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a sailing boat

Hiromichi Akimoto1 and Hideaki Miyata2

1

2

Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama, Tottori 680-8552, Japan

Department of Environmental and Ocean Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

the performance of a sailing boat in unsteady motion on a free

surface. The method is based on the time-marching, finitevolume method and the moving grid technique, including

consideration of the free surface and the deformation of the

under-water shape of the boat due to its arbitrary motion. The

equation of motion with six degrees of freedom is solved by

the use of the fluid-dynamic forces and moments obtained

from the flow simulation. The sailing conditions of the boat

are virtually realized by combining the simulations of waterflow and the motion of the boat. The availability is demonstrated by calculations of the steady advancing, rolling, and

maneuvering motions of International Americas Cup Class

(IACC) sailing boats.

Key words Free surface Moving boundary Unsteady

motion Sailing boat

Introduction

Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) enables us to predict the performance of a ship

in steady advancing motion.1 There have also been

some attempts to evaluate the maneuvering abilities of

a ship by CFD techniques.2,3 However, most of these

motions are restricted within steady two-dimensional

motion, e.g., steady circling or obliquely advancing

motions.

In the case of high-speed ships, the attitude of a ship

depends on its forward speed because of the large

dynamic pressure acting on its hull. Experimental studies are difficult owing to the large amplitude motion of

the ship. In the course of maneuvering, a ship makes

(e-mail: akimoto@damp.tottori-u.ac.jp)

Received: December 25, 2001 / Accepted: March 26, 2002

often neglected in the case of a low-speed ship.

Predicting the performance of a sailing boat is an

interesting topic in ship hydrodynamics owing to their

complicated performance, which is different from that

of commercial ships.4 In upwind sailing conditions, the

boat cruises with a large heel angle to obtain thrust from

the wind and a small leeway angle to generate lateral

force to cancel the unwanted component of the sail

force. The attitude of the boat depends on the hydroand aerodynamic forces and moments acting on its hull,

sails, keel, and rudder. These forces must be evaluated

in order to solve the equation of motion of the boat

(Fig. 1). It is difficult to investigate the performance of a

sailing boat in an experimental facility because of the

complexities of the sailing dynamics and wind conditions. In a towing tank, we can only postulate the wind

action and the resultant balance of the boat by adjusting

the towing position and ballast weights on a model ship.

A method of overcoming these difficulties is to

extend the CFD techniques so that the freely moving

properties of the boat can be incorporated. Some

studies have attempted to realize self-propelling and

steady maneuvering motions by the CFD technique.

Most of these have been numerical realizations of a

towing test, where a ship is fixed in a computational grid

system. We can remove this restriction by solving the

equation of motion of the ship simultaneously with the

CFD simulation, including the changes in geometry of

the free surface and the body boundary.

In this work, a flow simulation code WISDAM-VII5 is

developed for the flow around a freely moving ship, in

particular for the large motions of a sailing boat (Fig. 2).

It employs the finite-volume method in the framework

of an O-O-type structured grid system that is fitted to

both the free surface and the hull surface. The grid

system is generated at each time step. Deformations of

the computational domain are treated by a waterline

search procedure and a moving grid method that is

32

Governing equations

The governing equations are the conservation laws of

momentum and mass in control volumes which deform

time-dependently. They are expressed as

d

udV = T dS

S (t )

dt V (t )

(1)

d

V (t ) = (u - v) dS

S (t )

dt

(2)

where V(t) and S(t) denote the volume and surface area

of the control volume, respectively, u is the fluid velocity vector, and v is the moving velocity of the surface of

the control volume. dS is the product of the infinitesimal

area element dS and the outward normal vector n on the

surface of the control volume. Using the eddy viscosity

model for Reynolds stress, the stress tensor T is

expressed as

Fig. 1. Coordinate system

similar to that of Rosenfeld and Kwak.6 The fluiddynamic forces obtained in the CFD simulation are

introduced into the equation of motion of the boat.

Although the forces and moments acting on the sails,

keel, and rudder are given by empirical equations in

this method, this system provides the basis of a virtual

reality system for all sailing boats.

Fluid-dynamics simulation

The CFD code WISDAM-VII was developed to simulate the incompressible viscous water flow around a ship

in arbitrary motion.5 Assuming that the interactions of

the flow between the hull and other parts of the boat are

small, the CFD simulation is performed for the hull only

in this method. Thus, the target of the system is the

hydrodynamic evaluation of hull configurations under

the influences of all the lifting surfaces.

