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Creating Constraint Diagrams

04A_constraint-diagram.ppt

D. Edberg

1"

2013/Oct/08

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Overview

What are constraint diagrams?


Constraints for takeoff
Constraints for cruise
Landing constraints
Acceleration
The constraint diagram
Embraer ERJ-145 Regional Jet
Concluding remarks

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What are Constraint Diagrams?


Display what an airplane can and cannot do
Used for design optimization
TSL
WTO
Choose a design point based on W and S
TO
Design point must lie within the constraint
boundaries

Designs are often optimum


near the
constraint lines

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Example Constraint Diagram

Courtesy W. Mason, Va. Tech


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Constraint Diagram

1.00
0.90

Design Point

0.80
0.70

T/W

0.60
0.50
0.40
Cruise Out
Combat Turn Ma=0.9
Combat Turn Ma=1.2
Max Mach Heavy=2.2
Landing 4k
Takeoff 4k
Loiter SL
Mach 1.2 SL

0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
0

20

40

60

80

100

W/S
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JSF Constraint Diagram


Courtesy Paul Bevilaqua, Lockheed Martin
1.4
1.2

Mach 1.4 1.5 1.6

1.0

Thrust /
Weight
Ratio
T/W

Sustained G
6
0.6
5
4
0.4
0.8

0.2
0.0
20

Instantaneous G

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Wing Loading W/S (psf)


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The Governing Equation


Derived from the equation for specific excess
power ( 5.15, Introduction to Aeronautics: A
Design Perspective, Brandt, Stiles, Bertin, and
Whitford, AIAA. PDF file in notes.)
Thrust-to-weight vs. wing loading:
0 *
T SL = 221 q ,, CD
W TO 22 ,WTO
3 +

$ n '2 $ W '/ 1 $ dh ' 1 $ dv '22


+k & ) &
)/ + & ) + & )5
%
S % q ( S (/. V % dt ( g % dt (22
6
TO

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Variables in Constraint Equation


= T/TTO = ratio of actual thrust to takeoff thrust
(accounts for thrust loss due to altitude, V)
= W/WTO = weight fraction (fuel use, stores drop)
k1 = induced drag term
k2 = drag term (Brandt, p. 134)
2
C
=
k
C
+ k2CL + CDO
D
1
L
h = altitude
n = load factor
2
V
n = 1+
q = V2 = dynamic pressure

g0
v = velocity
= turn rate (rad/s)
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Values for Constants K1 & CD0


(Mattingly et al, Aircraft Engine Design)

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Flight Path Considerations


If level flight, dh/dt = 0
If no turns or loads, n = 1
If no acceleration, dv/dt = 0
Usually take off at 1.2 stall speed
(apply a factor of 1.44 to v2 with takeoff assumed
using max lift coefficient CL max)
Landing at 1.3 stall speed (factor of 1.69 for
landing)

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Example Constraints for Takeoff


(High Thrust, Neglect Runway Friction)
TSL
1.44 2 WTO
=
Governing Equation:
WTO C L gsTO S
MAX

Name

Sample Value

(fully fueled)

(sea level)

0.002378 slugs/ft3

(from v at 0.7 liftoff speed)

0.84

CL max (estimated, similar aircraft)

2.2

32.2 ft/s2

STO (requirement)

2500 ft

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Resulting Takeoff Constraint Equation


WTO
S

TSL
W
= .004 TO
WTO
S

2013/Oct/08

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200

& lb #
$$ 2 !!
% ft "

TSL
WTO

0.82
0.16
0.25
0.33
0.41
0.49
0.57
0.65
0.74
0.82

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Constraints for Cruise


Governing Eqn:

'
TSL
!
!q
= &
WTO !
!
%

+ C Do
3 n
+ W + k1 11
2 q
+ TO
, S

0 3 WTO
.. 1
/ 2 S

$
*
!
0( 1 dh 1 dV !
+
.( +
#
/( V dt g dt !
!
)
"

Name

Value

(fuel lost during climb)


(thrust at cruise speed)

0.818

200 lb/ft2

CL

0.575

k1

0.03

CD 0

0.03

0.93

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Final Cruise Constraint Equation


