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Manual de Ingls

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Verbos Irregulares en Ingls


Gramtica
Pronombres personales
Preposiciones bsicas
Tips para traducir
Bibliografa

Verbos Irregulares en Ingls


INFINITIVO
PASADO
PARTICIPIO TRADUCCIN
(Base Form)
SIMPLE
PASADO

Arise

Arose

Arisen

Surgir, Levantarse

Awake

Awoke

Awoken

Despertarse

Be/ am, are,


is
Bear
Beat
Become
Begin
Bend
Bet
Bind
Bid
Bite
Bleed
Blow
Break
Breed
Bring
Broadcast

Was / Were Been

Ser / Estar

Bore
Beat
Became
Began
Bent
Bet
Bound
Bid
Bit
Bled
Blew
Broke
Bred
Brought
Broadcast

Borne / Born
Beaten
Become
Begun
Bent
Bet
Bound
Bid
Bitten
Bled
Blown
Broken
Bred
Brought
Broadcast Radiar

Soportar, dar a luz


Golpear
Llegar a Ser
Empezar
Doblar
Apostar
Atar, encuadernar
Pujar
Morder
Sangrar
Soplar
Romper
Criar
Traer Llevar

Build
Burn

Built
Burnt
/Burned
Burst

Built
Burnt / Burned

Edificar
Quemar

Burst

Reventar

Burst

Buy
Cast
Catch
Come
Cost
Cut
Choose
Cling
Creep
Deal
Dig
Do (Does)
Draw
Dream

Bought
Cast
Caught
Come
Cost
Cut
Chosen
Clung
Crept
Dealt
Dug
Done
Drawn
Dreamt / Dreamed

Drink
Drive
Eat
Fall
Feed
Feel
Fight
Find
Flee
Fly
Forbid
Forget
Forgive

Bought
Cast
Caught
Came
Cost
Cut
Chose
Clung
Crept
Dealt
Dug
Did
Drew
Dreamt /
Dreamed
Drank
Drove
Ate
Fell
Fed
Felt
Fought
Found
Fled
Flew
Forbade
Forgot
Forgave

Drunk
Driven
Eaten
Fallen
Fed
Felt
Fought
Found
Fled
Flown
Forbidden
Forgotten
Forgiven

Beber
Conducir
Comer
Caer
Alimentar
Sentir
Luchar
Encontrar
Huir
Volar
Prohibir
Olvidar
Perdonar

Freeze

Froze

Frozen

Helar

Get
Give
Go (Goes)
Grow
Grind
Hang
Have
Hear
Hide
Hit

Got
Gave
Went
Grew
Ground
Hung
Had
Heard
Hid
Hit

Got / Gotten
Given
Gone
Grown
Ground
Hung
Had
Heard
Hidden
Hit

Comprar
Arrojar
Coger
Venir
Costar
Cortar
Elegir
Agarrarse
Arrastrarse
Tratar
Cavar
Hacer
Dibujar
Soar

Obtener
Dar
Ir
Crecer
Moler
Colgar
Haber o Tener
Oir
Ocultar
Golpear

Hold
Hurt
Keep
Know
Kneel
Knit
Lay
Lead
Lean
Leap
Learn

Held
Hurt
Kept
Known
Knelt
Knit
Laid
Led
Leant
Leapt
Learnt / Learned

Leave
Lend
Let
Lie
Light
Lose
Make
Mean

Held
Hurt
Kept
Knew
Knelt
Knit
Laid
Led
Leant
Leapt
Learnt /
Learned
Left
Lent
Let
Lay
Lit
Lost
Made
Meant

Meet
Mistake
Overcome
Pay
Put
Read
Ride
Ring
Rise
Run
Say
See
Seek
Sell
Send
Set
Sew
Shake
Shear

Met
Mistook
Overcame
Paid
Put
Read
Rode
Rang
Rose
Ran
Said
Saw
Sought
Sold
Sent
Set
Sewed
Shook
Shore

Met
Mistaken
Overcome
Paid
Put
Read
Ridden
Rung
Risen
Run
Said
Seen
Sought
Sold
Sent
Set
Sewed / Sewn
Shaken
Shorn