T

T = -(u - v)u - PI +

+ n t u + (u)

Re

(3)

where P is the kinematic pressure defined by P = p/r z/Fn2, p is the pressure, r is the density of water,

standard speed and length of the boat, respectively.

I is the unit tensor, Re (=UL/n) is the Reynolds number,

and nt is the kinematic eddy viscosity. Equations 1

and 2 are solved numerically by a MAC-type timemarching algorithm. The spatial discretization of the

usual convection flux uu is by the 3rd-order upwind

scheme. The additional flux due to grid motion vu is

treated by the method of Rosenfeld and Kwak.6 To

satisfy the minimum geometric conservation, this uses

the momentum in the volume of a hexahedron which is

swept by the face under consideration due to the motion

of the grids. The pressure and the diffusive fluxes are

evaluated by 2nd- and 1st-order spatial descretization, respectively. Time discretization is 1st-order

Euler-explicit.

We assume that the boat is rigid. Then the velocity of

the surface vb on the hull is determined from the motion

of the boat and the relative position of the point of

interest xb from the gravitational center.

v b = vG + w G ( x b - x G )

(4)

forward velocity of xG, and wG is the angular velocity

vector of the boat with respect to xG. To impose the noslip boundary condition (u = vb), we use dummy velocity

points located in the body (Fig. 3). Their velocity

33

(P)

body

=-

v b 1 2

+

u

t Re

body

(7)

acceleration of the body surface determined by Eq. 4.

By taking the inner product of Eq. 7 and the outward

normal vector on the body surface nb, the normal pressure gradient on the moving body surface is obtained in

the form

P

v

= - nb b

nb

t

(8)

because it is parallel to the body surface in the boundary

layer. Pressure at the dummy point is extrapolated using

the normal pressure gradient P/nb in Eq. 8. When the

acceleration of the body is zero, this is equivalent to the

usual zeronormal-gradient condition for pressure.

Free surface condition

We assume here that there is no turning over or breaking motion of free surface waves. Then the wave height

is expressed by a single-valued function z = h(x, y, t).

Although this assumption is not rigorously valid in the

bow region, this is restricted to a small area and has a

relatively small influence on the dynamics of International Americas Cup Class (IACC) boats. The kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions are given on

the free surface. The kinematic condition is expressed

as

liner extrapolation from the fluid velocity of the nearest

point u1.

udummy = 2v b - u1

(5)

points slip on the hull surface according to the regeneration of the grids at every time step, so that excessive

distortion of the grid system does not occur even when

the boat makes a large rolling motion (Fig. 4).

h

h

h

= v3 = u3 - (u1 - v1 )

- (u2 - v2 )

t

x1

x2

free surface, and x = [x1, x2, x3] and v = [v1, v2, v3] are the

position and velocity vectors, respectively, of grid points

on the free surface. With the assumption that the surface tension and viscous stress on the free surface are

negligibly small, the dynamic condition is written as

P=

To evaluate the pressure on the moving body surface,

an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian) form of

the NavierStokes equation is employed on the body

surface.

1 2

u

u

+ (u - v b ) u = -P +

Re

t

(9)

pa

x

x

u

- 32 = - 32 ,

=0

ns

r Fn

Fn

(on the free surface)

(10)

and u/ns is the velocity gradient in the direction normal to the free surface. The quantity pa is assumed to be

a constant. We can set pa = 0 without loss of generality.

(6)

obtain an equation for the pressure gradient on the

moving body surface.

Model of turbulence

A hybrid turbulence model is employed to evaluate the

kinematic eddy viscosity nt. This is a combination of the

34

the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity8 in the subgrid-scale

turbulence model (SGS). The BL model is applied on

the fore part of the hull where the boundary layer is thin

and locally two-dimensional. However, in the rear part

of the body and in its wake region, the boundary layer

rapidly increases in thickness10 and the BL model tends

to overestimate the eddy viscosity. Therefore, we

estimate nt by the following equation:

0

n tBL

nt =

bn tBL + 1 - b n tSGS

SGS

n t

(x < x )

(x < x < x )

(x < x < x )

( x < x)

FP

FP

MID

MID

(11)

AP

AP

where n BL

and n SGS

are kinematic eddy viscosities

t

t

obtained from the BL and SGS model, respectively.1

xFP, xMID, and xAP denote the x-coordinates of the fore

end point, mid-ship position, and after end point of the

wetted surface of the hull, respectively. The parameter

b is selected as b = s(x)/s(xMID), where s(x) is the section area that is the longitudinal distribution of the hull

volume beneath the still water plane in the upright

position.1 b is 1 at the midship, decreases in the aft

direction, and becomes 0 at xAP.

