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Name___________________________________________ Class Period_____

AP PHYSICS I
Summer Packet
This packet is designed to assess and help you review math and science
concepts in which youll need to be proficient to give you the best chance of
success in AP Physics 1. Please print this packet out, complete it, and turn it
in on the first day of school. You may be tested on these concepts the first
week of school. I look forward to meeting you in the fall!

Physics Math Worksheet - Algebra and Substitution


Solve the following equations for the variable indicated. There should be enough room to do one step at a time.
x
1 2 1 2
1
2
mv = kx (for k)
1. v=
(for t)
2.
3. mgh= mv (for v)
t
2
2
2

m1 v 2
4.
=m2 gh (for r)
r

5. T =2

1 2
7. x=v i t a t (for a)
2

8.

L
(for g)
g

1
1
1
=
(for R2)
R1 R 2 Req

6. m 1 v1m 2 v 2=m1 v f m2 v f (for vf)

9. m1 x=m2 3x (for x)

Evaluate the following using the information given. Try algebraically solving for the unknown variable first.
mv 2
2. F=
(find r, if F=10, m=5, v=4)
1. v f =viat (find a, if vi=2, vf=16, t=2)
r

3. T =2

5.

m
(find m, if T=3, k=50)
k

4.

1 1 1
=
(find do, if di=20, f=12)
do di f

P 12
d 13

P 22
d2 3

(find d2, if P1=10, P2=8, d1=2)

1 2
6. x=v i t a t (find t, if vi=0, x=125, a=10)
2

Hint: Do any terms drop out?

Solve the following word problems using the information and steps (I, II, III) provided.
7. If an airplane travels at 120 m/s (v), how long 8. A toy car accelerates from an initial velocity (vi) of
would it take (t) for the plane to travel a distance (x) 5 m/s, to a final velocity (vf) of 17 m/s, in 6 seconds.
of 300 meters?
Find the acceleration of the car?
(I) List givens:
v=
x=

Concept Equation:

v=

x
t

(II) Derive Equation (solve for t)

t=?

(I) List Givens:


vi =

Concept Equation: v f =via t


(II) Derive Equation (solve for a)

vf =
t=
a=?

(III) Substitute the given values into your derived


equation for time and evaluate.

(III) Substitute the given values into your derived


equation for acceleration and evaluate.

Graphing Techniques
1. Independent Variable quantity that is deliberately manipulated. Plot
this variable on the x- axis. (horizontal)
2. Dependent Variable quantity that changes as a result of the
independent variable. Plot this variable on the y-axis. (vertical)
3. Choose your scale carefully. Be sure that it fits your data.
4. Make your graph as large as possible. It should fill the paper.
5. You do not need to number every line.
6. Not all graphs will go through the origin.
7. Label each axis with the variable and its units.
8. Use a ruler when drawing straight lines.
9. Do not connect the dots (except where appropriate), draw a smooth line
that represents the trend of the data.
10. Title your graph. The title should be descriptive of what the graph
represents.
11. Use PENCIL ONLY!
12. Make a key if you make more than one line on your graph.

1. Express the following quantities in scientific


notation. Include the unit!
a. 4501 m
b. 75,000 km

4. State the number of significant figures in each


of the following measurements and express
the value in scientific notation. Include a unit!

c. 6438 g

a. 903 kg

d. 0.6438 g

b. 600.00 m

e. 0.00048 s

c. 0.0030 mm

f.

d. 8.03010 4 J

24 h

2. Convert each of the following quantities


as indicated. Include a unit!
a. 3600 cm to meters

5. The figure below shows a graph of the mass


of a substance compared to its volume.
a. What type of relationship is mass versus
volume?

b. 5000 m to kilometers
c. 5000 km to meters

b. What is the volume of 6.0 kg of the


substance?

d. 15 kg to grams
e. 1.5 mg to grams
3. Calculate each of the following and express
the results in scientific notation with the
correct number of significant figures and
correct units.
a. 4.098 m + 56.03 m + 10.2 m =
b. 603 km/1000 s =
c. 4.000 m 20.30 m =
d. 5.510 1 mm + 2.010 3 mm =

e. 38.6010 3 m/s

c. What is the mass of each liter of the


substance?

