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# TECHFILE

Introduction
Dear Student!
As a starter to the TechFile, here is a joke about techical people. Have fun!
The Car
There were three engineers in a car; an electrical engineer, a chemical engineer, and a Microsoft
engineer.
Suddenly, the car stops running and they pull off to the side of the road wondering what could be
wrong.
The electrical engineer suggests stripping down the electronics of the car and trying to trace
where a fault may have occurred.
The chemical engineer, not knowing much about cars, suggests maybe the fuel is becoming
emulsified and getting blocked somewhere.
The Microsoft engineer, not knowing much about anything, came up with a suggestion. "Why
don't we close all the windows, get out, get back in, and open all the windows and see if it
works?"

## Not everything that counts can be counted.

Not everything that can be counted counts.
Albert Einstein

## 1. NUMBERS, SHAPES, MEASUREMENT

Algebra
x=y
xy
xy
xy
xy
xy
+

:
X
x +y=z
xy=z
x xy
x:y
(x+y)

x is equal to y, x equals y
x is not equal to y
x is identical with y, x is equivalent to y
x is not less than y, is greater or equal to y
x is not greater than y, x is less than or equal to y
x is nearly/approximately equal to y
plus sign
minus sign
division sign
multiplication sign
x plus y is equal to z, x and y add up to z
x minus y is equal to z
x times y
x divided by y
open bracket x+y close bracket (x and y in parentheses)

Fractions:
1
one half
2

1
3

one third

1
4

x
y

x over y

4
6

one quarter
2
3

## four over six reduced to two over three

x:y=p:q

x is to y as p is to q

## Powers and Roots:

x
x
x
3 x

x squared
x cubed, x to the third (power)
square root of x
cube root of x, third root of x

Geometry

to be perpendicular to
to be parallel to

Angles

right angle

acute angle

obtuse angle

Shapes

## Draw the correct shapes in the boxes

circle

semi-circle

cube

square

cylinder

triangle

oval

cone

sphere

rectangle

What shape is it? In the pictures below find something circular, rectangular, square, cubic, semicircular, cylindrical, triangular, oval, conical, spherical:

Measurement
Form nouns from the following adjectives (e.g. long length):
wide - . broad - . high - . thick - . deep - .
We can describe the length of something in four ways. E.g.:
- The bar is three metres long.
- The bar is three metres in length.
- The bar has a length of three metres.
- The length of the bar is three metres.
Now describe the following statements in three more different ways:
1. The belt is sixty millimetres wide/broad.
2. The tower is a hundred metres in height.
3. The steel sheet has a thickness of three millimetres.
4. The depth of the river is 2 metres.
Mass
We can also describe the mass of something in different ways: E.g.:
- This concrete block has a mass of two hundred kilogrammes.
- The mass of this concrete block is two hundred kilogrammes.
Area is measured in squared linear units, e.g. square metres - m
- The plate has an area of six square metres.
- The plate is six metres in area.
- The area of the plate is six square metres.
Volume is measured in cubed linear units, e.g. cubic metres - m.
(The volume of a liquid may be measured in litres (and subdivision of a litre)).
- The brick has a volume of 1600 cubic centimetres.
- The brick is 1600 cubic centimetres in volume.
- The volume of the brick is 1600 cubic centimetres.
Capacity, like volume, is also measured in cubed linear units. (For liquids in litres and subdivisions
of a litre may be used.)
- The tank has a capacity of twenty-four cubic metres.
- The tank is twenty-four cubic metres in capacity.
- The capacity of the tank is twenty-four cubic metres.

## Describe the following objects in different ways:

electricity pylon, 26 m

greenhouse 3.5 m

(66.4 m)

belt 4x 85 cm

aluminium rod
(67 cm)

## mountain lake 525m

Joke
Daddy, people think really small numbers are easy to work with, but they are not, because really
small numbers are really big negative numbers.
(Eamonn Ryan, age 4)

2. SIMPLE MACHINES
Match the words to their definitions:
1. force
2. distance
3. energy
4. work
5. machine
6. simple machine

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

## a machine with few or no moving parts

how far something is moved
a tool that makes work easier
a push or a pull
when force is used to move something
the ability to do work

Energy is used whenever a force moves something any distance. This is called work. Machines
make work easier.

## Write the names of simple machines under the pictures:

. .

A lever is a simple machine made with a straight bar that moves on a fixed point called a

fulcrum. All levers have two parts, the bar and the fulcrum. The longer the lever is, the less force
will be needed to move the load.
The load and the force move in opposite directions.
Levers: The tab is a lever used to open the can. The can opener, the bottle opener and the shovel
is also a lever.

A wheel and axle is made from a wheel that turns on a center post. The larger the wheel is, the
less force will be needed to move the load. There are two parts of this simple machine, the wheel
and the center post called the axle. The force moves in the same direction as the load.
Roller-skates, a skateboard, a wheelchair and a steering wheel are all wheel and axle.

Any slanted surface is an inclined plane. A ramp is the most common type. The ramp is higher
at one end than at the other. The longer the inclined plane is, the less force will be needed to
The only part of an inclined plane is the slanted surface.
The load and the force move in the same direction.

A wedge is made by putting two inclined plates together to from a V-shape. A wedge may be
used to lift or pry apart heavy objects. A wedge can also be used to stop an object from moving.
A wedge has only one part.
The force and the load move in different directions.
An axe, the blade of a knife, the sharp edge of the shovel, a door stop are all wedges.

A pulley is a wheel with a rope around it. The rope fits into the groove on the wheel. The larger
the wheel is, the less force will be needed to move the load.
There are two parts of a pulley, the wheel and the rope.
The load and the force move in opposite directions.
Pulleys are used for exercise, especially in hospitals, they are used to raise and lower sails on
sailboats.

A screw is an inclined plane that is wrapped around a center post. The longer the inclined plane

is, the closer the threads of the screw will be and the less force will be needed to move the load.
A screw has two parts, the inclined plane and the center post.
The force and the load move in the same direction. As the force pushes down on the screw, the
screw goes down into the wood.
Bottles and jars, screw on the lid, light bulbs are all examples of screws.

Fill in the table below:
Part(s)

force move

Examples

lever
pulley
wheel and axle
screw
inclined plane

3. THE FUTURE
Nanotechnology
In the next 20 years, nanotechnology will touch the life of nearly every person on the planet. The
potential benefits are amazing, but it is not without risk.
Nanopollutants are nanoparticles small enough to enter your lungs or be absorbed by your skin.
They can be natural or man-made. Nanoparticles are already used in some of the products found
on the shelves today, like anti-aging cosmetics and sunscreen. The highest risk is to the workers
in nano-technology research and manufacturing processes.
Virtually undetectable surveillance devices could dramatically increase spying on governments,
corporations and private citizens within 5 to 15 years.
Untraceable weapons made with nanotechnology could be smaller than an insect with the
intelligence of a supercomputer, so there might be nano and bio technology arms race within 10
to 20 years.
In the far future self-replicating robots might emerge that consume all living matter.
Hydrogen Fuel Power
Fuel cells using pure hydrogen do not emit any air pollutants or greenhouse gases, only water
vapour. Hydrogen fuel cells promise to power our vehicles, homes and offices more efficiently
and will be less harmful to the environment than traditional energy resources.
There are many obstacles that must be overcome before hydrogen fuel can replace fossil fuels.
Extracting hydrogen from abundant sources like water can be difficult and costly. Storing
hydrogen safely and efficiently is also an issue and the projected consumer price is too high. By
far the biggest problem will be to convert the current gasoline infrastructure to a hydrogen
infrastructure.
However, technology is advancing rapidly thanks to the research and support of governments
and businesses, and the benefits of a cleaner environment and reducing our dependence on oil
are two very good reasons for us all to get behind this promising new technology.
Future Fashion
Researchers have developed an adaptive fabric that controls air flow by opening invisible micro
shutters when the humidity goes up. A separate layer keeps the rain out even when air is flowing.
Adaptive fabrics like this are now being designed in a variety of ways for undergarments, sports
wear and fashion products.
In the future biotechnology might make textile manufacturing cheaper, with less of an impact on
the environment. We can expect to see plenty of innovation in the textile and fashion industries
in the next few years thanks to advancements in bioengineering, naotechnology and 3D
scanning techniques.
Computers
Todays computers operate using transistors, wires and electricity.
Future ones might use atoms, fibres and light.

Biotechnology
Biotechnology means using living organisms to solve problems or to make products.
In the future biotechnology might end world hunger and also may slow down or stop aging.
With its help we might be able to replace organs and develop regenerative medicine, i.e. therapies
to restore lost, damaged or aging cells.
Communication
Current methods of high-speed scanning make it possible to get a 3D scan of your face in a
fraction of a second.
In the future, projecting yourself or a room full of people to another location may be
commonplace.
Cars
Fuel efficient, zero emission cars will use high-tech electronics to assist drivers in a wide variety
of ways.
Vehicles will communicate with each other, with the road and with traffic signals.
Virtual world
There will be virtual worlds realistic enough to be mistaken for the real thing

Complete these predictions about nanotechnology. Use each verb once.
construct, remove, store, wear, replace, resist, take, send, clean up, perform, stop
Cars
Manufacturers will be able to .1. cars from lightweight materials that are 50 times
stronger than steel. Todays 2-tonne Cadillac could weigh only 50 kg in the future. The materials
used to build cars will be able to .2. scratches and rust.
Computers
Well be able to .3. trillions of bytes of information in a structure the size of a
sugar cube.
Medicine
Doctors will be able to .4. broken human bones with artificial bones made with
nanotechnology.
Nanorobots will be able to .5. surgery.
Well be able to .6. pills containing nanorobots.

The environment
Well be able to .7. nanorobots up into space to rebuild the ozone layer. Other
nanorobots will be able to .8. pollutants from water and .9. oil
spills.
Clothes
Everyone will be able to .10. computers and colour screens because they will be
built into their clothes.
Well be able to .11. our clothes from getting dirty by making them with stain
repellent fabrics.