In the original BL model, small calculated n BL

flows

t

are treated as laminar. However, we assumed that the

turbulent boundary layer starts from xFP even at a relatively low Reynolds number condition. This is because

our target is the predicition of forces on the full-scale

boat.

n SGS

is determined by

t

[ {

}]

Sij

minimum grid spacing of the local control volume,

and |Sij| is the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor. The

Samgorinsky constant Cs is 0.5 in this calculation. The

estimate of the eddy viscocity changes gradually from

the BL model to the SGS model in the aft half of the

hull. In the wake region after xAP, the eddy viscocity is

determined by the SGS model only.

+

Equation of motion of the boat

The equation for the transverse motion of the boat is

written as

dv G

= Fhull + Fsail + Frudder + Fkeel + Fdamp

dt

(12)

terms are forces acting on the main hull, sails, rudder,

and keel, respectively. These forces include hydrodynamic or aerodynamic forces and gravity. The last term,

Fdamp, is an artificial damping force. This is added to

reduce unnecessary transient oscillations of the boat

when the target is a steady-state solution. The conservation law for the angular momentum has a similar form.

dhG

= Mhull + Msail + M rudder + M keel + Mdamp

dt

(13)

with respect to its center of gravity. The right-hand-side

terms are the moment vectors of all parts and the artificial damping moment.

A ship has natural damping mechanisms due to the

viscous effect and the dynamic forces of its appendages.

Since their magnitude of damping is usually small, occasional transient oscillating motions of the boat waste

considerable CPU time. Therefore, Fdamp and Mdamp are

added to reduce the CPU time for unnecessary transient

motions. These are set at zero if the unsteady motion of

the boat must be simulated rigorously.

Fhull is expressed as

z

mhull

Fhull = - P e

dS - S D dS 2

S

Fn

Fn 2 3

(14)

surface of the hull, mhull is the mass of the hull, D is the

viscous stress tensor, and e3 is a unit vector orienting

vertically upward. The right-hand-side terms are the

pressure force, viscous force, and gravitational force,

respectively. The hydrodynamic and gravitational moments on the hull are express as

z

Mhull = - P x - x G n dS

S

Fn 2

{(

) (

) }

+ x - x G D n dS S

mhull

x - x G e3

Fn 2 hull

(15)

where (x - xG) is the position vector originating from xG,

and xhull is the center of gravity of the main hull. It

should be noted that the buoyancy of the hull is included in the surface pressure integration that includes

the gravity potential. The effect of added mass around

the hull is also included in this integration.

Correction of the viscous force

It is not practical to perform a simulation of a full-scale

boat with our limited CPU power because the Reynolds

number of such a boat is about 108. Therefore, we have

to estimate the motion of a full-size boat from the com-

this purpose, only the frictional component of force

calculated by CFD is extrapolated to that of the full-size

boat as

fship =

C ship

f

C

CFD

f

fCFD

(16)

where fship is the estimated frictional force of the fullscale ship, and fCFD is the computed frictional force, i.e.,

integrated tangential stress on the wetted surface of the

hull. Cfship and CfCFD are the frictional force coefficients

of a flat plate at the Reynolds number of the full-scale

ship and the CFD simulation, respectively. Although

the range of Reynolds numbers in the CFD simulations

is from 105 to 106, the calculated pressure force can be

used in the equation of motion of the full-scale boat,

with a small error only, because the scale effect is believed not to be large for this component.

keel are evaluated by a wing theory and empirical

equations.

For example, we describe here the model of the rudder. The advancing velocity vector of the rudder vrudder is

expressed as

v rudder = vG + w G ( x rudder - x G )

(17)

the fluid velocity relative to the rudder is

(18)

va = u - v rudder

hydrodynamic force into the drag and lift components

(Fig. 5). The new coordinate system is chosen as

Yr = nr X r ,

a = p 2 - cos -1 (X r nr )

Zr = X r Yr

(19)

angle of attack a is

(20)

where a is positive when the lift force is in the Zr direction. The hydrodynamic force on the rudder is

2

1

Frudder = (C L Zr + CD X r ) r va Sr

2

(21)

where CL and CD are the lift and drag coefficients, respectively, and Sr is the area of the rudder. There are

interactions among the appendages and the hull

throughout the flow field. Because of the complexities

of these interactions, we incorporate here only the induced velocity of the forward-mounted keel. The fluid

dynamic coefficients in Eq. 21 are determined by the

following empirical equations5:

CL =

dC L

C Lkeel

a - C1 keel C 3D

l

da

CD = (1 + C 2C L )CD0 +

Models of appendages

X r = va va ,

35

C L2

plrudder

here lrudder and lkeel are aspect ratios of the rudder and

keel, respectively, and Ckeel

is the lift coefficient of the

L

keel. dCL/da, CD0, and C3D are coefficients of the liftcurve slope, the base drag, and the three-dimensional

correction factor, respectively. C1 and C2 are factors

of the interaction between the keel and the rudder.