6. The surface of a rectangular table is measured


as 2.24 m long and 1.103 m wide.
a. Calculate the perimeter of the tabletop.
b. Calculate the area of the tabletop.
c. What is the area of the tabletop,
expressed in square centimeters?
7. As a pump transfers water into a cylindrical
tank, the mass of water in the tank is
measured on a balance. Table 1 shows the
mass of water in the tank and its depth.

8. A student measures the mass of a standard


set of calibration weights on a triple-beam
balance and an electronic balance, obtaining
the data in Table 2.
a. Which set of results is more precise?
Explain your answer.
b. Which set of results is more accurate?
Explain your answer.
Table 2
Standard Triple-Beam
Value
Balance

a. Plot the values given in the table and


draw a curve that best fits all the points.

Electronic
Balance

1.000 g

1.001 g

1.1033 g

b. Describe the resulting curve.

2.000 g

2.002 g

2.1033 g

c. Write an equation relating the depth of


water in the tank to the mass of water.

3.000 g

3.001 g

3.1034 g

5.000 g

5.000 g

5.1033 g

d. What is the slope of the line in your


graph?
e. Why is the value for the mass of water
measured at 40 cm not exactly twice the
value measured at 20 cm?
Table 1

9. Multiply or divide as indicated. Make sure


your answers contain the correct number of
significant digits and a correct unit.
a. (2.21 kg)(100.0 m/s2)

Depth of Water
(cm)

Mass of Water
(kg)

b.

10

75

c.

20

149

30

225

40

302

50

376

60

453

3.3 105 m
6.55 106 s
200.0 cm2
1.23 cm

d. (7.89104 km)(3102 km)

The Circumference-Diameter Ratio of a Circle


Purpose:
to develop techniques for measuring the circumference and diameter of a
circular object.
to use data to construct a graph
to find the slope of a graph
to analyze error in an experiment
Procedure:
A. Taking Measurements:
1. Find at least six circular objects. They should be of many different
sizes.
2. Measure the diameter and circumference of each one. Use metric
units only. You should use the same units for both diameter and
circumference. Use your understanding of significant figures to
decide on the precision of your measurements. Record your data in
the data table below.
Name of Object

Circumference

Diameter

B. Making a Graph:
1. Plot a graph of the circumference of the circles versus the diameter of
the circles. Put the circumference on the y-axis and the diameter on
the x-axis. Use the rules that you know for proper graphing!!
2. The origin should be in the bottom left hand corner of the graph
because when the circle has no diameter it will have no circumference.
Do not put a break in the scale for your x or y-axis. A break will
make the slope of your line meaningless.
3. Draw a best fit line for the points on your graph.

C. Finding the Slope of the Graph:


1. Select two points that are actually on the line on your graph to
calculate the slope of the line. One should be near the beginning of the
line and one should be near the end. Do not use data points unless
they are actually on the line.
2. Use the difference between the y values of these points as y or rise.
3. Use the difference between the x values of these points as x or run.
4. Find the slope of the line using the equation: (Show all work for the
calculations on a separate sheet of paper.)

D. Results and Analyzing Error: Answer the following questions in a short


paragraph on a separate sheet of paper. Make sure that you address all
of the points in the question.
1. What makes it so difficult to measure circular objects? Which
dimension was harder to measure, diameter or circumference and
why? How did you decide to take these measurements to get accurate
results?
2. What was the value of the slope of your graph? What is the
significance of this value?
3. Is the relationship between the circumference and the diameter a
direct relationship? How do you know?
E. Additional Questions:
1. From your graph, write an equation that describes the relationship
between circumference and diameter in the form y=mx+b.
2. What are the units of your slope? Does this unit make sense? Explain
why.

In the following problems, please round lengths to the nearest hundredth, and angle measures to the
nearest tenth.
In problems 1-6, find the value of the missing side or angle measure. All lengths are in centimeters.
2.

1.

3.
x
32

24

20

20

17
50

4.

5.

6.
6

12

5
47

13

11

In problems 7 and 8, find the indicated measures.


7. Find:

a. BC =

B
b. BD =

30 in.

25

50

8. Find:
G

a. EF =

b. EG =

35

F
48

c. FG =
E

32 cm

In problems 9-23, solve the problem.


9.

A ladder is leaning against the side of a house and forms a 65 angle with the ground. The foot of
the ladder is 8 feet from the house. Find the length of the ladder.

10.

A lighthouse built at sea level is 150 feet high. From its top, the angle of depression of a buoy is 25.
Find the distance from the buoy to the foot of the lighthouse.

11.

