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Problems on C.P.

M &PERT
Problem1:
An assemble is to be made from 2 parts x a d y. Botha parts must be turned a lathe.
y must be polished whereas x need not be polished. The sequence of actives, to
gather with their predecessor s given below.
Activity

Description

Predecessor activity

Open work order

Get Material for X

Get material for Y

Then X on lathe

Then y on lathe

B,C

Polish Y

Assemble x and y

D,F

Pack

Draw a net work diagram of activities for project.


Solution:

A
2

Dummy

H
7

F
3

Problem-2:
Listed in the table are the activities and sequencing necessary for a maintenance job
on the heat exchanging.

Activity

Description

Predecessor

Dismantle
connections

Dismantle heater, closure, A


and floating front

Remove Tube Bundle

Clean bolts

Clean heater and floating B


head front

Clean tube bundle

Clean shell

Replace tube bundle

F,G

Prepare shell pressure test D,E,H

Prepare tube pressure test


And reassemble

pipe -

Draw a net work diagram of a activities for the projects.


Solution:
5

F
G
C
A

H
J

D
8

10

E
7

Problem-3: Listed in the table are activities and sequencing necessary for the
completion of a recruitment procedure for management trainees (t) in a firm.

Solution:
Activity

Description

Predecessor Activity

Asking
units
recruitments

Ascertaining management A
trains(MTs)
requirement
for commercial function

Asserting
MTs A
requirement
for
Account/finance functions

Formulating
advertisement
MT(commercial)

for -

C
for

Calling applications from B


the succedfull conditions
passing
through
the
institute

Calling application s from C


the successful conditions
passing
through
the
institute
of
chartered
Accounts (ICA)

Releasing
advertisement

Completing
received

Screening of applications H
against advertisement

Screening of applications F
received from ICA

Sending of personal forms

Issuing
letters

Preliminary interviews

Preliminary interviews of J
3

the D,E
applications G

I,J

interview/regret K
L

outstanding
from ICA
O

candidates

Final inter view

M,N

Draw a network of activities for the project.


Solution:

the net work diagram for the given project.

1
0

1
1

O
1
2M

1
3

2
C
4

PROBLEMS ON CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM):


PROBLEM-1:
A project has the following times schedule
Activity 1-2 1-3 2-4 3-4 3-5 4-9 5-6 5-7 6-8
Time in 4
1
1
1
6
5
4
8
1
weeks
Construct CPM Network and compute.
I.
II.
III.

TE and TL for each event.


Float for each activity
Critical path and its duration.
SOLUTION:
The net work is constructed as given in diagram.
=4
12

7-8
2

8-9
1

8-10
8

9-10
7

1
4

=5

=18

=13

=18

=11

1
1

=16

=25

1
0

5
6

=1

=25

8
=15 2

=7

=1

=15

=7
FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=17
BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=17

=0

=1

, J=9, 10
=

, i=2, 3
=

=MIN {17, 17} =17

=Max {5, 2} =5
=15

, J=6, 9
=1

=Min {7, 12} =12

, i=6, 7
=

=Max {12, 17} =17

I. The tail event (

EVEN

1
5

and head event ( ) computed on the network as follows

10

T
0

11

15

17

18

25

12

13

16

15

17

18

25

CRITICAL PATH:

Activit Duratio Earliest time


y
n
of Starting Finishing
(i.j)
time ( ( )
time
(
(1)
)
(3)
(2)
(4)=(3)+(2)
1-2
1-3
2-4
3-4
3-5
4-9
5-6
5-7
6-8
7-8
8-9
8-10
9-10

4
1
1
1
6
5
4
8
1
2
1
8
7

0
4
1
1
5
7
7
11
15
17
17
18

1
5
2
7
10
11
15
12
17
18
25
25

Latest time
Starting
Finishin
g
)

(5)=(6)-(2)
(6)

(7)=(5)-(3)
8

8
10
12
12
6
13
12
7
16
15
17
8
8

Total float
time
T-F=

12
11
13
13
12
18
16
15
17
17
18
0
0

10
8
12
5
8
5
0
5
0
0
9
10

CRITICAL PATH ACTIVITIES:


From the above table we observe that the activities 5-7, 7-8 and 8-9
are critical activities as their total float is zero. Hence we have the following critical
path.
5-7, 7-8 and 8-9
6

8+8+7=25

Problem-2:
work.

The following table gives activities of duration of construction project

ACTIVITY
DURATION

1-2
20

1-3
25

2-3
10

2-4
12

3-4
6

4-3
10

a) Draw the network for the project.


b) Find the critical path.