These coefficients are obtained from experiments with a

model rudder. The forces acting on the sails and the

keel are evaluated in a similar manner.

Although the effect of added mass around the hull is

included in the CFD part, the added mass of some of the

appendages have not yet been fully considered.

As shown in Eq. 21, the treatments of wing-like appendages are steady-state approximations. Because the

chord length c of these appendages is relatively small in

relation to the boat length L, the reduced frequency of

the boat motion with a wing, (U/L)/(U/c), is about 0.02

0.04. This means that a quasi-steady approximation

which includes the added mass of the wings is not required in calm water conditions. The added mass

around the sail and the bulb is not explicitly included in

the present simulation, because a rough estimate of

their effect was smaller than the uncertainty of the total

inertial moment of the boat.

A more precise estimation of the inertia and the

quasi-steady approximation of the wings will be required when the predicted performance of a boat in

waves is considered.

Grid generation

deformation of the free surface, the wetted part of the

36

surface

hull

cope with the hull configuration of a sailing boat in large

changes of attitude, an OO-type boundary-fitted structured grid system was selected, as shown in Fig. 6. This

spherical grid system is regenerated at each time step

after the moving boundaries of the free surface and the

hull have settled, so that the distortion of the grid remains small even for a large-amplitude motion.

Surface modeling of the hull

For ease in handling the hull configuration, a cylindrical

coordinate system was defined, as shown in Fig. 7. The

position vector on the hull surface X = [X, Y, Z] in

the hull-fixed coordinate system is expressed by two

parameters of Xs and qs:

X = Xs ,

Y = r ( X s ,q s ) cos q s ,

Z = -r ( X s ,q s ) sin q s

(22)

hull axis, qs is the angle from the center plane to the

point, and r(Xs, qs) is the distance from the axis to the

surface point. The function r(Xs, qs) is designed to calcu-

from the given data points of the hulls shape. The vector X is converted to the point of the ground-fixed coordinate system x according to the position and attitude of

the boat. For concise notation, we express x as x = r(Xs,

qs) E(X(Xs, qs)), where E(X) means the conversion

from the body-fixed coordinate to the ground-fixed coordinate system using transverse and rotational

transformations.

The configuration of the hull is given in the row

of position vectors generated by a CAD application.

These are loaded and then converted to the cylindrical

coordinate system in CFD code. This implementation

conceals the discreteness of the geometrical data in the

function r(Xs, qs). It then become possible to handle the

complicated geometric changes in the boundaries in

the simulation.

Search procedure for the waterline

In the first step of the grid generation, the position of

the waterline, i.e., the intersection of the free surface

and the hull surface, is determined. Because these two

surfaces deform owing to the wave motion and the

change in the boats attitude, there is no easy way to

determine the waterline.

The determination of the waterline is based on a

bisection search on the hull surface. If there are two

points on the hull surface where one is above the free

surface and the other is under the free surface, the

37

described below (Fig. 8).

1. Set initial points xdry = r(Xdry, qdry) and xwet = r(Xwet,

qwet), where Xdry, qdry and Xwet, qwet are parametric

expressions of given dry and wet points.

2. Calculate the midpoint xm between xdry and xwet on the

hull surface, where xm = [xm, ym, zm] = r(Xm, qm), as

X m = X dry + X wet

2,

q m = q dry + q wet 2

surface.

If zm < h( xm , ym ), then replace x wet with x m

If zm > h( xm , ym ), then replace x dry with x m

Procedures 2 and 3 are repeated until wet and dry

points converge into a single point. The result gives the

local waterline position.

Search procedure for the fore and the aft end points

In the case of a sailing boat, the fore end point xFP and

the aft end point xAP of the wetted surface move a lot

owing to the special hull form configuration. They also

move time-dependently owing to the motion of the boat

and the free surface. We must determine these two

points at the first step of the grid generation because

they are pole points of the OO grids.

xFP is determined by the repeated use of the waterline

search (Fig. 9).