A surveyor is 100 meters from a bridge. The angle of elevation to the top of the bridge is 35. The
surveyors instrument is 1.45 meters above the ground. Find the height of the bridge.

12.

A surveyor is 100 meters from a building. The angle of elevation to the top of the building is 23.
The surveyors instrument is 1.55 meters above the ground. Find the height of the building.

13.

In a parking garage, each level is 20 feet apart. Each ramp to a level is 130 feet long. Find the
measure of elevation for each ramp.

14.

A train in the mountains rises 10 feet for every 250 feet it moves along the track. Find the angle of
elevation of the track.

15.

A plane rose from take-off and flew at an angle of 11 with the ground. When it reached an
altitude of 500 feet, what was the horizontal distance the plane had flown?

16.

As viewed from a cliff 360 m above sea level, the angle of depression of a ship is 28. How far is
the ship from the shore?

17.

A sonar operator on a cruiser detects a submarine at a distance of 500 m and an angle of depression
of 37. How deep is the submarine?
37

500 m

18.

A mountain has a base and peak that are inaccessible. At point A, the angle of elevation of the
peak is 30. One kilometer closer to the mountain, at point C, the angle of elevation of 35. Find
the height PB of the mountain.
P

30
1 km

35

19.

Before Apollo 11 descended to the surface of the moon, it made one orbit at a distance of 3 miles
above the surface of the moon. At one point in its orbit, the onboard guidance system measured
the angles of depression to the near and far sides of a huge crater. The angles measured 25 to the
near side of the crater, and 18 to the far side of the crater. Find the distance across the crater.
18
25
3 mi.

20.

An observer on a cliff 1000 yards above sea level sights two ships due east. The angles of depression
of the ships are 47 and 32. Find the distance between the two ships.

21.

One diagonal of a rhombus makes an angle of 27 with a side of the rhombus. If each side of the
rhombus has a length of 6.2 inches, find the length of each diagonal.
R
H
27

B
M

22.

6.2 in.

Find the height of isosceles trapezoid ABCD as marked.


B
C
25 cm

38

23.

The legs of an isosceles triangle are each 18 cm. The base is 14 cm. Find:

a) the measure of the base angles, and


b) the exact length of the altitude to the base.

18 cm

18 cm

M
K

14 cm

Rules for Determining Significant Figures


Rule

Example

# of SIG FIGS

1. All non-zero digits are significant.

438 g
26.42 m
1.7 cm
0.653 L

3
4
2
3

2. All zeros between two non-zero digits


are significant.

506 dm
10,050 mL
900.43 kg

3
4
5

3. Zeros to the right of a non-zero digit,


but to the left of an understood decimal
point, are NOT significant. If such zeros
are known to have been measured,
however, they are significant and should
be specified as such by inserting a decimal
point to the right of the zero.

4830 km
60 g
4830. L
60. K
1000 m
3400 kg

3
1
4
2
1
2

4. In number less than one and greater than


negative one, zeros to the right of a decimal
point that are to the left of the first non-zero
digit are NEVER significant. They are simply
placeholders.

0.06 g
0.0047 L
0.005 m

1
2
1

5. In numbers less than one and greater than


0.8 g
negative one, the zero to the left of the
0.00004 mL
decimal is NEVER significant. It is there to
make sure the decimal point is not overlooked.

1
1

6. All zeros to the right of decimal point and


to the right on a non-zero digit are
significant.

8.0 dm
16.40 g
35.000 L
1.60 s

2
4
5
3

7. Rules can be combined.

0.008009 g
0.02040 mm
100.00 kg
3.00 X 104 L

4
4
5
3

Rules for Calculating with Significant Figures:


Addition or Subtraction:
The final answer should have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the
measurement with the smallest number of digits to the right of the decimal.
Example:
97.3 + 5.85 = 103.15 round off to 1 place to right of decimal 103.2 = final answer
110 32.665 = 77.335 round off to no places to right of decimal 77
Multiplication or Division:
The final answer has the same number of significant figures as the measurement having the
smallest number of significant figures.
Example:
123 X 5.35 = 658.05 round off; need 3 significant figures 658
12.378 3.2 = 3.868125 round off; need 2 significant figures 3.9
Rules for Rounding:
Round Down: Whenever the digit following the last significant figure is a 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4
Example: 30.24 30.2
Round Up: Whenever the digit following the last significant figure is 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9
Example: 22.49 22.5