Left
Lent
Let
Lain
Lit
Lost
Made
Meant

Agarrar Celebrar
Herir
Conservar
Saber Conocer
Arrodillarse
Hacer punto
Poner
Conducir
Apoyarse
Brincar
Aprender

Dejar
Prestar
Permitir
Echarse
Encender
Perder
Hacer
Significar
Encontrar
Equivocar
Vencer
Pagar
Poner
Leer
Montar
Llamar
Levantarse
Correr
Decir
Ver
Buscar
Vender
Enviar
Poner(se)
Coser
Sacudir
Esquilar

Shine
Shoot
Show
Shrink
Shut
Sing
Sink
Sit
Sleep
Slide
Smell
Sow
Speak
Speed
Spell
Spend
Spill
Spin
Spit
Split
Spoil
Spread
Spring
Stand
Steal
Stick
Sting
Stink
Stride
Strike
Swear
Sweat
Sweep
Swell
Swim
Swing

Shone
Shot
Showed
Shrank
Shut
Sang
Sank
Sat
Slept
Slid
Smelt
Sowed
Spoke
Sped
Spelt
Spent
Spilt /
Spilled
Spun
Spat
Split
Spoilt /
Spoiled
Spread
Sprang
Stood
Stole
Stuck
Stung
Stank/Stun
k
Strode
Struck
Swore
Sweat
Swept
Swelled
Swam
Swung

Shone
Shot
Shown
Shrunk
Shut
Sung
Sunk
Sat
Slept
Slid
Smelt
Sowed / Sown
Spoken
Sped
Spelt
Spent
Spilt / Spilled

Brillar
Disparar
Mostrar
Encogerse
Cerrar
Cantar
Hundir
Sentarse
Dormir
Resbalar
Oler
Sembrar
Hablar
Acelerar
Deletrear
Gastar
Derramar

Spun
Spat
Split
Spoilt / Spoiled

Hilar
Escupir
Hender / partir / rajar
Estropear

Spread
Sprung
Stood
Stolen
Stuck
Stung
Stunk

Extender
Saltar
Estar en pie
Robar
Pegar Engomar
Picar
Apestar

Stridden
Struck
Sworn
Sweat
Swept
Swollen
Swum
Swung

Dar zancadas
Golpear
Jurar
Sudar
Barrer
Hinchar
Nadar
Columpiarse

Take
Teach
Tear
Tell
Think
Throw
Thrust

Took
Taught
Tore
Told
Thought
Threw
Thrust

Taken
Taught
Torn
Told
Thought
Thrown
Thrust

Coger
Ensear
Rasgar
Decir
Pensar
Arrojar Tirar
Introducir

Tread

Trod

Trodden

Pisar, hollar

Understand

Understood Understood Entender

Undergo

Underwent

Undergone

Undertake

Undertook

Undertaken Emprender

Wake

Woke

Woken

Despertarse

Wear

Wore

Worn

Llevar puesto

Weave

Wove

Woven

Tejer

Weep

Wept

Wept

Llorar

Wet

Wet

Wet

Mojar

Win

Won

Won

Ganar

Wind

Wound

Wound

Enrollar

Withdraw

Withdrew

Withdrawn

Retirarse

Wring

Wrung

Wrung

Torcer

Write

Wrote

Written

Escribir

Sufrir

Gramtica
Presente simple:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (base form)+C

S+Aux (do)+Neg+V (base form)+C

I
You
We
They

eat

He
She
eats
It

I
He
You
She
Do not eat
Does not eat
We
It
They

INTERROGACIN
Aux (do)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
Do

I
You

Eat?

Does

He
She

Eat?

We
It
They
Excepcin en tercera persona se aade una -s final. Cuando el verbo termina en
-sh, -o, -ch, -x se aade a la tercera persona singular la terminacin '-es'. Cuando
en 'y' precedida de consonante cambia la 'y' por 'ies'.
Para la forma negativa e interrogativa se recurre al verbo 'to do' que realiza una fu
auxiliar. En la tercera persona la forma 'do' cambia a 'does'.
Pasado simple:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (pasado)+C

S+Aux (did)+Neg+V ( base form )+C

I
He
I
He
You
She
You
She
studied
studied
did not study
did not study
We
It
We
It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Aux (did)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
Did

I
You
We
They

study?

