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The National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO) was a controversial ordinance

issued by the former President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, on 5


October 2007. It granted amnesty to politicians, political workers and
bureaucrats who were accused of corruption, embezzlement, money
laundering, murder, and terrorism between 1 January 1986, and 12 October
1999, the time between two states of martial law in Pakistan.
A reality, corruption must increase before it decreases. Emboldened media
exposes unreluctantly and also political rivals exaggerate corruption. Also it
shows more refined transparency system that uncovers meager details too.
It has become a daily practice as if our govt has legalized taking
bribes in country
e.g making law that only mphill can teach, not dealing with
unemployment, our people dont want to study in government
schools but are so desperate to be employed in government sector.
Doesnt this mindset says it all? Public servants have to realize that
they are to serve ppl not to serve their entire families and friends
and their friends and their friends.
PUBLIC servants wont even attend u without being gifted with cash
A curse that cause poverty and is caused by poverty too
Companies colluding to fix prices in their industries
Drivers bribing a police officer to avoid speeding tickets
Political party officials rigging elections
Companies selling their faulty products
Every man for himself attitude, lack of law enforcement,
accountability, enforcement
Even saving in govt section is corruption bcz purpose is not fulfilled
tht is why, at the end of a development year tenure FY, the already
built roads are rebuilt
Main: laws are made to prevent crime. The more crimes observed
the more laws are formulated. The more restrictions u impose, the
more it would be difficult to ppl to live their desired life and they
would rebel it.

Corruption is not only bribes and embezzlements. The betrayal of


ones commitment or trust, the breach of financial or material
norms of morality is also corruption. Using a holy name for personal
or worldly motives can also be corruption. Corruption is a
consuming sickness with a strongly contagious character. All of us
know that it has disrupted our social, political and spiritual life in
Pakistan.
Corruption is like dodder, the yellow vine that wraps around trees
and saps their life. Once it falls on a society it is a curse that grows
from one branch to the next and then to the next until nothing
remains visible, except a yellow sickness of corruption. Even such
guardians of morality as religious and academic institutions become
deeply corrupt. The struggle against an evil depends on the ethical
standards of a society; it is our response of dismissal or approval
that matters. Corrupt attitudes cannot combat corruption. A corrupt
supervisor aids corruption by asking his share, thus, adding to the
sum total of disaster. Armed forces and the judiciary, which a
society nourishes with its blood to act as its immune system, join
the invading parasite; these killer cells then no more fight the
intruder but instead attack the body they are deputed to defend.
In our case, corruption was twin-born with Pakistan. Those who now
dominate this society carefully conceal Pakistans history of the
early years. They talk of corruption but do not discuss its genesis
and causes. It is an inglorious chapter of early Pakistan, wherein lie
the roots of corruption, opportunism, religious blackmail and a lack
of empathy.
Our leadership had no vision of the problems our people would face
in partition. There was, therefore, no plan for the rehabilitation of
refugees. While our bleeding immigrants rotted in camps, the
widespread plunder and occupation of the Hindu and Sikh evacuee
property proceeded like an Eid festival. The clever opportunist got
the best of gods plenty.

The lack of political will on the part of the governments to make laws work
means that government action to fight corruption is largely ineffective,
From a report of Transparency International

Corruption is defined by the World Bank and Transparency International (TI)


as the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the
improper and unlawful behaviour of public-service officials, both politicians
and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of
money and assets from government to them and their accomplices.
Corruption distorts resource allocation and government performance. The
causes of its development are many and vary from one country to the next.
Among the contributing factors are policies, programs and activities that are
poorly conceived and managed, failing institutions, poverty, income
disparities, inadequate civil servants remuneration, and a lack of
accountability and transparency?
My nation is married to corruption
I wonder if she will ever see redemption
He had come to her with sweet scent and song
His aura full of attraction
She couldnt refuse the temptation
For she was so naive and young
And didnt see the hidden danger
Behind his charming face
If she had warily observed the stranger
She wouldve seen that all he has was damage
And what was in his eyes was not love but evil
She wouldve seen he was a devil
Didnt she hear of his history?
That he put his lovers in misery
And before his evil deed is noticed
He must have gone far
And if ever the pain is eased
There must be an undoable scar
But she accepted him whole