1. Set the initial section X = Xs, i.e., on the downstream

side of xFP.

2. Search the waterline positions of both the starboard

side xL and the port side xR of the section.

3. Obtain the midpoint xM between xL and xR on the

hulls surface.

Fig. 9. Search procedure for the fore end point (FP) by the

bisection method

stretching line from xM.

5. Replace Xs with XFP, and then go to point 2.

Procedures 25 are repeated until the three points xL,

xR, and xFP converge into one point. That point becomes

xFP at that moment. The search procedure for xAP is

performed in the same manner. xFP and xAP are connected by two waterlines on the port and starboard

sides by the repeated use of the bisection search for the

free surface around the hull.

Distribution of the surface and volume grids

After the determination of the two waterlines, body

boundary grids are distributed on the wetted surface

between the waterlines. Then the free surface grids are

generated from the waterlines to the outer boundary.

The height of each grid point from the still water plane

is obtained from Eq. 9. The inner-volume grids are algebraically distributed between the hull surface and the

outer boundary. Whole grids are regenerated at every

time step.

Numerical results

Simulation procedure

The simulation procedure using this method is very

similar to that of a model test in a towing tank. It includes setting a boat afloat, adjusting the still waterline

with ballast weights, setting the attitude, accelerating

38

the hull, Fraude number (Fn) = 0.34, NI is the number of

control volumes in the longitudinal direction along the hull

of these are performed numerically.

In a typical acceleration procedure, all degrees of

freedom except heave are fixed to prevent unnecessary

oscillations of the boat. When the boat reaches a steady

forward speed, one can select suitable conditions of

binding or release and the magnitudes of damping for

the test, in all six degrees of freedom. For example, in

the leewayheel test, the angles of leeway and heel are

gradually changed to the target position to be measured. In this case, all degrees of freedom except heave

and pitch are fixed. Artificial damping terms are added

to reduce unnecessary oscillation. This is effective if

time-averaged properties are the main concern.

Steady forward motion

pressure (Cp) distribution: heel = 21.3, leeway = 2.0, contour

interval = 0.02

steady forward motion case. Figure 10 shows the distribution of the wave profile along a typical IACC boat,

JN35, without appendages and in an upright position.

The measurements were performed in a towing tank

at the University of Tokyo with a one-seventh scale

model, and using a still camera. The target speed of the

full-size boat was 9.0 knots (Froude number 0.35,

Reynolds number for this experiment 4 106). The

number of control volumes was 45 000. The results show

that the accuracy of the simulation was satisfactory.

Although this simulation did not include local overturning and breaking waves around the bow, the peak

position of the profile showed good agreement.

Figure 11 shows a comparison of the pressure distributions on the wetted surface area. In this case an IACC

boat, JN32, was in steady sailing motion with a heel

angle of 21.3 and a leeway angle of 2.0. The pressure

beneath the still-water plane. The area of the contour

map measured was narrower than that of the computation. This is because the probes were not set on the hull

surface above the still-water plane where elevated free

surface reaches only when the model is in forward motion. However, the level of agreement was satisfactory.

The asymmetrical pattern of the pressure is well

realized in the computation.

Figure 12 shows a comparison of wave heights on a

contour map. The wave height close to the hull was not

measured in the experiment because we could not set

the wave height probes in the path of the towed model.

Although the main wave patterns are captured in this

simulation, crests of small wavelength are dissipated

rapidly in the propagating process. This is because of

39

twice as fast as in the nominal tacking motion of IACC

racing boats. Only heave and roll motions are solved,

and the other four modes of motion are fixed for simplicity. The axis of roll is set at the center of gravity of

the boat. Figure 13 shows the pressure and velocity

distributions in the transverse sections at two different

times. It shows the occurrence of a high-pressure region

due to the acceleration of the hulls surface, and the

large deformation of the free surface around the boat in

section (a). Although comparative experiments have

not yet been performed, the results show the potential

of this method to treat the unsteady rotational motions

on the free surface.

Comparison of course-changing maneuvers

This section considers an example of a typical maneuvering motion in upwind sailing. An IACC boat (JN35)

is in sailing motion at a constant speed of 9 knots with a

true wind angle of 45 and a leeway angle of 3. Initially,

the angles of its rudder and trim tab are adjusted to

balance force and moment. The boat is then ordered to

change its heading by 4, so that it obtains a larger sail

force according to the increased true wind angle.

