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A STUDY ON EMPLOYABILITY OF

ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN MUMBAI AND


PUNE REGION
Dissertation Submitted to D. Y. Patil University, Navi Mumbai,
Department of Business Management
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the
Degree of

MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY
in
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Submitted by
KEERTHI MENON
(Enrolment No.: DYP-M.Phil-11002)

Research Guide
Prof. Dr. R. GOPAL
DIRECTOR, DEAN & HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
D.Y. PATIL UNIVERSITY, NAVI MUMBAI,
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT,
CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614
July 2014
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A STUDY ON EMPLOYABILITY
OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN
MUMBAI AND PUNE REGION
To be employed is to be at risk
To be employable is to be secure
- Peter Hawkins

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the thesis titled A Study on Employability of Engineering


Students in Mumbai and Pune Region submitted for the Award of Master of
Philosophy (M. Phil) in Business Management at D. Y. Patil University, Navi
Mumbai, Department of Business Management is my original work and the
dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship,
fellowship or any other similar titles.
The material borrowed from other sources and incorporated in the thesis has been
duly acknowledged. I understand that I myself could be held responsible and
accountable for plagiarism, if any, detected later on.
The research papers published based on the research conducted in the course of the
study are also based on the study and not borrowed from other sources.

Date:

Signature of the student


Enrollment No: DYP-M.Phil-11002

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled A Study on Employability of


Engineering Students in Mumbai and Pune Region is the bonafide research work
carried out by Ms. Keerthi Menon, student of Master of Philosophy (Business
Management), at D. Y. Patil University, Navi Mumbai, Department of Business
Management during the period, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award
of the Degree of Master of Philosophy (Business Management) and that the
dissertation has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree, diploma,
associateship, fellowship or any other similar title of any University or Institution.

Place: Mumbai
Date:

_____________
Signature of the Guide

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The present work has been completed with active assistance and guidance of various
persons. Many of them have rendered valuable help at various stages. Although it is
not possible to mention all names that rendered their valuable and generous help in
their own way, but it would be ungrateful if I do not acknowledge those without
whose assistance it wouldnt have been possible to conduct this study.
In the first place, I am indebted to the D.Y. Patil University, Navi Mumbai,
Department of Business Management which has accepted me for M. Phil program
and provided an excellent opportunity to carry out this research project.
It is my profound privilege and immense debt of gratitude to acknowledge the
guidance provided by Prof. Dr. R. Gopal, Director, Dean and Head of the
Department at D.Y. Patil University, Navi Mumbai, Department of Business
Management. It is primarily his encouragement and guidance, which has been a
source of deep and heartfelt inspiration for me.
Also it is a matter of utmost pleasure to express my sincere gratitude to persons
like Mr. Anil Deshmukh (Dean, D.Y. Patil, Lohegaon, Pune), Mr. Ajay Saraf (Data
Analyst), who extended their maximum help to supply information for the present
thesis which became available on account of their selfless co-operation.
I would also like to thank my family members, friends and my students for helping
out in some of the aspects of data collection. Being around them made it easier to
solve the problems effectively.

Place: Mumbai
Date:

____________
Signature of the Student

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This thesis is dedicated to my parents


(Late) Mr. Muralidharan Menon
and
Mrs. Leela M Menon

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER
No.
PRELIMINARY

TITLE

PAGE
No.

TITLE

DECLARATION

CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

10

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

13

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
1.1Overview of Indias Higher Education System
1.2 Recent trends in the Higher Education Sector in
India

23

CHAPTER 2

Review of the Literature


2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Research Gap

34

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 4

Objective and Research Methodology


3.1 Research Problem
3.2 Statement of Research Objective
3.3 Hypothesis
3.4 Data Description
3.5 Research Instruments
3.6 Sample Description
3.7 Data Analysis
3.8 Limitations of the Research
Indian Higher Education
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Higher and Technical Education of India
5.3 Expansion of Technical Education
5.4 The context for change

62

70

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CHAPTER 5

Engineering and Employability


6.1 Overview of Engineering Education
6.2 History of engineering education
6.3 Globalization of Indian Engineering Education
6.4 Challenges Ahead
6.5 The New Economy

88

CHAPTER 6

Data Analysis and Findings

106

CHAPTER 7

Conclusion

148

CHAPTER 8

Recommendations and Suggestions

153

CHAPTER 9

Appendix I Bibliography

158

Appendix II Questionnaires

165

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LIST OF TABLES
Sr. No.

Table no.

Title

Page no.

1.

Table 1.1

Trend in Growth of Higher Education in


India

05

2.

Table 1.2

Growth of Technical Institutions in India

07

3.

Table 2.1

Employability Skills

17

4.

Table 2.2

Engineering Attributes Required by EAC


(Malaysia)

20

5.

Table 3.1

Tabular Representation of Sample

46

6.

Table 4.1

Classification of Indian Higher Education


Sector

55

7.

Table 4.2

State- wise growth of Universities/


Institutes in India

57

8.

Table 4.3

Enrollment of Students in Higher


Education in India

62

9.

Table 5.1

Intake and graduation in IITs

72

10.

Table 5.2

Number of engineering colleges and intake

72

11.

Table 6.1

Consolidated Scores of Variables

96

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LIST OF FIGURES

Sr. No.

Figure
no.

1.

Figure 6.1

2.

Figure 6. 2

Title
Respondents according to city
Employability skills among Engineering

Page no.
85

96

Students of Mumbai and Pune


111

3.

Figure 6.3

Academic Respondents
112

4.

Figure 6.4

Faculties with Industry Background


113

5.

Figure 6.5

Provision for Placement cell

Figure 6.6

Academicians satisfied with engineering


Curriculum

Figure 6.7

Participation of Academicians in syllabi


revision

Figure 6.8

Method adopted by Institutes to contact


Corporate house

Figure 6.9

Placement among Mumbai and Pune


colleges

10.

Figure 6.10

Institutes maintaining contact with


Alumni

11

Figure 6.11

Institutes having Internal Assessment

114
6.

115
7.

8.

9.

116

117

118

119

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AICTE- All India Council of Technical Education
ALTC- Australian Learning and Teaching Council
BEM- Board of Engineers Malaysia
BHU- Banaras Hindu University
BSR- Basic Scientific Research Programme
BTE- Bureau of Technical Education
CAS- Centre for Advanced Study
CBI- Confederation of British Industry
CPE- Colleges with Potential for Excellence
DEST- Department of Education, Science and Training
DRS- Departmental Research Support
DSA- Department Special Assistance
EAC- Engineering Accreditation Councils (Malaysia)
ECPD- American Engineers' Council for Professional Development
GSA- Generic Student Attributes
HEIs- Higher Educational Institutes
ICT- Information and Communication Technology
IIITs- Indian Institutes of Information Technology
IIM- Indian Institutes of Management
IISERs- Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research
IISCs: Indian Institute of Science
IIT- Indian Institute of Technology
ISM- Indian School of Mines
ITGI- Information Technology Governance Institute
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MHRD- Ministry of Human Resource Development


MOHE- Ministry of Higher Education
MQA- Malaysian Quality Assurance
NAAC- National Assessment and Accreditation Council
NASSCOM- National Association of Software and Services Companies
NBA- National Board of Accreditation
NET- National Eligibility Test
NITs- National Institute of Technology
OECD- Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
RECs- Regional Engineering Colleges
SAC-PM- Scientific Advisory Committee of the Prime Minister
SAP- Special Assistance Programme
SPA- School of Planning and Architecture
TTTI- Technical Teachers Training Institutes
UGC- University Grants Commission
UNESCO-

United

Nations

Educational,

Scientific

and

Cultural

Organization
UPE- Universities with Potential for Excellence
WDA- Workforce Development Agency

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Education and training create assets in the form of knowledge and skills which
increase the productive capacity of manpower and this is referred to as human capital.
Education is considered to be a process of skill formation and in this aspect it is
treated at par with the process of capital formation. While on the one side we have the
worlds large stock of scientists, engineers and management graduates, we have been
unable to derive full economic benefit from this talent base because of the mismatch
between industry needs and university output. Skillful management of the intellectual
capital could be the driver for growth and is imperative for Indian economy.
Todays highly technical and sophisticated jobs demand a highly professional
candidate who can increase productivity and thereby increase the value of an
organization (Busse, 1992).Shift from production oriented engineering jobs to service
oriented engineering jobs demands professionals with both sound technical and
behavioral skills to attain and retain the job (Hillage J, 1999).
Without a quality human capital, a nation will be weak as there is no human factor
that is capable to embark on new initiatives and perspectives. A quality human capital
comes from a quality education process. A carefully designed and well planned
education system is critical to developing such human capital. Thus, institutions of
higher learning play a very important role and the teaching and learning processes.
Institutions of higher learning should provide such knowledge and skills to future
graduates.

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India with more than a billion residents has the third largest education system in the
world after China and USA. Education in India falls under the control of both the
Union Government and the State Governments, with some responsibilities lying with
the Union and the states having autonomy for others. As per the latest (2013) report
issued by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), there are more than
3524 diploma and post-diploma offering institutions in the country with an annual
intake capacity of over 1.2 million.
However this rapid scale in the number of colleges has appeared to impact the quality
of education as a result of which academic standards are not up to par by International
Standards. Todays diversified student body ranges from first generation learners who
attended publicly funded schools to those from professional and higher income
families who patronized private institutions. Many educational experts feel that the
quality of higher education has declined in an effort to serve the wide variety of
students entering today.
Curriculum content is criticized as outdated, with much reliance on rote teaching
methods. Students complain of too little connection to work related opportunities or
career preparation. Many feel they study for irrelevant degrees and are unprepared for
the world of work as a result. Today graduate unemployment is rising; in fact the
unemployment level of the educated workforce defined as secondary and above
level of education, is almost six times that of the workforce educated only up to the
primary level. The total number of registered unemployed topped 40 million Indian
residents, with many more unregistered but still interested in finding employment.
When trying to appreciate the potential of higher education to contribute to economic
well-being it is important to distinguish between the formations of subject specific

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understandings and skills and the promotion of other valued skills, qualities and
dispositions. On one side where the world of employment has by and large, been
satisfied with the disciplinary understanding and skills developed by graduates, it has
been less happy with their development of what have been termed generic skills,
such as communication, teamwork and time-management. The two greatest concerns
of employers today are finding good workers and training them. The difference
between the skills needed on the job and those possessed by applicants, sometimes
called the skills-gap, is of real concern to human resource managers and business
owners looking to hire competent employees. While employers would prefer to hire
people who are trained and ready to go to work, they are usually not willing to
provide the specialized, job-specific training necessary for those lacking such skills.
Today employability is far bigger a challenge than unemployment. Industry leaders
feel that the skills and quality of the workforce need a lot of improvement.
Plagued with problems like curriculum, lack of qualified faculty, poor quality of
content, and not-so-effective examination system, technical institutions do not provide
signaling value in the job market. And hence a disparity exists in the types of skills
taught at colleges and those that are demanded in industry.
The purpose of this study is to identify the employability skills required by young
Engineering graduates and assess how there can be a value creation through effective
knowledge management in terms of pedagogy, evaluation process and feedback
mechanisms.
The globalization emphasize on the knowledge economy thats why employability
becomes the central driver of the thinking business. This approach increases the

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attention for universities and they in turn are also focusing on producing employable
graduates through the development of skill and abilities in graduates.
The study is also aimed at identifying the new innovative methods adopted by the
Institutions of Higher Learning as an approach to imbibe employability skills among
the students and make them resourceful for serving the nation at large.
Employability of Engineering Graduates and their ability to deliver to industry
expectation after they are hired has been a matter of concern and engaging the
attention of academics and industry alike. A survey cum test conducted by EC
Council, a global leader in InfoSec certifications and training, highlights an alarming
crisis of talent gap in IT industry. The survey conducted in November 2013 shows
that less than one per cent of Indian IT students are skilled in secure programming,
while only 13 percent of engineering students were found trainable in the InfoSec
domain and around 86 per cent are unskilled even in its basics. As a major of number
of Indian students are unprepared and somehow hence unemployable, the role of
industry and academia becomes all the more challenging.
Such low readiness of fresh hires has resulted in long duration training programs
affecting both productivity and cost of operations in highly competitive industry. On
the other side educational institutes are facing diverse challenges like shortage of
skilled faculty and lack of clarity on what the Industry requires. Inability to make
students more professional team player and better communicator is only adding to the
problem.

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Statement of Research Objective


The present research is an effort1. To study the level of employability skills among the Engineering students of
Mumbai and Pune Universities
2. To identify the attributes looked upon by the IT companies in fresh/ amateur
Engineering Graduates
3. To study the level of differences in the skills expected and actual observed
among Engineering students
4. To identify the specific steps taken by the institutes of Mumbai and Pune
region to inculcate employability skills among the students

Research Methodology
The study is the result of information collected from both Primary and Secondary
sources. News journals and various websites on Engineering and AICTE (the
Governing Body of Technical Institutes in India) formed the source of Secondary
Data.
Primary Data emphasized on a 360 degree study covering the final year Engineering
Students, Academicians of Engineering Institutes and IT/ Manufacturing Company
recruiters as the respondents. Using questionnaire as a research instrument,
information was collected from Engineering Students and Corporate recruiters on
employability skills. The questionnaire for Academicians comprised of questions on
quality of Faculty Members, Curriculum, Placement and Assessment pattern of their
respective Institutes.

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The survey was conducted in selected colleges of Mumbai and Pune Universities. The
sample size consisted of 255 final year engineering students comprising of 143 and
112 students each from Mumbai and Pune region respectively. Similarly the sample
size for academicians was 30 and 18 for Mumbai and Pune region respectively. The
respondents for the survey were taken from 8 engineering colleges of Mumbai and 4
colleges of Pune University. The total number of respondents from corporate house
constituted to 15.
The sample size was derived using Judgmental Sampling as the sampling method,
keeping in mind the convenience and proximity of the researcher.
The overall data thus obtained through survey was analyzed using SPSS software,
resulting in accurate and precise information. The data collected from engineering
students was analyzed using z-test and ANOVA. The data obtained from corporate
being less than 30, it was analyzed using t-test. Lastly the responses of the
academicians were presented using frequency table and Pie diagram. In order to
determine the association between the initiatives taken by academic institutions of
Mumbai and Pune region, Pearson Chi-square test and ANOVA was used.

Limitations of the Study


The study is confined to selected colleges of Mumbai and Pune Region, which is the
hub of many industrial activities and is also the hub for large number of educational
institutes.

Findings
There is no doubt that the Higher Education sector in India is witnessing exponential
growth both in terms of number of institutions and the rate of enrollment. From just

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30 universities and 700 colleges in 1951, today there are over 600 universities and
33,000 colleges. Similarly, with over 21.4 million enrolments in 2012, India has
become the third largest education system in the world, after China and U.S.A.
However, ensuring quality in higher education is amongst the foremost challenges
being faced in India today with few institutes having achieved global recognition for
excellence.

As a result, there is an increase in awareness among the higher

educational institutions to assess and suitably enhance their educational system to


meet the needs of the society.
Also it was found that the companys perception on the employability skills of
industry trained students is relatively positive and this is shown in the analysis and
findings of the study. It was opined that industrial training does not only provide
professional feel of the actual engineering profession but also contribute in
developing the Generic Student Attributes (GSA) thereby increasing students job
marketability.
The study has also highlighted unawareness among the young engineers regarding the
expectations of the industry resulting in complete mismatch between the knowledge
gained by the students and the practice followed in corporate.
Lastly this study addresses the changing educational scenario and suggested few
operable approaches at all three levels viz., the Universities and higher educational
institutions, the corporate house and students as an individual to enhance employment
opportunities.

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Recommendations
Employability is a complex and subjective matter and something of a slowly moving
construct. The present research work has made an attempt to address the
employability dearth among the engineering students. Although it would not be
appropriate from this limited study to suggest wholesale changes to higher education
system, particularly one that necessarily recommends more emphasis on employment
skills, especially in competitive job market. Nevertheless in order to capitalize on the
intellect asset of the nation and to control skills- shortage it is essential to gear up the
system through innovative initiatives.
Following are the measures to be taken at Academic, Industry and at Student level in
order to make the human capital an asset to the nation.
At education level, institutes should take initiatives to build employable engineering
talents by:

Emphasizing on teachers training under train the trainer programmes thereby


focusing on teaching methods/pedagogy mandatory for engineering college
and university teachers.

Moving out of the student friendly examination and assessment pattern

Expand the concept of visiting faculty from corporate and familiarity to


technology to get the best minds to share their knowledge with the students

Enhancing the assessment and accreditation system to ensure quality in the


Higher education programmes.

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At industry level corporate house is expected to participate and communicate their


needs to the educational world by:

Conveying their expectations from the would -be graduating students during
campus recruitment

Join hands with educational institutes and share their expert service with
institutes through seminars and workshops

Provide more opportunities to students in the form of internship and short term
courses

At student level, one is expected to learn fundamentals and develop soft skills on his
own through the situations one encounter and experience he gain out of it. Also it is
expected from the students to be career oriented which can be one of the driving force
to develop employability skills.

Conclusion
In the wake of rapid growth in higher education and increased competition, graduates
are forced to equip themselves with more than just the academic skills traditionally
represented by a subject discipline and a class of degree.
The study conducted in Mumbai and Pune colleges reveals that employability skills
like personal attributes; decision making skills etc are not influenced by the grade or
level of the educational institute. Perhaps these are the skills developed by the student
on his own through the situations one encounter and experience he gain out of it. On
the other hand the study highlights that some skills like technical know- how and high
order skills are majorly developed by academics towards which the educational
institutes have a major role to play.

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At the institute level the study reveals that most of the academicians in both Mumbai
and Pune region are not satisfied with the engineering curriculum since they believe it
is not at par with the industry needs however they are also of the opinion that
understanding of the fundamentals is more important since without a strong
knowledge foundation the new methodologies of the industry cannot be adopted
easily.
The study has also taken into consideration the industry perspective which has
emphasized on academic- industry alliance. According to the corporate recruiters the
educational institutes while providing knowledge of fundamentals should also focus
on internship and interaction with industry experts since that would help in grooming
the prospect candidates for industry.

Future scope of Research


The present study which is limited to Mumbai and Pune region can be further taken to
PAN India level where the employability of the Indian graduates can be studied on a
larger scale. Also the since the study is limited to engineering course, it can be further
studied for other undergraduate courses as well.