Degrees of certainty

Impossible

## 1. It cant be done./Not a hope.

2. Probably/probably not
3. Maybe/possibly
4. I think so./I dont think so.
5. Im sure it is./Yes, weve done it before.

Possible

## Is it possible to invent these things? How certain are you?

1. a machine that transports us through time
2. something that tells us what animals are thinking
3. a solar-powered airplane
4. a computer that is more intelligent than a human
6. a cure for all cancers
7. a device that stops people from drinking and driving
8. a device that translates what you say in Hungarian and immediately says it in English
9. a device that drives our cars
10. a way to distribute electricity to homes without using wires or cables
11. a way to forecast next months weather with 99% accuracy
12. something that detects spam emails and deletes them with 100% accuracy

10

## 4. MACHINES, MACHINE TYPES

A machine is a device that comprises stationary parts and moving parts combined together to
generate, transform or utilize mechanical energy. All the machines are made up of elements or
parts and units.
Some examples of machines are: turbines (they produce mechanical energy), compressors (they
use mechanical energy to compress the air), engines (they consume fuel and produce mechanical
energy).
Classification of Machines
Machines are classified into three main types, these are:
1. Machines generating mechanical energy: They are also called as prime movers. These
machines convert some form of energy like heat, hydraulic, electrical etc. into mechanical energy
or work. The most popular example of these machines is the internal combustion engine in
which the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into heat energy which in turn is converted
into mechanical work in the form of the rotation of the wheels of the vehicle. Some other
examples of this group of machines are gas turbines, water turbines, steam engine etc.
2. Machines transforming mechanical energy: These machines are called converting
machines because they convert mechanical energy into other form of energy like electricity,
hydraulic energy etc. Some examples of these machines are electric generator in which the
rotation of the shaft is converted into electrical energy, and hydraulic pump in which the rotation
energy of the rotors is converted into the hydraulic energy of the fluid.
3. Machines utilizing mechanical energy: These machines receive mechanical energy and
utilize it for various applications. Some examples of these machines are lathe machine that utilizes
the mechanical energy to cut metals and washing machine that utilizes the rotation of the rotor
for washing the clothes.
Classification of Machine Elements
The machine elements are classified into two main types: general purpose elements and specific
purpose elements.
1. The general purpose elements are the ones which are common to various types of machines
serving different applications. For example: nuts, bolts, keys, axles, shafts, couplings, bearings,
etc.
2. The special purpose elements are used only in specific types of machines. For instance a
piston and connecting rods are used in engines and compressors, while blades are used in
turbines and blowers. Some other examples are: cam shafts, crankshafts, cylinders, etc.
Types of General Purpose Elements
The general purpose elements which are common in all types of machines are classified into two
types: fasteners and elements of rotary motion drive.

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1. The fasteners are the machine elements that connect or join various parts of the machine.
The joints can be of permanent or temporary type. The permanent joints are the ones that cannot
be separated or disassembled into individual elements without destroying or damaging them. The
examples of permanent joints are welded joints, riveted joints, etc. The temporary joints are the
ones in which the individual elements can be separated easily without destroying or damaging
them. The joint obtained by nut and bolt and the cotter joints are common and widely used
examples of temporary joints.
2. The elements of rotary motion drive are the ones that help transmit the motion or power to
or from the machines. For example a belt connected to the motor and pump help running the
pump. The gearbox helps transmit the motion and power from the engine to the wheels of the
vehicle. Other examples of elements of the rotary motion drive are: rope, chain, shafts, axles,
couplings, bearings, etc.

Write the following captions under the pictures: nut and bolt, gearbox, bearing, welded joint,
shaft, riveted joint, coupling, cotter joint

...

...

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The individual parts of a machine (just like any other objects) can be connected to each other in
different ways. They can be housed, suspended, linked, attached/stuck, supported, secured
with brackets, clamped, pivoted, bolted, hinged, tied, etc.
Which of the pictures below illustrate the different types of connection?

Questions
1. How do we classify
a./ machines?
b./ machine elements?
2. How do the different types of machines work?
Tell examples.
3. Tell examples for the different types of machine elements.
4. How can the elements be connected to each other? Tell examples.

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## Joke A special machine

A travelling salesman checked into a futuristic motel. Realizing he needed a haircut before his
next day's meeting, he called down to the desk clerk and asked if there was a barber on the
premises.
"I'm afraid not, sir," the clerk told him, "but down the hall is a special machine that should serve
Skeptical but intrigued, the salesman located the appropriate machine, inserted fifty cents, and
stuck his head in the opening, at which time the machine started to buzz and whirl. Fifteen
seconds later the salesman pulled out his head and surveyed his head in the mirror, which
reflected the best haircut he ever received in his life.
Down the hall was another machine with a sign that read, "Manicures - 25 cents." "Why not?"
thought the salesman.
He paid the money, inserted his hands into the slot, and pulled them out perfectly manicured.
The next machine had a huge sign that read, "This Machine Provides What Men Need Most
When Away from Their Wives - cost 50 cents." The salesman was embarrassed and looked both
ways. Seeing nobody around he put in fifty cents, then unzipped his pants and stuck his "thing"
into the opening with great anticipation, since he had been away from his wife for two weeks.
When the machine started buzzing, the guy let out a shriek of agony. Fifteen seconds later it shut
off and, with trembling hands, the salesman was able to withdraw his "thingy" which now had a
button sewed on the tip!

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Key Vocabulary
application
axle
bearing
belt
blower
bolt
camshaft
convert
crankshaft
fastener
fuel
gearbox
general purpose
internal combustion engine
lathe machine
nut
permanent
piston
prime
rivet
rod
rotation
shaft
temporary
transmit
utilize
weld

alkalmazs
tengely
csapgy
szj, v
lapt (szlermnl)
ventiltor
anyscsavar
vezrmtengely
talakt, konvertl
ftengely
rgzt
zemanyag
ltalnos cl
belsgs motor
anya(csavar)
lland, tarts
dugatty
elsdleges, eredeti
szegecs, szegecsel
rd, plca
forgs
tengely
idszakos, tmeneti
hasznost
hegeszt

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## 5. METALS, PLASTICS, BIOPOLYMERS

Most pure metals, like aluminium, silver and copper, come from the Earths crust. They are
found in ores, usually occurring in rock, from which the pure metal has to be extracted. So the
first stage in making metals is to mine the ore-bearing rock. Sometimes huge amounts of ore are
needed to make a small amount of metal most copper, for example, exists in sulphide ores that
contain as little as 0.25% copper. The metal then has to be extracted from the rock using
furnaces and electrolytic processes. Finally, before the metal can be used, it often has to undergo
further processing. For example, 98% pure blister copper, created by smelting and reduction,
then has to be electrorefined to produce copper of 99.99% purity.
Making metals in this way is not very sustainable because
- mining and processing use up enormous amounts of energy
- they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution (e.g. acid rain)
- they sometimes involve the use of poisonous chemicals.
The properties of pure metals can be improved by mixing them with other metals to make alloys.
People first began making things from metal over 6000 years ago, when they discovered how to
get copper from its ore. Then they learned how to make a harder alloy, bronze, by adding tin to
the copper. About 3000 years ago they discovered iron. By adding amounts of carbon to iron,
they found that they could make a particularly useful alloy steel.

Bio-extraction
A new method has recently been developed to extract copper and other metals using microbes. It
is not only economical but also environmentally friendly.
Bio-extraction involves the use of lithotrophs a primitive life form that can survive in extreme
environments such as high temperatures and high acidity. They chemosynthesise, i.e. take the
metal into solution, from which it can be removed in a relatively simple and environmentally
friendly way.

Recycling metals
Steel can be recycled easily and cheaply. Galvanised steel can be handled in the steel recycling
process but galvanised steel sheets with chromated coatings should be avoided.
(The smallest amount of copper and tin can disturb the recycling of steel.)
Aluminium is easily recycled to a very high degree of purity. Mining aluminium is expensive and
uses a lot of energy. Creating a tonne of aluminium from raw bauxite takes about five times as
much energy as producing a tonne from recycled cars.
(The smallest amount of copper and tin can disturb the recycling of aluminium.)
Copper is a potential toxic problem in land and water. It could also be regarded as a scarce
resource despite the relatively low price. So it should be used only where complete recycling can
be guaranteed.

PLASTICS
Although some plastics are made from renewable resources, most are made of crude oil..
Crude oil, like natural gas and coal, is a non-renewable resource. To transport crude oil, huge
tankers are used. If one of these is involved in an accident, the oil spilt can cause an
environmental disaster, contaminating beaches and destroying wildlife.
16

Crude oil is processed in a refinery, where it is separated into different components (fractions)
petrol, gasoline, naphtha, kerosine, diesel oil, lubricating oil and a residue that is used to make
Most plastics are developed from naphtha. In total, 4% of crude oil is used to make plastics.
In Europe, around 8% of household waste is plastic. Some of this plastic waste is natural it is
made from renewable resources like cereals and trees. As a result, it will break down rather than
remain as plastic. Others are partly biodegradable they go mushy when buried and become part
of the soil. Some can even be made fully biodegradable, resulting only in water and carbon
dioxide.
However, most synthetic plastics do not break down and it is important how we dispose of
plastic waste.

BIOPOLYMERS
Biopolymers are polymers that occur in nature and provide an alternative to oil based plastics, as
they are made from plants, usually polymers of starch or polylactic acid (PLA).
They are currently used for bags, cutlery and plates, pens, clothing, credit cards, teabags, coffee
filters, diapers and napkins.
Biopolymers are biodegradable. The input materials for the production of these polymers may
either be renewable (based on agricultural plant or animal products) or synthetic.
Cellulose is the most plentiful carbohydrate, 40% of all organic matter is cellulose.
Starch is found in corn (maize), potatoes, wheat and some other plants. Much of it is used for
non-food purposes, like making paper, cardboard, textile sizing and adhesives.
Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals. Gelatin is denatured collagen, and is
mostly used in sausage casings, capsules for drugs and vitamin preparations.
Casein, produced mainly from cows skimmed milk, is used in adhesives, binders, protective
coatings etc.
Soy protein and zein (from corn) are abundant plant proteins. They are used for making
adhesives and coatings for paper and cardboard.
A number of other natural materials can be made into polymers that are biodegradable. E.g.
triglycerides, or lactic acid (which is produced through the fermentation of sugar feedstocks or
from the conversion of starch).
These natural raw materials are abundant, renewable and biodegradable, making them attractive
feedstocks for bioplastics, a new generation of environmentally friendly plastics, made entirely
or almost entirely from renewable raw materials.