Did

He
She
It

study?

Nota:

El pasado simple funciona con el auxiliar 'did' para todas las personas (incluida la te
persona singular 'he/she/it'). En la forma afirmativa, el auxiliar 'did' no aparece, empl
en su lugar la terminacin 'ed', esta es la forma de pasado para todos los 'Verbos
Regulares'. Si termina en -d o -t, se le pone -ed como slaba aparte; si termina en cu
otra consonante, se aade tambin -ed pero sin hacer slaba aparte; si termina en -e
pone slo d; una -y final que sigue a cualquier consonante se cambia en - ie ms

Futuro simple:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+Aux (will)+V ( base form )+CS+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base form )+C


I
He
I
He
You
She
You
She
Will travel
Will travel
Will not travel Will not travel
We
It
We
It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Aux (will)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
Will

I
You
We
They

travel?

He
She
It

Will

travel?

Nota:
Presente simple contino:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+V (ing)+CS+ be (pres. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C


I am walking

I am not walking
He
He
You
You
She is walking
Sheis not walking
Weare walking
We are not walking
It
It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Be (pres. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?

Are

Am I walking?
You
We
walking?
They

Is

He
She
It

walking?

Nota:

Pasado simple contino:


AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+V (ing)+C


S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C
I was driving

I was not driving


He
He
You
You
She was driving
She
was not driving
Wewere driving
We were not driving
It
It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Be (pasd. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?

Were

Was I driving?
You
We
driving?
They

Was

He
She
It

driving?

Nota:
Futuro simple contino:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux(will)+ be(base form)+V (ing)+C


S+ Aux(will)+Neg+be(base form)+V (ing)+C
I will be lending

I will not be lending


He
He
You
You
She Will be lending
She
will not be lending
We
will be lending
We
will not be lending
It
It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Aux (will)+S+be (base form)+V (ing)+C+?

Will

Will I be lending?
You
Will
We
Be lending?
They

He
She
It

be lending?

Nota:
Presente perfecto:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(have/has)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+V (P.p)+C

I have bought

I have not bought


He
He
You
You
have not bought
She
has bought (hes)
has
Shenot bought (hasn
have bought
(havent)
It
(youve) It
They
They
INTERROGACIN
Aux.(have/has)+S+V (P.p)+C+?

Have

Have I bought?
You
We bought?
They

Has

He
She
It

bought?

Nota:

El presente perfecto, se forma con to have a modo de auxiliar y el verbo en particip


pasado. En la tercera persona se emplea el has.
Pasado perfecto:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(had)+V (P.p)+C
S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+V (P.p)+C
had bought (Id)
I had not bought
He
He
You
You
had bought (hed)
had
Shenot bought (hadn
had bought She
had not bought (hadnt)
It
It
(youd)
They
They
INTERROGACIN

Had

Aux.(had)+S+V (P.p)+C+?
Had I bought?
He
You
Had
She
We bought?
It
They

Bought?

Nota:

Futuro perfecto:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+V (P.p)+CS+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+V (P.p)+C


I will have bought
You
They

I will not have bought


He
He
will have
will not have bough
Youbought
She
will not have bought
She
will have bought
(hell have)
(wont have)
(wont have) It
(youll have) It
They
INTERROGACIN

Will

Aux.(will)+S+(have)+V (P.p)+C+?
Will I have bought?
He
You
Will
She have bought?
have bought?
We
It
They

Nota:
Presente perfecto contino:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(have/has)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
I have been selling
You
They

I have not been selling


He
He
has been
have not been sellin
You selling
She
She
have been selling
(hes been)
(hasnt been)
have not been selling
It
(youve been) It
They
(havent been)
INTERROGACIN

Aux.(have/has)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?
Have I been selling?
He
You
She
been selling?
been selling? Has
Have
We
It
They
Nota:

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Pasado perfecto contino:


AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(had)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+CS+ Aux.(had)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
I had been selling
You
They

I had not been selling


He
He
had been
had not been selling
You selling
She
She
had been selling
(hed been)
(hadnt been)
had not been sellingIt
(youd been) It
They
(hadnt been)
INTERROGACIN

Had

Aux.(had)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?
Had I been selling?
He
You
She
been selling? Had
We
It
They

been selling?