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CHAPTER 1

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INTRODUCTION
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills,
and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next
through teaching, training, or research. It frequently takes place under the guidance of
others or may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the
way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. It is really a means to
discover new things which we don't know about and increase our knowledge.
Education is also regarded as one that contributes to social, political and cultural and
economic transformation of a country. The social sector of a country, namely, health,
rural development, education and employment generation has assumed great
significance in the new economic regime. The prosperity of any nation is intrinsically
linked to its human resources. Human capital is one of the most important assets of a
country and a key determinant of a nations economic performance. An increase in the
human development index would lead to high levels of economic growth of the
country. Adam Smith (1776) pointed out that a man educated at the expense of much
labour and time may be compared to one of those expensive machines (Smith) and
other classical economists observed that expenditure on education could be regarded
as a form of investments that promised future benefits. The strength of a nation is
dependent on its intellectual and skillful citizens. It can be observed that education is
an essential tool for achieving sustainability. Only a quality future human capital can
envision development of its nation to meet the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need.
A quality human capital comes from a quality education process. A carefully designed
and well planned education system is critical to developing such human capital. Thus,
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institutions of higher learning play a very important role and the teaching and learning
processes in institutions of higher learning should provide such knowledge and skills
to future graduates.
Governments around the world have drawn upon human capital theory (Becker 1975)
in the formulation of policy in respect of higher education. Human capital theory links
economic success to the education of the workforce. The development of
employability in graduates has thus become significant. When considering higher
educations potential for contributing to the economic well being it is helpful to
distinguish between the formation of subject specific understandings and skills and
the promotion of generic achievements. Where the world of employment has, by and
large been satisfied with the disciplinary understanding and skills developed as a
consequence of participation in higher education, it has been less happy with
graduates generic attainments like literacy and numeracy, self efficacy and metacognition.
Also to keep pace with global competition, fresh graduates need to adapt to the new
business environment and workplace demands. The key element to enable graduates
to keep up with those demands seems to be the employability skills and traits that are
imparted during tertiary education. It has also become a common belief in industry
that higher education institutions should equip graduates with the proper skills
necessary to achieve success in the workplace (Robinson & Garton, 2007).
Over the last five and a half decades, the technical and management education system
in the country has grown enormously. The system has built large capacities both in
conventional disciplines as also in many emerging fields. It is technology that lies at
the core of spiraling economic growth. India with more than a billion residents has

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the second largest education system in the world after China. Education in India falls
under the control of both the Union Government and the State Governments, with
some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others.
As per the latest (2013) report issued by the All India Council of Technical Education
(AICTE), there are more than 3524 diploma and post-diploma offering institutions in
the country with an annual intake capacity of over 1.2 million.
1.1 Indias Higher Education System
Education is recognized as one of the critical elements of the national
development effort and Higher education, in particular, is of vital importance for
the nation, as it is a powerful tool to build knowledge-based society of the 21 st
century. The Indian education system has conquered a strong position in
international circuit. India is today recognized as a world centre for higher
education amongst foreign students as the country has an unparalleled variety of
academic courses. The present education system in India mainly comprises of
primary education, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher
education. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Each of
secondary and senior secondary education consists of two years of education.
Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or
the 12th standard. Depending on the stream of graduation it can take three to five
years. Postgraduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After
completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational
institutes also remains open.
India possesses a highly developed higher education system which offers facility
of education and training in almost all aspects of human creative and intellectual
endeavors: arts and humanities; natural, mathematical and social sciences,
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engineering; medicine; dentistry; agriculture; education; law; commerce and


management; music and performing arts; national and foreign languages; culture;
communications etc. The institutional framework consists of Universities
established by an Act of Parliament (Central Universities) or of a State Legislature
(State Universities), Deemed Universities (institutions which have been accorded
the status of a university with authority to award their own degrees through central
government

notification), Institutes of National Importance (prestigious

institutions awarded the said status by Parliament), Institutions established State


Legislative Act and colleges affiliated to the University (both government-aided
and unaided). With all these developments the last two decades had witnessed
unprecedented growth in institutes of higher education primarily due to private
sector participation. The private sector is expected to provide useful contribution
in achieving the target of 30% GER by 2020 set by government of India.
Table 1.1: Trend in Growth of Higher Education in India

Source: Higher Education in India report by UGC- February 2012

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Currently the activities of Department of Higher Education are focused towards


developing India as a knowledge society. The Departments constant endeavor is
to improve and expand education in all sectors, with a view to eliminate
disparities in access and lay greater emphasis on the improvement in the quality
and relevance of education at all levels. The role of Department, therefore,
includes policy formulation, programme implementation, coordination with other
stakeholders, knowledge management, research and innovation, creation of
intellectual property, training and capacity building, reaching out to disadvantaged
sections, women and minorities in the higher education sector. The Department
has also established a number of premier institutions which have come to acquire
a reputation for excellence and national importance. Improvement of access along
with equity and excellence, the adoption of state specific strategies, enhancing the
relevance of higher education through curriculum reforms, vocationalisation,
information technology, and quality of research, networking and distance
education are some of the main policy initiatives of the higher education sector.
The other important policy initiatives in higher education include programmes for
general development of universities and colleges; special grants for the
construction of hostels for women; scholarships to students, scheme to provide
interest subsidy on educational loans for professional courses to ensure that
nobody is denied professional education on account of financial wherewithal and
making interventions to attract and retain talent in the teaching profession in the
higher and technical education. Emphasis has been laid on expansion with equity,
use of ICT in education, promotion of research and quality education.

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Growth of Technical Education


The growth of Technical Education before independence in the Country has been
very slow. The number of Engineering Colleges and Polytechnics (including
Pharmacy and Architecture Institutions) in 1947 was 44 and 43 respectively with
an intake capacity of 3200 and 3400 respectively. Due to efforts and initiatives
taken during successive Five Year Plans and particularly due to policy changes in
the eighties to allow participation of Private and Voluntary Organizations in the
setting up of Technical Institutions on self-financing basis, the growth of
Technical Education has been phenomenal.

Table 1.2: Growth of Technical Institutions in India


Year

Engg.

Mgmt.

MCA

Pharma

Arch

HMCT

Total

Added in
Year

2006-07

1511

1132

1003

665

116

64

4491

171

2007-08

1668

1149

1017

854

116

81

4885

394

2008-09

2388

1523

1095

1021

116

87

6230

1345

2009-10

2972

1940

1169

1081

106

93

7361

1131

2010-11

3222

2262

1198

1114

108

100

8004

643

2011-12

3393

2385

1228

1137

116

102

8361

357

2012-13

3495

2450

1241

1145

126

105

8562

201

Source: All India Council for Technical Education Handbook (2013-14)


1.2 Accreditation and Recognition of Higher Education Institutions
All universities in India come under the jurisdiction of the University Grants
Commission (UGC) and all institutions of technical education (IITs, IIMs, IISCs,

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IISERs, NITs, SPAs) are regulated by All India Council for Technical Education
(AICTE). It is mandatory for all institutions to be recognized by the appropriate
national level statutory bodies established by the Government of India for compliance
to quality standards.
Higher Education: Department of Higher Education of the Ministry of
Human Resource Development is the highest authority in Indian Central
government which is responsible for secondary and tertiary education
system. More than 100 bodies having different

functions and

responsibilities fall under Department of Higher Education, for instance University Grants Commission and All India Council of Technical
Education, besides Central Universities and reputed Institutions like IITs,
IIMs, IISCs, IISERs, NITs, SPAs.
University

Grants

Commission

(UGC):

The

University

Grants

Commission is a statutory organization established by an Act of


Parliament in 1956 for the coordination, determination and maintenance of
standards of university education. Apart from providing grants to eligible
universities and colleges, the Commission also advises the Central and
State Governments on the measures which are necessary for the
development of Higher Education. UGC is also responsible for
accreditation and recognition of HE Institutions and for conducting
National Eligibility Test (NET) for determining eligibility for lectureship
at Colleges and Universities).
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE): The All India
Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set up in 1945 as an
advisory body and later on in 1987 given the statutory status by an Act of
30 | P a g e

Parliament. The AICTE grants approval for starting new technical


institutions, for introduction of new courses and for variation in intake
capacity in technical institutions.
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC): It is an
autonomous body which has been established by the University Grants
Commission in 1994 in pursuance of the recommendations made by the
National Policy of Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA),
1992 which lay special emphasis on evaluating the quality of higher
education in India. The prime mandate of NAAC, as envisaged in its
Memorandum of Association (MoA), is to assess and accredit institutions
of higher learning, universities and colleges or one or more of their units,
i.e., departments, schools, institutions and programmes.
National Board of Accreditation (NBA): Similar to NAAC is NBA,
another important accreditation body. National Board of Accreditation
(NBA) which was set up in 1994 under Section 10(u) of the AICTE Act
awards accreditation status to programmes as accredited for five years,
accredited for three years and Not Accredited (NA). Accreditation is now
based on a 1000 point scale and is an outcome based accreditation system.
1.2 Recent trends in the Higher Education Sector
Over the past few decades, the global economy has shifted from being manufacturingcentric to a knowledge-driven one and as countries move up the ladder of
development, the contributions of hi-tech manufacturing and high value-added
services to the GDP increases. Success in leveraging knowledge and innovation is
only possible with a sound infrastructure of higher education. A successful education
policy forms the foundation of all fields of national development including political,
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social, economic, technical, scientific, and environmental. Thus, the higher the quality
of university education in a country, the more prosperous and competitive are the
people.

Higher Education in India is decentralized under the DHE with separate


councils (eg. AICTE, MCI etc) responsible for regulation of different streams.

The UGC has allocated a general budget of Rs. 5244 crores for the year 201112 to be distributed under different categories

Private institutions in India are focusing more on professional courses such as


Engineering, Medical and MBA

GER has increased to 15% in 2009-10from 11.5% in 2005-06. GER for the
year 2010-11 was estimated at 16%

Faculty wise the figure of enrollment of higher education for the year 2010-11
has been increased in certain streams which include arts (17.88%), science
(31.68%),

commerce/

management(38.98%),

medicine

(77.82%)

and

agriculture (38.33%).
12th Five Year Plan and scope for Public Private Partnership
The 12th Five Year Plan focuses on Expansion, inclusion and quality to achieve the
national goals in education. In the 12th plan, the Planning Commissions focus is on
instilling inclusive growth in making headway. The plan is expected to be one that
encourages the development of Indias education sector through government
spending.
The emergence of India as a service based, knowledge- driven economy has put the
spot light on human capital. Higher Education is essential to build a workforce
capable of underpinning a modern, competitive economy. The process of broadening
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access, making higher education inclusive and promoting excellence initiated during
the 11th Plan was expanded further during the 12th Plan.
On the whole, with new regulatory arrangements and focused actions in key areas,
particularly expansion and quality improvement, a robust higher education system
must be built such that it would sustain rapid economic growth, promote International
competitiveness, while at the same time meet the rising expectations of the young
enterprising Indians.

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CHAPTER 2

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Literature Review
The term Employability Skills was coined by the Conference Board in 1992 to
describe those skills which provide the basic foundation, the combination of skills,
attitudes and behaviors to get, keep and progress on a job, to work with others on a
job, and to achieve the best results. In ensuing years we have come to realize that
these skills are the skills needed for much more than employability. They are, in fact,
the generic set of skills that are needed throughout all career and life development
activities. They are not limited in their applicability and may be used in all
environments
What is Employability?
1. The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) (2009) defines employability as:
A set of attributes, skills and knowledge that all labour market participants
should possess to ensure they have the capability of being effective in the
workplace to the benefit of themselves, their employer and the wider
economy.
2. Employability refers to a person's capability for gaining and maintaining
employment (Hillage and Pollard, 1998).
3. Manchester

Metropolitan

University

defines

Employability

as

the

development of skills, abilities and personal attributes that enhance students


capability to secure rewarding and satisfying outcomes in their economic,
social and community lives
4. It is the capability to move self-sufficiently within the labor market to realize
potential through sustainable employment.
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5. Employability refers to an individuals perception of his or her possibilities of


getting new, equal, or better employment (Berntson, 2008).
6. A basic set of skills necessary for getting, keeping and doing well on a job
(Robinson, 2000).
7. The ability to keep the job one has or to get the job desires (Rothwell and
Arnold, 2007)
8. Employability is about the ability to make plans for the future, and the skills,
knowledge and confidence to progress these plans further. Dr Peter Hawkins
(1999)
9. A constellation of individual differences that predispose individuals to
(pro)active adaptability specific to work and careers (Fugate, 2006)
10. A set of achievements skills, understandings and personal attributes that
makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their
chosen occupation, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community
and the economy (Yorke 2006).
11. Employability is defined as acquiring creating and fulfilling work through the
use of competencies Heijde and Heijden (2006)
12. Employability in perspective of fresh graduate is viewed as the ability of a
person to

get

a job according to his /her educational standard

(Wickramasinghe, & Perera, 2010).


The above definition suggests the following key points:

Employability is not the same as finding employment but is more about the
capacity of the graduate to function in a work environment (although the more
employable graduates will probably be quicker to settle into work)

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Chosen occupation may mean different things to different people: this could
include full or part time work, portfolio careers, or blended lifestyles.

Skills and knowledge should not be seen in narrow terms, but rather could
be looked at as skilful practices and understandings, or capabilities

It encompasses both the requirement of higher education to contribute towards


the success of the workforce but also to the personal fulfillment of the
individual.

Employability is therefore mainly focused on a persons skill, knowledge and attitude.


These are the skills, which develop the attitude and action in the person which enable
him to work along with his fellow workers and supervisors and these skills develop
him so that he can take initiative and make critical decision (Robinson, 2000). It is not
just about vocational training and academic skills. It also depends upon labour market
and institutions, because a person with the same capability has different opportunity
in different market. It is acknowledged that the individuals ability to find paid work
will be affected by external factors such as the national economy and regional
variations, along with other personal constraints such as geographical mobility etc.
Therefore, employability is about the ability to make plans for the future, and the
skills, knowledge and confidence to progress these plans further. Dr Peter Hawkins
(1999) summed this up: To be employed is to be at risk. To be employable is to be
secure.
Employability is commonly seen as one of the manifestations of the rapid changes
associated with the globalization era of the past two decades (cf. Field 2000). It is
essentially a three-act story. First, the decline of industrial production and the rise of a
services- (even knowledge-) based economy in the OECD countries necessitate a new

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form of preparation for the world-of-work. Second, the dominance of Neo-Liberal


ideology makes even parties formerly of the left embrace education and work as the
ways to end poverty and social exclusion, and abandon the welfare state. Third, the
related notions of lifelong learning and boundary less careers portray this new world
as one of exciting opportunities for those that embrace it. All of these factors are held
to make a focus on an individual's ability to gain initial employment, maintain
employment, move between roles within the same organization, obtain new
employment if required and (ideally) secure suitable and sufficiently fulfilling work,
in other words- their employability, more important than the simple state of being
employed (Hillage and Pollard 1998).
What are Employability Skills?
Skill is an ability to perform a specific task and employability is about having the
capability to gain initial employment, maintain employment and obtain new
employment if required.
1. Employability criteria encompasses knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, skills
(Hillage & Pollard, 1998) and psychology that come from a wider meaning of
the word education and qualification with its connotations of synthesis,
evaluation and using the understandings of one scenario to be able to apply it
to another, which might be completely different in the future.
2. Employability skills are those basic skills necessary for getting, keeping, and
doing well on a job. Robinson (2000)
3. Employability skills as the skills that can be teachable (Lorraine, 2007) and
transferable (Yorke, 2006).
4. Employability skills are referred to as generic capabilities, transferable skills,
basic skill,

essential skills, work skills, soft skill, core skills, core


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competencies and enabling skills or even key skills (DEST 2007; Yorke, 2006;
Knight, P. and Yorke, M., 2002; Hiroyuki, 2004).
5. Employability skills are about defining a theoretically ideal employee from an
employers perspective (ALTC Report, 2009).
Employability skills are all about the ability of individuals to exhibit their skills to the
prospective employers and the ability to execute the tasks thereby achieving
organizational goals and objectives. Besides, it also talks about the ability to switch
over to other jobs comfortably. Employability skills refer to specific skills essential
for employment. These are the critical tools and traits required to perform tasks at
workplace. These skills are much sought after these days by employers. The needs of
employability skills differ from country to country and from sector to sector and from
time to time. However, certain qualities such as communication skills, interpersonal
skills, integrity, right attitude, problem solving, decision making and team building
skills can be taken as a few common skills of employability skills. In simple
Employability skills are the 'ready for work' skills vital to do the job!
Table 2.1: Employability Skills
Sr. No.

Employability skills

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Workplace literacy & numeracy


Information & communications technology
Problem solving & decision making
Initiative & enterprise
Communication & relationship management

6.
Lifelong learning
7.
Global mindset
8.
Self-management
9.
Workplace-related life skills
10.
Health & workplace safety
Source: Employability Skills identified by Workforce Development Agency (WDA),
Singapore (2006)

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What is Engineering?
According to Barker (1993), Engineering is, the art of directing the great source of
power in nature for the use and the convenience of humans. In its modern form
engineering involves people, money, materials, machines and energy. The difference
between a scientist and an engineer is that a scientist discovers and formulates into
acceptable theories, whereby an engineer requires the creative imagination to innovate
useful applications of natural phenomena.
Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles to design or develop
structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them
singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of
their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as
respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property
(ECPD, 1947).
It is the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to
design, build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials
and processes. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a
range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis
on particular areas of technology and types of application.
In simple words, Engineering is directed to developing, providing and maintaining
infrastructure, goods and services for industry and the community. It is therefore
essential for engineering graduates to have certain skills to help them apply and
practice the knowledge effectively in workplace.

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Employability of Engineering Graduates


Todays highly technical and sophisticated jobs demand a highly professional
candidate who can increase productivity and thereby increase the value of an
organization (Busse, 1992). Shift from production oriented engineering jobs to service
oriented engineering jobs demands professionals with both sound technical and
behavioral skills to attain and retain the job (Hillage J, 1999). An engineering
graduate with sound technical knowledge, pleasing personality and good
communication skills was the best choice for the organization (Forbes, 2004).
However today, Employability doesnt merely talk about attaining jobs (Atkins,
1999). It focuses on sustainability where the engineering professional can provide
technical solutions to the society through innovation and best practices. Thus
engineering employability skills can be defined as: Ability to perform engineering
related skills, knowledge and personal attributes to gain employment, maintain
employment and succeed in the engineering field.
In other words, engineering employability skills are highly related to technical and
non-technical skills or abilities.
Employability Skills for Engineering Graduate in Malaysia
Malaysian engineering education is mainly guided by accrediting body, Engineering
Accreditation Councils (EAC) of Malaysia and the Malaysian Quality Assurance
(MQA) Department of the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. EAC is the body
appointed by Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) for accreditation of engineering
programme in Malaysia. Accreditation policy required engineering graduates to have
the necessary attributes, skills and competencies reflected in the graduate outcomes
specified in EAC Manual.

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The EAC Manual was prepared keeping in mind the criteria followed by developed
countries across the world. The framework of The United State of America (USA),
United Kingdom (UK), Australia (AUS), Japan and European Union (EU) was used
as a reference for framing engineering employability skills in Malaysia
According to study done Malaysian employers agreed that more than 70% of the
attributes for engineers in EAC manual (Table 4) are important.
Table 2.2: Engineering Attributes Required by EAC (Malaysia)

Sr.
No.

ATTRIBUTES

1.

Ability to acquire and apply knowledge of science and engineering fundamentals

2.

Ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with the
community at large

3.

In-depth technical competence in a specific engineering discipline

4.

Ability to undertake problem identification, formulation and solution

5.

Ability to utilize a systems approach to design and evaluate operational performance

6.

Understanding of the principles of sustainable design and development

7.

Understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities and commitment to them

8.

Ability to function effectively as an individual and in a group with the capacity to be


a leader or manager as well as an effective team member

9.

Understanding of the social, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities of a


professional engineer, and the need for sustainable development

10.

Expectation of the need to undertake lifelong learning, and possessing/acquiring the


capacity to do so

Source: EAC Manual 2006

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Employability through curriculum


Governments around the world have drawn upon human capital theory (Becker 1975)
in the formulation of policy in respect of higher education. Human capital theory links
economic success to the education of the workforce. The development of
employability in graduates has thus become significant.
Graduate employability is being the possession of understandings, skills and personal
attributes necessary to perform adequately in a graduate- level job.
When considering higher educations potential for contributing to the economic well
being it is helpful to distinguish between the formation of subject specific
understandings and skills and the promotion of generic achievements. Where the
world of employment has, by and large been satisfied with the disciplinary
understanding and skills developed as a consequence of participation in higher
education, it has been less happy with graduates generic attainments like literacy and
numeracy, self efficacy and meta-cognition.
Improving Undergraduate Learning for Employability Through
International Exposure
Due to the evolution of technology, the world of business is morphing to a level
playing field where domestic and international competitors have equal opportunities
to capture customers and business globally. Ten historic flatteners are the key
contributors to modern-day globalization, including events like the collapse of the
Berlin Wall and innovations like offshoring and the internet. Adaptation to this
changing market environment is essential for business survival in the increasingly
competitive marketplace (Friedman, 2005).