And embrace him with an open soul


He responded by grinding her heart
Instead of a caress, he gave her a thorny scrub
Took her from the light to the dark
Sapped her beauty and made her an ugly muck
I wonder if she will ever be free
Because when I look at her lost hope is what I see
I wonder if she will ever have a divorce
Or is the marriage for better for worse?

Lands of any state are never corrupt. These always continue to grow crops, offer
mineral & water resources and accommodate citizens. Owners of a home built and
maintained at the cost of sacrifices of lives, honour and assets of life long physical
and mental hardships, will never even think of destroying it. Evidently for
internationally declared corrupt states of the world, corrupt politicians are the
culprits. They are personification of destructive corruption in the states. Their
misappropriations are the source of incentive for illegal gains in departments and
all categories of business. No state is corrupt, no nation is corrupt and no nation is
unprincipled. Top corrupt leadership, in all circumstances, sustains and promotes
corruptions and misappropriations. Transparency Internationals term Corrupt
States stands to be ambiguous and as such must be replaced by Corrupt
Politicians States.
Corruption, is a word easy to speak, but embezzlement of hundreds of billions
per annum in one single state, forming a sizeable part of its annual budget,
demands culprits behind bars in punishment for depriving poors of adequate meals
and medical treatment, in cities and in far flung areas.
Corrupt individuals joining politics are the product of anti social mode of rearing
by basically or practically Godless parents or guardians, devoid of concern for all
human beings. They do not abide by any of the recognized codes of conduct. Their

past comprises of successive failures and disappointments. These consciousless


miserable dwindling creatures, ready to do anything illegal and inhuman for
anybody, are badly needed by heterogeneous political jumbles, not believing in any
religion including religion of humanity, having no knowledge or sense for politics,
no concern for welfare for states & citizens, and no foresight for future
generations. Their group is expert only in duping credulous illiterate masses by
ever new modified false promises for grabbing the power chairs and states
resources, for misappropriation. Anything beneficial they do is simply to give
coverage to their loots. When they issue an extra ordinary statement in favour of
citizens like My life and everything owned by me is for the people and the
state, rest assured, without any doubt, that a large scale embezzlement is in the
offing and this has been proved in history and experience. There are considerable
sources of gaining riches, without any investment, in art of movie acting and
modeling, but these fields require talents with physical and mental hard work. Both
of these qualities are hells away from individuals joining politics for looting, in
states with less than 85% literacy level and profuse number of slums.
Groups of corrupt politicians of so called corrupt states very sensitively
concentrate on misshaping true democracy to win the votes. By doing so, they
themselves abuse democracy and then raise prodigious hue and cry for democracy
to be in danger. They pay special attention to the vote bank which they maintain by
hook or crook. For example, if the vote bank flourishes through medium of crimes,
they give free hand to criminals. Where the masses are religious, they will be
frequently seen in shrines and places of worship, inspite of being highly seductive
to the very idea of religion. As matter of fact, where there is mention of vote bank,
there is declared neglect of interests of the state and generations. There is only one
dominant desire and that is keeping a particular group in ruling position. Religion,
Gods accountability, Holy Books, good character etc are meaningless for them, if
vote bank is not strong enough to afford them ruling position in the state.
Aggregate of their behaviour shows that they are dead sure that they will never
retire or die and there is no God to whom they can be answerable. Verily in non
corrupt states the politicians dominant concentration rests on the nations and
generations whether or not the voters agree with their mode of planning
What to talk of a whole group of politicians, one single corrupt politician worstly
affects the lives of thousands of men women and children. Adulteration mafia