This maneuver is performed by automatic control of the

rudder. The control routine of the rudder is a combination of proportional and differential control methods

df

dj

= Gpj + Gd

dt

dt

bold lines and negative values as thin lines. The contour interval is 1 10-3 of L, heel = 25, leeway = 3.0, Fn = 0.34, Re = 105

(computed) and 4.2 106 (measured)

and their rapid outward expansion. However, the agreement of the wave profile along the hull suggests that the

main part of the flow aound the hull is qualitatively well

reproduced.

Forced roll motion

To show the applicability of this method to the unsteady

motions of a boat, a simulation of a forced rolling

motion was conducted. In this simulation, an IACC

boat sailing at a constant speed (Froude number 0.35) in

an upright position starts rolling with an angular veloc-

(23)

angle, and Gp and Gd are gain parameters. In this case,

pitch, roll, and heave motions are fixed to simplify

the situation. Two cases of simulation were performed

for different gain values. In case 1, Gp and Gd were set

at 3.75 and 3.0, respectively, and in case 2 they were

1.88 and 3.0, respectively. The maneuver in case 2 was

expected to be gentle with a smaller proportional

gain.

Figure 14 shows the pressure distributions on the hull

in different times. At the beginning of the maneuver,

there is a high-pressure region in the bow due to the

yawing motion. Then the pressure magnitude decreases

when the angular velocity is approximately constant.

The time-historical variations of the boats speed in Fig.

15 show that in case 2, the boat is accelerating more

smoothly and reaches a higher speed. The result implies

that the maneuver in case 2 is superior to that in case 1

in this situation because it steers the boat relatively

gently. Figure 16 shows a series of pictures of the

maneuvering motion.

This simulation of changes in course shows that the

present method can be used to predict and to optimize

the performance of sailing boats. The simulation shows

40

in rolling motion at two different times.

Contour interval = 0.04, Re = 106. Positive

(negative) values are shown by solid

(dotted) lines

It is difficult to obtain these data from experiments

because of the limitations of tank facilities and the

complexity of boat motions. Thus, these examples show

the potential of this simulation method in the unsteady

motion of vessels on a free surface.

Conclusion

A new simulation method for the flow around a sailing

boat in motion has been developed. The method is

the moving grid technique, with consideration of the

unsteady motion of the free surface and the deformation of the under-water geometry due to the motion.

The equation of motion of the boat was solved simultaneously with that of the flow field around the hull using

the fluid-dynamic forces and moments obtained from

the flow solver. The sailing condition of the boat was

virtually realized in the simulation. The simulation results given show the potential of this method to evaluate

unsteady large-amplitude motions of moving vessels on

a free surface.

41

course change, case 2. a t = 4.0 (maneuvering start); b t = 4.6

(elapse time 0.6); c t = 5.2 (elapse time 1.2)

maneuvering motion at different times. Contour interval =

0.04, time interval = 0.25, Re = 105, positive/negative values are

shown by bold/thin lines

42

by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and by

the AC Technical Committee of the Ship and Ocean

Foundation.

References

1. Mitsutake H, Miyata H, Zhu M (1995) 3D structure of vortical

flow about a stern of a full ship. J Soc Nav Archit Jpn 177:111

2. Kawamura K, Miyata H, Mashimo K (1997) Numerical simulation of the flow about self-propelling tanker models. J Mar Sci

Technol 2:245256

3. Ohmori T, Fujino M, Miyata H (1998) A study on flow field

around full ship forms in maneuvering motion. J Mar Sci Technol

3:2229

4. Milgram JH (1993) Naval architecture technology used in winning

the 1992 Americas Cup match. SNAME Trans 101:399436

5. Akimoto H (1996) Development and application of a CFD simulation technique for a hull in 3D motion (in Japanese). PhD thesis,

University of Tokyo

6. Rosenfeld M, Kwak D (1991) Time-dependent solution of viscous

incompressible flows in moving coordinates. J Numer Methods

Fluids 13:13111328

7. Baldwin B, Lomax H (1978) Thin-layer approximation and algebraic model for separated turbulent flows. AIAA-Paper 78257

8. Smagorinsky J (1963) General circulation experiments with

primitive equations. Part 1. Basic experiments. Mon Weather

Rev 91:99164

9. Kawamura T, Miyata H (1995) Simulation of nonlinear ship flows

by density-function method (2nd Report). J Soc Nav Archit Jpn

178:17

10. Sung CH, Tsai JF, Huang TT et al (1993) Effects of turbulence

models on axisymmetric stern flows computed by an incompressible viscous flow solver. Proceedings of the 6th International

Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, pp 387405

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