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Globalization has altered the business world indefinitely, as well as the skills needed
by employees to excel in this new work environment. The global business mindset
drastically increases the likelihood that a business has customers or suppliers abroad
(Crossman & Clarke, 2010). This rise in multinational corporations is directly linked
with U.S. citizens being sent abroad on foreign work assignments. Clearly businesses
are adapting to optimize performance in the era of globalization. However, this leads
to several questions of interest to academia. Is the same adaptation exhibited by
businesses also changing the way future employees are being educated? How are
universities reacting to the changing work environment, specifically in regards to
international exposure to increase the employability of their graduates?
Effects of vocational choice and practical training on students
employability
Computers, communication systems have highly modernized industrial processes,
requiring highly trained and multi-skilled manpower (Walakira, 2000). Since the early
1990s the common wisdom has been that mergers, re-engineering, and downsizing in
industries/organizations have led to retention of core staff and sub-contracting most of
the jobs causing job insecurity for employees (Benson, 2006).
According to Moss and Frieze (1993), switching of career paths and fields of study is
natural among young adults as they discover their strengths, weaknesses, and realistic
demands of various careers. Feldman (2003) contributed that switching of career
paths is becoming common among teenagers and young adults. However, Dunegan
(1993) observed that young adults are slow starters in their identification of earlycareer goals in the process they build many criteria to maximize in a career, in so
doing no career seems particularly attractive. These young adults rather than

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satisfies with an option that at least minimally meets all relevant criteria (Simon,
1997) instead keep their options open for longer and longer periods (Feldman and
Whitcomb, 2005).
Consequently, employers observe and question the motivation and commitment of
applicants with noticeable delays in college graduation, numerous gaps in their
employment history, and frequent changes in jobs (Feldman, 2002).
Employability Skill among Professionals Chagrin of HR Executives in
Indian Labor Market
According to the study, students employability skills as a whole are at the moderate
level. When it comes to the High Order Thinking skills, Learning item has the
lowest mean score, which is truly significant to make consistence performance in ones
job. The study reveals the need for improvement in the employability status of the
respondents. Being good at the one skill cannot facilitate the competency in other. So
todays scenario is that the applicant who is multi tasking can sustain and gain in the
employment. The base of the entire career and its growth lies on the primary
education and its further hierarchical stages; hence the focus towards the learning
should start from the primary education and then should go further till the end of the
learning.
The redesigning of the university curriculum with more apprenticeship and live
industry projects will facilitate the pre job training which will surely enhance the
employability among graduates. The Indian educational governance is the one which
is in earnest need of reforming. Besides that, instructors should practice employability
skill during teaching and learning session so that it could assist students to understand
ways of applying the skills by themselves.
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Employability in MNCs: Challenge for Graduates


The increasing levels of technological sophistication and the speedy transfer of
information have diminished the competitive advantage that was once available
through the physical and organizational capital. Products are now more readily
copied, and processes replicated differentiation; thus rests with the people who
generate new ideas or with those who deliver the product. There is increasing
recognition, therefore, in the potential of the Human Capital that makes a considerable
and lasting impact on sustainable competitive advantage (Barney and Wright, 1998;
Wright, McMahan and McWilliams, 1994).
According to (Robinson, 2000; Davies, 2000) the major concern for the employer is
to finding the right person for the right job. But the area of concern for employer is
the skill gap which is the difference between skills what an organization wants and
what an applicant possess. According to the concept of resource based view, firms are
trying to carry on and develop their human capital which is the essence of
employability. Multinationals are reluctant in assigning jobs to the individual who is
raw and does not have any experience, on the other hand multinationals are always in
search of young talented people who does have some basic skills (Moy & Lee, 2002).
Evaluation of the effects of vocational choice and practical training on
students employability
According to Psacharopolous and Sanyal (1987), most students get their career
guidance from their relatives, friends and parents and leaving career masters the most.
According to Moss and Frieze (1993), switching of career paths and fields of study is
natural among young adults as they discover their strengths, weaknesses, and realistic
demands of various careers. Feldman (2003) contributed that switching of career
paths is becoming common among teenagers and young adults dissatisfied customers.
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However, Dunegan (1993) observed that young adults are slow starters in their
identification of early-career goals in the process they build many criteria to maximize
in a career, in so doing no career seems particularly attractive. These young adults
rather than satisfies with an option that at least minimally meets all relevant criteria
(Simon, 1997) instead keep their options open for longer and longer periods (Feldman
and Whitcomb, 2005).
Consequently, employers observe and question the motivation and commitment of
applicants with noticeable delays in college graduation, numerous gaps in their
employment history, and frequent changes in jobs (Feldman, 2002). Recognizing
these gaps, The UNESCO Educational Policy report (1998) recommended that career
guidance and counseling be significantly strengthened because of its utmost
importance for all clients of the education and training systems. That career guidance
should take into account the needs of industry, the individual and the family and be
sensitive to each learners requirements and circumstances. Furthermore that its role
should be extended to prepare students and adults for the real possibility of the
frequent career change, which could include periods of unemployment and
employment both in the formal and informal sector (The UNESCO Educational
Policy report, 1998). In todays economy, lifetime employment is not guaranteed and
individuals need to be resigned to involuntary career change at least once in a career
particularly due to lack of security of employment that puts the onus on the individual
to take control of his/her future employability (ODonoghue and Maguire,2005).
Employability: Is it Myth or Rhetoric?
Traditional categories of skills determining employability (mirrored by this papers
questionnaires) as examples, emphasize the practicalities and didactic nature of who
should get a chance of employment, typically; Qualifications, Experience, I.Q,

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References, Motivation, Personal Circumstances (Rodgers, 1952; Munro-Fraser,


1954). The writers believe that increasingly the nature of employment and thereby
employability will reflect growing complexity, ambiguity, conflict handling, and an
increasingly paradoxical state of affairs within life and commerce. By way of example
we have already seen a growth in using team approaches by firms with employees
who also need to possess an ability to handle change and cope often without having a
total picture of why. They are likely to be asked to be able to read situations quickly
and stay focused in the midst of even more growing uncertainty this trend may well
accelerate.
Much of the current selection process is reactive and rather like reading the road
ahead from the cars mirror rather than taking a zero based approach, where we have
to argue our case for the direction or argue what is really important for a potential job
and how it can best be filled and with what kinds of attributes/people. The employer
finds themselves selecting on criteria which is often didactic (Cox & King, 2006)
historicist and full of a need for conformity. Even if job interviewers are not
necessarily very conformist theres always the concern for what others might think;
customers, co workers even employers about who is to be employed. Most employers
like conformers, but thats not where creativity and the future lie, most probably.
When it comes to setting someone on for employment in the future in whatever form
that may turn out to be, today the robust methods for selecting candidates on
employability and the selection criteria currently used may not be fit for purpose in
the future.
Employability and Skills of Newly Graduated Engineers in India
In India shortages of skills are among the main constraints to continued growth of the
economy. Studies have shown that the problem is especially acute in industries

48 | P a g e

relying on engineers, where employers complain that most newly graduated engineers
lack suitable skills. Many attribute that lack to shortcomings in the education system.
Responding to a surge in demand for engineers, Indias higher education system
massively expanded the enrollment of engineering studentsand that expansion is
widely perceived as having led to a decline in the average quality of the students
enrolled, the teaching and, consequently, the graduating engineers.
The study conducted in 2009 of 157 employers across sectors and regions in India,
rated graduates relatively high on lower-order thinking skills (remembering,
understanding) but low on higher-order thinking skills (analyzing, evaluating, and
creating). These higher-order thinking skills are among the most important
professional skills for engineers. Unlike for soft skills, employers demands for
professional skills differ across sectors, company sizes, and regions.
Developing Soft Skills for Enhancing Employability of Engineering
Graduates
One of the challenges in engineering education in India today is to improve the soft
skills of the young engineers and prepare them for the workplace. The modern world
expects, along with hard or technical skills and latest knowledge in emerging areas,
cool and competent engineers who can acquit themselves well in the workplace. But
the reality is that in the increasingly globalised world and the internationalized nature
of workplaces, only 25% of the Indian engineering graduates are employable. They
need to improve dramatically in the areas of communication, language skills, team
work, learning new subjects and leadership.
Developing Generic Skills in Classroom Environment
Generic skills are employability skills used in the application of knowledge. These
skills are not job specific, but are skills which cut horizontally across all industries

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and vertically across all jobs from entry level to chief executive officer. The degree to
which students develop these skills determines how they solve problems, write
reports, function in teams, self assess and do performance reviews of others, go about
learning new knowledge, and manage stress when they have to cope with change.
Todays engineering graduates are not lacking in technical competency or in their
understanding of science, math, and physics. These graduates lack competency in the
generic skills that enable them to use their technical skills most effectively. Generic
skills enable them to use their technical abilities as a part of a team, to understand
conflict as a means for discussion instead of an angry confrontation, and to respect
difference as a creative opportunity rather than an obstacle. To achieve success,
todays engineers must be team members who thrive while working with a variety of
people having differing social, educational, and technical skills.
Graduates lacking of generic skills is a global issue. Employers worldwide found far
too many entry level job applicants deficient in generic skills, and want the public
schools or institutions of higher learning to place more emphasis on developing these
skills. Valuing generic skills-to the point of assigning them an even higher priority
than job-specific technical skills-employers are understandably distressed to find so
many entry-level job applicants lacking these skills.
Charner identified and catalogued the reasons given by employers for not hiring
young people for entry-level jobs, including:
Low grades and low levels of academic accomplishments
Poor attitudes, lack of self-confidence
Lack of goals, poorly motivated
Lack of enthusiasm, lack of drive, little evidence of leadership potential
Lack of preparation for the interview

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Excessive interest in security and benefits, unrealistic salary demands and


expectations
Inadequate preparation for type of work, inappropriate background
Lack of extracurricular activities
Inadequate basic skills (reading, writing, math)
Company perception on the employability skills of industrial training
students
The Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) has aggressively embarked on a mission
to take in students with soft skills development program in order to produce high
quality human capital, knowledgeable, competitive, has the creative and innovative
features and move in line with industry requirements and social needs of the country.
Soft skills such as human relations skills, communication skills, ethical behavior skills
and cognitive skills are the attributes that being considered by employers when
reviewing job applicants (Hamid, 2009).
Practical training has been viewed as an imperative method of providing possible
career choices for students. It provides the students with a first look at the realistic
working environment and also is the place for them to obtain hands on knowledge and
skills necessary in the industry of their choice. Industrial training does not only
provide professional feel of the actual engineering profession but also contribute in
developing Generic Student Attributes (GSA) hence increases students job
marketability. As a conclusion Industrial Training is an important phase in students
academic life and play vital role in preparing engineering students for their future
career.

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Formative Assessment in Higher Education


Research shows that formative assessment can exert a powerful effect on student
learning, yet the complexity of formative assessment is not well understood and some
curricular structures and practices do not fully exploit its potential. According to the
studies the curriculum needs to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the differing
developmental needs of students. There is a close relationship between employability
and good learning. Put another way, the incorporation of employability into curricula
need not be inimical to the traditional values of academics regarding student
development. However, the implications of the USEM account for pedagogic practice
are considerable.
Academics do not need to develop personal expertise in all of these areas, but they do
need to have some appreciation of the main ideas and how they might bear on the
practice of assessment.
Institutional units charged with educational development (however this might be
labeled) have a particular opportunity to support the enhancement of pedagogic
approaches.
Measurement of excellence in higher Education
Dr. R. Gopal, in his article titled Towards an educated India: Measurement of
excellence in Higher education published in FPJ has thrown light on various factors
influencing the higher education system. He has emphasized on achieving excellence
among institutions by focusing on certain parameters. According to him higher
education is the driver of personal and professional lives of various individuals. In
India the Gross Enrollment Ratio is quite low. However the fact nevertheless, remains
that the higher education system in India has grown in a significant way to become
one of the largest systems of its kind in the world. In addition to this Indias rise as

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one of the economic superpowers has increased the demand for quality management
education which will help to bring out managers who can effectively supervise,
manage and increase the growing business of India.
The changing drivers that influence the Higher Education System includes

Changing student demographics

New enrollment pattern

Information

Growth in the for profit higher education institutions

Changing nature of the workplace (from job security to job insecurity)

Formation of the Global village concept

In order to excel, institutions need to benchmark themselves with the best in the
industry. There is an urgent need to create a stimulating and challenging environment
of the equivalents of the Harvards and Stanfords in India.
Employability of engineering graduates alarming: Survey by PurpleLeap
Only one out of ten students graduating from tier 2, 3 and 4 engineering colleges is
readily employable, pointing to the yawning gap between education and
employability of the much-in-demand graduate pool, according to a latest survey.
An even more alarming fact is that one third of this group is unfit for employment,
even with external intervention in the form of training. And these findings are about
students who have done well academically; with at least 60% marks, said the
PurpleLeap IRIX (Industry Readiness Index) survey. The findings of the study have
posed a big challenge for small and medium sized companies that straddle the need to
increase capacity with the training imperative. The study looks into the reasons why
most organizations usually have to spend 3 to 4 months on technical training to make
these students workplace ready. It revealed that 62% of the students do not meet the

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requirements on the problem solving /analytical skills, challenging the popular notion
that engineering students are naturally good at these things. It also tried to intervene in
the quality of education in tier 1 institutes and perhaps the only silver lining in the
current situation is that the share of readily deployable talent in tier 2/3/4 colleges is
equal to the total talent pool in tier 1 engineering colleges. The study however
concluded with a need for systematic intervention to prevent the possible failure of
the technical education system in the country.
Many engineering students lack employable skills
Lack of skills forcing students to settle for non-technical jobs after engineering 36
per cent of all surveyed have no chance of an engineering job.
The study Employability Skill Index was done by PurpleLeap, a talent management
institute, among 9,000 students across 95 colleges in the country, including 600
students from 15 engineering colleges in Andhra Pradesh. It tested three key
employability skills - communication, problem solving and technical skills.
The study found that more than 80 per cent of the students do not meet the
requirements on the problem solving skills. The average score of State students was
less than 25 per cent against national average of 35 per cent. There are more than 50
per cent of the students who have scored less than 25 per cent in problem solving,
making them fall in the hard-to-train segment.
Need to Focus on Developing Employability Skills in our Engineering
Graduates
The industry requires new graduates who understand the part they play in building
their organizations, and have the practical skills to work effectively in their roles. It
means engaging with the organization and its goals, understanding the dynamics of
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the workplace, and taking up a job role with an informed knowledge of all of its
requirements. These are the skills, attitudes and actions that enable workers to get
along with their fellow workers and supervisors and to make sound, critical decisions.
Unlike occupational or technical skills, employability skills are generic in nature
rather than job specific and cut across all industry types, business sizes, and job levels
from the entry-level worker to the senior-most position.
If colleges want to improve the employability of their graduates, they have to focus on
reducing these important skill gaps through improvements in curriculum and teaching
methods. The Universities are required to play a significant role for the same so that
graduates have to be able to formulate, analyze, and solve a real life problem using
standard engineering techniques
Clueless

engineers:

National

Employability

Report

reveals

how

unemployable fresh engineering graduates are?


The National Employability Report on Engineering Graduates, released by Aspiring
Minds, an employability solutions company, shows that out of the five lakh engineers
who graduate from various engineering colleges across the country every year, only
17 per cent are fit for the IT services sector. The report was based on a sample of
more than 55,000 engineering students from 250 colleges chosen from the length and
breadth of the country. The challenge for an employer lies in shifting through all the
five lakh job applications before identifying the candidates with the right kind of skill
set.It is not just the technical and theoretical knowledge that the engineering graduates
lack but also the soft skills on which companies place more emphasis.

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Transforming the Unemployable MBA into an Employable MBA


In the article published in FPJ, titled Transforming the Unemployable MBA into an
Employable MBA, Dr. R. Gopal has made an attempt to get into the insight of the
MBA curriculum and integrate the learning aspects with practical applications. The
article covers a recent research on education on Business Administration which
reveals only 21 per cent of the MBAs produced in this country are employable. The
rest of the 79 per cent are unemployable. .A discussion with the industry personnel
indicated that while recruiting 75 per cent weightage is given to the soft skills, while
25 per cent weightage is given for the hard skills. With respect to hard skills it was
envisaged that today's MBA should be more like a 'generalist', a Jack of all trades.
They are expected to have an integrated knowledge in all areas of management.
The study also throws light on the changes to be brought in the MBA program which
emphasizes on analyzing the syllabus of various MBA programs of different
Universities. The study conducted indicates that that the course curriculum does meet
more or less the requirements of the industry. Moreover the applications of the
various concepts used were found to be missing.
Need of specialist faculty to teach specific subjects and assignment of live projects to
students can help in learning the working of organization in real sense. However it is
also argued that while it is possible that the B-school would do all of this and much
more, there must be a genuine desire in the MBA student to improve himself and an
urge to reach higher heights, failing which all efforts would go waste.

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Academia- Industry Partnership


Dr. R. Gopals view on a strategic alliance between higher educational institutes and
the industry has been discussed in his article titled, Towards an Educated India:
Academia-Industry Partnership. The article emphasized on the change in the outlook
of industry recruiters seen off late and the subsequent changes to be brought in the
academics. Traditionally, business schools looked for placements and internships for
their students and the industry for fresh recruits who are well trained and equipped
with the right knowledge, skills and attitude to be able to contribute to the
organization's growth. However, today the contour of relationship is expanding much
beyond that. Extremely dynamic business world and the rapidly developing
knowledge based service economy have put in an increased demand for professionals
to manage the businesses effectively. As the result the need for Management
education has been rising over the years.
Academia-industry interface could be defined as a collaborative arrangement between
academic institutions and business corporations towards achievement of certain
mutually inclusive goals and objectives. This partnership involves three major
players: Business Schools, Students and Industry.
The realization that business schools and employers should work closely with each
other is the result of increasing complexity and continuous changing needs of the
industry. The increasing criticality of human competence, growing competition for
student placements are the other reasons that have added up the interdependence
between academia and industry. Also the contribution made by industry towards this
has helped them by way of revisiting the fundamentals of business management with
the latest theories, motivating their employees and thus help in reducing the attrition

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rate, getting ready- to- use students resulting in improvement in productivity, joint
working with business schools in areas of training & consultancy thus being able to
carry out applied / fundamental research at a lower cost.
Thus, though the collaboration between the two is dynamic and complex. A
synergistic relationship has to be carved between the business schools and the
industry so that both can benefit and contribute to enhancing the entire teachinglearning process. The growth of some major economies like Germany and USA is
built on the edifice of a strong corporate academia relationship. Hence it is high time
that Indian business schools do the same and build and sustain similar long-term and
mutually fruitful relationships
Analysis of factors determining graduate employability
Despite some progress in extending access to higher education to various
disadvantaged groups (e.g. ethnic minorities, lower socio-economic groups) and a big
political as well as academic interest in this process, little is known about how these
non-traditional students will fare in the graduate labor market. Some empirical
findings (usually carried out for other purposes) and also anecdotal evidence suggest
that graduates from such groups do relatively poorly on entry to the labor market. The
project utilized the results of existing studies carried out by the research team to
address. The findings of the report were success in the labor market for graduates is to
some extent associated with the background characteristics of graduates. Socioeconomic background, ethnic background and age all have indirect effects upon
employment through their association with factors such as institutional type, subject
of study, entry qualifications and degree classification. But they also appear to have
direct effects.

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Factors contribution towards employability

Personal Flexibility: Personal flexibility is the capacity of adaptability of an


employee to changes in internal and external labour market, which may not
relate to ones current job domain.

Occupational Expertise: This relates to the expertise that requires in


performing a job adequately. It also assesses the requirements of the job, and
climate of the organization.

Anticipation and optimization: Attempt to achieve the best result for


organization, and prepare for and adapt future changes in personal and creative
manner.

Corporate sense: It is the contribution and performance in different work


groups. It includes organizations, teams, occupational communities and other
networks,

characterized

by

sharing

of

responsibilities,

knowledge,

experiences, feelings, failures, goals, etc.

Balance: It is a compromise between opposing employers interests and ones


own, opposing work, career, and private interests (employee), and between
employers and employees interests (Heijden et al, 2009).

Teacher skill: The skills which a teacher must possess to guide graduates in
problem solving and good communication skills, and must have the awareness
of practices used in industry.

Employer participation: An employer can affect employability of graduate if


he plays its role in academic programs. He offers mentors and gives feedback
according to market conditions.