WTO
S

TSL
WTO

&
#
$ 6.46
W !
=$
+ .003 TO !
W
S !
$ TO
% S
"

2013/Oct/08

& lb #
$$ 2 !!
% ft "

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200

TSL
WTO

0.38
0.28
0.29
0.32
0.36
0.41
0.46
0.52
0.57
0.63
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Example Constraints for Landing


Governing Equation:

WTO S L C LMAX g
=
S
1.69

Name

Value

0.00238 slugs/ft3

C LMAX

2.6 (Schaufele)

(friction coefficient)

0.3 (www.asft.se)

0.65

SL (landing distance)

3000 ft

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Final Landing Constraint Equation

WTO
lb
= 163 2f
S
ft

2013/Oct/08

WTO
S

163
163
163

163

" lb f %
$ 2'
# ft &

TSL
WTO

0.1
0.2
0.3

1.0

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Non-Fighters Must Consider Runway


Friction

Use effective acceleration at 70% of takeoff or


landing speed
Landing assumes no thrust
= runway friction
WTO, WL = takeoff and landing weights
2

sTO

1.44WTO
=
SCLmax g0 [T D (WTO L)] 0.7 V

1.69 W L 2
sL =
SCLmax g0 [ D + (W L L)] 0.7 V

TO

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Acceleration Constraint
(Level, Unbanked Flight)

The governing equation is


0 *
T SL = 221 q ,,
W TO 22 ,
3 +

$ '2 $ W '/ 1 $ dv '22


C
+k & ) &
)/ + & )5
(W S) % q ( % S (/. g % dt (226
D

TO

TO

What is used for q? Start, finish, or mean?

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Construction of Constraint Diagram


Plot all curves on a single graph
Wing loading horizontal
Thrust-to-weight vertical
Identify which side of each curve is OK
Make sure the constraint curves make sense!
Choose and identify design point

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Sample Constraint Diagram Regional


Constraint Diagram Jet
for Regional Jet Mission
Design point
(W/S = 50 psf,
T/W = 0.33)

1.2

Tsl/Wto

Solution Space

0.8

Takeoff

0.6

Cruise

0.4

Landing

0.2
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Wing Loading (lb/ft^2)


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Example Constraint Diagram


(Black lines, Cartoon box, Design point)
Fighter Constraint Diagram
3.0

Solution Space

2.5

Design Point
W/S = 38 psf
T/W = 1.7

T/W

2.0

Turn
Horiz Accel
Takeoff

1.5

Braking

1.0
0.5
0.0
20

40

60
80
W/S (lbf/ft2)

100

120

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Ceres UAV Constraint Diagram


ost

50
40
30
20
10

Ferry

Design Point
2

104 ft , 45 hp

Manufa
ct

60

uring C

70

Landing

Engine Horsepower

80

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Takeoff

0
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Wing Area (ft2)


Courtesy Nathan Olson, CPP 08
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Comments on Design Point


Must fit in allowable areas of all constraints
Allow some margin (wiggle room) so
design changes dont move it out
Lowest-weight aircraft meeting constraints is
often cheapest
Less thrust = less engine required = less
engine cost, usually
Existing engine thrust may not match whats
needed
Constraint diagram does not know how many
engines. (Multi-engines provide nT of thrust)
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Summary of Constraint Diagrams


Select design point
Must satisfy all constraint curves
Must fit all constraints and/or missions (for
multiple-mission aircraft)
SHOW SIMILAR AIRCRAFT on your plot!
Be sure to include off-nominal conditions i.e.
Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport @ 120 F
Denver @ 100F

Go back and re-do constraint diagram when


parameters or design changes
Do not put tables of constraint curve data in your
slides! I WILL take off points.!
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Comments on
Thrust-to-Weight (T/W)
and Wing Loading (W/S)
(Based on Chapter 5 of Raymers
Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach)
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Thrust-To-Weight Ratio T/W (Raymer Tables 5.1, 5.3)


Typical Installed T/W
Jet trainer
Jet fighter (dogfighter)
Jet fighter (other)
Military cargo/bomber
Jet transport

0.4
0.9
0.6
0.25
0.25 0.4

Statistical T/Wo Estimation (vs. max Mach Mmax)