1. Find the words in the text which correspond to the following definitions:
1. rock or earth from which metals can be obtained
2. a small amount of something that remains after most of it has been removed
3. present in large quantities
4. the release of something (e.g. gas, radiation) into the atmosphere
5. oil that is in a natural state and has not yet been processed or refined
6. a container in which a very hot fire is made e.g. to melt metal or burn rubbish
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## 7. a liquid in which a solid substance has been dissolved

8. an animal, the female of which gives birth to babies (not eggs) and feeds them with milk from
her body
9. a liquid with a pH value of less than 7
10. soft and has lost most of its shape
11. cleanliness
12. the top layer of earth, which plants can grow in

2. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with the proper form of the following verbs:
to add, to contaminate, to contribute to, to dispose of, to extract, to involve, to mine, to
process, to smelt, to undergo
1. Uranium has not yet been .. in this country.
2. She was about to .. a major operation.
3. They have to .. raw materials in order to make products that can be sold.
4. The first step in the extraction of metals is .. the ore in a furnace.
5. These chemicals .. water and are harmful to aquatic life.
6. How shall we .. radioactive waste?
7. Making metals in the traditional way sometimes .. the use of toxic chemicals.
8. Pure metals are .. from ores.
9. Advanced technology has directly .. the growth of cities.
10. Carbon is .. to iron to make steel.

Joke
Boy: My mother and father are in the steel and iron business.
Friend: Really?
Boy: Yes, my father steals and my mother irons.

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Key Vocabulary
abundant
acid rain
alloy
binder
coating
contaminate
contribute to
copper
crude oil
dispose of
earths crust
emission
extract
furnace
involve
lactic acid
lubricating oil
mammal
mine
mushy
naphta
oil spilt
ore
process
purity
refinery
residue
smelt
soil
starch
sustainable
tin
undergo

savas es
ragaszt
tvzet
knyvkts
biolgiailag leboml (lebonthat)
bevonat
szennyez, fertz
hozzjrul
rz
nyersolaj
fldkreg
kibocsts
kivon, leprol, eltvolt
kemence, kazn
bevon, vmivel (egytt)jr
tejsav
kenolaj
emls
bnyszik
ppszer, puha
knnybenzin
kiml olaj
rc
feldolgoz
tisztasg
finomt
megolvaszt
talaj
kemnyt
fenntarthat
n, cin
tmegy, tesik vmin

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6. FABRICS
There are two main types of fibres: natural or man-made. Natural fibres are the ones derived
from plants (e.g. cotton, hemp, linen) or animals (e.g. wool, silk). If two or more of these fibres
are combined, we get blends.
Hemp has a lot of good environmental criteria. It is fast growing and smothers out other plants
(including weeds) therefore doesnt require any application of herbicide. It grows well in cooler
climates and little or no irrigation is required. Hemp has far higher fibre yields than other natural
fibres.
Hemp is suitable for a number of textile applications (as well as other applications including
paper and building materials) and particularly furnishing fabrics. It is frequently blended with
other fibres such as cotton, silk or synthetics. Hemp can be a substitute for both cotton and
linen.
Fibre extraction is similar to that for flax, i.e. separation by retting, when small bundles of stalks
are placed in water tanks, open retting ponds or running river water while the stalk rots and the
fibres are separated from the woody core. Water retting is linked to water pollution as high levels
of BOD and COD are produced. Alternatives to water retting are dew retting and enzyme
retting.
Lyocell is made from wood pulp, but is processed so that water and solvents are recycled with
minimal loss, thus reducing environmental impact.
The fibre is soft, strong and absorbent and is characterized by excellent wet strength. Lyocell is a
very versatile fabric and can simulate silk, suede or leather touch. It is also biodegradable.
Linen (flax) production is often carried out with the use of agricultural chemicals and in
particular fertilisers and herbicides. The flax is often grown in cooler climates than other natural
fibres like cotton and extensive irrigation is not required. Fibres like flax and also hemp, jute and
kenaf grow well on land unsuitable for food production and may help re-cultivate soils polluted
with contaminants such as heavy metals. Processing linen is very similar to that of hemp (retting).
Cotton is highly vulnerable to insect attack and therefore cannot be grown without large
quantities of pesticides and fertilisers. Some insecticides are highly hazardous, these are generally
acutely toxic and are nerve poisons.
Cotton fibre production also requires large quantities of fungicides and herbicides. Large
amounts of synthetic fertilisers (often based on nitrogen compounds) are also used and can result
in nitrate contamination of water.
Water consumption in cotton fibre production is another significant factor. As all irrigation water
contains some soluble salts it causes soil salinisation, reducing fertility.
The genetic modification (GM) of biological species via the use of bacteria, fungi or enzymes has
implications for the textile sector. The benefit of GM cotton is the reduced level of pesticide
application.
Another alternative for the cotton industry is organic cotton production. Organic cotton growing
and processing was started in Turkey in the early 1980s. Since then, the amount of organic cotton
produced has grown steadily all over the world.
The production of wool involves the use of pesticides, which cause particular impacts both as
they are applied on the farm and in processing. The two pesticides most commonly used are
organophosphates, which can cause nerve damage in humans and pyrethoids, which are highly
toxic to aquatic life.

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Major environmental impacts are also associated with the initial cleaning of raw wool as it is
carried out using sodium hydroxide and detergent in hot water producing an effluent with high
suspended solids content.
In general terms, water consumption in the production of manufactured fibres like nylon,
polyamide or polyester is lower than for natural fibres but in terms of emmissions to air and
water arising from the production of these fibres, the presence of a number of hazardous
materials (nitrogen oxides, heavy metal salts etc.) have been identified.

1. Below you can see different types of fibres. Which one is wool, lyocell, cotton,
polyester, silk, hemp, linen?

2. Questions:
How can we group the different kinds of fibres?

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## 3. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B:

A
1. bundle
2. contaminant
3. core
4. effluent
5. emission
6. extraction
7. fertiliser

B
a. something that is used instead of something
else
b. the part inside something that is nearest the
centre
c. a group of things that are tied or handled
together
d. a liquid used for dissolving another
substance
e. a chemical used for killing insects, especially
those that damage crops
f. effect or influence

9. herbicide

## g. a natural or chemical substance added to soil

in order to help plants grow
h. a substance that makes something dirty,
polluted or poisonous
i. a liquid waste

10. impact

11. pesticide

12. solid

13. solvent

## m. a long thin part of a plant with a flower,

fruit or leaf at the end
n. removing something from something

8. fungicide

14. stalk
15. substitute

are not wanted)

## Joke - One Kiss Per Yard

An attractive young woman approached the clerk at the department store's fabric counter. "I
would like to purchase some of this material for a new outfit. How much does it cost?" she
"Only one kiss per yard," the male clerk replied smugly.
"That's fine," she replied. "I'll take six yards."
With great expectation written all over his face, the clerk quickly measured out the fabric,
wrapped it, then held it out teasingly.
The young woman snatched the package from his hand, pointed to the little old man standing
next to her, and said with a grin, "Grandpa will pay the bill."

22

Key Vocabulary
application
blend
BOD
bundle
COD
contaminant
core
cotton
effluent
fertiliser
fibre
flax
fungicide
hemp
herbicide
impact
insect
irrigation
jute
linen
pesticide
rot
salinisation
silk worm
silk
smother
solid
solvent
stalk
substitute
suede
suspend
vulnerable
weed
yield

alkalmazs
biolgiai ton lebonthat
keverk, kever
biochemical oxygen demand
csom, nyalb
chemical oxygen demand
szennyezanyag
mag, vminek a belseje
pamut
szennyvz
trgya
rost
len(fonal)
gombal szer
kender
gyomirt
hats
rovar
ntzs
juta
len
fregirt/rovarirt (szer)
sss vls
selyemherny
selyem
megfojt, elraszt
szilrd
oldszer (oldhat anyag)
szr
helyettes, helyettest
antilopbr, szarvasbr
szuszpendl (itt!)
sebezhet
gyom, gaz
hozam

23

7. ENGINE TYPES
(The internal combustion engine, the Diesel engine and fuel cells)
Internal combustion engines burn petrol with an electric spark, and a series of cylinders
operating in succession keep the crankshaft turning.

1. Here are the key words for talking or writing about these engines. Match the
words in column A with their definitions in column B.
A.
1. valve

3. intake

B.
a. the main shaft of an internal combustion
engine
b. a device used to make an electric spark so
that the fuel starts burning
c. start burning

4. crankshaft

## d. to get liquid into something

5. combustion chamber

## e. a part attached to a pipe or tube which

controls the flow of air or liquid
f. a system of machine parts by which the
power from the engine reaches and turns the
wheels
g. a cylinder or metal disc that is part of an
engine. It slides up and down inside a tube.
h. the place where fuel is burnt in an internal
combustion engine
i. pressing something so that it takes up less
space
j. a part of a machine where air or fuel enters

2. piston

6. compression
7. inject
8. transmission
9. spark plug
10. ignite
The engine works in four phases:
1. Intake
2. Compression

3. Combustion

4. Exhaust

## 2. Which phase do the following paragraphs describe?

1. The spark plug ignites the mixture, causing an explosion. The explosion drives the piston
downward turning the crankshaft.
2. The intake valve opens and a downward stroke of the piston draws a mixture of fuel and
air into the cylinder.
3. The exhaust valve opens and the exhaust product of the burnt fuel is expelled with the
next stroke of the piston.
4. The intake valve closes and an upward stroke of the piston compresses the mixture of fuel
and air.