encouraged by his boundless corruptions, depletes the diet value of meager meals
of the poors, making them easy prey to numerous major and minor diseases. He
does not understand that public dealing individuals and stockists of edibles are
encouraged by his corruptions, affecting every aspect of lives of citizens especially
the poor. From the lines of history, Nausherwan Adil Anushiravan the Just (531
579 CE), of Iran asked his attendant to bring a small quantity of food salt from the
nearby village, ordering him to make payment for that. On an expression of
surprise on the face of the attendant in consideration to insignificant price of the
salt, Nausherwan explained that if ruler grabs an apple from orchard without
payment, all his employees will loot the entire orchard. So what to talk of a whole
group of corrupt politician one single corrupt politician spreads corruption from
top to bottom. Incentive grips employees of all government and private
departments, shopkeepers and down to cobbler on roadside
1. What is corruption?
Defining corruption can be a challenge. It takes many forms, and
perpetrators are skilled in developing new ways to be corrupt and cover their
tracks. Much thought has been devoted to developing different definitions of
corruption but, despite its complex nature, most people can recognise a
corrupt act when they see it.
Corruption may be defined as the abuse of entrusted power for private
gain[1]. This definition captures three elements of corruption. One,
corruption occurs in both the public and private sectors (and media and
civil society actors are not exempt). Two, it involves abusing power held in
a state institution or a private organisation. Three, the bribe-taker (or a
third party or, for example, an organisation such as a political party) as well
as the bribe-giver benefit, whether it be in terms of money or an undue
advantage. Sometimes the advantage gained by the bribe-giver may not be
undue or clear cut but is nonetheless an advantage. For example, in a
corrupt society where the right to access public services such as health or
education can be only secured by paying an unlawful bribe, those who can
afford to pay have an advantage over those who cannot. In such
circumstances the bribe-givers benefit is merely that which is his or her
rightful due and bribe-takers receive an advantage for carrying out functions
that they are obliged anyway to perform.

Corruption is often described as either grand or petty (petty corruption is


also described as administrative). Grand corruption typically takes place
at the top levels of the public sphere and the senior management levels of
business, where policies and rules are formulated and executive decisions
are made. It also often involves large sums of money (political
corruption is another common term that may be used to refer to grand
corruption more generally or specifically to the negative influence of money
in political campaigns and political parties).
Small scale, administrative or petty corruption is the everyday corruption
that takes place at the implementation end of politics, where public officials
meet the public. Petty corruption is most commonly found as bribery in
connection with the implementation of existing laws, rules and regulations,
or in abuse of power in daily situations (e.g., the traffic police who takes
money every day from taxi drivers in return for not harassing them further).
It usually involves modest sums of money in any given exchange. However,
endemic petty corruption can result in great costs and can place serious
stress on the functioning of state systems, in a way comparable to grand
corruption.
It is important to note the nuances in trying to categorize different
manifestations of corruption. There is not a clear division between
where petty corruption ends and grand corruption begins: lowly
officials who demand illegal payments from citizens may be doing so
because they have to pay a cut of their salaries to their managers, who pay a
cut to their superiors, stretching all the way up to the most senior state
officials.

2. Why does corruption matter for development?


Corruption costs: Citizens are compelled to pay for services that should be
free; state budgets are pillaged by corrupt politicians; public spending is
distorted as decision-makers focus spending on activities likely to yield large
bribes like major public works; foreign investment is stymied as businesses
are reluctant to invest in uncertain environments; and economies suffer.
But corruption not only costs in terms of money. It costs in terms of public
trustand citizens willingness to participate in their societies. Corruption
often has links to organized crime and fosters, as well as thrives, in conflict
and war. Indeed, high levels of corruption can increase the likelihood of a

protracted conflict or a post-conflict society sliding back into war. Efforts to


tackle climate change can also be undermined by corruption as bribes are
paid to ignore environmental protection rules in the pursuit of quick profits.
In these ways state security and the very values of democracy are
undermined and the fulfilment of development goals is threatened.