Nota:
Futuro perfecto contino:
AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
I will have been selling
You
We
They

I will not have been selling


He
will have been
He
will not have been
You
She
selling (hell have
will not have been selling
She
will have been selling
selling
We
been)
(wont have been) It
(youll have been)It
They
INTERROGACIN

Aux.(will)+S+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C+?
Will I have been selling?
He
You
Will
She have been selling?
Will
We
have been selling?
It
They
Nota:

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Pronombres personales

Singsingular

Pronombre
sujetocomplemento
Pronombre reflexivo
reciproco
I
Me
Myself
You
You
Yourself
He
Him
Himself
She
Her
Herself
It
It
Itself
We
Us
Ourselves Each other
You
You
YourselvesEach other
They
Them ThemselvesEach other
Preposiciones bsicas

B.P
Used
Example
at Specific times
He has class at 8:30.
Definite place
My brother is at school.
Full address
They live at 2388 Park Road.
Speed
He was driving at 90 miles per hour.
Idea of definite time and placeThe exercise is at the end of the
Exception: at night: use in for the
lesson.
other
parts of the day.
in Inside
We are in the kitchen.
Cities, boroughs
The school is in the UCV.
States, countries
How long have you lived in Caracas?
Parts of countries
I live in the West.
Continents
We saw many interesting sights
Parts of the day
Europe.
We have class in the morning.
Months, seasons, years
Graduation will be in July.
Time (length of time)
Youll have your exam in seven days.
within
Ill be back in ten minutes.
On the surface
The book was on the table.
Streets, avenues
Their house is on First Street.
Floors
My apartment is on the sixth floor.
Dates
My birthday is on October 22nd.
Days of the week
There is no class on Saturday.
On a farm, a planet, an island,He works on campus.
campus
Hes usually here on time.
Punctuality
Note: in time for something)
Youpor
learn by repeating.
Means, by way of (pasando por;

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over

above
below

va de; como; por medio de; a modoYou


de)can get there by car.
Possessive of things
The leg of the chair was broken.
Parts of a whole
I bought a pound of carrots.
Exact position (vertical)
The light is over jack.
The cabinets are over the counter.
Destination
We are going to New York.
Leave for
The plane to Houston left an hour
Arrive at place
ago.
He got to his office at eight.
Arrive in a city
They will arrive in New York tonight.
Degree higher than
The temperature is above 40.
Location higher than
There are cabinets above the sink.
To a lower degree
Is Caracas above or below sea level?

Tips para traducir


Cuando nos encontramos ante la presencia de palabras en el idiom
que se asemejan a ciertas palabras en el idioma espaol y poseen el mismo sign
estas palabras son llamadas: verdaderas cognadas.
2.
Cuando nos encontramos con palabras en el ingls que se parecen a
palabras en el espaol, pero que su significado es diferente, estas palabras son lla
falsas cognadas.
3.
Cuando nos encontramos con varias palabras seguidas unas de ot
pueden ser sustantivos, adjetivos o adverbios, nos detendremos a leer en el prime
preposicin, conectivo o signo de puntuacin y procederemos a leer de derecha a iz
sin omitir ninguna palabra. Solo jugaremos con los adjetivos o adverbios en el
espaol. (Marbella Delgado, 2003)
1.

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Bibliografa
ENCICLOPEDIA AUTODIDACTA OCEANO: Lengua y human

Volumen 1, 1989.

BIBLIOTECA EL NACIONAL: diccionario de ingls/espaol, TO


2001.

INGLS FCIL: Gramtica y diccionario de modismos.


www.mansioningles.com.gramatica.htm
www.usingenglish.com
Material instructivo del C.V.A.

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