The globalization emphasize on the knowledge economy thats why employability


becomes the central driver of the thinking business. This approach increases the
59 | P a g e

attention for universities and universities in turn are also focusing on producing
employable graduates through the development of skill and abilities in graduates
(Gracia, 2009). To manage this entire scenario the role of higher education is also get
importance and governments are now more focusing on higher education to make the
graduate employable (Mason et al., 2009; Gracia, 2009).
Despite of the fact that education is growing enormously and quick changes are taking
place around the world in every field at the same time the stakeholders are not
satisfied with the curriculum and teaching staff and students skills and abilities. They
have the reservation regarding outdated curricula, lack of staff and neglecting the
students skills. Students are also complaining about the system which is sort of a
teacher centered and exam oriented due to which their chances to acquire the job are
less because they dont have practical knowledge (Zhiwen, Beatrice, & Heijden,
2008). Employers are very much concerned with the performance of the graduate and
also not satisfied with it and criticize the system that graduate can get the good scores
in the exam but they are not performing well on the job because of they dont have
transferable skills and their ability is low (Zhang, & Liu, 2006).
Improved education systems have resulted in motivation of developing young people
for labour market. The interest for education in working age (15-64 years) has
increased. The share for tertiary education has increased to 3.6% and for at most
secondary education; it is down by 5.3% (Employability, n.d). Higher education is
gaining interest of policy makers in many countries, in education-to-work transition
of graduates and the extent to which they are employable. Universities are offering
lots of courses to attract the viable number of students, but due to complex academic
structure it is difficult to involve employer in course validation and design process.
Due to which the gap create between demand of an employer and the graduates come
60 | P a g e

into the market (Rae, 2007). The other thing is that the number of students entering
into the market after passing their degree increase massively and job opportunities are
less.
Understanding of the world of work which means how organization works, how an
employee does his job, and what are organization objectives (Coopers & Lybrand,
1998). To fulfill those requirements universities have to make modifications in course
content introduce new courses and teaching methods and expand opportunities for
work experience. All these procedures should be adopted to enhance the development
of employability skills and lifelong learning. Some universities try to embed these
skills within the course, and other offer stand-alone skill courses (Coopers &
Lybrand, 1998).

2.1Research Gap
There exist differences in the expectation of the Company executives from the
undergraduates pertaining to corporate skills and what is been imbibed in them at
educational level.
Employers and Academicians jointly agree that there is need to develop highly skilled
professionals who are ready to take the challenges of Global competition. However on
the real grounds fewer efforts have been taken by the educational Institutes in this
arena.
Moreover there are no studies available which looks specifically into the
employability of Engineering Students especially in the area of Mumbai and Pune.

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CHAPTER 3

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OBJECTIVES & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 Research Problem
The role of higher education in the growth and progress of a nation has been well
recognized for centuries. Thankfully for India the input, in terms of the number of
people entering the system has never been an issue. Instead, the urgent need has been
to address the shortcomings of the entire process of converting youth into educated
and well groomed citizens. With about 50% of the Indian population below the age of
25 years, and an estimated 150 million people in the age group of 18-23 years, India is
a young nation with high aspirations.

Having realized the importance of the

education sector, the Government has increased its focus to introduce a number of
reforms to iron out some key irritants
In the last six decades, the higher education sector in India has witnessed exponential
growth, both in terms of the number of institutions and the rate of enrolment. From
just 30 universities and 700 colleges in 1951, today there are over 600 universities and
33,000 colleges. Similarly, with over 21.4 million enrolments in 2012, India has
become the third largest education system in the world, after China and the U.S. Also
between 2010 and 2015, the market size of the higher education sector is expected to
register a compounded annual growth of 25%, thus making it worth $57 billion by
2015. Indian students have been one of the top spending groups when it comes to
pursuing higher education overseas, with a collective spend of over $14 billion, as
recorded in the year 2010.

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Higher Education Market


Although the sector has been largely dominated by government institutions, the role
of the private sector has witnessed a substantial increase in the last decade. The
private sectors share of student enrolment has grown from 33% in 2001 to 59% in
2012. This growth can be attributed mainly to the inability of the government to meet
the large demand-supply gaps, poor quality infrastructure in existing institutions,
demand for quality world-class education and rising disposable income of the Indian
middle class.
In order to address concerns around the quality of education, the University Grants
Commission (UGC), the apex body that regulates the universities and colleges in
India, has introduced regulations that make accreditation mandatory for all nontechnical institutions. This is a positive step to increase transparency and improve the
quality of higher education in India.
There is no doubt that the Higher Education sector in India is witnessing exponential
growth both in terms of number of institutions and the rate of enrollment. From just
30 universities and 700 colleges in 1951, today there are over 600 universities and
33,000 colleges. Similarly, with over 21.4 million enrolments in 2012, India has
become the third largest education system in the world, after China and U.S.A.,
however ensuring quality in higher education is amongst the foremost challenges
being faced in India today, with few institutes having achieved global recognition for
excellence.

64 | P a g e

3.2 Statement of Research Objective


1. To study the level of employability skills among the Engineering students of
Mumbai and Pune Universities
2. To identify the attributes looked upon by the IT companies in fresh/ amateur
Engineering Graduates
3. To study the level of differences in the skills expected and actual observed
among Engineering students
4. To identify the specific steps taken by the institutes of Mumbai and Pune to
inculcate employability skills among the students

3.3 Hypothesis
a) H01: There is no significant difference between mean scores of various
employability skills for Mumbai and Pune.
H11: There is significant difference between mean scores of various
employability skills for Mumbai and Pune.
b) H02: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
employability skills perceived among Engineering students
H12: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
employability skills perceived among engineering students
c) H03: There is no association between City and the initiatives taken by
institutes to enhance the employability of students
H13: There is association between City and the initiatives taken by institutes to
enhance the employability of students

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study concentrated on information collected from both Primary and Secondary
sources.
3.4 Data Description
Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected from different news journals in order
to understand the views of corporate recruiters on the quality of Engineers being
graduated.
Also information on Engineering Syllabi, the curriculum pattern and AICTE (the
Governing Body of Technical Institutes in India) policy pertaining to Engineering
studies was collected from their respective websites. A detailed literature review was
conducted from all the available material.
Primary Data: After the identification of gaps and finalization of research objectives
a questionnaire was prepared and a 360 degree study was conducted as part of the
Primary Data collection. It included the final year Engineering Students,
Academicians of Engineering Institutes and IT/ Manufacturing Company recruiters as
the respondents.
The survey of Engineering Students and Academicians was done from selected
colleges of Mumbai and Pune Univeristies.
The method of conducting survey was through

Structured Questionnaire

Informal Interviews

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3.5 Research Instruments


For the Primary Data Collection, three different questionnaires were designed for
Engineering Students, Academicians and Corporate Recruiters.
The questionnaire for Engineering Students and Corporate Recruiters comprised of 20
statements on employability skills to be measured on 5 point Likert Scale.
The questionnaire for Academicians comprised of questions on Faculty Members,
Curriculum, Placement and Assessment pattern of their respective Institutes.
All three questionnaires had a separate section on sharing the views of the
respondents with regards to the quality of educational course, their relevance to the
industry needs and the scope of improvement.
3.6 Sample Description
The survey sample consisted of final year engineering students from selected colleges
of Mumbai and Pune Universities.
The Heads of the Department of different faculties of engineering stream from
selected colleges of Mumbai and Pune Universities constituted the Academic
Participants in the study.
Senior Managers and Human Resource Managers of various Information Technology
(IT) and Manufacturing firms contributed in the study as samples from the Industry

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Table 3.1: Tabular Representation of Sample


REGION

ENGINEERING ACADEMICIANS

CORPORATE

STUDENTS
Mumbai

143

30

Pune

112

18

Total

255

48

Total Sample Size

15

318

3.7 Sampling Method


The sample size was determined using Judgmental Sampling as a method, keeping
in mind the convenience and proximity of the researcher.
3.8 Data Analysis
The data was classified and tabulated on the basis of demographic factor (Mumbai
and Pune). Also the different employability skills mentioned in the questionnaire were
grouped into broad categories.
After the proper tabulation of data, various statistical tools were used for the analysis
purpose. SPSS software was used for the overall analysis of the data which resulted in
accurate and precise information.
The data collected from engineering students was analyzed using z- test. The data
obtained from corporate was less than 30 and hence it was analyzed using T-test.
Lastly the responses of the academicians were presented using frequency table and
Pie diagrams.
The initiatives taken by the academic institutes were analyzed using Pearson Chisquare test in order to determine association between them.
68 | P a g e

Through the findings arrived after analysis and with the help of comparative
derivations from the available secondary data, an appropriate conclusion was drawn
and suitable recommendations were suggested.
3.8 Limitations of the Research
The study is confined to selected colleges of Mumbai and Pune Region, which is the
hub of many industrial activities and is also the hub for large number of educational
institutes.
3.9 Future scope of the study
The present study which is limited to Mumbai and Pune region can be further taken to
PAN India level where the employability of the Indian graduates can be studied on a
larger scale. Also the since the study is limited to engineering course, it can be further
studied for other undergraduate courses as well.

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CHAPTER 4

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INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION


4.1 Introduction
India, today, is considered as a talent pool of the world, having qualified and educated
human resources in abundance. This has been one of the primary reasons for
transformation of India into one of the fastest growing economies in the world since
liberalization in the 1990s. As the economist Clark Kerr observed, On a global scale,
wealth and prosperity have become more dependent on the access to knowledge than
the access to natural resources. The importance of education in India was recognized
by the founding fathers of the country and the subsequent governments, and as a
result considerable importance has been given to literacy, school enrolment,
institutions of higher education and technical education, over the decades ever since
independence. Indias aspirations to establish a knowledge society in the context of
increasing globalization, is based on the assumption that higher and technical
education essentially empowers people with the requisite competitive skills and
knowledge. It has been realized that it is the quality of education that prepares one for
all pursuits of life and in the absence of an acceptable level of quality, higher
education becomes a mere formalism devoid of any purpose or substance. As a result,
from around the turn of the century, increasing attention has also been paid to quality
and excellence in higher education.
Post-independence India has witnessed an above average growth in the number of
higher educational institutions vis--vis its population. While there were just about 20
Universities and 500 Colleges at the time of independence, today these numbers have
grown exponentially.

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India has a total of 610 universities. 43 central universities, 299 state


universities, 140 private Universities, 128 deemed universities and 5
institutions established through state legislation, 30 Institutions of National
Importance

There are 45 technical institutes, 13 management institutes, 4 information


technology institutes, 6 science and research institutes and 3 planning and
architecture institutes

Currently, the Government spends around 3.8% of its GDP on education

Less than 1% of the $38 bn of the Government spend on education was


towards Capex (2008-09)

According to the 2011 census, the total literacy rate in India is 74.04%
compared to the world average of 83.4% (2008)

The female literacy rate is 65.46 % and male literacy rate is 82.14 %

FDI inflows in the education sector during May 2012 stood at $31.22 mn

Industry Growth & Size


The Indian Education sector is characterized by a unique set of attributes: Huge market size both in terms of number of students and annual revenues
A potential growth rate of 16% is expected over the next 5 years
Significant activity in terms of new foreign entrants and participation is expected to
be witnessed in the years ahead
Accreditation is still not mandatory; however, reforms are in the pipeline to address
this issue

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The Indian education space is evolving, which has led to the emergence of new niche
sectors like vocational training, finishing schools, child-skill enhancement and elearning among others. Growth is driven by the increasing propensity of the middle
class to spend on education and more aggressive initiatives by private entrepreneurs.
4.2 The Higher and Technical Education of India
India possesses a highly developed higher education system, which offers the facility
of education and training in almost all aspects of human creativity and intellectual
endeavors like: arts and humanities; natural, mathematical and social sciences;
engineering; medicine; dentistry; agriculture; education; law; commerce and
management; music and performing arts; national and foreign languages; culture;
communications etc.
Education is a concurrent subject under the purview of the Central Government as
well as the State Government. In addition, statutory bodies like (AICTE) and the
University Grants Commission (UGC) have their empowerment by the Acts of
Parliament to regulate Higher Education. Professional bodies like Council of
Architecture, Pharmacy Council of India and the Institution of Engineers (India) have
their roles, some of which are well defined and some others not so. The Universities
and deemed-to-be Universities exercise various controls arising out of their statutes.
The Bureau of Technical Education (BTE) in the Ministry of Human Resource
Development provides grants to centrally funded institutions such as the Indian
Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), School of
Planning and Architecture (SPA), New Delhi, Technical Teachers Training Institutes
(TTTIs), Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad, and Indian Institutes of
Information Technology (IIITs). BTE processes the programmes of these centrally
73 | P a g e

funded institutions, monitors and evaluates them. AICTE was originally constituted as
an advisory body in 1945 for all matters relating to technical education. Although
AICTE had no statutory power, it played an important role in the development of
technical education in India.
There are three principal levels of qualification within the higher education system in
the country:

Graduation level

Post-graduation level

Doctoral degree.

Besides these three, there is another qualification called a Diploma. It is available at


the undergraduate and postgraduate level. At the undergraduate level, the duration of
the course varies between one to three years; postgraduate diplomas are normally
awarded after one year course, though some diplomas are awarded after two years of
study.
Higher education in India has recorded impressive growth since Independence.
University Grants Commission (UGC), by designing programmes and implementing
various schemes through academic, administrative and financial support, has
contributed in no small measure to the growth and development of Indian higher
education. This has been done in keeping with constant commitment of both the
Central and State governments towards the establishment of institutions fostering a
competent human resource required for the social, economic and ethical development
of the nation.

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In discharge of its cardinal function of coordinating and maintaining standards of


higher education, over the years, the UGC has evolved a wide variety of programmes
for realization of the goals of higher education.
4.3 All India Council for Technical Education
The aim of any countrys higher education system is sustainable development and
achieving higher growth rates. It is enabled through creation, transmission and
dissemination of knowledge. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
has been in existence since November 1945 as a national level Apex Advisory Body
with its mission of developing and promoting quality technical education in the
country in a coordinated and integrated manner. The Councils constant endeavor is to
encourage a meaningful association between the technical education system and
research and development activities in a concerted effort aimed at nation-building.
Functions of AICTE
The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set up in 1945 as an
advisory body and later in 1987 given the statutory status by an Act of Parliament.
The AICTE grants approval for starting new technical institutions, for introduction of
new courses and for variation in intake capacity in technical institutions. The AICTE
has delegated to the concerned state governments powers to process and grant
approval of new institutions, starting new courses and variations in the intake capacity
for diploma level technical institutions. It also lays down norms and standards for
such institutions. It also ensures quality development of technical education through
accreditation of technical institutions or programmes. In additional to its regulatory
role, the AICTE also has a promotional role which it implements through schemes for
promoting technical education for women, handicapped and weaker section of the

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society promoting innovations, faculty, research and development, giving grants to


technical institutions.
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to conduct survey on
the facilities on technical education and to promote development in the country in a
coordinated and integrated manner. And to ensure the same, as stipulated in, the
National Policy of Education (1986), AICTE be vested with statutory authority for
planning, formulation and maintenance of norms and standards, quality assurance
through accreditation, funding in priority areas, monitoring and evaluation,
maintaining parity of certification and awards and ensuring coordinated and integrated
development and management of technical education in the country.
The purview of AICTE (the Council) covers programmes of technical education
including training and research in Engineering, Technology, Architecture, Town
Planning, Management, Pharmacy, Applied Arts and Crafts, Hotel Management and
Catering Technology etc. at different levels.
Structure of Indian Higher Education Sector
Technical education at all levels in the country is witnessing a consistent growth
pattern marked by the setting up of new Institutions and the improvement of the
existing ones in tune with the quality assurance norms set by the accreditation
agencies. The Council believes in providing a proper impetus to Institutions in
generating competent engineers, pharmacists, managers, architects and scientists and
encourages them to think beyond the curriculum while imparting training for the
advancement of knowledge.

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In our view, the higher education sector can be divided into 4 broad categories as
listed below:Table 4.1: Classification of Indian Higher Education Sector
Formal

Technical &

Skill

Vocational

Education

Professional

Development

Training

Education
Composition

Institutes of
national
importance
Universities
Colleges
Polytechnics

Engineering
colleges
Management
Schools
Law, Medical,
Pharmacy
etc.

ITCs
Private Skill
Development
Centers

Finishing
schools
English training
Airhostess
academies

Key Regulators

UGC
State
Government
IGNOU

AICTE
Bar Council of
India
Medical Council
of India
ICAI

DGET incase of
No regulator
ITIs/ITCs
Unregulated for
others

Accreditation

NAAC

NBA

None

None

IITs/IIMs/IISc
Amity
University
SRCC

MDI Gurgaon
K.J. Somaiya
College of
Engineering

ITIs/ITCs
Private centers

VETA
Frankfinn

bodies
Key Players

Sources: UGC; UNESCO Global Education Digest 2010


Size of Indian Higher Education Sector
The population of India has begun to appreciate the value of education in a global
economy and has demonstrated an increased willingness to pay for quality education
and more students are now opting for higher education after school. India has the third
largest higher education system in the world in terms of enrolments, after China and
the US. The number of students enrolled in the universities and colleges (formal
77 | P a g e

system) has been reported to be 16 mn in academic year 2010-11*. This does not
include enrolment in higher education offered through ODL. India is acknowledged to
have the largest higher education systems in the world in terms of number of
institutes. The university and higher education system comprises 610 universities and
in addition, there are 33,023 colleges. An estimated $13bn is spent outside the
country. Higher education is the second largest opportunity in the Indian education
sector.
There has been phenomenal growth of higher education in India since Independence.
There were only 20 universities and 500 colleges at the time of independence. These
numbers have increased by 26 times in the case of Universities and 66 times in the
case of colleges. Some of the other factors acting as growth drivers to the Higher
education sector are:

A booming economy and growing middle class

Low GER in higher education (15%) the target GER of 30% by 2020 would
mean 24mn new enrollments

Increasing share of the services sector further emphasizes the role of education
in developing manpower to global standards

Several reforms by the government including the Education Bill are on the
anvil to give a push to the education sector

Foreign investment likely to come in with the passing of the Education


Reforms Bill

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Table 4.2: State- wise growth of Universities/ Institutes in India

Source: MHRD/ UGC- February 2012


Management and Governance
The regulatory environment governing higher education in India has been the subject
of much debate. In particular, the envisioned role of the private sector needs to be
clearly defined, especially in wake of the need for more financial resources in higher
education. The higher education system also suffers from an over-centralized
structure.
Regulatory environment: The regulatory environment governing higher education in
India is characterized by uncertainty and conflicts between multiple regulatory
authorities. The role of the private sector in higher education is essential, particularly
in the context of a shortage of financial resources for this segment. However, as noted
by the Working Group for Higher Education in the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17),
while almost all major committees and policy documents have accepted the need for
increased involvement of private sector in higher education, there is also lack of
clarity on funding pattern, incentives, and regulatory oversight.

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Quality
There are various dimensions of quality in education, including content, mode of
delivery, infrastructure and facilities, employability, etc. Ensuring quality in higher
education is amongst the foremost challenges being faced in India today, with few
institutes having achieved global recognition for excellence.

Curriculum and Pedagogy: A key concern cited by higher education institutes


is the lack of autonomy with respect to framing course curriculum resulting in
a course structure that is often outdated. The curriculum is often not oriented
to encourage entrepreneurship and innovation among students. Additionally,
the adoption of new modes of delivery, such as technology-enabled learning,
has not yet become widespread Infrastructure: Higher education institutes
run by the public sector suffer from poor physical facilities and infrastructure.
The higher education system also suffers from misalignment of supply in the
sense that while there are courses in which the demand is in excess of the
available number of seats, there is excess capacity in others

Faculty: Faculty shortages and the inability of the state educational system to
attract and retain well-qualified teachers have been posing challenges to
quality education for many years. The quality of teaching is also often poor
and there are constraints faced in training the faculty Accreditation: As per
the data provided by the NAAC, as of June 2010, not even 25% of the total
higher education institutions in the country were accredited. And among those
accredited, only 30% of the universities and 45% of the colleges were found to
be of quality to be ranked at 'A' level

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Industry Linkages: There are insufficient levels of meaningful industry


participation in aspects like curriculum development, research and faculty
exchange programmes.

Placement services in many universities are very

limited resulting in a lack of co-ordination between employment seeking


graduates and prospective employers who are looking for suitably qualified
candidates

Employability: The Indian education system on the whole is not aligned to the
skill and manpower needs of the market. Skills shortage across sectors is
accompanied by high levels of graduate unemployment, highlighting the need
to include employment-linked modules in courses. In addition to job-related
skills, graduates are often reported to be lacking adequate soft-skills such as
communication and inter-personal skills.

Research and Innovation: There is inadequate focus on research in higher


education institutes. The causes include insufficient resources and facilities, as
well as, limited numbers of quality faculty to advice students. According to the
data from 2009, enrolment for Ph.D. / M.Phil. constitutes only 0.48% of
enrolment in higher education in India.

