooth bending failure, and (ii) the
power that can be transmitted considering pinion tooth wear. The power rating of the gearset will then
be the minimum of these two power ratings (for the specified design factor of 2.25).
Consider bending of the pinion tooth.
The diameter of the pinion, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as
dP

NP
P

where P is the diametral pitch; i.e., number of teeth per inch. Therefore, the diameter of the pinion is
dP

17
1.417 in
12

The pitch line velocity, see Example (14-1), page 728, can be written as
VP

dP nP
12

ft / min

Therefore, the pitch line velocity is given as


VP

1.417 525
194.8 ft/min
12

The uncorrected endurance strength for Sut 212 kpsi , see Equation (7-8), page 325, can be written as
Se 0.504 Sut
Therefore, the uncorrected endurance strength is given as
Se 0.504 76 38.3 kpsi

The surface factor, see Equation (7-18), page 329 can be written as
k a = a Sutb
For milled (machined) teeth, see Table (7-4), page 329, the factor a and the exponent b are given as
a 2.7

b 0.265

and

Therefore, the surface factor is given as


k a 2.7 (76) 0.265 0.857
Assuming full depth teeth, the sum of the addendum and dedendum, see Figure (14-1), page 725, and
Table (13-1), page 686, can be written as
l

1 1.25 1 1.25


0.1875 in
P
P
12 12

The tooth thickness, see Equation (b), page 725 and Figure (14-1), page 725, can be written as
t

4l x

where the value of the distance x , see Equation (14-3), page 725, can be written as
x

3Y
2P

The Lewis form factor for the pinion with 17 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, is
Y 0.303

Therefore, the distance x for the pinion is


x

3 0.303
0.0379 in
2 12

Therefore, the tooth thickness for the pinion is


t 4 0.1875 0.0379 0.1686 in
The effective diameter for bending, see Equation (7-24), page 330, can be written as
d e 0.808 h b

1/ 2

where h = F Face width 0.875 in and b t tooth thickness 0.1686 in . Therefore, the effective
diameter is
d e 0.808 0.875 0.1686
2

1/ 2

0.310 in

The size factor, see Equation (7-19), page 329, can be written as
d
kb

0.3

0.107

0.310

0.3

0.107

0.996

The loading factor for bending, see Equation (7-25), page 331, is
kc 1
The temperature factor, assuming operation at room temperature, see Table (7-6), page 332, is
kd 1
The reliability factor, assuming 50 % reliability, see Table (7-7), page 334, is
ke 1
Two effects are used to evaluate the miscellaneous-effects factor k f (see Example 14-2, page 728). The
first of these is the effect of one-way bending. The second effect to be accounted for in using the
miscellaneous-effects factor is stress concentration. The miscellaneous effects factor for one-way
bending, see Example 14-2, page 728, is
k f1 1.65
The miscellaneous effects factor due to stress concentration, see Example 14-2, page 728, is
k f2

1
Kf

where K f is the fatigue stress concentration factor. The tooth fillet radius for a full-depth tooth, see
Figure (14-1), page 725 and Example 14-2, page 728, is
rf

0.3 0.3

0.025 in
P
12

The ratio r / d in Figure A-15-6, page 983, is


r rf
0.025

0.148
d
t 0.1686
The ratio D / d in Figure A-15-6, page 983, is equal to infinity for a gear tooth. Since Figure A-15-6
does not have a curve for D / d then approximate D / d 3 . Therefore, the theoretical stress
concentration factor from Figure A-15-6 is
K t 1.68
3

The fatigue stress concentration factor, see Equation (7-35), page 337, can be written as
Kf

Kt
2( K t 1) a
1
Kt
r

where the value of the Neuber constant for a shoulder, see Table (7-8), page 337, is
a

4
4

0.053 in
Sut 76

Therefore, the fatigue stress concentration factor is


Kf

1.68
1.323
2 (1.68 1) 0.053
1

1.68
0.025

Finally, the miscellaneous-effects factor due to stress concentration is


k f2

1
0.756
1.323

The final value of the miscellaneous-effects factor, see Example 14-2, page 728, is
k f k f1 k f2 1.65 0.756 1.247
The fully corrected endurance strength, see Equation (7-17), page 328, is
Se ka kb kc kd ke k f Se
Therefore, the fully corrected endurance strength is
Se 0.857 0.996 1 1 1 1.247 38.3 40.77 kpsi
The allowable bending stress for a design factor of 2.25, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written
as

all

Se 40.77

18.12 kpsi 18,120 lb/in 2


nd
2.25

The tangential component of the load, see Equation (14-7), page 727 and Example 14-2, page 728, can
be written as
Wt =

F Y all
Kv P

The dynamic (or velocity) factor for milled teeth, see Equation (14-4b), page 727, can be written as
Kv

1200 VP
1200

Therefore, the dynamic factor is


Kv

1200 194.8
1.162
1200

Therefore, the tangential component of the load is


Wt

0.875 0.303 18,120


345 lb
1.162 12

The transmitted power (with bending of pinion teeth as the design criterion), see Example 14-2, page
728, can be written as
H

W t VP
33,000

Therefore, the transmitted power (with bending of pinion teeth as the design criterion) is
H

345 194.8
2.04 hp
33,000

Pinion Tooth Wear.