Solution:
=20
20

12

=36

20

1
1

=36

25

10

10

=46
=46

6
3
=30
=30

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0

=30

, i=2, 3
=

, J= 3,4
=Max {32, 36} =36

=Min {20,14} =20

Activit Duratio Earliest time


y
n
of Starting Finishing
(i.j)
time ( ( )
time
(
(1)
)
(3)
(2)
(4)=(3)+(2)

Latest time
Starting
Finishin
g
)

Total float
time
T-F=

(5)=(6)-(2)
(6)

(7)=(5)-(3)
1-2
20
0
20
0
20
0
1-3
25
0
25
5
30
5
2-3
10
20
30
20
30
0
2-4
12
20
32
24
36
4
3-4
6
30
36
30
36
0
4-5
10
36
46
36
46
0
From the above table we observe that the activities 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and4-5
are critical activities as their total float is 0. Hence we have the following critical path
1-2-3-4-5 with the total project duration is 46 days.
Problem-3:
Find the critical path and calculate the slack time for each event for the following
PERT diagram.

4
2

4
3

1
1

J= 1

1
4

=Min {12}
=

Solution:
FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

= {10} =10

BACKWARD
PASS
=
= CALUCLATION:
{11} =11

=0
=

,8
i= 4,3
=

= {8} =8

=1
=Max {10, 4} =10

, J= 3,7
=

=Min {2,3} =2

=11

, J= 2, 3, 4

=15
=

=Min {5, 0, 6} =0

These values can be represented in the following network diagram.


=7

=11

4
2

=16

=2

=8

=1
=7

=15

5
=10
=10

Activit Duratio Earliest time


y
n
of Starting Finishing
(i.j)
time ( ( )
time
(
(1)
)
(3)
(2)
9

=7

=12

1
1

=15

=11

=2

Latest time
Starting
Finishin
g
)

(5)=(6)-(2)
(6)

Total float
time
T-F=

(4)=(3)+(2)

1-2
1-3
1-4
2-6
3-7
3-5
4-5
5-9
6-8
7-8
8-9

2
2
1
4
5
8
3
5
1
4
3

0
0
0
2
2
2
1
10
6
7
11

2
2
1
6
7
10
4
15
7
11
14

(7)=(5)-(3)

5
0
6
7
3
2
7
10
11
8
12

7
2
7
11
8
10
10
15
12
12
15

5
0
6
5
1
0
6
0
5
1
1

[PERT]
In the net work analysis it is implicitly assumed that the time values are
deterministic or variations in time are insignificant. This assumption is valid in regular
jobs such as
i. Maintenance of machine.
ii. Construction of a building or a power
iii. Planning for production.
As these are done from time and various activities could be timed very
well
However in reach projects or design of a gear box of a new machine
various
Activities .are based on judgment. A reliable time estimate is difficult to get because the
technologies is changing the job? the pert approach taxes into account the uncertainties
associated with in that activity.
DEFINATIONS:
1. OPTIMISTIC TIME: the optimistic time is the shortcut possible time in which the
activity can be finished. It assumes that everything goes very well. This is denoted
by
2. MOST LIKELY TIME; the most likely time is the estimate of the activity would
take. This assumes normal delays. If a graph is plotted in the time of completion
and the frequency of completion in that time period than the most likely time will
represent the highest frequency of a occurrence. This is denoted by

3. PESIMISTIC TIME; the pessimistic time represents the longest time the activity
could take if everything goes wrong. As in optimistic estimate. This value may be
such that value. This is denoted by

10

These 3 types values are, shown in the following diagram in order to obtain these
values; one could use time values available similar jobs. But most of the time the
estimator may not be so fortunate to have this data. Secondary values are the functions
of manpower, machines and supporting facility .A better approaches would be to seek
opinion of experts in the field keeping in views the resources available, this estimate
does not take into account such natural catastrophes as fire etc.
In pert calculation all values are used to attain the percent exportation
value.
4.EXPECTED TIME; the expected time is average time an activity will take if it were
to be reported on large number of times and it is base on the assumption that the
activity time follows Bets distribution. This is given by the formula
=(

5. VARIANCE: the variance for the activity is given by the formula

Where
= the pessimistic time.

=the expected time.

Frequency

Most likely

Pessimistic

O
Optimistic

11

Time

Problem-1: for the project represented by the network diagram, find the earliest time
and latest times to reach each node given the following data.