4.3 Expansion of Technical Education


When India attained Independence in 1947, there were only 38 degree-level and 52
diploma-level engineering/ technical institutions with a total intake of 2,500 and 3,670
students, respectively. To carry out developmental plans, the country required
expansion of the system of Technical Education, especially to provide human power
for industries and technical services. The Central and State Governments provided
funds to increase the technical education facilities in the 1950s and early 1960s which

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resulted in the establishment of a large number of Government and Government-aided


private institutions in the country.
Regional Engineering Colleges:
A large number of industrial projects were contemplated in the Second Five Year Plan
(1965-61). To ensure the supply of trained personnel for these projects, an assessment
of demand and supply was made. It was estimated that a shortage of engineers and
diploma holders would occur. Therefore, a scheme was formulated for the growth of
the existing engineering colleges and polytechnics. The scheme was reviewed for
capacity expansion. As a part of this initiative, eight Regional Engineering Colleges
(RECs) were established in the first phase. It was decided to have one REC in each of
the major states, thus adding up to a total of 17. RECs have a national character and
each college is a joint and cooperative enterprise of the Central Government and the
State Government concerned.
Private Initiatives:
Technical education has always been and continues to be one of the more preferred
areas of study with expectations for better career opportunities. During the last two
decades, the growing demand for expansion of technical education and the inability of
the Government (which traditionally has been establishing and running technical
institutions), to meet the social aspirations, has resulted in private initiative to provide
the alternatives. In recent years, private registered societies and trusts have established
a phenomenally large number of technical institutions.

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4.4 The context for change


In size and diversity, India has the third largest higher education system in the world,
next only to China and the United States. Before Independence, access to higher
education was very limited and elitist, with enrolment of less than a million students
in 500 colleges and 20 universities. Since independence, the growth has been very
impressive; the number of universities (as on31st March 2006) has increased by 18times, the number of colleges by 35 times and enrolment more than 10 times (Annual
Report, MHRD 2006-07). The system is now more mass-based and democratized
with one third to 40% of enrolments coming from lower socio-economic strata, and
women comprising of some 35%of the total enrolments (Tilak 2004). It is little more
than half a century ever since the government initiated a planned development of
higher education in the country particularly with the establishment of University
Grants Commission in 1953. Thus early 1950s is an important reference points from
which we could look back at our progress of higher education.
The Indian higher education system is facing an unprecedented transformation in the
coming decade. This transformation is being driven by economic and demographic
change: by 2020, India will be the worlds third largest economy, with a
correspondingly rapid growth in the size of its middle classes. Currently, over 50% of
Indias population is under 25 years old; by 2020 India will outpace China as the
country with the largest tertiary-age population. As a result the demand for higher
education and the magnitude of planned reforms over the next ten years in India will
provide the largest opportunity in the world for international higher education
institutions and education businesses.
The XII Five Year Plan approach thus would mainly comprise of two broad
components, i.e. demand side interventions and supply side initiatives. An appropriate
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mix of these two components would be followed in order to attain optimum results.
While the existing interventions would be consolidated, a few new ones, especially in
the area of demand side interventions are proposed to be launched. Focus would be
also on the non-financial reforms, in the shape of institutional re-structuring,
imperative in order to keep the Indian higher education in sync with rest of the world.
Institutional reforms at the highest level, including regulatory structures at the apex
level are essential if India has to occupy a position of leadership in the comity of
nations and transform into a real knowledge society.
Table 4.3: Enrollment of Students in Higher Education in India

Source: Higher Education in India report by UGC- February 2012


Innovative Programmes
Higher education in India has recorded impressive growth since Independence.
University Grants Commission (UGC), by designing programmes and implementing
various schemes through academic, administrative and financial support, has
contributed in no small measure to the growth and development of Indian higher
education. This has been done in keeping with constant commitment of both the
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Central and State governments towards the establishment of institutions fostering a


competent human resource required for the social, economic and ethical development
of the nation.
In discharge of its cardinal function of coordinating and maintaining standards of
higher education, over the years, the UGC has evolved a wide variety of programmes
for realization of the goals of higher education. Some of the programmes under UGC
have assumed 'Flag-Ship' status as they not only focus on individual students,
teachers, researchers, socially vulnerable groups, thematic priorities in teaching and
research and institutions of higher learning ranging from Departments and Colleges to
Universities. Several compensatory interventions for marginalized sections of the
society for enhancing their participation in higher education have been a special
concern of these initiatives with a view to promoting social equity. Establishment of
Inter-University Centres provided a fillip to making high-end research facilities and
support to the Indian higher education system.
Following are some of the programmes through which the Commission has supported
a large number of students, teachers and institutions of higher learning with a view to
achieving excellence in variegated domains of knowledge.
Special Assistance Programme (SAP)
The programme aims at promoting research in all domains of knowledge. The
institutions of higher learning under the scheme, are supported at three different levels
namely Department Special Assistance (DSA),
Departmental Research Support (DRS) and Centre for Advanced Study
(CAS). The UGC is supporting as many as 943 departments of them, 712 are being
supported at the level of DRS, 89 at the level of DSA and 142 at the level of CAS.

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Universities with Potential for Excellence (UPE)


The UGC assists selected Universities with a vision to achieve excellence in teaching
and research by conferring on them the status of 'Universities with Potential for
Excellence (UPE)'. Such institutions are eligible for enhanced funding to augment
their academic and research infrastructure and also to evolve innovative approaches
towards the teaching-learning process. The UGC has, so far, conferred the status of
Universities with Potential for Excellence to as many as 15 Universities. Each
University is supported with an additional grant of ` 100 crore spanning over two
phases.
Basic Scientific Research Programme (BSR)
The Basic Scientific Research Programme

(BSR) was launched on the

recommendation of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Prime Minister (SACPM) pursuant to that the MHRD had established a Task Force for implementation of
the SAC PM's recommendation. The objective of the Programme has to give a big
boost to scientific research. The Scheme provides for:

Improvement

Support to Colleges (Upgradation of Science laboratories in Colleges)

Doctoral Fellowship

Post-Doctoral Fellowships

Developing Networking Centers, and

Faculty Recharge

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Colleges with Potential for Excellence (CPE)


The UGC has launched this scheme to foster excellence in teaching and research in
colleges. The scheme provides financial support to help improve the colleges, their
academic and physical infrastructure, introduce innovative teaching methodologies
and implement modern learning and evaluation methods. The UGC has so far
identified 284 Colleges with Potential for Excellence and supported them with
financial assistance of ` 220.35 crore.

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CHAPTER 5

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ENGINEERING AND EMPLOYABILITY


5.1 Overview of Engineering Education
The profession of engineering in some of its branches is one of the oldest recorded in
history. Until about 100 years ago industry was still relatively in an undeveloped
condition, largely on account of the absence of any great prime-mover. The effect of
industrial growth and concentration was an increasing specialization in the duties of
the directing minds. This is turn resulted in the development of opportunities for
trained engineers.
Engineering is a profession directed towards the skilled application of a distinctive
body of knowledge based on mathematics, science and technology, integrated with
business and management, which is acquired through education and professional
formation in a particular engineering discipline Bianca K. & Peter F. (2004).
Engineering is directed to developing, providing and maintaining infrastructure,
goods and services for industry and the community.
Engineering education spans a wide spectrum from doctoral to first degree to diploma
and to craftsman levels to meet the industrial and societal needs. Each level has its
role. In the early years, engineering education did a good job of transmitting
knowledge to engineering students, and it might be argued that it facilitated the
development of skills and promoted values in ways appropriate for the time. Until
about 30 years ago, most engineering professors had either worked in industry or
consulted extensively, and the facts and methods that constituted the knowledge base
of the engineering curriculum were by and large those that the students would need in
their careers. The tasks most engineers were called upon to perform involved mostly
routine and repetitive calculations.
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Engineering students developed and sharpened the requisite skills by working through
numerous laboratory exercises and industry-designed case studies and by participating
in cooperative industrial work-study programs and practice schools. The primary
values of engineering practice at the time were functionality and profit. A good
process was one that did what it was supposed to do in as profitable a manner as
possible. Both the engineering curriculum and the faculty reinforced these values.
The circumstances facing practicing engineers today are considerably different from
those of the past, and the circumstances of the future will be even more different.
Significant changes in engineering education will be required if we are to meet the
needs of our graduates in preparing them for the challenges of the coming century.
Let us consider in somewhat greater detail the knowledge, skills, and values that will
be necessary for engineers to deal successfully with these challenges.
Knowledge
The volume of information that engineers are collectively called upon to know is
increasing far more rapidly than the ability of engineering curricula to cover it.
Until the early 1980s, for example, most chemical engineering graduates went to
work in the chemical or petroleum industry. Now they are increasingly finding
employment in such nontraditional (in engineering) fields as biotechnology, computer
engineering, environmental science, health and safety engineering, semiconductor
fabrication technology, and business and finance. To be effective across this broad
spectrum of employment possibilities, our graduates should understand concepts in
biology, physics, toxicology, fiscal policy and computer and software engineering that
are well beyond the range of the traditional chemical engineering curriculum. Many
who work in companies that have international markets will also need to be

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conversant with foreign languages, which have been phased out of both undergraduate
and graduate engineering curricula in recent decades. At the same time, the work done
by any one engineer tends to occupy a relatively narrow band in the total spectrum of
engineering knowledge. Unlike their counterparts of several decades ago, today's
engineering students may never be called upon to work with basic elements of the
traditional curriculum such as phase equilibrium, thermodynamics, separations,
reactions and process design.
For these reasons, structuring a four-year or even a five-year engineering curriculum
that meets the needs of most engineering students appears to be an increasingly
elusive goal. One solution is to abandon the traditional one-size-fits-all curriculum
model and instead to institute multiple tracks for different areas of specialization,
relegating some traditionally required courses to the elective category. Designing such
tracks and keeping them relevant is a challenging task, but it can be and is being done
at many institutions. No matter how many parallel tracks and elective courses are
offered, however, it will never be possible to teach engineering students everything
they will be required to know when they go to work. A better solution may be to shift
our emphasis away from providing training in an ever-increasing number of specialty
areas to providing a core set of science and engineering fundamentals, helping
students integrate knowledge across courses and disciplines, and equipping them with
lifelong learning skills. In other words, the focus in engineering education must shift
away from the simple presentation of knowledge and toward the integration of
knowledge and the development of critical skills needed to make appropriate use of it.

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Skills

The skills required to address the challenges to future engineers raised in the first
section may be divided into seven categories:

Independent, interdependent and lifetime learning skills;

Problem solving, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills;

Interpersonal and teamwork skills;

Communication skills;

Self-assessment skills;

Integrative and global thinking skills, and

Change management skills.

From another perspective, ABET Engineering Criteria 2000 requires that future
graduates of accredited programs should possess

An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering;

An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret


data;

An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs;

An ability to function on multidisciplinary teams;

An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems;

An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility;

An ability to communicate effectively;

The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering


solutions in a global/societal context;

recognition of the need for and an ability to engage in life-long learning;

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A knowledge of contemporary issues;

An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools


necessary for engineering practice.

5.2 History of engineering education in India


Pre-independence period
The British rulers set up four engineering colleges in the four corners of India
Roorkee (1847), Sibpur (1856), Guindy (1794) and Poona (1854) to train the
engineers needed for the civil and other engineering activities of the day. These four
engineering colleges had a total enrolment of 608 students during 188485. Each had
a glorious record, having produced some of the outstanding engineers of India. Two
other prominent institutions were set up nearly 100 years ago Indian Institute of
Science by the House of Tatas (1908) and Banaras Hindu University (BHU) by Pandit
Madan Mohan Malaviya (1916) which again grew to become important institutions.
At the time of independence, there were only 24 engineering degree colleges with a
total intake capacity of 2570 students. Another major step taken in the preindependence era was the creation of the N. R. Sarkar Committee in 1945, which
submitted a preliminary report recommending the setting up of four higher technical
institutions with broad based education, patterned after the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, USA in the four regions of the country.
Post-independence period
Implementing the Sarkar Committee recommendations, five IITs were established at
Kharagpur (1951), Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1960) and Delhi (1961)
as institutions of national importance by an Act of Parliament. After a gap of over
three decades, the sixth IIT was established at Guwahati (1995) and the Engineering

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College at Roorkee was first made a University and then as the seventh IIT (2001). In
2008, four more IITs were established at Patna, Jodhpur, Hyderabad and Gandhinagar
followed in 2009 by four more at Ropar, Bhubaneswar, Mandi and Indore, making a
total of 15 IITs. The older IITs are mentoring the newer ones. The intake of students
at different levels into the IITs in 201011 is given in Table 3. The degrees awarded
(in brackets) and faculty strength in 200910 is also indicated in Table 3. The recent
eight IITs have limited UG enrolments (about 100 each) and only nominal admissions
at the Masters and Ph D level at present. In the next few years, when they grow to
their full size, the 15 IITs will admit about 15,000 UG, 10,000 Masters and at least
8,000 Ph.D. students per year. The Institute of Technology at BHU has been elevated
as an IIT; thus there are 16 IITs now. Clearly, IITs contribute a small fraction of
engineering graduates in India.
Table 5.1. Intake and graduation in IITs
Undergraduate

Masters

Ph D

Faculty Strength

7 Older IITs

6681

7082 (3930)

1660 (959)

2943

15 IITs

7678

7152

1799

3138

Source: Current Science, vol. 104, No. 1, 10 January 2013

Table 5.2. Number of engineering colleges and intake


197778

200809

Colleges

562

2,388

Intake

134,894

820,000

Source: Current Science, vol. 104, No. 1, 10 January 2013

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In the next tier institutions, there are 20 RECs which were recently renamed National
Institutes of Technology (NITs) with Central Government funding and greater
autonomy. It is proposed that 10 more NITs will be set up shortly, making a total of
30 NITs. The 20 NITs admitted 9297 UG and 4569 postgraduate (mostly for a
masters degree) students in 200708. Then, there are a large number of State
Government Engineering Colleges, often affiliated to a University and having a
limited or no autonomy about curriculum, examinations, degree granting, etc. The
great demand for engineering and technical education has led to the mushrooming of
the large number of private engineering colleges, many started by politicians or as
money-making ventures (Table 4).This phenomenal growth has led to a steep
decrease in quality, though some of them are accredited by the All India Council of
Technical Education (AICTE) or other bodies but lack autonomy in most matters and
do not have adequate number of qualified teachers and infrastructure. According to
the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), only
1520% of the graduate engineers are employable. Recently, the India Government
has taken fresh initiatives to increase the number of Indian Institutes of Information
Technology (IIITs), Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) and
enable government departments such as Defence Research and Development
Organization, Department of Atomic Energy, Indian Space Research Organization
and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research to train people at the postgraduate
level and award their own degrees.
During the last two decades Indian engineering education has undergone exponential
growth in terms of number of students admitted. At present there are more than 2400
engineering colleges with total intake capacity of about 8.5 lakhs students. This
quantitative growth has occurred primarily due to inland and global requirements of
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technical manpower. By 2015, India is expected to have about 14 lakhs engineering


students.
5.3 Globalization of Indian Engineering Education
In past, the industrial and economic growth was limited to USA and other Western
Countries only while other countries were reeling under poverty. With emergence of
Japan as a growing economic power in 1980s, a new concept of economic growth
known as Globalization was established. Since then the economic focus started
shifting to Asian Countries. In 1990s with liberalization and opening of the Indian
economy, a new chapter in the history of globalization began.
From the beginning of 21 st Century, India occupied a place of prominence in the
comity of nations especially in terms of the world trade. The last decade has
witnessed an era of joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions of international
companies by Indian industrialists. Even at the time of global economic recession
during 2008-09, India stood strong with its stable economy. It became the world
leader in IT and Software industry primarily due to inherent mental capabilities on
one hand and the theoretical and analytical education training imparted to its youth on
the other.
During the last two decades Indian engineering education has undergone exponential
growth in terms of number of students admitted. At present there are more than 2400
engineering colleges with total intake capacity of about 8.5 lakhs students. This
quantitative growth has occurred primarily due to inland and global requirements of
technical manpower. By 2015, India is expected to have about 14 lakh engineering
students. Though this number seems to be large in absolute terms, the production of
engineers and technologists per million persons will still remain behind that of world
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average. At present the production of technologist per million per year in USA, China
and India are 700,500 and 200 respectively.
Attributes for Global Engineers:
For facing the challenges of the future, the engineers working globally will need to
acquire the following attributes:

Sound knowledge of fundamentals.

Strong analytical skills.

3. Creativity, Innovativeness, professionalism and leadership.

Communication and strong interpersonal skills.

Ability to integrate the solutions and work processes with environmental and
human factors.

Well informed decision making

Ethically grounded team working.

Tenacity for accommodating transborder, multicultural, socio-political


environment.

The world today needs good engineering talent to find solutions to global challenges
facing humanity such as energy, environment, health and socio-economic well being.
Partnership of the signatory countries through the Washington Accord has amazing
potential. Indias role in this context becomes more vulnerable due to its young large
population of graduate engineers.
Existing Scenario of Engineering Education in India
As mentioned above India possesses huge potential of the youth power which is now
being engaged in higher education including engineering. However, the resulting
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quality of the engineering graduates does not fully satisfy the requirements of the
global market. Self financing private engineering colleges are churning out about 87%
of the engineering graduates in the country. The poor quality of the graduation is due
to the following reasons:

Shortage of faculty.

Inadequate physical infrastructure.

3. Rigid and outdated curriculum.

Poor learner quality

Absence of R & D activities.

Poor quality of training

Ineffective linkage with industry.

There is a complete mismatch between the knowledge gained by the students in


engineering colleges and current practice in the field. Industry often finds engineering
graduates weak in professional practice thus necessitating long duration on the job
training for making them professionally useful. Emphasis has shifted from learning
and acquiring skills to passing the examination. This has resulted in an overemphasis
on theory at the cost of practice. A study has revealed that 75% of the engineering
graduates are unemployable. This is because of the poor performance of most of the
self financed private engineering colleges.
Though most of these engineering colleges are producing graduates since more than
two years, only a fraction of them have so far got the courses accredited from NBA.
They do not seem to be serious about subjecting themselves to the accreditation
process. This situation calls for some remedial action. Out of about 2400 private
engineering colleges already existing since last few years and churning out more than
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two batches of pass out, only 718 colleges have attained accreditation for one or more
course running there.
Obstacles to change
In the traditional approach to teaching, the professor lectures and assigns readings and
well-defined convergent single-discipline problems, and the students listen, take
notes, and solve problems individually. Alternative pedagogical techniques have
repeatedly been shown to be more effective and much more likely to achieve the
objectives set forth in the preceding section. Among these techniques are cooperative
(team based) learning, inductive (discovery) learning, the assignment of open-ended
questions, multidisciplinary problems and problem formulation exercises, the routine
use of in-class problem-solving, brainstorming, and trouble-shooting exercises, and
other methods designed to address the spectrum of learning styles to be found among
students in every class. The superiority of the alternative methods at achieving desired
both cognitive and affective educational outcomes has been demonstrated in
thousands of empirical research studies, and is heavily supported by modern cognitive
science. Nevertheless, straight lecturing and convergent problems continue to
predominate in engineering courses at most institutions. A substantial number of
engineering professors are still unaware of alternative educational methods, and many
who are aware of them choose not to incorporate them into their approach to teaching.
There are several likely reasons for this inertia, aside from the inevitable human
resistance to change.
Modern universities have, with few exceptions, become totally dependent on research
funds to support most of their functions, including educational and administrative
functions only marginally related to research. This circumstance has dictated the
establishment of research achievement as the primary criterion for advancement up
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the faculty ladder, and the potential for research achievement as the primary criterion
for faculty hiring. In consequence, many young faculty members either have little
interest in doing high quality teaching or would like to do it but feel that they cannot
afford to invest the necessary time.
Individuals in both categories tend to put minimal effort into teaching so that they can
concentrate on research, which they view (generally correctly) as the key to their
career success. Moreover, most professors begin teaching without so much as five
minutes of training on how to do it. Even those who are genuinely concerned about
their students and would like to be effective teachers automatically fall back on
straight lecturing, which is the only instructional strategy most of them have ever
seen.
Another obstacle to change is the fear of loss of control. Lecture classes in which
student involvement is essentially limited to passive observation (perhaps broken by
occasional questioning) and out-of-class problem solving is safe: the professor is in
almost complete control of what happens in class.
On the other hand, it is hard to predict what might happen in a student-centered class.
Digressions may occur, making it difficult to stay with the syllabus, and the
discussion may wander into areas in which the professor is not all that comfortable.
Perhaps worst of all, the students may simply not buy into the program, remaining
indifferent, uncooperative, or perhaps sullen in their refusal to get involved in the
planned activities. Like any other skill, directing student-centered classes is an ability
that can be learned and improves with practice. Unless some training is provided and
feedback given on initial efforts, however, professors courageous enough to try the
new teaching methods are likely to become discouraged, give up, and revert to
straight lecturing. In short, no matter how effective they may be, the new approaches