24

## The Diesel engine

But the reign of the internal combustion engine could be coming to an end. Improved
technology is making diesels more viable and carmakers are working on fuel cells. While petrol
engines use spark plugs to ignite fuel, creating energy to power a vehicle, diesels use compression

3. Put the following descriptions of the different phases into logical order:
1. The intake valve closes and an upward stroke of the piston compresses the air. The
compression heats the air hot enough to ignite diesel fuel.
2. The intake valve opens and a downward stroke pulls clean air into the combustion
chamber from outside.
3. The exhaust valve opens and the next upward stroke forces the resulting exhaust gases out
of the engine.
4. Fuel is injected into the hot, compressed air where it explosively ignites, forcing the piston
downward and turning the crankshaft.
In both engines the crankshaft transforms the up-and-down motion of the pistons into rotary
motion and turn the transmission, which in turn transfers the power to the wheel.
Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen to generate electric power. An electric motor turns the
wheels. Single cells are combined into stacks to create the required amount of power.
A typical fuel cell is a sandwich made up of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) between two
layers of catalyst, and a cathode and an anode. Like a battery, every fuel cell has two electrodes,
one positive and one negative, called respectively the cathode and anode.
Hydrogen is fed into the anode side of the fuel cell and oxygen (in the form of air) is fed into the
cathode side. Channels in the flow field plates enable the even distribution of the gases. The
catalyst stimulates the separation of the hydrogen into its constituent protons and electrons.
The protons, but not the electrons, pass through the membrane. The electrons are conducted
through the anode to the cathode through an electric circuit, generating electricity that does the
work of turning the motor.
Once the protons reach the cathode, the second catalyst layer enables the hydrogen protons and
electrons to combine with the oxygen producing water. Water and heat are the only exhaust
produced by fuel cells.
25

## 4. Match the beginnings of sentences with the proper endings:

1. Individual cells
2. All cells
3. Channels in the plates
4. Hydrogen atoms
5. The electrons
6. External circuits

## a. contribute to the even distribution of gases.

b. combine with the oxygen.
c. are separated into protons and electrons.
d. turn the motor.
e. are combined into stacks.
f. have two electrodes, a positive (cathode) and
a negative (anode).
7.When the protons reach the cathode, g. dont pass through the membrane.
hydrogen protons and electrons
Joke The loss of an engine
Two blondes were flying to Miami from Cleveland. Fifteen minutes into the flight, the captain
announced "One of the engines has failed and the flight will be an hour longer. But don't worry
we have three engines left".
Thirty minutes later, the captain announced "One more engine has failed and the flight will be
two hours longer. But don't worry we have two engines left".
An hour later the capain announced "One more engine has failed and the flight will be three
hours longer. But don't worry we have one engine left".
One blonde looked at the other blonde and said "If we lose one more engine, we'll be up here all
day"

26

Key Vocabulary

catalyst
combustion chamber
compression
constituent
crankshaft
cylinder
distribution
exhaust
fuel cell
to ignite
to inject
intake
internal combustion engine
layer
piston
proton exchange membrane
rotary
spark
spark plug
stack
stroke
transmission
valve

kataliztor
gstr
(ssze)srts
sszetev
forgattengely
henger
eloszls
kipufog (nyls, cs)
tzelanyag cella
meggyjt
befecskendez
bemlnyls, szvnyls
belsgs motor
rteg
dugatty
protoncserl membrn
forg
szikra
gyjtgyertya
halom, gla
lket, tem
tttel
szelep

27

## 8. TRENDS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

1. Line graphs are useful for showing movements. They can also show how one thing varies
compared to changes in another. The following graph shows how the number of people at a
London underground station changes over the course of a day.

The numbers sharply increase between 6.00 and 8.00 in the morning, to 400 at 8.00. Then they
drop quickly to less than 200 at 10 olock. From 11.00 a.m. to 13.00 numbers gradually rise again.
In the afternoon they decline to 100 at 4.00 p.m., before rising rapidly to 380 at 6.00 p.m. After
7.00 p.m. numbers fall significantly and only slightly increase at 8.00.

1.1. Fill in the table below with words from the text:
go up
jump
climb

go down
decrease

-----------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------

steeply
dramatically
considerably

slowly
moderately
a little

-----------------------------------------------------

The text describing the changes in the number of people at an underground station uses
verb+adverb structures. But the same can be expressed by adjective+noun structures as well, in
the following way:
There was a sharp increase between 6.00 and 8.00 in the morning. Then, there was a quick drop
to less than 200 at 10 oclock. From 11.00. a.m. to 13.00 there was a rise in numbers again. In the
afternoon there was a decline to 100 at 4.00 p.m. before a rapid rise to 380 at 6.00 p.m. After 7.00
p.m. there was a significant fall and only a slight increase at 8.00.
The alternating use of the two types of structures will add colour to your presentation.

28

1.2. The following graph shows Dubai gold sales in 2002. Fill in the text below with

In January 2002 Dubai gold sales amounted to 200 million Dirhams. From January to February
sales ..1.. ..2.. to 220 million, whereas from February to March ..3.. ..4.., and
reached a peak of 350 million. In March sales started to ..5.. ..6.., but in April the
tendency slowed down and from April to July they ..7.. ..8.. to 120 million reaching a
low point. From July to August sales ..9.. ..10.. again and from August to September
..11.. ..12.. . From September on they ..13.. ..14.. reaching 200 million at the
end of the year.
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. .
9.. 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14. .

## 1.3. What synonym is used in the text for

1. top out: .. and for
2. bottom out? .

29

1.4. The following graph shows Red River discharge rates in 1993. Fill in the text below

From January to March 1993 Red River discharge rates stagnated, but from March to April there
was a ..1.. ..2.. to 17000 cubic feet per second. From April to May there was a ..3..
..4.. but in May this tendency slowed down and from May to June there was only a ..5..
.. 6.. of 2000 cu feet/sec. From June to July there was a ..7.. ..8.. again and from
July to August a ..9.. ..10.. of 20000. From August to September there was a ..11..
..12.. but from the end of September till the end of the year only a ..13.. ..14.. .
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. .
9.. 10. . 11. . 12. 13. . 14. .

## 1.5. What synonym is used in the text for

remained stable?
2. Pie charts have great visual impact. They are used to display the sizes of parts that make up
the whole. To be able to speak (or write) about them, you will need to use some of the following
useful words and phrases.
Expressions of approximation:
Approximately, roughly, (a little) more than, (a little, slightly) less than, almost, nearly, just
over/under, exactly
Percentages and fractions:
Percentage: 15%=fifteen per cent
Fractions: 2/3=two thirds, half, quarter

30

2.1. Complete the following table using expressions of approximation and fractions:
33%
25%
52%
39%
61%
91%
74%

approximately

one third

2.2. The following pie chart shows the distribution of water consumption in the UK.
Fill in the gaps using expressions of approximation and fractions:

From the pie chart we can conclude that the highest amount of water, ..1.. ..2.., is used
for toilets, and nearly the same amount, ..3.. ..4.., for washing clothes, while ..5..
..6.. for showers. Faucets account for ..7 .8.., and leaks for ..9.. ..10.. .
Only a very small percentage is used in baths and dishwashers.
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. .
9.. 10. .

31

3.Bar charts are used for making comparisons, although they are not as accurate as tables. Flow
charts are useful when showing a number of steps in a sequence.

3.1. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences according to the chart above:
1. Among accepted university applicants professionals and skilled manual workers are
represented in the same number.
2. Half of the professionals are women.
3. There are a little fewer women among skilled manuals.
4. The number of partly skilled workers is about one fifth of that of those with intermediate
education.
5. There are approximately three times as many skilled manual workers as partly skilled.
A Flow Chart

32

Key Vocabulary
amount to
approximately
bar chart
comparison
conclude
decline
distribution
drop
fall
fraction
increase
jump
line graph
moderate
percentage
pie chart
reach a low point
reach a peak
rise
roughly
sharp
significant
slight
stagnate
steep

kitesz valamennyit
megkzeltleg
oszlopdiagram
sszehasonlts
kvetkeztet
hanyatlik, hanyatls
megoszls
esik, ess
esik ess
trt (szm)
fokozatos
nvel, nvekszik, nvekeds
megugrik
vonalas diagram, grafikon
mrskelt
szzalk(arny)
krdiagram
mlypontot r el
cscspontot r el
emelkedik, emelkeds
durvn
les
jelents, lnyeges
csekly, jelentktelen
stagnl
meredek

33

## 9. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

Renewable energy resources are energy resources that are replenished by nature. They are
virtually inexhaustible, but limited in the amount of energy that is available at one time.
Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, wave action and
tidal action.

Solar energy
The generation of electricity from solar energy can be achieved through two major alternatives.
One uses the light from the sun to generate electricity directly (photovoltaic technology), and the
other uses the heat from the sun to increase the temperature of a working fluid which in turn
can be used to generate electricity (solar thermal technologies). Each of the major alternatives can
be subdivided into variants of the major technology. Photovoltaic technologies fall into
crystalline, thin-film or concentrator variants while the solar thermal technologies fall into trough,
power tower, dish engine and thermal electric variants.

Photovoltaics
Generally speaking, photovoltaic solar cells use a semiconductor material that is exposed to
sunlight. The energy of the light displaces electrons from their normal atomic orbit and an
electron grid structure on the surface of the semiconductor collects these electrons and makes
them available for use in an external circuit. This is very similar to the way that the chemical
reaction and the elctrodes in a dry battery cell make electrons available for external use.
The terms crystalline, thin film and concentrator describe the manner in which the semiconducting
material is processed and optimized as a photovoltaic cell. Crystalline cells are fabricated from
ingots of the semiconductor material, usually silicon, that are cut into relatively thin slices,
processed to optimize the electron collection efficiency and laminated into a protective enclosure.
Thin film cells are extremely thin layers of semi-conducting material that are evaporated onto a
substrate, and concentrating cells use a plastic lens to concentrate sunlight from a large area onto a
much smaller area of crystalline semi-conducting material.