T/Wo = aMmaxc

Jet trainer
Jet fighter (dogfighter)
Jet fighter (other)
Military cargo/bomber
Jet transport
2013/Oct/08

a
0.488
0.648
0.514
0.244
0.267

c
0.728
0.594
0.141
0.341
0.363
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Power-To-Weight Ratio P/W (Raymer Tables 5.2, 5.4)


Typical Installed W/P
Powered Sailplane
Homebuilt
GA-Single engine
GA-Twin engine
Agricultural
Twin turboprop
Flying boat

25
12
14
6
11
5
10

Statistical P/Wo Estimation (vs. vmax in kt) P/Wo = avmaxc


Powered Sailplane
Homebuilt
GA-Single engine
GA-Twin engine
Agricultural
Twin turboprop
Flying boat
2013/Oct/08

a
0.043
0.005
0.004
0.025
0.009
0.013
0.030

c
0.0
0.57
0.57
0.22
0.50
0.50
0.23

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Power Loading &


Horsepower-to-Weight Ratio
Propeller-Powered

Aircraft:
T = p P /v = 550 pHP/v
so, T/W = (p/v)(P/W)
= (550 p/v)(HP/W) using fps units. (R5.1)
Define

Power Loading Wo/HP = 1/(HP/Wo)


Note: reversed meaning compared to T/W!
C = Cpv/(p) = CbhpV/(550p)
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Power-to-Weight Ratio

(Raymer Tables 5.2, 5.4)

TYPICAL
INSTALLED
P/W:

STATISTICAL
P/W
ESTIMATION
(vs. vmax)

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Thrust Matching
(T & W are actual values, NOT takeoff values)

In cruise: T = D, L = W, so:
(T/W)cruise = (D/L)cruise = 1/(L/D)cruise
In climb: T = D + W sin , L = W cos , so:
(T/W)climb = 1/(L/D)climb + sin
= 1/(L/D)climb + vvert/vhoriz
(R5.4)
"W
%" T
%
"T%
"T%
=$ '
$$ cruise ''$ takeoff '
$ '
# W & takeoff # W & cruise # W takeoff &# Tcruise &

Must ratio results back to takeoff values for comparison

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Wing Loading (W/S) Comments

Higher W/S
Smaller Wing
Higher

stall speed
Longer takeoff and landing distances
Poorer maneuvering performance
But benefits are:
Reduced friction drag and weight
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Stall Speed
W = L = qstallSCLmax = 1/2 vstall 2SCLmax
W/S = qstallCLmax = 1/2 vstall 2CLmax
= 0.002378 slugs/ft3 @ sea level
= 0.00189 slugs/ft3 @ 5000 ft, hot day (Denver)
vstall defined by FAR, MIL SPEC, or design reqts
vstall = 61 kt (FAR-23: Single engine, Wo < 12,500 lb)
vstall may be set by vapproach
Civil: vapproach = 1.3 vstall
Military: vapproach = 1.2 vstall
Carrier-Based: vapproach = 1.15 vstall
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Maximum Lift Coefficient


CLmax

(Raymer Fig. 5.3)

WINGS OF MODERATE ASPECT RATIO (4-8)

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Quarter-Chord Sweep

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Takeoff Distance Estimation (Raymer Fig. 5.4)


Takeoff
Distance
(x 1000 ft)

NUMBER
OF JET
ENGINES

Jet

BALANCED
FIELD
LENGTH

Prop

TAKEOFF PARAMETER:
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W/S
or
CLTOT/W

W/S
CLTOHP/W

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References
Introduction to Aeronautics: A Design
Perspective, Brandt, Stiles, Bertin, and
Whitford, AIAA. PDF file in notes.
Aircraft Engine Design, Mattingly, Heiser, and
Daley, AIAA
Aviation Week & Space Technology Source Book,
information on currently available engines and
aircraft:
www.avweek.com/aw/sourcebook/index.jsp

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FARs (Federal Aviation Regulations)


& Other Regulation Information
http://rgl.faa.gov/
Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/
rgFAR.nsf/MainFrame?OpenFrameSetB
http://www.airweb.faa.gov/
Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/
rgFAR.nsf/B

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