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to teaching will not automatically replace the old approach. The university
administration must take steps to establish a suitable climate for change before any
significant change can take place.
5.4 Challenges Ahead
Pressure on delivering quality transferable skills or generic skills to prospective
engineering graduates has been a debate since long time. Employers expect and
demand good quality engineering graduates from Higher Educational Institutes
(HEIs). Therefore these institutes, within their constraints try to fulfill the high
requirements of employers. According to Skills Dialogues (2000), a range of new and
specific technical skills is required to meet the demands of technology and of
business. Also of importance is the greater emphasis employers put on personal and
generic skills in all areas of work.
The engineering curriculum has been criticized (Skills Dialogues, 2000) for not
developing personal and transferable skills sufficiently amongst graduates. As a result
engineering graduates opt for alternative jobs in non related areas leading to failure of
industry to use their acquired skills and knowledge and also a failure to further
develop their engineering skills. Employers have also reported other shortages in
generic and interpersonal skills. For technicians, IT and software skills are frequently
mentioned, whilst among managers there appear to be difficulties finding people with
good management skills (Skills Dialogues, 2000; National Employers Survey 2003)
Quality:
The rapid expansion of engineering institutions has led to a steep deterioration in the
quality of education due to acute shortage of numbers and qualification of the faculty,
poor laboratory and library facilities and other infrastructure as well as limited or

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absence of autonomy. These problems may be severe enough in the case of IITs, but
are major road blocks for the other institutions. Though an accreditation by the All
India Council of Technical Education and other bodies exists, it has proved totally
inadequate and is reported or suspected to harbor malpractices.
Skill Gaps in Engineers
The skills gap or skills deficiencies are problems in filling vacancies due to shortage
of people with the relevant skills and experience (Skills Dialogue, 2000). There is
evidence from engineering employees that they have difficulty in filling the vacancies
with related skills and there are also areas of skills deficiency within the existing
engineering workforce.
Employers commonly have hard to- fill vacancies in the engineering area such as
craft, technicians, professional and managerial occupations. It is understood, that twothirds of all vacancies at craft and skilled operative level are hard-to-fill ones. The
National Employers Skills Survey, (2003) reported 2,70,000 unfilled vacancies that
were described as hard to fill by respondents. Over half of all vacancies at engineering
professional level came from design and electrical engineers as well as craft and
technical field.
A survey conducted by the Information Technology Governance Institute (ITGI)
focusing on IT employees reported that 700 Chief Executive and Chief Information
Officer at companies in 23 countries including UK found that 38% reported problems
relating to inadequate skills in the workforce (Ashford, 2008).
It is reported by Engineering Employers that it is more difficult to recruit people with
technical and practical skills than other skills. These technical skills are often used in

102 | P a g e

generic terms such as electrical and design. One in four engineering employers
considers there is a gap between the skills of

their current workforce and those

needed to meet their business objectives. These skill gaps place difficulty for those
involved in recruitment. They have to emphasize practical and technical skills and
also have to take into consideration the generic and personal skills.
Employability:
The increasing emphasis on employability skills of potential engineers has
caused a significant increase in the unemployment among engineering
graduates. As a result the institutions of higher learning around the world
also are very much concerned on their graduate employment. Employability
upon graduation is a major priority for most of engineering students.
According to Mohammad (2004), new and fresh engineering graduates these
days confront with more challenges and competitions in getting employed
compared to previous graduates. He points out that the excellent academic
degrees alone are inadequate as employers require potential engineers for
competencies and capabilities in generic skill since globalization demands
the companies to be more competitive in their management system.

Because of the mushroom growth of engineering colleges the quantity of out coming
engineering graduates is raised. But the quality is questionable. Graduates have
educational eligibility but lack in capability and suitability to execute job related
activities despite being the availability of employment opportunities. According to
McKinsey Global Institute survey results, India produces 360,000 engineering
graduates, 600,000 graduates in arts/science/commerce. And only 25% of
engineering graduates and 10% of other graduates are employable.

103 | P a g e

In view of the continuously increasing demand of the technical manpower all over the
world, expansion of the technical education institutions and facilities is needed.
However, this should not lead to deterioration of quality otherwise such growth will
become in sustainable. Therefore, the need of the hour is to build quality into the
technical education systems so as to produce the technical manpower which will
handle not only the task of nation building efficiently, but will also be able to perform
successfully at the international level. The global understanding is that accreditation
of educational programme is a successful and viable means of ensuring adequacy of
the professional towards job performance. Washington Accord therefore is a right step
in the right direction. It is a great opportunity for technically qualified youth of India
to showcase their competencies for fetching the jobs across the national boundaries.
In this respect the responsibilities of engineering education provides greatly increase
to impart the quality education as per the principles and practice of TQM.
Perhaps the Corporate agencies can play a proactive role in changing the present
scenario of Indian Engineering education characterized by unemployable product in
the market to that technologically updated; soft skilled and goal oriented empowered
engineering graduates to assume the leading role in emancipating the World
Economy.
5.5 The New Economy
Setting Priorities
New models of cooperation between industry, government and educators will be
needed to transform the politics of production because the prerequisite for this
economic refocus is a radical transformation of our national skills base. Over years,
much commendable, and in certain areas fruitful, focus, effort and investment have
been expended on the drive to create a stronger skills base in science, technology,

104 | P a g e

engineering and mathematics, all of which are clearly key to a successful technologybased future. However, this must now go much further. However if the nation needs
to compete in the global high technology economy, we must be prepared to prioritize
those skills that can power the new industries and jobs for the future. At a time of
financial constraint, we need to be prepared to make hard decisions about what higher
education choices we can and cannot afford to fund.
Engineering skills
The engineering skills base is one of the priority elements needed to bring about this
economic transformation. If we are to compete in the new global economy, we will
require an adequate supply of high-quality, flexible engineering skills at all levels,
developed through a range of routes including the 14-19 diploma, apprenticeships,
foundation degrees, undergraduate degrees and postgraduate qualifications.
Engineering degrees aim to provide a firm grounding in the principles of engineering
science and technology, while inculcating an engineering method and approach that
enable graduates to enter the world of work and tackle real world problems with
creative yet practical results. The best engineering degrees achieve the right balance
between scientific and technical understanding and their practical application to
problem-solving. This synthesis calls for such skills as communication and
negotiation; teamwork and inter-disciplinary working; and planning, costing and other
key business process skills. Graduates with these skills are highly attractive to
industry, having the relevant, quality skills with real market value that government
is seeking to promote.

105 | P a g e

CHAPTER 6

106 | P a g e

DATA ANALYSIS AND MAJOR FINDINGS

6.1] DATA ANALYSIS OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS:


a) City: For the purpose Primary Data two cities of Maharashtra viz., Mumbai

and Pune were taken as the Sample Frame.


These two cities were taken keeping in mind number of Engineering Institutes
established, the quality of education and assessment pattern followed therein.
City
City

Frequenc
y

Percent

Valid
Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Mumbai

143

56.1

56.1

56.1

Pune

112

43.9

43.9

100.0

Total

255

100.0

100.0

Above table indicate that out of total 255 respondents 143 are from Mumbai and
remaining 112 are from Pune. This information is presented using pie diagram as
shown below.
Figure 6.1 Respondents according to city

Respondents according to City

Mumbai

44%

56%

Pune

The diagram indicates that of the total respondents 56% of them belonged to Mumbai
city and the remaining 44% belonged to Pune.
107 | P a g e

b) Study of Variables:
a) Personal Attributes: Personal attributes are simply the properties that
describe a person as to how they are. It includes the quality of self
discipline, being organized, taking initiative and responsibility etc.

Qst.

Question details

No.

Strongly

Somewhat

Neither agree

Somewhat

Strongly

Disagree

disagree

nor disagree

Agree

Agree

35

42

58

81

39

12

23

38

90

92

12

67

111

60

18

26

91

116

Engineering Programs
help to develop self
discipline and orderly
skills

Engineering Programs
help to develop the skill
of being flexible with
plans

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
skills of taking initiative
and responsibility

Engineering Programs
help to develop
planning and organizing
skills
Ratings

Strongly Disagree = 1

Somewhat disagree = 2

Neither agree nor disagree = 3

Somewhat Agree = 4

Strongly Agree = 5

108 | P a g e

Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum Maximu
m
Personal attribute
score

255

20.00

Mean

100.00 75.2941

Std.
Deviation
15.69304

Above table indicate that mean score for Personal attributes is 75.29 and standard
deviation is 15.69. All 255 respondents are classified into three groups according to
level of possessing Personal attributes.

Respondents of score below 59.60 are classified as Low level

Respondents of scores between 59.60 and 90.99 are classified as Medium


level

Respondents of scores above 90.99 are classified as High level.

Table of classified information is presented as given below.

Frequency
High
Medium
Low
Total

22
201
32
255

Percent
8.6
78.8
12.5
100.0

Valid Percent
8.6
78.8
12.5
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

109 | P a g e

b) Interpersonal Skills: Interpersonal Skills are the social skills that facilitate
interaction

and

communication

with

others.

It

includes

basic

communication skills, active listening and overall behavior within a group.

Qst.

Question details

No.

Strongly

Somewhat

Neither agree

Somewhat

Strongly

Disagree

disagree

nor disagree

Agree

Agree

17

48

83

102

16

57

76

99

43

56

82

66

41

55

97

53

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to communicate
effectively within the
team and at large

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to function
effectively in the
capacity of a leader or

manager
Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to function with
multidisciplinary teams

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to resolve
conflicts within team

Ratings

Strongly Disagree = 1

Somewhat disagree = 2

Neither agree nor disagree = 3

Somewhat Agree = 4

Strongly Agree = 5

110 | P a g e

Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum Maximu Mean
m
255
20.00
100.00 75.1176

Interpersonal Skills score

Std.
Deviation
18.41093

Above table indicate that mean score for Interpersonal Skills is 75.11 and standard
deviation is 18.41. All 255 respondents are classified into three groups according to
level of possessing Interpersonal Skills.

Respondents of score below 56.71 are classified as Low level

Respondents of scores between 56.71 and 93.53 are classified as Medium


level

Respondents of scores above 93.53 are classified as High level.

Table of classified information is presented as given below.


Frequency
High
Medium
Low
Total

45
162
48
255

Percent
17.6
63.5
18.8
100.0

Valid Percent
17.6
63.5
18.8
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

111 | P a g e

c) Technical knowhow: Technical knowhow indicates ones competency


in completing the task successfully. It also covers ones knowledge in
terms of technical data, formulae, standards, technical information etc.
Qst.

Question details

No.

Strongly

Somewhat

Neither

Somewhat

Strongly

Disagree

disagree

agree nor

Agree

Agree

disagree

Engineering Programs
help to develop the ability
to design a system,

15

14

53

86

87

21

20

45

71

98

31

25

50

47

102

12

29

60

97

57

component, or process to
meet desired needs
10

Engineering Programs
help to develop the ability
to identify, formulate, and
solve engineering
problems

11

Engineering Programs
help to develop the ability
to apply knowledge of
mathematics, science and
engineering practically

12

Engineering Programs
help to develop in-depth
technical competence in a
specific engineering
discipline
Ratings

Strongly Disagree = 1

Somewhat disagree = 2

Neither agree nor disagree = 3

Somewhat Agree = 4

Strongly Agree = 5
112 | P a g e

Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimu Maximu
m
m
Technical Know How
Scores

255

20.00

Mean

Std.
Deviation

100.00 74.5686

19.86693

255
Source: Researchers Analysis
Above table indicate that mean score for Interpersonal Skills is 74.56 and standard
deviation is 19.86. All 255 respondents are classified into three groups according to
level of possessing Interpersonal Skills.

Respondents of score below 54.70 are classified as Low level

Respondents of scores between 54.70 and 94.44 are classified as Medium


level

Respondents of scores above 94.44 are classified as High level.

Table of classified information is presented as given below.

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

High
Medium
Low

68
149
38

26.7
58.4
14.9

26.7
58.4
14.9

Total

255

100.0

100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

113 | P a g e

d) High order thinking skill: Higher order thinking skills include critical,
logical, reflective, metacognitive, and creative thinking ability of
individuals.

Qst.

Question details

No.
13

Strongly

Somewhat

Neither agree

Somewhat

Strongly

Disagree

disagree

nor disagree

Agree

Agree

29

46

69

105

12

56

60

125

33

47

73

95

14

11

61

65

104

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
capacity for creativity
and innovation

14

Engineering Programs
help to develop
Strategic Thinking skills

15

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to understand
Professional and Ethical
responsibilities, and
commitment towards
them

16

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to understand
social, cultural, global
and environmental
responsibilities
Ratings

Strongly Disagree = 1

Somewhat disagree = 2

Neither agree nor disagree = 3

Somewhat Agree = 4

Strongly Agree = 5

114 | P a g e

Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum Maximum
High Order thinking
Skills Scores

255

25.00

Mean

100.00 79.2549

Std.
Deviation
17.50798

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that mean score for Interpersonal Skills is 79.25 and standard
deviation is 17.50. All 255 respondents are classified into three groups according to
level of possessing Interpersonal Skills.

Respondents of score below 61.75 are classified as Low level

Respondents of scores between 61.75 and 96.76 are classified as Medium


level

Respondents of scores above 96.76 are classified as High level.

Table of classified information is presented as given below.

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

High
Medium
Low

55
158
42

21.6
62.0
16.5

21.6
62.0
16.5

Total

255

100.0

100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

115 | P a g e

d) Problem Solving Skills: Problem solving skills involves both analytical and
creative skills. It consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly
manner, for finding solutions to problems and decision making.

Qst.

Question details

No.
17

Strongly

Somewhat

Neither agree Somewhat

Strongly

Disagree

disagree

nor disagree

Agree

Agree

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to manage

13

39

80

116

36

142

67

18

24

107

103

12

50

95

95

information and
documentation
18

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to undertake
problem identification,
formulation and
solution

19

Engineering Programs
help to develop risk
taking ability

20

Engineering Programs
help to develop the
ability to pick up new
skills and adapt to new
situations

Ratings

Strongly Disagree = 1

Somewhat disagree = 2

Neither agree nor disagree = 3

Somewhat Agree = 4

Strongly Agree = 5
116 | P a g e

Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum Maximum
Problem Solving/
decision making Skills
Scores

255

20.00

Mean

100.00 81.5098

Std.
Deviation
13.41255

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that mean score for Interpersonal Skills is 81.50 and standard
deviation is 13.41. All 255 respondents are classified into three groups according to
level of possessing Interpersonal Skills.

Respondents of score below 68.10 are classified as Low level

Respondents of scores between 68.10 and 94.92 are classified as Medium


level

Respondents of scores above 94.92 are classified as High level.

Table of classified information is presented as given below.


Frequency
High
Medium
Low
Total

38
179
38
255

Percent
14.9
70.2
14.9
100.0

Valid Percent
14.9
70.2
14.9
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

117 | P a g e

The below table gives a consolidated view of the various employability skills
observed among the Engineering students of Mumbai and Pune College.

Table 6.1 Consolidated Scores of Variables


Personal
Interpersonal
Technical
High Order
Attribute score skill score
Know How
thinking
Scores
Skills Scores

City

Problem
Solving/
Decision
making
Skills Scores

Mumbai
Pune

75.8392
74.5982

78.7762
70.4464

74.5804
74.5536

81.3287
76.6071

82.1678
80.6696

Total

75.2941

75.1176

74.5686

79.2549

81.5098

Source: Researchers Analysis


The details of the report is presented using bar graph as shown below

81.33

75.84
74.60

74.5874.55

76.61

Axis Title

Problem_Solving

High Order thinking_Skills

70.45

Technical_Know How

Mumbai
Pune

80.67

78.78

Interpersonal skill

84.00
82.00
80.00
78.00
76.00
74.00
72.00
70.00
68.00
66.00
64.00

Employability Skills among Engineering


Students of Mumbai and Pune
82.17

Personal attribute

Axis Title

Figure 6.2 Employability skills among Engineering Students of Mumbai and Pune

118 | P a g e

6.2] TESTING 0F HYPOTHESES


To test whether demographic factors affect the employability skills by using z-test and
ANOVA
Hypothesis 1 with Sub Hypothesis 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
1. Hypothesis 1:
H01: There is no significant difference between mean scores of various
employability skills for Mumbai and Pune.
H11: There is significant difference between mean scores of various
employability skills for Mumbai and Pune.

Sub hypothesis 1.1 Personal Attributes


H01.1: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Personal
Attributes for Mumbai and Pune.
H11.1: There is significant difference between mean scores of Personal
Attributes for Mumbai and Pune.

To test above hypothesis z-test is applied.


z-test for Personal Attributes
City

Number of
Respondents

Mumbai

143

Pune

112

Mean

SD

75.83

15.25

74.59

16.27

SE of
diff of
Mean

Difference
of Mean

Calculated
z-value

Table
zvalue

Null
Hypothesis

2.01

1.24

0.62

1.96

Accepted

Source: Researchers Analysis

119 | P a g e

Above table indicate that calculated value (0.l62) is less than table value (1.96).
Therefore z-test is accepted and hence null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Personal
Attributes for Mumbai and Pune.

To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied

ANOVA
Personal Attribute Score
Sum of
Df
Mean Square
Squares
Between Groups

96.721

Within Groups
62456.220
Total
62552.941
Source: Researchers Analysis

96.721

253
254

246.863

F-cal

p-value

0.392

.532

Above table indicate that p-value (0.532) is greater than standard value 0.05.
Therefore F-test is accepted. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference in mean personal attribute score of
Mumbai and Pune respondents.

Sub hypothesis 1.2 Interpersonal Skills

H01.2: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Interpersonal


Skills for Mumbai and Pune.
H11.2: There is significant difference between mean scores of Interpersonal
Skills for Mumbai and Pune.

120 | P a g e

To test above hypothesis z-test is applied

z-test for Inter Personal Skills


Number of
Mean
Respondents

City
Mumbai

143

Pune

112

SD

78.77

18.47

70.44

17.31

SE of
diff of
Mean

Difference
of Mean

Calculated
T-value

Table
Tvalue

Null
Hypothesis

2.26

8.33

3.69

1.96

Rejected

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that calculated value (3.69) is greater than table value (1.96).
Therefore z-test is rejected and hence null hypothesis is rejected and alternate
hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is significant difference between mean scores of Interpersonal
Skills for Mumbai and Pune.
To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied
ANOVA
Interpersonal Skill Score
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
Between Groups

4357.953

Within Groups
81738.518
Total
86096.471
Source: Researchers Analysis

4357.953

253
254

323.077

F-cal

p-value

13.489

.000

Above table indicate that p-value (0.00) is less than standard value 0.05. Therefore Ftest is rejected. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is significant difference in mean Interpersonal skills score of
Mumbai and Pune respondents.