TASK
LEAST TIME
GREATEST
TIME
MOST LIKELY
TIME

A B
4 5
8 1
0
5 7

C
8
1
2
1
1

D E
2 4
7 1
0
3 7

F
6
1
5
9

G
8
1
6
1
2

H
5
9

I
3
7

J
5
11

K
6
13

2
B

C
1

K
4

H
3

SOLUTION;
First we calculate the expected time
Task

Optimistic
time(

by the formula

Pessimistic
time(

) as follows

Most likely time

Expected time

10

12

11

10

15

12

=(

= 5.3

7.2

10.7

3.5

9.5

16

12

11

13

Now the earliest time expected time

12

6.3

9.1

for each note are obtained by taking sum of the

expected times for all the activities leading to node i, when more than one activity
leads to a node i, the maximum of

is called.

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0

=0+5.3=5.3
=

= 24.5

= 25.9

2.5
=max {12.5,10.4} =12.5

, J= 3,7

= 19.5
=

=Min {19.5,19.5}

=2
=max {13,19.5} =19.5
=

TASK
LEAST TIME
GREATEST
TIME
MOST LIKELY
TIME

13

= 12.5

A
4
8

B
5
10

=34. D
C
8
2
=32.
12 7

E
4
10

F
6
15

G
8
16

H
5
9

I
3
7

J
5
11

K
6
13

11

12

Estimation
5. 7.2 10. 3. 7
9.5 12 6. 5
Time
3
7
5
3
These calculations are may be arranged in the following table.

NODE

9.2

SLACK(

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

5.3
3.5
7.2
7
6.3
5
9.1
8.0

5.3
3.5
12.5
19.5
25.8
24.5
34.9
32.5

5.3
10.0
12.5
19.5
25.8
24.5
34.9
32.5

0
6.5
0
0
0
0
0
0

=5.3

2
A(5.3)

B(7.2)

=34.9
=12.5

C(10.4)

=25.8

=12.5

F=9.5

=25.8

E(7)

D(3.5)

=34.9

K(9.1)
6

H(6.3)
3

G(12)

=3.5

I (5)

=24.5

=19.5

=10.0

J(8)

=32.5

=24.5

=19.5

=32.5

PROBLEM-2: A project has the following characteristics


ACTIVITY
MOST
OPTEMESTI
14

12
1

23
1

2-4 35
1
3

45
2

4-6

5-7

6-7

7-8

79
5

810
1

9-10
3

TIME(a)
MOAST
5
3
5
5
4
7
6
8
6
8
3
7
PESSIMESTIC
TIME(b)
MOST LIKELY
1.5 2
3
4
3
5
5
7
4
6
2
5
TIME(m)
Construct a PERT network. Find critical path and variance for each event find the
project duration as 95% probability.
SOLUTION: Activity expected times & their variances are computed by the following
formula
Expected time ( ) = (

). V=

Activity

4m

1-2

2-3

2-4

12

3-5

16

4-5

12

4-6

20

5-7

20

6-7

28

7-8

16

7-9

24

8-10

9-10

20

=4 3

=8

=2

1/9
4/9
1/9
1/9

4/9

6.16

1/9
1/9
4/9

=8

1/9
1/9
4/9

5
=139/6

=12

=139/6

15
1
1

4/9

5
6

1
8

1
0

=169/9

=17

=169/9

=17

1
4

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:


=2

=0

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=5

=17

=10

=5

=127/6

=10

=0+2=2

-2=

, J= 8,9
=

=Min {19.5,17}

=17

=max {13,17} =17

= 10

= 12

=5

The longest path is 1-2-4-6-7-9-10 can be traced. This is known as critical


path.
PROBLEM ON PROJECT CRASHING:
The following table gives data on normal time, and cost crash time and cost
for a project
Activity
Time (weeks)
1-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-5

3
3
7
9
5
16

Normal
Cost(Rs/-)
300
30
420
720
250

Crash
Time
(weeks)
2
3
5
7
4

Cost(Rs/-)
400
30
580
810
300

4-5
5-6
6-7
6-8
7-8

0
6
4
13
10

0
320
400
780
1000

0
4
3
10
9

0
410
470
900
1200

Indirect cost is 50/- per week.


Draw the network diagram for the project and identify the critical path.
What is the normal project duration associated cost?
Find out the total float associated with each activity.
Crash the relevant activities systematically and determine the optimal project
completion time cost.
Solution:
=10

=22

=12

=18

=22

=18

9
1
1

3
=0

=3

=12

3
3
=6
=7

17

10

=12

=32

13

=32

18