Solar thermal
Both the trough and power tower solar thermal technologies use mirrors to concentrate the heat
from the sun onto a vessel containing a heat transfer fluid. The fluid is then pumped into a steam
generator where the heat is transferred to water to turn it into steam. The steam can then be used
to spin a conventional steam turbine connected to a generator to make electricity.
In the case of the trough, the mirror is a long parabola with a steel tube containing the heat
transfer fluid running along the focal axis of the mirror. The axis of the mirror is usually aligned
in a North-South direction and the mirror is rotated from East to West as the day progresses so
that the energy from the sun is continually focused onto the steel tube. Rows of mirror/tube
assemblies are used to form large multi-acre solar fields from which the heated transfer fluid is
collected and used in the generation of steam.
The power tower system is a little different in that all of the transfer fluid heating is achieved in a
heat receiver on the top of a tower located in the centre of a field of computer controlled
mirrors, or heliostats. Cold fluid is pumped up to the top of the tower, the heliostats focus the

34

suns energy onto the receiver and heat the fluid, which is subsequently returned to the ground
and used in a steam generator in the same way as the heat transfer fluid in the trough system.
Dish engine systems are somewhat different in that the heat from the sun is used to heat a working
fluid within a heat engine. The rotating shaft of the engine is connected to a generator, which
produces electricity without the need to go through a steam generation process. The engine is
located at the focal point of a parabolic dish mirror, which is made to track the sun across the sky
throughout the day.

1. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)?
1. Both alternatives mentioned use the heat of the sun to generate electricity.
2. Both alternatives mentioned have four subdivisions.
3. In photovoltaic solar cells electrons are distracted.
4. There is a built-in circuit in photovoltaics that uses the collected electrons.
5. Photovoltaics and dry batteries have nothing in common.
6. After processing the semi-conductor material no more tasks remain to be done.
7. Solar thermal technologies use parabola-shaped mirrors.
8. In both the trough and the power tower systems steam is generated in the same way.

2. Find the words in the text that have a similar meaning to the following:
1. to make something into several smaller areas
2. a pattern of straight lines that cross each other to form squares
3. a substance used in electronics whose ability to conduct electricity increases with greater
heat
4. existing outside a particular place
5. a process in which two substances combine together chemically and make another
substance
6. to treat a substance with chemicals or machines in order to make something
7. a lump of metal usually shaped like a brick
8. to move something from one place to another
9. to turn with a circular movement
10. a rod or a bar in a machine that turns round and round in order to transfer power or
movement

## 3. Group the following words under the headings below:

mirror, evaporate, parabola, plastic lens, laminate, rotating shaft, mirror, fluid, enclosure, heat receiver, fluid
crystalline

thin film

concentrator

trough

power tower

dish engine

35

## Solar thermal technology

Key Vocabulary
alternative
atomic orbit
chemical reaction
circuit
dry battery
efficiency
electricity
external
to fabricate
fluid
focal axis
generation
grid
ingot
layer
plastic lens
to process
to rotate
semiconductor
shaft
solar cell
solar energy
to spin
steam generator
steel tube
subsequently
transfer

36

alternatva
elektronplya
kmiai reakci
ramkr
szrazelem
hatkonysg
elektromossg
kls
gyrt
gyjttengely
fejleszts (itt)
rcs
fmrd
rteg
manyag lencse
feldolgoz
forog, forgat
flvezet
tengely
napelem
napenergia
forgat, fordul
gz genertor
acl cs
ezt kveten

Wind Turbines
The wind turbine, also called a windmill, is a means of harnessing the kinetic energy of the wind
and converting it into electrical energy. This is accomplished by turning blades called aerofoils,
which drive a shaft, which drive a motor (turbine) and are connected to a generator.
Aerofoils (blades) can be made of any material. They were first made of wood, later of steel or
aluminium. Unfortunately aluminium fatigues quickly. Some windmills use fibre-glass blades.
New materials as strong alloys are being used in todays windmills experimentally.
The two main types of windmills are: horizontal-axis and vertical-axis windmills.
Low-speed horizontal-axis windmills are used for water pumping and air-compressing. Highspeed horizontal-axis windmills are used for many purposes and come in many sizes. These
include the typical windmills on windmill farms and any other wind turbines in which the shaft
turned by the aerofoils is horizontal. High-speed horizontal types may have 1, 2, 3 or more
aerofoils.
Low-speed vertical-axis windmills are popular in Finland. They are used to pump water and
aerate land. They are quite inefficient.
High-speed vertical-axis windmills include the Darrieus models. These have long, thin curved
outer blades, which rotate at 3-4 times the wind speed.
They are inexpensive and are used for electricity generation and irrigation. The advantage of a
Darrieus model is that it can deliver mechanical power at ground level. The generator, gearbox
and turbine components are on the ground, instead of at the top of a tower as in horizontal-axis
windmills. They cost much less to construct because there is less material, and the pitch of the
Another type is the one with revolving cylinders, which sit on a tracked carriage. The motion of a
spinning cylinder causes the carriage to move over a circular track and the carriage wheels to
drive an electric generator.
The Savonius model (originating from Finland) is an S-shaped blade, which rotates and turns a
vertical shaft. Today, these types of windmills are very popular with scientists and their
technology is being developed.
Storing the winds energy effectively is the key to its long-term use. Windmills are used to charge
electrolyte batteries. Lead-acid or lead-cobalt car batteries are commonly used as well. However,
batteries may be expensive and inefficient they may lose 10-25% of the energy stored in them.
Nickel-iron, nickel-cadmium and zinc-air cells are often used as well. These tend to be more
efficient. Although uncommon and still in experimental phases, some energy is stored not by
being converted directly into electrical energy, but rather by being stored as thermal or
electromagnetic energy.
Windmills can be very noisy, but sound levels are regulated. Wind turbines can cause
interference, disturbances with TV and radio reception, affect microwaves and disrupt satellite
communication. There is also a slight probability of a bird or insect being struck by the blades.
Windmill makers have to use artificial sound or fluorescent paint or scents to scare away flying
animals.
Many windmills are used today to heat water, refrigerate storage buildings, dry crops, irrigate
crops, heat buildings and charge batteries.

37

1. Are the following statements true or false (according to the text)?
1. Windmills turn the energy of the wind into electricity.
2. Low-speed horizontal axis windmills are used to pump water, compress air and to refrigerate
storage buildings.
3. The Darrieus models have straight blades.
4. There is a type where cylinders are mounted on a carriage.
5. Sometimes thermal or electromagnetic energy is also stored.
6. Aerofoils can only be made of very strong alloys.

1. ....
2.
3.
4. . ..

## 3. What distadvantages of windmills are mentioned?

1. ..
2. ..
3. ..
4. ..
5. ..

Joke
What did the California wind farm say when it met Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger?
- Were big fans of yours!

38

## 10. WRITING EMAILS

There are some golden rules for writing e-mails, like the following:
- Keep your message short and concise people dont like long messages.
- Use capital letters only if you want to put a special emphasis on it.
- Use underlined words only if they refer to a hyperlink to a website.
- Dont use abbreviations as in your private messages unless you are sure your partner will
understand them.
- Dont edit your message in HTML format, your partners programme may not be able to read
it.
- When you attach a file, ita good idea to summarize the main points of it.
- If you send the same message to several people and they dont need to know who else has got
it, use the BCC (Blind Carbon Copy) option.
- It is also important to give an apt word or phase for the subject.
- For clarity, put a complete line space after each paragraph.
- And finally: Dont send an e-mail without checking it through for spelling and grammatical
mistakes.
In formal communication, provided we know their surnames, we can address men as Mr. Women can be Miss
(unmarried), Mrs (married), or Ms (marital status unspecified). Recently Ms has become very common.
Just as when writing a letter on paper you can start your e-mail saying thanks for something or
simply by giving your reason for writing. E.g.
- Thank you for your enquiry
- I saw your catalogue at the
- I am pleased to inform you that
- I regret/am sorry to tell you that
- We must apologize for
In the next paragraph you possibly want to request an action. You can start your sentence like
this:
- We would be grateful if you could
- We would appreciate if you could
Or in a less formal way:
- Can you
Endings can also be different:
- Looking forward to/ We look forward to
- Yours sincerely,
- Kind regards,
- Thank you.
Or the less formal:
- Best wishes,
- Regards, or
- Thanks.

39

## 1. Match the messages with the replies:

1. Dear Mr Skubowski,
Im arriving in Warsaw at 10.20 a.m. on
Thursday. Could you tell me how to get to your
paper mill and also recommend a hotel nearby?
Thank you,
2. Hi Steve,
We have two urgent orders and one of our
cutters has broken down. Could you do some
cutting for us? Wed appreciate it a lot.
3. Dear Ms Strauss,
We had a flood in our warehouse yesterday: It
destroyed the last shipment of the circuits that
you sent us. We would need another 1,000 of
them immediately. How soon can you send
them?
Many thanks,
4. Hello Jack,
Please treat the attached order as top priority.
The salespeople in your company promised
delivery by 10th April.
Thanks,
5. Mike,
Thanks for repairing the photocopier in my
office. Now another one in the office next to
mine isnt working. Can you have a look at it as
soon as possible?
Thanks,

## a. We cant complete your order until 10th

April. Please get back to me as soon as possible
to discuss things.
Bye,
b. Sue,
We have no spare capacity at the moment, Im
afraid. Im attaching a list of manufacturers
who have the same type of cutters as you.
Perhaps they can help.
Best wishes,
c. Dear Mr Mason,
I am sorry about the catastrophe. We would be
deliver the circuits is the end of next week. Can
you confirm that it is not too late?
I look forward to hearing from you,
d. Liz,
Sorry but I cant come in ten days. Shall I send
someone else?
Regards,
e. Dear Mr Nunez,
We have already booked a room for you at
Hotel Europa. Attached please find the
requested information.
Looking forward to meeting you.

2. Complete the following e-mails using expressions from the ones above:
1. Dear Mr Hudson,
We had a fire in our office yesterday. It destroyed all our furniture. .... new ones urgently.
How soon .... them?
Thank you,
2. Hi Roberto,
.... sending me the capacity figures, but .... we would need them in file format. ....
again?
Best regards,
3. Dear Ms Hathaway,
.... your e-mail and for your interest in our product. ..... the order format you requested.
.... confirm your order on it?
Yours, sincerely,

40

## 3. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

1. Im ataching an Excel file with the date you requested.
2. Please confirm that you have recieved this order.
3. Wed like to cancell our order No. 3452.
5. Im sorry I wasnt avalable yesterday.
6. There is one point I dont quiet understand.
7. Are these arangements OK with you?
8. We would be happy to show you our facillities.
9.Im pleased to tell you that we can give you a 10% discont.
10.As a conseqence, we had to invastigate the metter.