The surface stress (i.e., Hertzian contact stress), see Equation (14-14), page 732, can be written as

C ,all

K vW t 1 1
C p

F
cos

r1 r2

1/ 2

The elastic coefficient C p , for a steel pinion in mesh with a steel gear, see Table 14-8, page 745, is
C p 2300 psi
The radii of curvature of the tooth profiles at the pitch point, see Equation (14-12), page 732, are
r1

d P sin
2

and

r2

d G sin
2

Therefore the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles at the pitch point are

r1

1.417 sin 20
0.242 in
2

r2

and

2.5 sin 20
0.428 in
2

The surface endurance strength, see Equation (7-68), page 372, can be written as

SC 10

0.4 H B 10 kpsi

Therefore, the surface endurance strength is

SC 10

0.4 149 10 49.6 kpsi

The allowable contact stress, see Example 14-3, page 732, can be written as

C ,all

SC
nd

Therefore, the allowable contact stress is

C ,all

49.6
33.067 kpsi
2.25

Note that the negative sign is because C is a compressive stress.


The tangential component of the load, see Equation (14-14), page 732, can be written as
2

C ,all
F cos
W
Cp
K v (1/ r1 1/ r2 )

Therefore, the tangential component of the load is


2

0.875 cos 20
33067
W

22.6 lb
2300 1.162 (1/ 0.242 1/ 0.428)
t

The transmitted power, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written as
H

W t VP
33,000

Therefore, the transmitted power (with wear of pinion teeth as the design criterion) is
H

22.6 194.8
0.133 hp
33,000

Conclusion: The power rating considering pinion tooth wear is lower than the power rating
considering pinion tooth bending. Therefore, the power rating of the spur gearset is
6

H rated 0.133 hp
Problem 14-19.
The diameter of the pinion, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as
dP

NP
P

Therefore, the diameter of the pinion is


dP

16
2.667 in
6

Similarly, the diameter of the gear, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as
dG

NG
P

Therefore, the diameter of the gear is


dG

48
8 in
6

The pitch line velocity, see Example (14-1), page 728, can be written as
V

dP nP
12

Therefore, the pitch line velocity is


V

2.667 300
209.4 ft/min
12

The transmitted power, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written as
H

W t VP
33,000

Therefore, the tangential component of the load is given as


Wt

33,000 H 33,000 5

787.9 lb
VP
209.4

The AGMA bending stress equation, see Equation (14-15), page 734, can be written as

W t Ko K v K s

Pd K m K B
F J

The overload factor, assuming uniform loading, see page 746, is


Ko 1
7

The dynamic factor, see Equation (14-27), page 744 can be written as
A V
Kv

where the exponent B , see Equation (14-28), page 744 is


B 0.25 ( 12 Qv )2 / 3
Therefore, for the specified transmission accuracy-level number, Qv of 6, the exponent B is
B 0.25 (12 6)2 / 3 0.8255
The factor A , see Equation (14-28), page 744, can be written as
A 50 56 ( 1 B )
Therefore, the factor A is
A 50 56(1 0.8255) 59.77
Therefore, the dynamic factor is
59.77 209.4
Kv

59.77

0.8255

1.196

The size factor, see Equation (a), page 747, can be written as
F

K S 1.192

0.0535

The Lewis form factor for the pinion with 16 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, is
Y 0.296

The Lewis form factor for the gear with 48 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, using linear interpolation
is
Y 0.4056
Therefore, the size factor for the pinion is
F

K S P 1.192

0.0535

2 0.296

1.192

Similarly, the size factor for the gear is

0.0535

1.088

KS G

F YG
1.192

0.0535

2 0.4056
1.192

0.0535

1.097

The load distribution factor, see Equation (14-30), page 747, can be written as
K m 1 Cmc (C pf C pm CmaCe )
The load correction factor Cmc for uncrowned teeth, see Equation (14-31), page 748, is
Cmc 1
The pinion proportion factor C pf for a face width of F 2 in , see Equation (14-32), page 748, is
C pf

F
0.0375 0.0125 F
10 d

Therefore, the pinion proportion factor C pf is


C pf

2
0.0375 0.0125 2 0.0625
10 2.667

Assuming S1 / S 0.175 in Figure (14-10), page 748, then from Equation (14-33), page 748, the pinion
proportion modifier C pm is
C pm 1
The mesh alignment factor Cma , see Equation (14-34), page 748, can be written as
Cma A BF CF 2
For commercial enclosed unit, see Table (14-9), page 748, the factors A, B, and C are
A 0.127

B 0.0158

and

C 0.093 104

Therefore, the mesh alignment factor Cma is


Cma 0.127 (0.0158 2) (0.093 10 4 2 2 ) 0.159
The mesh alignment correction factor Ce , see Equation (14-35), page 748, is
Ce 1
Therefore, the load distribution factor is
K m 1 1 [(0.0625 1) (0.159 1)] 1.222
9