3. Types of corruption
Many types of corrupt acts are proscribed in criminal and
administrative law in different countries. The UN Convention against
Corruption (explored further in section 5) sets out the types of corrupt
criminal behaviour that signatory states are obliged or recommended to
introduce into their legal systems. Acts can also be corrupt even if the
law does not proscribe them, and this speaks to the often slippery and
complex nature of corruption. Its manifestations constantly evolve and are
not always captured by criminal or administrative law, hence (as discussed in
section 5) prevention, rather than solely punishment, is emphasised by anticorruption practitioners.
In this section some of the most common types of corrupt acts as set
out in UNCAC are described.
Bribery takes place when a person with authority accepts or solicits a bribe
to exercise a function in a particular way. A kickback is similar to a bribe but
usually refers to a payment given in return for receiving a contract, which is
kicked back to someone involved in awarding the contract. Bribery of
foreign officials by private sector actors is also a crime in many
countries.[2] Even if a bribe does not take place in a companys country of
origin, it may still be punishable by the home countrys authorities. The fact
that not all countries proscribe such behaviour illustrates the point above
that not all corrupt acts are always illegal.
Trading in influence or influence peddling is a form of bribery. For example,
a person promises to exert an improper influence over the decision-making
process of a public official or private sector actor in return for an undue
advantage. Typically this form of corruption can be perpetrated by those in
prominent positions or with political power or connections. Such persons
connection to power, that is to say their influence, is traded for money or an
undue advantage. Not all countries criminalise this form of corruption,

despite the fact that international conventions on corruption, including


UNCAC, recommend its criminalisation.
Illicit enrichment refers to a situation in which officials cannot explain their
wealth in relation to the income they lawfully earn. The wealth that is not
explicable may be the proceeds of a bribe or a form of stealing such as
embezzlement, misappropriation, concealment of property, money
laundering or false accounting. All these corrupt behaviours could also occur
in the private sector.
4. Conditions that facilitate corruption
Corruption can grow in a variety of political and economic environments,
though it particularly thrives where accountable governance structures and
processes are weak. It is important to keep in mind, however, that weak
governance does not necessarily lead to corrupt acts indeed there may be
many honest people acting honestly or behaviors that result from
incompetence or mismanagement rather than corruption.
While the importance of different factors can vary from place to place and
from time to time, it seems that, for corruption to flourish, certain key preconditions are necessary. This section describes four pre-conditions that
facilitate corruption:
One, corruption is facilitated if there exists a set of imperatives
and incentives that encourage someone to engage in corrupt
transactions. These may include, for example, low and irregular salaries for
officials with large dependent families. Such officials may feel compelled to
become corrupt. Social norms can also create incentives to participate in
corruption. For example, norms that encourage giving favorable treatment to
particular people (such as family members or those affiliated with your
political group). Political pressure can also persuade people into acting
corruptly, for example when a political candidate favours an individual or a
group, in detriment of the public good, in return for votes.
Two, the availability of multiple opportunities for personal
enrichmentincreases the temptation of corruption. Some economic
environments are much more conducive to corruption, in particular mineral
and oil rich environments are more fertile territories than those relying on
subsistence agriculture. The size and growth of public resources will help
define the possibilities for corruption, and extensive discretion over the
allocation of those resources provides opportunities for corrupt behaviour.

Three, access to and control over the means of corruption. Incentive


and opportunity create the possibility, but there have to be ways of actually
engaging in corruption. These might include control over an administrative
process such as tendering or having access to offshore accounts and the
techniques of money laundering.
Four, limited risks of exposure and punishment. Corruption will thrive
where there are inadequate and ineffective controls. A lack of policing,
detection and prosecution encourages corruption Weak internal controls such
as financial management, auditing, and personnel systems are also
facilitating conditions. Where the media and civil society are controlled and
censored, corrupt politicians and officials have less to fear.