4. Put the following words and phrases into two groups (formal and informal ones),
then find a pair for each from the other group:
Here are/ promptly/ enquire/ please find attached/ need/ because/ quickly/ request/ have been
hesitate to contact me/ owing to the fact that/ require/ competitive/ ask/ late/ have had to

5. The following sentences are mixed up. Put the words and phrases in the correct
order:
1. you/ Im sorry/ got back/ to/ sooner/ I havent
2. OK/ please/ arrangements/ that/ are/ confirm/ our
3. confirm/ you/ our order/ shipped/ can/ that/ has been
4. for/ quickly/ thanks/ the results/ so/ sending
5. hesitate/ questions/ if/ do not/ have/ further/ you

## 6. Write a reply to the following e-mail:

Dear Mr Lever,
I am writing to complain about the last shipment of electric motors. Most of the boxes were
damaged and the motors were not the type we ordered.
Could you please correct the error?
Thank you,
Susanne Slant

41

## 11. LETTERS OF APPLICATION

1.
I am writing to apply for the post of Regional Sales Manager with Marco Gardini UK advertised
in the Daily Telegraph 6 September 2010.
As requested, I am enclosing a brief CV.
I believe that my experience and contacts in the furniture industry would contribute considerably
to the future success of Marco Gardini in this country.
I also feel that my success in previous and current posts have prepared me for a career move
involving greater responsibility.
I would be happy to supply the names of referees on request. In the meantime, I very much hope
that you will be able to consider my application.
2.
I wish to apply for one of the positions described in your advertisement Work in Bermuda in
this weeks Daily Mail.
My name is gnes Tth. I am 25 years old and a Hungarian citizen. I am at present working for
Chance Enterprises, and, as you know, we have been doing business with your company for a
number of years.
I would be interested in a 6-month contract. During this time my present employers are willing to
give me leave of absence.
My recent work has involved working in a team in the export department of my firm and I have
developed confidence and skill in dealing with foreign buyers on the telephone and in writing,
mainly using English.
I speak and write reasonably good English and I can also handle business correspondence in
German and Italian.
As you will see from my enclosed CV, my qualifications are good, and I think you will agree that
my experience and language skills will help me to make a valuable contribution to your firm.
I am available for interview at any time.
Looking forward to hearing from you.

42

## PREFER A CAMPING TRIP TO A COCKTAL PARTY?

Patagonia has a new position open:
PUBLIC AFFAIRS ASSOCIATE
Job is based in Munich. Candidates must have substantial PR/Press experience and strong
writing skills. They must have serious proficiency in technical sports (skiing, kayaking,
climbing) and outdoor experience. German mother tongue. Environmental background a plus.
Patagonia is a Californian company which designs and distributes functional outdoor clothing.
Send CV with photo to:
Lydia Shaftsberg
PATAGONIA GMBH
Pivotstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22 Germany
The interviews will be in Munich during the last week of May

Questions:
2. What job is being offered?
3. In what sector of business?
4. What is required for the job?
5. Where will the successful candidate work?
6. Where are the companys headquarters?

43

2. Complete this letter of application with the appropriate form of the verbs given below:

Lena Rivetts
52 Hanover Street
Edinburgh EH2 5LM
Scotland, UK

Lydia Shaftsberg
Patagonia GMBH
Pivotstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22
Germany

8 April 201.

Dear Ms Shaftsberg,
I am writing to for the position of Public Affairs Associate which was
last week in the International Herald Tribune.
Although I am presently by a non-profit making organization, it has always been my
intention to work in a commercial environment. I would particularly the chance to
work for your company and as you will on my enclosed CV, the job you are
offering both my personal and professional interests.
My work experience has familiarised me with many of the challenges in public
relations today. I am sure that this, together with my understanding of the needs and expectations
of sport and nature enthusiasts, would be extremely relevant to the position.
Moreover, as my mother is German, I am fluent in this language and would definitely
working in a German-speaking environment.
I would be pleased to my curriculum vitae with you in more detail at an interview.
In the meantime, please do not hesitate to me if you require further information. I
look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
Lena Rivetts
contact
enjoy
employ

44

discuss
involve
welcome

apply
match
notice

GRAMMAR FILE
STARTING WITH REVISION
1. Listen and answer the questions:
1. Who does Sarah work for?
2. What are her children doing at the moment?
3. What did Sarah do last weekend?
4. How many countries has Greg been to?
5. Where did he go last year?
6. How often does he work in his garden?
7. Does Jenny usually get up early on Saturdays?
8. What did she have for breakfast last Sunday?
9. What makes her flatmate happy?

Present Simple

Past Simple

## Present Perfect Simple

Present Continuous

3. Fill in the gaps in the following questions with do, are, have, did or - :
1. Where .. you live?
2. How long .. you lived there?
3. Who .. you live with?
4. Who .. gets up first in your home?
5. Why .. you studying English?
6. .. you study here last year?
7. How many countries .. you been to in your life?
8. Which of your friends .. lives closest to you?
9. What .. you do last New Year?

4. Complete the questions below with the following verbs: do, have, go to, meet up, go,
tidy up, chat, visit.

## Last weekend did you ..

1. . any exercise?
2. . clubbing?
3. . the house/flat?
4. . any exhibitions?
5. . relatives?
6. . to friends online?
7. . a lie-in?
8. . with friends?

45

## 5. Fill in the gaps with an auxiliary where necessary:

1. What .. you do to relax?
2. Who .. watches tv the most in your family?
3. ..you go anywhere interesting last week?
4. What .. you going to do after class?
5. How many times .. you moved house?
6. Which of your friends .. the most exercise?
7. How long .. you known your best friend?
8. .. you studying any other languages at the moment?

6. Choose a partner, but dont work with him/her yet. Write six questions to ask your
chosen partner. Use these phrases:
When did you last .
How often do you .
What are you doing .

Do you usually .
Have you ever .
Can you .

## 7. Make these sentences negative:

1. I often call my sister.
2. Everyone in my family has a mobile phone.
3. Hes sent me a text.
4. I think Ill buy a new phone.
5. Theres a message for you.
6. All of my friends have got mobiles.
7. Both of my sisters like texting.

8. Change the underlined words so that the sentences have an opposite meaning:
1. No one I know watches tv.
2. I think Ill go out tonight.
3. I hardly ever eat fish.
4. All of my friends like football.
5. I have two sisters and both of them like their jobs.
6. I always get up early at the weekend.

46

## PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

1. Do the following verbs usually describe activities or states?
Be, watch, talk, seem, spend, agree, eat, taste, prefer, learn, buy, own, cook, understand, want,
take, remember, contain

## 2.Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Simple or Present Continuous:

1.
The ready meal I (cook) right now is chicken and vegetables. I (eat) a
lot of ready meals because I (prefer) to do other things in the evening. I
(learn) Italian at the moment, so I often (watch) Italian films in the
evenings. I (think) my Italian (get) quite good.
2.
I (not understand) her. She says that she (put on) weight well, thats
because she (never eat) properly. Also she (not know) how to cook, so
why she (study) Italian instead of going to cookery classes.

3. Make questions with you. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Simple or Present
Continuous:
1. .. (feel) hungry now?
2. .. (usually eat) a lot of ready meals?
3. .. (cook) every day?
4. .. (try) to stop eating sweet things?
5. .. (ever use) a cookery book?
6. .. (want) to learn how to cook?
7. .. (look) for somewhere to live?
8. .. (do) an evening course at the moment?

4. Again, put the verbs in brackets in the Present Simple or Present Continuous:
1. . you . (know) anyone who (work) abroad at the moment?
2. . you . (study) English for your work or for pleasure?
3. . you . (think) people (get) more stressed these days?
4. . you usually . (arrive) late when you go to parties?
5. . you .. (read) anything interesting at the moment?
6. . you . (think) people (live) longer these days?

47

## PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST

1. Which of these words/phrases can we use with the Present Perfect Simple?
never, ago, ever, recently, lately, before, in 2010, this week, last week

, just, at 9 oclock,

2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple:
1.
In the nineties we (come) here every year on holiday. Then, in 2001 we
(decide) to open a restaurant. We (live) here since then and we
(just open) a guest house nearby. The main problem is holidays. We
(go) to Spain twice, but our last holiday (be) two years ago. We (not
have) any time off since then. My parents are here at the moment its the second time they
(visit) us this year. My husbands family are arriving today too. In fact, he
(just go) to pick them up from the airport.
2.
I work as a guide for a company that organises rainforest holidays here in Costa Rica. I
.. (live) in this country for three years and I love it. I .. (work) in two other
Central American countries and I . (have) a great time in both places, but this
country is really special. Its not an easy job you have to deal with some very difficult people
and most of our guests never . (be) in a rainforest before. But they always say its the
best experience they ever .. (have). Of course, I . (have to) put up with
some idiots. For example, last month two guys (set off) on their own without telling
anyone.. They (get) lost in the rainforest and it (take) us two days to
find them. And I just (be) to San Isidro to pick up a guest from the hospital. He
was bitten by a poisonous spider he found in his room. Hes OK now, though.

48

## In relative clauses we use:

. or .......... for people,
. or . for things,
. for places,
. for possessives,
. for times.

Fill in the gaps in these sentences with who, that, which, whose, where or when:
1. Most of the food . I buy is organic.
2. I know lots of people . are vegetarian.
3. I dont know anyone . has been to Australia.
4. The food . I ate last night wasnt very healthy.
5. Theres at least one person in my family . travels an hour to work every day.
6. In my family, we usually eat food . we buy in the market.
7. I dont know anyone . lifestyle is really healthy.
8. I usually go to restaurants . they serve healthy food.
9. New Year is a time . I usually go to a party.
10. I know a shop . you can buy cheap clothes.