Assuming the backup ratio mB 1.2 , the rim thickness factor, see Equation (14-40), page 752 is
KB 1
The geometry factor for bending strength for the pinion with 16 teeth from Figure (14-6), page 741,
assuming that the load is applied at the highest point of single-tooth contact is
J P 0.27
The geometry factor for bending strength for the gear with 48 teeth from Figure (14-6), page 741,
assuming that the load is applied at the highest point of single-tooth contact is
J G 0.38
The AGMA bending stress for the pinion can then be written as

P W t Ko K v K s P

Pd K m K B
F JP

Therefore, the AGMA bending stress for the pinion is

P 787.9 1 1.196 1.088

6 1.222 1

13,921 psi
2
0.27

The AGMA bending stress for the gear can be written as

G W t Ko K v K s G

Pd K m K B
F JG

Therefore, the AGMA bending stress for the gear is

G 787.9 1 1.196 1.097

6 1.222 1

9973 psi
2
0.38

The safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure, see Equation (14-41), page 753, can be
written as
SF

StYN / KT K R

From Figure (14-2), page 735, the AGMA bending strength for the pinion and the gear made of Grade
1 steel can be written as

St P St G 77.3H B 12,800 psi


10

Therefore, the AGMA bending strength for the pinion and the gear are

St P St G 77.3 200 12,800 28, 260 psi


The pinion life is specified to be 108 cycles. The gear ratio of the given gearset is
mG

N G 48

3
N P 16

Therefore the life of the gear in cycles is 108 / 3 cycles.


The stress cycle factor for bending strength for the pinion, see Figure (14-14), page 751, with N 108
cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

YN P 1.3558 N 0.0178 1.3558 (108 ) 0.0178 0.977


The stress cycle factor for bending strength for the gear, see Figure (14-14), page 751, with N 108 / 3
cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

YN G 1.3558 N 0.0178 1.3558 (108 / 3) 0.0178 0.996


The reliability factor, see Table (14-10) page 752, for a reliability of 0.9 is
K R 0.85
The temperature factor, assuming oil and gear-blank temperatures less than 250 F , see page 752, is
KT 1
Then the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the pinion can be written as

SF P

S t P YN P / K T K R
P

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the pinion is

SF P

(28, 260 0.977) /(1 0.85)


2.33
13,921

The safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the gear can be written as

SF G

St G YN G / K T K R
G

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the gear is
11

SF G

(28, 260 0.996) /(1 0.85)


3.32
9973

The AGMA pitting resistance (contact stress) equation, see Equation (14-16), page 734, can be written
as

c C p W t Ko K v K s

Km C f
dPF I

The elastic coefficient C p , for a steel pinion in mesh with a steel gear, see Table (14-8), page 745, is
C p 2300 psi
The surface condition factor, C f , see page 746 is assumed to be equal to 1.
The geometry factor for pitting resistance, see Equation (14-23), page 743, for an external gearset can
be written as
I

cos t sin t mG
2 mN
mG 1

For spur gears, see page 743, the load-sharing ratio mN 1 and t .
Therefore, for the given spur gearset the geometry factor for pitting resistance is
I

cos 20 sin 20 3
0.1205
2 1
31

Then, the AGMA contact stress for the pinion is

c P Cp

W t Ko K v K s P

Km C f
dPF I

Therefore, the AGMA contact stress for the pinion is

c P 2300

787.9 1 1.196 1.088

The AGMA contact stress for the gear is

12

1.222
1

101,545 psi
2.667 2 0.1205

c G Cp

W t Ko K v K s G

Km C f
dPF I

Therefore, the AGMA contact stress for the gear is

c G 2300

787.9 1 1.196 1.097

1.222
1

101,964 psi
2.667 2 0.1205

The safety factor guarding against pitting failure, see Equation (14-42), page 753, can be written as
SH

S c Z N C H / KT K R
c

From Figure (14-5), page 738, the AGMA surface endurance strength for the pinion and the gear made
of Grade 1 steel can be written as

Sc P Sc G 322 H B 29,100 psi


Therefore, the AGMA surface endurance strength for the pinion and the gear are

Sc P Sc G 322 200 29,100 93,500 psi


The stress cycle factor for pitting resistance for the pinion, see Figure (14-15), page 751, with N 108
cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

Z N P 1.4488 N 0.023 1.4488 (108 )0.023 0.948


The stress cycle factor for pitting resistance for the gear, see Figure (14-15), page 751, with
N 108 / 3 cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

Z N G 1.4488 N 0.023 1.4488 (108 / 3) 0.023 0.973


Then the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the pinion is

SH P

Sc P Z N P CH / KT K R
c P

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the pinion is

13

SH P

(93,500 0.948 1) /(1 0.85)


1.03
101,545

The safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the gear is

SH G

Sc G Z N G CH / KT K R
c G

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the gear is

SH G

(93,500 0.973 1) /(1 0.85)


1.05
101,964

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