121 | P a g e

Sub hypothesis 1.3 Technical Know How

H01.3: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Technical


knowledge for Mumbai and Pune.
H11.3: There is significant difference between mean scores of Technical
Knowledge for Mumbai and Pune
To test above hypothesis z-test is applied

z-test for Technical Know How


City

Number of
Respondents

Mean

SD

Mumbai

143

74.58

21.8

Pune

112

74.55

17.17

SE of
diff of
Mean

Difference
of Mean

Calculated
T-value

Table
Tvalue

Null
Hypothesis

2.45

0.03

0.01

1.96

Accepted

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that calculated value (0.01) is less than table value (1.96).
Therefore z-test is accepted and hence null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Technical
knowledge for Mumbai and Pune.
To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied
ANOVA
Technical Know How Scores
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
Between Groups

.045

.045

Within Groups
100252.504
Total
100252.549
Source: Researchers Analysis

253
254

396.255

F-cal

p-value

.000

Above table indicate that p-value (0.991) is greater than standard value 0.05.
Therefore F-test is accepted. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference in mean Technical know-how score of
Mumbai and Pune respondents
122 | P a g e

.991

Sub hypothesis 1.4 High Order Thinking Skills

H01.4: There is no significant difference between mean scores of High Order


Thinking Skills for Mumbai and Pune.
H11.4: There is significant difference between mean scores of High Order
Thinking Skills for Mumbai and Pune.
To test above hypothesis z-test is applied

City

Number of
Respondents

Mumbai

143

Pune

112

z-test for High Order thinking Skills


SE of
Difference Calculated
Mean
SD
diff of
of Mean
T-value
Mean
81.32 16.83
2.22
4.72
2.13
76.6 18.06

Table
T-value

Null
Hypothesis

1.96

Rejected

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that calculated value (2.13) is greater than table value (1.96).
Therefore z-test is rejected and hence null hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is significant difference between mean scores of High Order
Thinking Skills for Mumbai and Pune.
To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied
ANOVA
High Order thinking Skills Scores
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
Between Groups

1400.165

1400.165

Within Groups
76458.267
Total
77858.431
Source: Researchers Analysis

253
254

302.207

F-cal

p-value

4.633

Above table indicate that p-value (0.32) is less than standard value 0.05. Therefore Ftest is rejected. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is significant difference in mean High Order thinking skills score
of Mumbai and Pune respondents.
123 | P a g e

.032

Sub hypothesis 1.5 Problem Solving/ Decision Making Skills

H01.5: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Problem


solving/ decision making for Mumbai and Pune.
H11.5: There is significant difference between mean scores of Problem solving/
decision making for Mumbai and Pune.
To test above hypothesis z-test is applied

City
Mumbai
Pune

z-test for Problem Solving/ Decision making Skills


SE of
Number of
Difference Calculated
Mean
SD
diff of
Respondents
of Mean
T-value
Mean
143
82.16 13.46
1.70
1.5
0.88
112
80.66 13.36

Table
Tvalue

Null
Hypothesis

1.96

Accepted

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that calculated value (0.88) is less than table value (1.96).
Therefore z-test is accepted and hence null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference between mean scores of Problem
solving/ decision making for Mumbai and Pune.
To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied
ANOVA
Problem Solving/ Decision making Skills Scores

Between Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F-cal

p-value

140.977

140.977

.783

.377

253
254

180.050

Within Groups
45552.749
Total
45693.725
Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that p-value (0.377) is greater than standard value 0.05.
Therefore F-test is accepted. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference in mean Problem solving/ Decision
making score of Mumbai and Pune respondents
124 | P a g e

6.3] DATA ANALYSIS OF CORPORATES:


For the purpose Primary Data a survey was done in the Information Technology (IT)
and Manufacturing Company. The Senior Managers and Human Resource Managers
of various IT/ Manufacturing firms were the respondents of the survey.
To study the expected skills levels for employability among new Engineering recruits
information is collected for all five variables. Mean scores and standard deviation
about expected skills are given in the following table.

Descriptive Statistics
N

Minimum Maximum Mean

Std.
Deviation

Expected Personal Attributes Scores

15

45.00

100.00

82.00

17.29988

Expected Interpersonal skills scores

15

45.00

100.00

81.66

17.99471

Expected Technical Know How


Scores

15

35.00

90.00

70.00

17.32051

Expected High Order thinking Skills


Scores

15

35.00

100.00

76.00

22.13594

Expected Problem Solving/ Decision


Making Skills Scores

15

35.00

100.00

79.66

19.03631

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that:
a)

Personal Attributes

Expected Mean score is 82.

Minimum is 45

Maximum is 100.

125 | P a g e

b) Interpersonal Skills

Expected Mean score is 81.66

Minimum is 45

Maximum is 100.

c) Technical Know How

Expected Mean score is 70

Minimum is 35

Maximum is 90

d) High Order Thinking Skills

Expected Mean score is 76

Minimum is 35

Maximum is 100

e) Problem Solving Skills

Expected Mean score is 79.66

Minimum is 35

Maximum is 100

Information is also collected about actual employability skills observed. Details


information for all five skills is as given below.
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Actual Personal Attributes


Scores

15

40.00

80.00

65.33

14.45024

Actual Interpersonal skills scores

15

35.00

80.00

62.00

14.85646

Actual Technical Know How


Scores

15

30.00

100.00

73.00

19.98213

Actual High Order thinking


Skills Scores

15

30.00

80.00

65.33

14.07463

15

25.00

95.00

71.00

18.43909

Actual Problem Solving/


Decision Making Skills Scores
Source: Researchers Analysis

126 | P a g e

Above table indicate that:


a)

Personal Attributes

Actual Mean score is 65.33

Minimum is 40

Maximum is 80

b) Interpersonal Skills

Actual Mean score is 62.00

Minimum is 35

Maximum is 80

c) Technical Know How

Actual Mean score is 73

Minimum is 30

Maximum is 100

d) High Order Thinking Skills

Actual Mean score is 65.33

Minimum is 30

Maximum is 80

e) Problem Solving Skills

Actual Mean score is 71

Minimum is 25

Maximum is 95

To test whether the difference between expected level and actual levels are significant
or not T-test is applied for all five skills.

127 | P a g e

Hypothesis 2 with sub Hypothesis 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5


2. Hypothesis 2:
H02: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
employability skills perceived among Engineering students
H12: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
employability skills perceived among engineering students

Sub hypothesis 2.1 Personal Attributes


H02.1: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Personal Attributes
H12.1: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Personal Attributes.

Sub hypothesis 2.2 Interpersonal Skills


H02.2: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Interpersonal Skills
H12.2: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Interpersonal Skills.

Sub hypothesis 2.3 Technical Knowhow


H02.3: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Technical Knowhow
H12.3: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Technical Knowhow.

Sub hypothesis 2.4 High Order thinking Skills


H02.4: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
High Order thinking Skills

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H12.4: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of


High Order thinking Skills.

Sub hypothesis 2.5 Problem Solving / Decision making Skills


H02.5: There is no significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Problem Solving/ Decision making Skills
H12.5: There is significant difference between expected and actual levels of
Problem Solving/ Decision making Skills
Following table indicate Mean and standard deviations for each pair of hypothesis.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Std.
Std. Error
Deviation
Mean

Expected Personal Attributes Scores

82.00

15

17.29

4.46

Actual Personal Attributes Scores

65.33

15

14.45

3.73

Expected Interpersonal skill score

81.66

15

17.99

4.64

Actual Interpersonal skills score

62.00

15

14.85

3.83

Expected Technical Know How


Scores

70.00

15

17.32

4.47

Actual Technical Know How Scores

73.00

15

19.98

5.15

76.00

15

22.13

5.71

65.33

15

14.07

3.63

Expected Problem Solving/ Decision


making Skills Scores

79.66

15

19.03

4.91

Actual Problem Solving/ Decision


making Skills Scores

71.00

15

18.43

4.76

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Expected High Order thinking Skills


Scores
Pair 4
Actual High Order thinking Skills
Scores

Pair 5

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Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences

Df

pvalue

Result

Mean

Std.
Deviation

Std. Error
Mean

Expected Personal
Pair Attributes Scores Actual Personal
1
Attributes Scores

16.66

20.84

5.38

3.09

14

.008

Significant

Expected Interpersonal
Pair skills scores
Actual Interpersonal
2
skills scores

19.66

17.47

4.51

4.36

14

.001

Significant

Expected Technical
Pair Know How Scores
-3.00
Actual Technical Know
3
How Scores

19.34

4.99

-.60

14

.558

Not
Significant

19.16

4.94

2.15

14

.049

Significant

18.27

4.71

1.83

14

.088

Non
Significant

Expected High Order


Pair thinking Skills Scores
10.66
Actual High Order
4
thinking Skills Scores
Expected Problem
Solving/ Decision
Pair making Skills Scores
8.66
Actual Problem
5
Solving/ Decision
making Skills Scores

Results of t-test are as follows:


If p-value is less than 0.05 then T-test is rejected and conclusion is there is significant
difference.
Results of pair-1:
Mean scores of Personal attributes are tested. P-value is 0.008 which is less
than standard value 0.05. Therefore T-test is rejected. Therefore null
hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis is accepted.

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Findings of test: Expected mean Personal Attribute score is (82.00) which is


significantly higher than actual score (65.33).
Conclusion: In order to be employable the young Engineers need to improve
their Personal attributes level.

Results of pair-2:
Mean scores of Inter Personal Skills are tested. P-value is 0.01 which is less
than standard value 0.05. Therefore T-test is rejected. Therefore null
hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis is accepted.
Findings of test: Expected mean Inter Personal Skills score is (81.66) which
is significantly higher than actual score (62.00).
Conclusion: In order to be employable the young Engineers need to improve
their Inter Personal Skills.

Results of pair-3:
Mean scores of Technical Knowhow are tested. P-value is .558 which is
more than standard value 0.05. Therefore T-test is accepted. Therefore null
hypothesis is accepted. Alternate hypothesis is rejected.
Findings of test: Expected mean Technical Knowhow score is (70) which is
lower than actual score (73).
Conclusion: It is clear that the young Engineers are strong in their Technical
knowledge which is developed through their curriculum and hence should be
continued the same way.

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Results of pair 4:
Mean scores of High Order thinking Skills are tested. P-value is .049 which
is less than standard value 0.05. Therefore T-test is rejected. Therefore null
hypothesis is rejected. Alternate hypothesis is accepted.
Findings of test: Expected mean High Order thinking Skills score is (76)
which is significantly higher than actual score (65.33).
Conclusion: In order to be employable the young Engineers need to improve
their High Order thinking Skills.

Results of pair-5:
Mean scores of Problem Solving/ Decision Making Skills are tested. P-value
is .088 which is more than standard value 0.05. Therefore T-test is accepted.
Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Alternate hypothesis is rejected.
Findings of test: Expected mean Problem Solving/ Decision Making Skills
score is (79.66) which is significantly higher than actual score (71.00).
Conclusion: It is evident that the young Engineers are better in analytical
aspects and can take sound decisions using generic or ad hoc methods.

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III] DATA ANALYSIS OF ACADEMICIANS:


The Heads of the Department of different faculties of engineering stream from
selected colleges of Mumbai and Pune Universities constituted the Academic
Participants in the study.

a) Respondents form Mumbai and Pune Region

Frequency
Mumbai
Pune
Total

City
Percent

30
18
48

62.5
37.5
100.0

Valid
Percent
62.5
37.5
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
62.5
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 30 are from Mumbai and
remaining 18 are from Pune. This information is presented using pie diagram as
shown below.
Figure 6.3 Academic Respondents

Academic Respondents

38%

Mumbai
62%

Pune

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b) Faculties with Industry Background

Fewer than 25%


25-50%
None
Total

Frequency
23
17
8
48

Percent
47.9
35.4
16.7
100.0

Valid Percent
47.9
35.4
16.7
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 17 Institutes/ departments have
more number of faculties with industry background , 23 Institutes/ departments have
less than 25% of their faculties from Industry and 8 Institutes/ departments do not
have faculties from industry. This information is presented using pie diagram as
shown below.
Figure 6.4 Faculties with Industry Background

Proportion of Faculties with


Industry Background
17%
35%

25-50%
48%

Fewer than 25%


None

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c) Provision of Placement cell within the Institute

Response

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

48

100.0

100.0

YES
Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents all the departments/ Institutes
have a placement cell within the institute to cater to the placements needs of the
students. This information is presented using pie diagram as shown below.

Figure 6.5 Provision for Placement cell

Provision of Placement cell within


the Institute

Frequency

100%

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d) Satisfaction of Curriculum

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

NO

33

68.8

68.8

YES
Total

15
48

31.3
100.0

31.3
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 15 are satisfied with the
curriculum of Engineering course thus prescribed by their respective Universities and
33 are not satisfied with the curriculum being taught in Engineering class. This
information is presented using pie diagram as shown below.

Figure 6.6 Academicians satisfied with engineering Curriculum

Satisfaction of Curriculum

31%

NO

YES

69%

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e) Participation in revision of Syllabi

YES

Participation in Revision of syllabi


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
48
100.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents every institute/ department
participates in the revision of Syllabi. This information is presented using pie diagram
as shown below.

Figure 6.7 Participation of Academicians in syllabi revision

Participation in Revision of syllabi

Frequency

100%

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f) Methods adopted to contact Corporate House (for placement)

Contact through Alumni


Direct contact with HR
manager
Total

Frequency
16

Percent
Valid Percent
33.3
33.3

32

66.7

66.7

48

100.0

100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 16 institute/ department contact
Industry through the Alumnus and 32 makes direct contact with the HR Manager.
This information is presented using pie diagram as shown below.

Figure 6.8 Method adopted by Institutes to contact Corporate house

Methods adopted to contact


Corporate House

33%

67%

Contact through
Alumni

Direct contact with HR


manager

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g) Percentage of Placement
Frequency
None
Fewer than 25%
25-50%
51-75%
Greater than 75%
Total
Source: Researchers Analysis

6
2
8
24
8
48

Percent
12.5
4.2
16.7
50.0
16.7
100.0

Valid Percent
12.5
4.2
16.7
50.0
16.7
100.0

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 8 institute/ department have a
good placement record of more than 75%, 24 institutes/ department have a placement
record of 51-75% and 8 institute/ departments have a weak placement record of 2550%. This information is presented using pie diagram as shown below.
Figure 6.9 Placement among Mumbai and Pune colleges

Percentage of Placement
12%

17%

25-50%

51-75%

17%

Fewer than 25%


Greater than 75%

4%
50%

None

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h) Contact with Alumni

NO
YES
Total

Contact with Alumni


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
10
20.8
20.8
38
79.2
79.2
48
100.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
20.8
100.0

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 38 institutes/ department keep
contact with their Alumnus and 10 institutes/ department do not keep any contact with
their Alumnus. This information is presented using pie diagram as shown below.
Figure 6.10 Institutes maintaining contact with Alumni

Contact with Alumni

21%

NO

YES

79%

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i) Institutional Internal Assessment

Institutional Internal Assessment


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Every 1-3 Yrs
44
91.7
91.7
Never
Total
Source: Researchers Analysis

4
48

8.3
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
91.7

8.3
100.0

Above table indicate that out of total 48 respondents 44 institutes/ department have
Internal Institutional Assessment every 1-3 yrs and 4 institutes/ department do not
have Internal Institutional Assessment. This information is presented using pie
diagram as shown below.

Figure 6.11 Institutes having Internal Assessment

Internal Institutional Assessment


8%

Every 1-3 Yrs


Never

92%

To test whether there is association between City (Mumbai and Pune) with that of
other variables Pearson chi-square test and ANOVA was applied.

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100.0

Hypothesis 3 with sub Hypothesis 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5


3. Hypothesis 3:
H03: There is no association between City and the initiatives taken by
institutes to enhance the employability of students
H13: There is association between City and the initiatives taken by institutes to
enhance the employability of students

Sub hypothesis 3.1 Faculties with Industry Background


H03.1: There is no association between City and Proportion of faculties from
industry.
H13.1: There is association between City and Proportion of faculties from
industry.

City

Crosstab
Proportion of Faculties with
Industry Background
25-50%

Count
Mumbai
Expected
Count
Count
Pune
Expected
Count
Count
Total
Expected
Count
Source: Researchers Analysis

Fewer than
25%
8
14

Total

None
8

30

10.6

14.4

5.0

30.0

18

6.4

8.6

3.0

18.0

17

23

48

17.0

23.0

8.0

48.0

Above table indicate that out of 48 respondents 30 are from Mumbai and remaining
18 are from Pune.

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Results of chi-square test are as follows:

Chi-Square Tests
Value
df
Pearson Chi-Square

6.555a

P-value

.038

Source: Researchers Analysis

Above table indicate that p-value is 0.038 which is less than standard value 0.05.
Therefore Chi-square test is rejected. Hence Null hypothesis is rejected and alternate
hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is association between City and Proportion of faculties from
industry Background.
To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied
ANOVA
Industry Faculty availability score
Sum of
Squares
Between Groups

Df

Mean Square

2.813

2.813

Within Groups
20.500
Total
23.313
Source: Researchers Analysis

46
47

.446

p- value

6.311

.016

Above table indicate that p-value (0.016) is less than standard value 0.05. Therefore
F-test is rejected. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is significant difference between City and Proportion of faculties
from industry Background.

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Sub hypothesis 3.2 Satisfaction of Curriculum


H03.2: There is no association between City and Satisfaction of Curriculum
among faculties
H13.2: There is association between City and Satisfaction of Curriculum among
faculties

Crosstab
Satisfaction of
curriculum

Mumbai
City
Pune
Total

Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count

NO
19
20.6
14
12.4
33
33.0

YES
11
9.4
4
5.6
15
15.0

df
1

p-value
.296

Total

30
30.0
18
18.0
48
48.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

Pearson Chi-Square

Value
1.093a

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that p-value is 0.296 which is more than standard value 0.05.
Therefore Chi-square test is accepted. Hence Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is no association between City and Satisfaction of Curriculum
among faculties.

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To test the hypothesis ANOVA was applied


ANOVA
Curriculum satisfaction score
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
Between Groups

.235

Within Groups
10.078
Total
10.312
Source: Researchers Analysis

.235

46
47

.219

p-value

1.071

.306

Above table indicate that p-value (0.306) is greater than standard value 0.05.
Therefore F-test is accepted. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference between City and Satisfaction of
Curriculum among faculties.

Sub hypothesis 3.3 Up gradation of Curriculum


H03.3: There is no association between City and Up gradation of Curriculum
H13.3: There is association between City and Up gradation of Curriculum

Crosstab

Mumbai
City
Pune
Total

Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count

Up gradation of
curriculum
NO
YES
10
20
12.5
17.5
10
8
7.5
10.5
20
28
20.0
28.0

Total

30
30.0
18
18.0
48
48.0

Source: Researchers Analysis

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Pearson Chi-Square

Value
2.286a

df
1

P-value
.131

Source: Researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that p-value is 0.131 which is more than standard value 0.05.
Therefore Chi-square test is accepted. Hence Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is no association between City and Up gradation of Curriculum

Sub hypothesis 3.4 Placement


H03.4: There is no association between City and Percentage of Placement
H13.4: There is association between City and Percentage of Placement
Crosstab

CMumbai
i
t
yPune
Total

Count
Expected Count

Percentage of Placement_
25-50% 51-75% Fewer Greater
than
than
25%
75%
8
16
2
4

Total
None

30

5.0

15.0

1.3

5.0

3.8

30.0

18

Expected Count

3.0

9.0

.8

3.0

2.3

18.0

Count
Expected Count

8
8.0

24
24.0

2
2.0

8
8.0

6
6.0

48
48.0

Count

Source: Researchers Analysis

Pearson Chi-Square

Chi-Square Tests
Value
df
a
16.711

p- value
4

.002

Source: Researchers Analysis

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Above table indicate that p-value is .002 which is less than standard value 0.05.
Therefore Chi-square test is rejected. Hence Null hypothesis is rejected and alternate
hypothesis is accepted.
Conclusion: There is association between City and Percentage of Placement

Sub hypothesis 3.5 Contact with Alumni


H03.5: There is no association between City and contact with Alumni
H13.5: There is association between City and contact with Alumni
Crosstab
Contact of Alumni
NO
Mumbai
City
Pune
Total

Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count

4
6.3
6
3.8
10
10.0

Total

YES
26
23.8
12
14.3
38
38.0

30
30.0
18
18.0
48
48.0

Source: researchers Analysis

Pearson Chi-Square

Value
2.728a

df
1

p- value
.099

Source: researchers Analysis


Above table indicate that p-value is .099 which is more than standard value 0.05.
Therefore Chi-square test is accepted. Hence Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected.
Conclusion: There is no association between City and contact with Alumni
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CHAPTER 7