49

THE FUTURE
Here are twelve short texts about the future. Six of them are predictions and six are likely
results. Read the texts and match the predictions to their results.
1. Many of the larger mammals may become extinct in the wild, and some, such as tigers and
black rhinos, will possibly survive only in zoos.
2. The earths climate will become warmer. This will create major problems for agriculture and
we will see droughts and famine in Africa. We might even see these problems in southern
Europe.
3. Attempts to produce a vehicle working with alternative energy will fail and well continue to
use our normal cars. Around the middle of the century, however, the worlds supplies of
petroleum will run out.
4. There will be serious racial conflicts as large numbers of people move to try and find food.
Water will become a valuable resource and we might see wars over the control of rivers and
lakes.
5. The worlds population will increase from the present 6 billion to 10 billion. Most of this
increase will be in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
6. This could produce a change in the international balance of power, as the countries in these
regions demand more control in international organizations.
7. In the industrialized countries there will be more and more old people and the costs of
providing pensions and medical care for them will rise considerably.
8. People will be able to stay at home and do everything by computer and videophone.
9. At the same time, the expensive social problems of a young society (crime, drugs, divorce)
could decline.
10. But this probably wont matter, because scientists will use genetic engineering to produce oil
from plants.
11. In the future we will continue to destroy huge areas of rain forests and other important
natural habitats.
12. Patterns of work may change. People might decide not to go to banks, offices, schools or
shops any more.

50

CONDITIONALS
1. Rewrite these sentences using the verbs in brackets:
1. He wont do it unless we pay him. (if)
2. Ill come out tonight if I dont have to work. (unless)
3. Perhaps hell call you if he gets home in time. (might)
4. Ill have to move house unless I find a job soon. (if)
5. If he doesnt arrive soon, well go without him. (unless)
6. Perhaps Ill go away this weekend unless my friends come to visit. (might, if)

## 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of make or do:

1. He a decision when his boss gets back.
2. I dinner after I the washing up.
3. I some work before everyone arrives.
4. If you the cleaning, I the shopping.
5. As soon as I .. some progress, Ill let you know.
6. I my homework after this programme finishes.
7. You wont any money until you a business course.
8. I an appointment with the doctor when I have time.
9. I the washing if you her birthday cake.

3. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. All the sentences are about the future:
1. When he . (get) home, I . (tell) him you called.
2. I . (phone) her before I . (go) home.
3. I . (not go) to the concert unless I . (feel) better.
4. As soon as I . (finish) this, I . (help) you.
5. I . (wait) here until you . (get) back.

## 4. Complete these sentences for you:

1. As soon as I get home today, I ..
2. If I have any phone messages, I ..
3. Before I go to bed tonight, I ..
4. Ill be at the next class unless ..
5. I want to study English until ..
6. Im going to this weekend unless ..
7. When I retire, I think I ..
8. Ill be very happy if ..
9. I might move house when ..

51

## 5. Are you a risk-taker?

1. If I won a parachute jump in a competition,
a.) I wouldnt do it. b) Id do it.
c) Id do it if a friend jumped with me.
2. If someone asked me to hold a tarantula,
a) Id do it.
b) Id do it but Id wear gloves.

## 3. If someone asked me to be on a reality TV programme,

a) Id definitely say no. b) Id say yes immediately.
c) Id say maybe and think about it.
4. If someone offered me \$100 to dye my hair pink,
a) Id do it.
b) I wouldnt do it.
c) Id do it but only for \$ 1,000.
5. If I was in a foreign country and was given insects to eat,
a) Id eat them. b) Id eat them if there was nothing else
c) I wouldnt eat them.
6. If I went to a party and there was a karaoke machine,
a) Id only sing if all my friends did. b) Id definitely sing. c) Id go home immediately.
7. If someone offered to hypnotise me,
a) Id say yes immediately
b) Id ask my friend to try it first.

## C) Id definitely say no.

6. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets, then complete the
sentences for you:
1. If I (can) live anywhere in the world, I (live) in
2. If I (have) more free time, I (like) to ..
3. If I (can) have any job in the world, I (be) a/an
4. If I (not be) in this English class now, I (be)
5. If I (have) more money, I (buy)
6. If I (can) change one thing in my life, I (change) ..
7. If I (win) a holiday anywhere in the world, I (go) to
8. If I (not live) where I do, I (like) to live in
9. If I (can) change places with one person in the world, I (choose)

## 10. If I (be) a film star, I (like) to make a film with

11. If I (live) in another country, I (miss)
12. If I (can) talk to a famous person from history, I (talk) to

## 7. Write second conditional sentences for these first conditional sentences:

1. If I can find him, Ill tell him.
3. If he lives with us, well look after him.
4. If you dont like the flat, well move.

52

THE PASSIVE
1. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct active or passive form:
Pierre Omidyar .. (start) eBay in his apartment in 1995. At that time his website
(call) AuctionWeb, but he . (change) the name to eBay in 1997. On its
first day AuctionWeb . (not visit) by a single person, but eBay has become one of
the most successful Internet businesses in the world. It now (have) over 27,000
categories and it (use) by over 114 million people. About 100,000 people
(make) their living by selling things on eBay. Many people (go) to eBay
to buy and sell unusual things. One person (buy) a piece of toast, half-eaten by
Justin Timberlake, for \$ 1,025, and a game of golf with Tiger Woods (buy) by a fan
for \$ 425,000. One person even (try) to sell absolutely nothing he got \$ 1.03!

2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the following verbs: manufacture, direct, make,
write, build, then complete the sentences to make them true for you:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My favourite book .. by . .
My mobile phone .. in .
My favourite film .. by .
My favourite shoes .. in .

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets, then
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Pablo Picasso/Henri Matisse .. (paint) Guernica.

Rolex watches .. (make) in Japan/Switzerland.
Porsche cars .. (manufacture) in Germany/Sweden.
The 2002 World Cup .. (win) by Brazil/Germany.
Frankenstein .. (write) by Gordon Byron/Mary Shelley.

53

a)
b)
c)
d)

## How has climate change changed the worlds weather?

What can we do to stop global warming?
What is global warming?
How will climate change affect the world in the future?

1.____________________________________________________
Heat from the sun is held in the Earths atmosphere by natural greenhouse gases. They keep the
planet warm (without them the average temperature would be about -18C instead of 14C.
However more and more heat is being kept in the atmosphere because of man-made
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, which is produced by burning coal, oil and gas. Global
warming is already causing climate changes all over the world.
2._____________________________________________________
Since the 1970s, average temperatures have risen by about 0.6C and many experts believe that
more extreme weather conditions have been caused by climate change in recent years. E.g. New
Orleans was hit by a huge hurricane in 2005. Many people died and thousands became homeless.
And in the summer of 2003, 15,000 people died in France in a heat wave.
3.____________________________________________________
Scientists believe that more and more places are going to be affected by climate change in the
future. As ice caps at the North and South Poles melt and sea levels rise further, many towns and
villages near the coasts will be flooded.
4.____________________________________________________
A lot has been written about what should be done to slow down global warming. Theres a lot we
can do to save energy at home. E.g. always turn off TVs, DVD players and computers
machines use 70% as much electricity on stand-by as when they are being used. Many other
useful tips can be found on public information websites.

## 5. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with one word:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

54

Without natural greenhouse gases, the Earth would be 32C than it is.
Because the Earth is getting hotter, the is changing.
A lot of people died in France because of very weather.
Sea levels are because the polar ice caps are disappearing.
We can save by turning off machines instead of leaving them on stand-by.

## 6. Choose the correct verbs form in the following text:

The Earth hits/is hit by lightning 8.6 times a day. Scientists say theres a 1 in 3 million chance you
will hit/will be hit by lightning, but that depends on how much time you are spent/spend outdoors. A
park ranger from Virginia, USA, was hit/hit by lightning seven times in his lifetime. On different
occasions he lost/was lost his toenails, hair and eyebrows. The final lightning strike happened/was
happened while he was fishing and he took/was taken to hospital with chest and stomach burns.

## 7. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form of the passive:

1.
a.) Towns all over the country ..(flood).
b.) In the future many more disasters .. (cause) by global warming.
c.) Several houses .. (hit) by lightning last night.
d.) Facts about climate change should .. (teach) in schools.
e.) Conferences on world pollution .. (hold) every year.
f.) Important laws about industrial pollution .. (introduce) in the next ten years.
2.
Nowadays, parts of Venice .. (flood) every third day. People think the water will
rise another 20 cms in the next fifty years. This means that the town .. (flood)
much more often. A lot of money (already collect) to save Venice and many
buildings . (now repair). More money must .. (find) quickly and
some people dont think the city can .. (save). Most experts agree that if important
work .. (not do) soon, some of the worlds most beautiful buildings
.. (lose) forever.

55

COMMUNICATION FILE
STARTING WITH REVISION
Make questions with these words:
1. from/parents/do/your/Where/come?
2. do/on/Who/with/holiday/usually/go/you?
3. like/do/on/money/spending/your/you/What?

## Make questions with these words:

1. to/you/music/What/do/kind of/listen?
3. to/you/countries/want/to/Which/go/do?
4. the/you/do/go/with/to/usually/cinema/Who?
5. town or city/come/your/Which/best/does/from/friend?

NUMBERS (pairwork)
STUDENT A
E.g. How many yards is one metre?
1 cm = 0.393701 in
1 m = .yd
1 m =3.2808 ft
1 km = . miles
100 C = 212 F
0 C = F
1 kg = 2.2 lb
1 g = ..oz
1 L = 1.76 pints (UK)
1 L = 2.133 pints (USA)
1 tonne = tons
The Hoover dam is located 50 kms south-east of Las Vegas in the USA. It was built in the
1930s to stop flooding and provide irrigation, domestic water, and power. First they had to
reroute the Colorado river through tunnels, and then they had to build the dam itself. Its 221
metres tall, 201 metres wide at its base, and it weighs nearly six billion tonnes. When it was
finished, it was the largest dam in the world. Amazingly, the whole construction project was
completed in just under five years.
56

The Colorado River is 2,253 km long. When they were building the Hoover dam, they
rerouted the river through tunnels. The tunnels had a total length of 4,860 m and they were
over 15 m in diameter. They were lined with 229,359 m of concrete. The tunnels could carry
over 5,500 m of water per second.
They started laying the concrete in June 1. and finished in May 2. The dam was
built in blocks that varied in size from about 3m at the bottom to about 4. m
at the top. To set the concrete they laid more than 5. km steel pipe in the concrete and
pumped icy water through it. The water came from a refrigeration plant that could produce
6. tonnes of ice a day.

## PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST (pairwork)

1. Fill in the gaps with you and the correct form of these verbs: see, decide, have, go
away, know, rent, speak. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Whats the best film you .. recently?