148 | P a g e

CONCLUSION
Human resources, in terms of quality and quantity, are Indias biggest assets. A
favorable demographic structure (with about 50 percent of the population below 25
years of age) adds to this advantage. However, to capitalize fully on this opportunity
and not face the possibility of a skills-shortage, it is essential to gear up the education
system through innovative initiatives.
The two greatest concerns of employers today are finding good workers and training
them. The difference between the skills needed on the job and those possessed by
applicants, sometimes called the skills-gap, is of real concern to human resource
managers and business owners looking to hire competent employees. While
employers would prefer to hire people who are trained and ready to go to work, they
are usually not willing to provide the specialized, job-specific training necessary for
those lacking such skills. Finding workers who have employability or job readiness
skills that help them fit into and remain in the work environment is a real problem.
The term employability signals a connection to the world of work that is dynamic
and long-term in nature
The present research work has made an attempt to address the employability dearth
among the engineering students. The study conducted in Mumbai and Pune colleges
reveals that employability skills like personal attributes; decision making skills etc are
not influenced by the grade or level of the educational institute. Perhaps these are the
skills developed by the student on his own through the situations one encounter and
experience he gain out of it. On the other hand the study highlights that some skills
like technical know- how and high order skills are majorly developed through
academics towards which the educational institutes have a major role to play.
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At the institute level the study reveals that most of the academicians in both Mumbai
and Pune region are not satisfied with the engineering curriculum since they believe it
is not at par with the industry needs. However they are also of the opinion that
understanding of the fundamentals is more important since without a strong
knowledge foundation the new methodologies of the industry cannot be adopted
easily.
In the wake of rapid growth in higher education and increased competition, graduates
are forced to equip themselves with more than just the academic skills traditionally
represented by a subject discipline and a class of degree. According to a survey, 64%
of employers are only somewhat satisfied with the quality of fresh engineering
graduate's skills. It is clear that the booming problem in front of Indian youth is not
unemployment but employability. India possesses huge potential of the youth power
which is now being engaged in higher education including engineering. However, the
resulting quality of the engineering graduates does not fully satisfy the requirements
of the global market. Self financing private engineering colleges are churning out
about 87% of the engineering graduates in the country. The number of students
enrolled in engineering education increased to 800% from 1998 to 2008 (MHRD
2009). Because of the mushroom growth of engineering colleges the quantity of out
coming engineering graduates is raised. But the quality is questionable. Graduates
have educational eligibility but lack in capability and suitability to execute job related
activities despite the availability of employment opportunities.
There is a complete mismatch between the knowledge gained by the students in
engineering colleges and current practice in the field. Industry often finds engineering
graduates weak in professional practice thus necessitating long duration on the job
training for making them professionally useful. Emphasis has shifted from learning
150 | P a g e

and acquiring skills to passing the examination. This has resulted in an overemphasis
on theory at the cost of practice.
The study has also taken into consideration the industry perspective which has
emphasized on academic- industry alliance. According to the corporate recruiters the
educational institutes while providing knowledge of fundamentals should also focus
on internship and interaction with industry experts since that would help in grooming
the prospect candidates for industry.
In other words there is considerable interest in the notion of employability in
contemporary Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). This can be seen as the outcome
of a complex historical process of interaction and debate between the state and HEIs
on their role and purpose, and a current view that HEIs have much to contribute to the
economic development of (particularly advanced) nations through the fostering of
intellectual property and human capital formation, gives room for improvement in this
context. Though most of these engineering colleges are producing graduates since
more than two decades, only a fraction of them have so far got the courses accredited
from NBA. They do not seem to be serious about subjecting themselves to the
accreditation process. Out of about 2400 private engineering colleges already existing
and churning out graduates every year, only 718 colleges have attained accreditation
for one or more course running there.
Research shows that formative assessment can exert a powerful effect on student
learning, yet the complexity of formative assessment is not well understood and some
curriculum structures and practices do not fully exploit its potential.
Engineering graduates are expected to be employable and ready for the workplace
when they complete their studies. It is generally expected that graduates should be
151 | P a g e

equipped with a balance of technical knowledge in addition to the relevant soft skills
required in the workplace. This balance is what gives one graduate competitive edge
over another. Engineering students are often equipped with technical knowledge, but
lack of soft skills leave them not prepared for the contemporary requirements of
workplace.
Studies indicate that the base of the entire career and its growth lies on the primary
education and its further hierarchical stages; hence the focus towards the learning
should start from the primary education and then should go further till the end of the
learning. And learning is continuous; not actually gets over by completion of the
curriculum. Hence to this regard individual centric approach is needed. The
redesigning of the university curriculum with more apprenticeship and live industry
projects will facilitate the pre job training which will surely enhance the employability
among graduates. The Indian educational governance is the one which is in earnest
need of reforming.

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CHAPTER 8

153 | P a g e

RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS


Employability is a complex and subjective matter and something of a slowly moving
construct. The short term instrumental view about interview/job skills is an ongoing
debate and has to be balanced with the longer term broader needs of individuals and a
quickly, potentially, and dramatically changing society at large particularly
technology wise. It would not be appropriate from this limited study to suggest
wholesale changes to higher education, particularly one that necessarily recommends
more emphasis on todays employment skills, especially in todays competitive job
market.
Human resources, in terms of quality and quantity, are Indias biggest assets. A
favorable demographic structure (with about 50 percent of the population below 25
years of age) adds to this advantage. However, to capitalize fully on this opportunity
and not face the possibility of a skills-shortage, it is essential to gear up the education
system through innovative initiatives.
Following are the measures to be taken at Academic, Industry and at Student level in
order to make the human capital an asset to the nation.
At educational institute level
Universities shall have to manage student expectations better, if a degree is worth
anything; it is now almost at the level of being a minimum expectation on the part of
some employers. Higher education institutes should not necessarily rush in to
providing and or changing their curriculum for the short term advantages of giving
students some so called employability skills in the interim. That may be at the
expense of long term evaluative skills needed for an unknown future and it also may
154 | P a g e

lead universities to the same charges as those cast at schools, i.e. their curriculums
have changed too broadly in order to accommodate so many requirements, they have
given a back seat to the fundamentals.
Curriculum mapping is a tool to make explicit that how employability skills and
graduate attributes addressed in the content of a given course or program. Curriculum
mapping is a foundation stone for employability skills, which needs to be supported
by quality delivery and assessment strategies. It ensures that students develop an
understanding of employer expectations and skills to meet those expectations.
Developing the students employability skills requires teaching staff with suitable
skills, resources and awareness of current industry practice. Students employability
skills will also be strengthened where students have access to relevant work
experience through quality work-integrated learning programs, cooperative learning
or mentoring programs. Graduate must also be provided the opportunity of career
counseling. Career counseling is a technique which should be considered at the
university level, because it makes them well-informed and help a lot for graduates in
deciding their career. Some other initiatives that can lead to building of employable
engineering talents are:

Improve the quality of Math, Science and Language teachers in schools.

Having a six-months/one-year teacher training course on adolescent behavior,


teaching methods/pedagogy mandatory for engineering college and university
teachers.

Moving out of the student friendly examination and assessment pattern

Training and updating the teachers with industry needs

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Expand the concept of visiting faculty from corporate and familiarity to


technology to get the best minds to share their knowledge with the students.

Re-employing retired professors/ experts in course advisory committee

Maintaining the exclusivity of traditional IITs in terms of admission process


and grading pattern

Enhancing the assessment and accreditation system to ensure quality in the


Higher education programmes.

At Industry Level
Employability is far bigger a challenge than unemployment. Industry leaders feel that
the skills and quality of the workforce need a lot of improvement. Plagued with
problems like curriculum, lack of qualified faculty, poor quality of content, and notso-effective examination system, technical institutions do not provide signaling value
in the job market. A disparity exists in the types of skills taught at colleges and those
that are demanded in industry.
Campus Recruitment is commonly viewed as an element in the socialization process
prior to organizational entry. During this stage, employers should attempt to convey
their expectations from the would -be graduating students rather than trying to attract
the type of employee who is most likely to be successful in the organization.
Employability of graduates can be enhanced, if industry works in connection with
Universities. The corporate house is therefore expected to participate and
communicate their needs to the educational world than simply passing on the blame
onto academicians regarding failure in the development of employability skills.

156 | P a g e

At Student Level
Every child is born unique. However there is a failure on the part of the child to
understand that the skills expected from him at the workplace are perhaps common.
There is lack of knowledge among the young graduates regarding the expectation of
the industry. It is not mere a graduation certificate from Tier 1 college that can fetch a
job for him. Today a graduation certificate is of no value if it cannot imbibe the basic
soft skills among the employees. Academic studies can take the student to the
fundamentals of the subject but developing the soft skills is more or less with the
student to take it to the next level.

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CHAPTER 9

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Andreas Bloom, H. S. (2011). "Employability and Skill Set of Newly
graduated Engineers in India". World Bank
Atif Anis Rao, (August 2011). Employability in MNCs: Challenge for
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International SAMANM Journal of Marketing and Management, Vol. 1, No.2.
ISSN 2308-2399
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Resource Development. Working Group On Higher Education For The XII
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DEST, 2006. Employability skills from framework to practice, an
introductory guide for trainers and assessors, a report by the Australian
Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Business Council of Australia for
the Department of Education, Science and Training, Canberra.
Divya Shukla. (2012). Employability Skill among Professionals, VSRD
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Dr. G.R. Sinha, (n.d.) Need to Focus on Developing Employability Skills in
our Engineering Graduates. India Education Review. Retrieved from:
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Dr R Gopal. (2010), Towards an educated India: Academia- Industry
Partnership, Free Press Journal, Vol. May.
Dr R Gopal. (2012), Towards an educated India: Transforming the
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in Higher Education, Free Press Journal, Vol. Oct.
Dr. Sukhwinder Singh Jolly, (Oct, 2012). Developing Soft Skills for
Enhancing Employability of Engineering Graduates. IJEMR. Vol. 2, Issue-5
Dunegan, K.J. (1993), Framing, cognitive modes, and image theory, toward
an understanding of a glass half full, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78,
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indecision among young adults, Human Resource Management Review, Vol.
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presentation of the New Deal. Research in Post-Compulsory Education 5, 3,
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Habibah Hassan, (Dec. 2012). Company perception on the employability skills
of industrial training students. JTET, Vol. 4, No.2 ISSN 2229-8932
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(June 2008).

Exploring engineering employability

competencies through interpersonal and enterprise skills.


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practical
Lynne Heslop. (2014). Understanding India: The future of higher education
and opportunities for international cooperation. British Council. February
M. Z. Kamsah, (n.d.) Developing Generic Skills in Classroom Environment:
Engineering Students Perspective. Malaysia.
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significance for employability, and steps towards its enhancement. Tertiary
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Many engineering students lack employable skills, (Feb 11, 2009). The
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itself to the Global Labour Supply Chain. Global Economic Forum.
Moss, M.K. and Frieze, I.H. (1993), Job preferences in the anticipatory
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Vocational Behavior, Vol. 42, pp. 282-97
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Employment: The IIEP Experience in Five Less Developed Countries,
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Professionals, The Indian Review of World Literature in English, Vol. 5 No.
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Y. M. Yusoff. WSEAS International Conference on Engineering Education.
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WEBLIOGRAPHY
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_India_Council_for_Technical_Education
http://mhrd.gov.in/

http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/student_services/careers/whatisemployability.pht
ml
http://www.aicte-india.org/

http://www.iisc.ernet.in/insa/ch6.pdf
http://www.naac.gov.in/
http://www.ugc.ac.in/
http://www.worc.ac.uk/adpu/1115.htm
www.dtemaharashtra.gov.in/

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Questionnaire for Engineering Students

I, Ms. Keerthi Menon, am the student of Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute (Department of Business
Management, Mumbai). This survey is part of the research work being carried under MPhil. Course.
The aim of this research is to study the Employability of Engineering Students.
The research intends to abide by all commonly acknowledged ethical codes. All data and measurements
obtained from this research study will be stored confidentially.
Your participation should take approximately 20 minutes of your valuable time. I request you to fill it
out with as much accuracy as possible.

A study on Employability of Engineering Students


Kindly give the following information about yourself and rate the key skills using
Likert Scale

1. Name of the Respondent:


2. Gender:

Male

____________________
Female

3. Name of the Institution/ College ______________


4. Institute Address: ______________________
5. Course enrolled for: _________________
6. Area of Specialization (If any): _______________________
7. Email Id: ____________________________

Respond to the following questions using a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5


(Strongly Agree)
(Put on the appropriate box)
1= Strongly Disagree
2= Somewhat Disagree
3= Neutral
4= Somewhat Agree
5= Strongly Agree

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Personal Attributes
Skill- 1: Self Discipline
Engineering Programs help to develop self discipline and orderly skills

Skill- 2: Flexibility
Engineering Programs help to develop the skill of being flexible with plans

Skill- 3: Initiative & Responsibility


Engineering Programs help to develop the skills of taking initiative and responsibility

Skill- 4: Plan and Organize


Engineering Programs help to develop planning and organizing skills

Interpersonal Skills
Skill- 5: Effective communication
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to communicate effectively within
the team and at large.

Skill- 6: Leadership
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to function effectively in the
capacity of a leader or manager

Skill- 7: Teamwork
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to function with multidisciplinary
teams
_______

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Skill- 8: Conflict Resolution


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to resolve conflicts within team

Technical Know how


Skill- 9: System/ Process designing
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to design a system, component, or
process to meet desired needs

Skill- 10: Solving Engineering Problems


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to identify, formulate, and solve
engineering problems

Skill- 11: Application of Knowledge


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
science and engineering practically

Skill- 12: Development of Technical Competence


Engineering Programs help to develop in-depth technical competence in a specific
engineering discipline

Higher order thinking Skills


Skill- 13: Creativity and Innovation
Engineering Programs help to develop the capacity for creativity and innovation

Skill- 14: Strategic Thinking


Engineering Programs help to develop Strategic Thinking skills.

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Skill- 15: Professional and Ethical responsibilities


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to understand Professional and
Ethical responsibilities, and commitment towards them

Skill- 16: Social, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to understand social, cultural, global
and environmental responsibilities

Problem Solving/ Decision Making Skills


Skill- 17: Information Management
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to manage information and
documentation.

Skill- 18: Problem identification and solution


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to undertake problem identification,
formulation and solution

Skill- 19: Risk taking


Engineering Programs help to develop risk taking ability

Skill- 20: Adoption of new skills


Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to pick up new skills and adapt to
new situations

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1.In your opinion is your course grooming you as a Valued Engineer? Kindly
justify your answer.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________

Thank You for your Participation

169 | P a g e

Questionnaire for Corporate Participants


I, Ms. Keerthi Menon, am the student of Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute (Department of Business
Management, Mumbai). This survey is part of the research work being carried under MPhil. Course. The
aim of this research is to study the Employability of Engineering Students.
The research intends to abide by all commonly acknowledged ethical codes. All data and measurements
obtained from this research study will be stored confidentially.
Your participation should take approximately 20 minutes of your valuable time. I request you to fill it out
with as much accuracy as possible.

A study on Employability of Engineering Students

Corporate Skills Survey


Kindly provide the following information about yourself and your organization
1. Name of the Respondent ____________________
2. Name of the Organization ______________
3. Business Address: ______________________
4. Primary Business of Organization: _____________
5. Designation (Mention Department) _______________
6. Total Work Experience (Present Organization) _______________
7. No. of Employees Worldwide:
Under 500________ 500-2000_________ 2000-5000_________
5000-10000_________ 10000-50000_________
8. Email Id: ________________________________
Respond to the following questions using a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5
(Strongly Agree)
(Put on the appropriate box)
1= Strongly Disagree
2= Somewhat Disagree
3= Neither Disagree nor Agree
4= Somewhat Agree
5= Strongly Agree

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As a Corporate Recruiter how would you rate the parameters mentioned below as an
essential Skill/ Attribute to be possessed by an Employee (Entry level Engineers).

Skills/ Attributes

Being disciplined and orderly are essential skills

Being flexible with plans is important

Taking initiative and responsibility are important skills

Planning and organizing are important skills

The ability to communicate effectively within the team and at large is


important
The ability to function effectively in the capacity of a leader or
manager is an important skill

The ability to function with multidisciplinary teams is important

The ability to resolve conflicts within team is an important skill

The ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired


needs is an important skill
The ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems is
an important skill
The ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and
engineering practically is an important skill
Having in-depth technical competence in a specific engineering
discipline is important

The capacity for creativity and innovation is an important skill

Strategic Thinking is an important skill

Understanding Professional and Ethical responsibilities, and getting


committed towards them is important

Understanding of social, cultural, global and environmental


responsibilities are important

Managing information and documentation is an important skill

Problem identification, formulation and solution is an important skill

Willingness to take risk is an important skill

The ability to pick up new skills and adapt to new situations is an


important skill

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As a Corporate Recruiter how would you rate the contribution of Engineering


Programs (Curriculum adopted by Colleges and Universities) towards Skill
Development among Amateur/ Fresh Engineering Students joining Industry?

Skills/ Attributes

Engineering Programs help to develop discipline and orderly skills

Engineering Programs help to develop the skill of being flexible with plans

Engineering Programs help to develop the skills of taking initiative and


responsibility
Engineering Programs help to develop planning and organizing skills

Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to communicate


effectively within the team and at large
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to function effectively in
the capacity of a leader or manager
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to function with
multidisciplinary teams
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to resolve conflicts
within team
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to design a system,
component, or process to meet desired needs
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to identify, formulate,
and solve engineering problems
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to apply knowledge of
mathematics, science and engineering practically
Engineering Programs help to develop in-depth technical competence in a
specific engineering discipline
Engineering Programs effectively develop the capacity for creativity and
innovation
Engineering Programs help to develop Strategic Thinking skills.

Engineering Programs help to develop an understanding of Professional


and Ethical responsibilities and commitment towards them
Engineering Programs help to develop understanding of social, cultural,
global and environmental responsibilities
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to manage information
and documentation.
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to problem identification,
formulation and solution
Engineering Programs help to develop a risk taking ability
Engineering Programs help to develop the ability to pick up new skills and
adapt to new situations

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1. In your opinion what are the challenges faced by amateur/ fresh Engineering
recruits in the corporate world?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

2. Do you think academic education suffices the need to meet these challenges?
Kindly justify your answer.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3. In what ways, if at all, do you feel that Industry can contribute towards
improvement of quality of Engineering Programs?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Thank you for your Participation

173 | P a g e

Questionnaire for Academic Participants

I, Ms. Keerthi Menon, am the student of Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute (Department of Business
Management, Mumbai). This survey is part of the research work being carried under MPhil. course. The
aim of this research is to study the Employability of Engineering Students.
The research intends to abide by all commonly acknowledged ethical codes. All data and measurements
obtained from this research study will be stored confidentially.
Your participation should take approximately 20 minutes of your valuable time. I request you to fill it
out with as much accuracy as possible.

A study on Employability of Engineering Students

Kindly provide the following information about yourself and your organization
1. Name of the Respondent:
2. Gender:

Male

____________________
Female

3. Name of the Institution/ College ___________________


4. Institute Address: ______________________
5. Designation __________________

6. Email Id: __________________________


7. Total no. of Students enrolled for Engineering Course (Full time
Programs)___________

FACULTY MEMBERS

8. Total no. of Faculty who teach in Engineering Course __________


9. Tenure: Fulltime faculty___________ Adjunct Faculty_________
10. Based on your response to Question 09, approximately how many of your full
time faculty are Business Practitioners/ from Industry Backgrounds?
None

51-75%

Fewer than 25%

Greater than 75%

25-50%

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CURRICULUM
11. In your opinion is the Engineering curriculum satisfactory enough to secure
education based employment?
Yes
No
12. Has the curriculum been updated in the last 3 years?
Yes

No

13. Does your Institute participate in the revision of Syllabi conducted after
regular intervals?
Yes
No

PLACEMENT
14. Does your Institute have Placement cell to provide the students with
placement assistance?
Yes

No

15. If your Institute has a placement cell, what are the methods adopted to contact
Corporate Houses?
Direct contact with HR manager

Contact through Alumni

Making corporate presentations

Others (Please specify)

16. What is the percentage of final year students securing placement (Last 3yrs)?
None

Fewer than 25%

Greater than 75%

51-75%

25-50%

17. Do you keep track of your students working with organizations?


Yes

No

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ASSESSMENT
18. How often does your Institute conduct an in-depth assessment of Engineering
Program with regard to how well the course addresses the employers needs?
Never

Every 1-3 Yrs

More than 10yrs

7-10 Yrs

4-6 Yrs
19. If your Institute does conduct an in-depth assessment of your course programs,
then who all are included in the process?
Administrators

Faculty Members

Employers

Students

Alumni

Others (Please Specify)

20. Does your institution have an Accreditation? If yes, which type of


Accreditation does your institute have? (Please mention the Grade)
Very Good
Good

Satisfactory

Not Accredited

21. In your opinion what are the challenges put forth by the Business House to the
amateur/ fresh Engineering Graduates?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
22. Do you think academic education suffices the need to meet these challenges?
Kindly justify your answer.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
23. In what ways, if at all, do you feel that quality of Engineering Programs
should be improved to address these challenges?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Thank you for your Participation

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