.. to anyone in your family today?
.. any DVDs last month?
. what to do this evening yet?
How long the other students in the class?
for the weekend last month?
. ever . a really bad holiday?

2. Fill in the gaps with you and the correct form of these verbs: miss, have, go on, get, do,
study, see. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

. ever . a plane?
. anything good on TV this week?
. any long journeys lately?
.. anything special with your friends or family on your last birthday?
How long .. your mobile phone?
.. any emails or text message yesterday?
Is this the first time . the Present Perfect Simple?

57

MAKE OR DO
Do we use make or do with these phrases?
the cleaning, a decision, a course, a mistake, homework, money, friends, nothing, exercise, the
washing up, a noise, the shopping, dinner, some work, the washing, a degree, an excuse, someone
cry/laugh, an exam, up your mind, the housework, progress, a cake, someone a favour, an
appointment

## Fill in the gaps with the correct form of make or do:

FIND SOMEONE WHO
- . someone a favour last weekend.
- has . some exercise this week.
- is good at . people laugh.
- usually has to . dinner for other people.
- likes . nothing at the weekend.
- has . some new friends this year.
- is going to . some shopping after class.
- often has to . excuses for being late.

## THE FUTURE (pairwork)

STUDENT A
Do you think well ever be able to
1. live 50 per cent longer?
2. clone ourselves?
3. live on Mars?
4. stay in bed and
let machines do all the work for us?

CONDITIONALS (pairwork)
STUDENT A

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. If you . (win) a travel competition, where would you go?
2. If you . (can) have a dinner with anyone in the world, who would you choose?
3. If there . (be) a fire in your house, what would you take out of the house first?
4. If you .(can) be in a TV programme, which one would you like to be in?
5. If you . (be) a famous actor, who would you like to be?

58

STUDENT A

2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. What . you . (do) if you suddenly . (become) incredibly rich?
2. If you . (not study) English, which language . you . like to study?
3. If you . (have to) sing in a karaoke bar, which song . you ..(like) to sing?
4. How . your life . (be) different if you . (live) in the USA?
5. If you . (can) have dinner with a famous actor or actress, who . you .
(choose)?

PASSIVE (pairwork)
STUDENT A

1. Look at the information below. Can you guess any of the missing information?
E.g. When was the telephone invented?
1. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in . (when?)
2. The ballpoint pen was invented by Laszlo Biro in 1938.
3. (what?) was invented by the Aztecs in South America over fifteen hundred years
ago.
4. Fibre optics were invented in India in 1955.
5. Jeans were invented by (who?) in 1873.
6. The first successful aeroplane flight was made by the Wright brothers in 1903.
7. Paper was invented (where?) around 105.
8. Teabags were invented by Thomas Sullivan in 1904.

59

STUDENT A

2. Write questions with the given words in the Present Simple passive or Past Simple
Passive:
1. Who/the Mona Lisa/ paint/ by?
a) Van Gogh
b) Picasso

c) Leonardo da Vinci

2. Where/cotton/grow?
a) India
b) England

3. When/Taj Mahal/build?
a) 1316
b) 1631

c) 1813

## 4. Who/the film Titanic/direct/by?

a) James Cameron b) Steven Spielberg

## c) Francis Ford Coppola

5. Where/Volvo cars/manufacture?
a) Spain
b) Sweden

c) Japan

a) 1990
b) 1997
c) 2003

STUDENT A

## 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct active or passive form:

1. Do you think people (take) the problem of global warming seriously enough in
2. Whats the best thing that individual people can (do) to help the environment?
3. Do you think children (teach) enough about the environment in schools these
days?
4. Do you think air travel should (make) more expensive to reduce the number of
flights?
5. What (happen) when we run out of oil?

60

STUDENT A

## 4. Choose the correct auxiliaries in the news summary:

in Texas, and hundreds of homes have/have been destroyed. Over 50 people have/have been injured,
but so far nobody has/has been died.
The England footballer Phil West has just/has just been told the media that hes getting married
next year. Phil and his girlfriend, Sally, have/have been already decided where to have the wedding,
but so far the location has/has been kept a secret.

1. How many paintings have been stolen from the British Gallery?
2. Has anyone been arrested?
3. Why has the actor Gary Sanders just arrived in the UK?
4. How many people in the USA have seen the film Last Chance?

NUMBERS (pairwork)
STUDENT B
E.g. How many inches is one centimetre?
1 cm = . in
1 m = 1.09361 yd
1 m = . ft
1 km = 0.62 miles
100 C = .F
0 C = 32 F
1 kg = . lb
1 g = 0.03527 oz
1 L = . pints (UK)
1 L = . pints (USA)
1 tonne = 1.1023 tons

The Hoover dam is located 50 kms south-east of Las Vegas in the USA. It was built in the
1930s to stop flooding and provide irrigation, domestic water, and power. First they had to
reroute the Colorado river through tunnels, and then they had to build the dam itself. Its 221
metres tall, 201 metres wide at its base, and it weighs nearly six billion tonnes. When it was
finished, it was the largest dam in the world. Amazingly, the whole construction project was
completed in just under five years.

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The Colorado River is ..1 km long. When they were building the Hoover dam, they
rerouted the river through tunnels. The tunnels had a total length of ..2.. m and they were
over ..3.. m in diameter. They were lined with ..4.. m of concrete. The tunnels
could carry over ..5.. m of water per second.
They started laying the concrete in June 1933 and finished in May 1935. The dam was built in
blocks that varied in size from about 20 m at the bottom to about 2.3 m at the top. To set the
concrete they laid more than 900 km steel pipe in the concrete and pumped icy water through
it. The water came from a refrigeration plant that could produce 907 tonnes of ice a day.

THE FUTURE
STUDENT B
Do you think well ever be able to
1. all speak just one language?
2. stop wars and live together in peace?
3. find an acceptable alternative to
fossil fuels (oil, coal)?
4. discover the meaning of life?

CONDITIONALS (pairwork)
STUDENT B

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. If you . (can) buy any car in the world, which car would you buy?
2. If you . (be) a famous musician or singer, who would you like to be?
3. If you . (can) travel back in time, which time would you choose?
4. If you . (know) that the world was going to end in 24 hours, what would you do?
5. If you . (need) \$ 100,000 very quickly, how would you get it?
STUDENT B

2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. If you . (not be) in an English class now, where . you . (be)?
2. What . you . (do) if you . (find) someones personal diary?
3. If you . (have to) go and live on your own for a month, which books . you
. (take) with you?
4. How . your life . (change) if you suddenly . (become) famous?
5. If you . (find) someones mobile phone in a caf, what . you . (do)?

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PASSIVE (pairwork)
STUDENT B

1. Look at the information below. Can you guess any of the missing information?
E.g. Who invented the ballpoint pen?
1. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
2. The ballpoint pen was invented by (who?) in 1938.
3. Chocolate was invented by the Aztecs in South America over fifteen hundred years ago.
4. Fibre optics were invented (where?) in 1955.
5. Jeans were invented by Levi Strauss in 1873.
6. The first successful aeroplane flight was made by the Wright brothers (when?)
7. Paper was invented in China around 105.
8. (what?) were invented by Thomas Sullivan in 1904.
STUDENT B

2. Write questions with the given words in the Present Simple passive or Past Simple
Passive:
1. Where/paper/first make?
a) Egypt
b) India

c) China

2. When/Hamlet/write?
a) 1401
b) 1601

c) 1801

## 3. Where/first passenger jet plane/build?

a) the UK
b) the USA
c) Germany
4. Who/television/invent by?
a) Thomas Edison
b) J L Baird

c) G Marconi

a) Spain
b) France

c) Russia

## 6. Who/the Star Wars films/direct by?

a) Alfred Hitchcock b) Steven Spielberg c) George Lucas

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STUDENT B

## 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct active or passive form:

1. Do you think global warming (take) seriously enough by governments around the
world?
2. What (do) in Hungary in the last few years to deal with climate change?
3. Which parts of Hungary (damage) in the last few years because of climate
change?
4. Do you think governments should (do) more to stop people using their cars so
much?
5. Do you think the problem of climate change can only (solve) by governments
and multinational companies?

STUDENT B

## 4. Choose the correct auxiliaries in the news summary:

Seventeen paintings have/have been stolen from the British Gallery in London. The gallerys
manager, Brian Lee has/has been asked the public for help.in catching the robbers. And we have
just/have just been told that three men have/have been arrested in connection with the robbery.
The actor Gary Sanders has just/has just been arrived in the UK for the opening of his new film,
Last Chance. The film has already/has already been seen by over 20 million people in the USA, and
the actor has/has been said that its the best film hes ever made.

1. Which part of the USA has been hit by tornadoes?
2. How many people have been injured?
3. When is the footballer Phil West getting married?
4. Do we know where the wedding will be yet?

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CONTENTS

TECHFILE-INTRODUCTION
1. NUMBERS, SHAPES, MEASUREMENT
2. SIMPLE MACHINES
3. THE FUTURE
4. MACHINES, MACHINE TYPES
5. METALS, PLASTICS, BIOPOLYMERS
6. FABRICS
7. ENGINE TYPES
8. TRENDS, GRAPHS, CHARTS
9. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
10. WRITING EMAILS
11. LETTERS OF APPLICATION

1
2
6
8
11
16
20
24
28
34
39
42

GRAMMAR FILE
STARTING WITH REVISION
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST
WHO, THAT, WHICH
THE FUTURE
CONDITIONALS
THE PASSIVE

45
45
47
48
49
50
51
53

COMMUNICATION FILE

56

65

Sources

## An Introduction to Scientific Texts. Gpipari s Automatizlsi Fiskola, Kecskemt

Fehrn Torma Magdolna: Business English. (Fiskolai jegyzet)
Eric H. Glendinning: English in Mechanical Engineering. Oxford UP
Vicky Hollett: Tech Talk. Oxford UP
Tom Hutchinson: Lifelines Intermediate. Oxford UP
Chris Redston Gillie Cunningham: face2face pre- intermediate, intermediate. Cambridge UP
http://www.futureforall.org
http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical
http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/weblessons/simplemachines
http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsToolbox.html

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