You are on page 1of 8

2

Air Flow in Pipe


**************************

Velocity profile Fittings losses



Air flow test rig
1. Foreword
The information is set out as follows: section 1 geves a general description of the equipment.
Sections 2 to 8 give, respectively, accounts of the following tests: flow through a parabolic nozzle; flow
throung a sudden enlargement, with pressure recovery; the velocity profile during turbulent flow through a
pipe, observed; the friction in a smooth pipe, the velocity profile, theoretical; losses in various pipe fittings;
the characteristics of the fan with various forms of impeller. In an Appendix instructions for operating the
equipment are added.
1. General
The Pipe Flow and nozzle Apparatus is designed to enable the flow of gas through nozzles,
pipes and other forms to be studied experimentally at Reynolds Numbers up to 200,000. Air is the medium
and this is drawn through the apparatus by means of a centrifugal fan, the characteristics of which may also
be studied.
The apparatus is shown in Fig.1, the principal component being the length of smooth-walled circular
brass pipe, into which air is drawn at the left and from which it is discharged by the fan at the right. At entry
the air passes through a parabolic nozzle, in which the pressures are observed by an axial probe. The
pressures at one point in the nozzle and several points in the pipe are observed by means of series of
piezometer rings in the wall. The pressures in the pipe cover three regimes: the pressure recovery after the
nozzle, a setting length, and a length in which the flow of air is turbulent but steady for observation of pipe
friction. Following this part, a perspex block is provided in which is mounted a total head tube which, with
the aid of a micromoter screw, may be traversed across the tube. Between this block and the fan it is possible
to insert for investigation venturi tubes and orifices of various forms, which their pressure tappings. The
pressure tappings are all led to an inclined water manometer.
With the parabolic nozzle, which has a throat diameter of 2 in, Reynolds Hmbers of up to 140,000
may be attained a further nozzle having a bore of 3 in is also supplied and is shown in Fig1A. This nozzle is
designed in accordance with the recommendations of British Standard 1042 Part1: 1984 and is known as an

ISA 1932 nozzle. This nozzle imposes less restriction on the flow and henco permits Reynolds Numbers of
up to 200,000.
The losses taking place in various fittings can be found by attaching them to the inlet to the pipe and
fitting the 3 in diameter nozzle to the inlet end of the component under examination. Then for a given rate of
flow as measured by the nozzle the losses are determined by observing the pressure gradient in the pipe.
The dimensions of the nozzele and the pipe, and the positions of the pressure tappings in the nozzle, the
pipe, and the fan are given in Figs.1A and 2.
In what follows the theoretical background is not given in Frank M. White: Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition,
McGrawHill. The relevant page numbers are given in brackets.
3. VELOCITY PROFILE, OBSERVED
The velocity traverse is situated at a distance of 240.4 in., or 78 pipe diameters, downstream of the
pipe entrance, a distance sufficient the ensure fully developed flow at this point. Velocity head is measured
by means of an open ended total head tube, facing the air flow, of outer diameter 0.035 in and bore 0.020 in.
Let: D = pipe diameter, ft
V = flow velocity, ft/sec
3
2 = density of air at plane of traverse, lb/ft
B = Atmospheric pressure, in of Hg
H = static depression at traverse, in of water
h2 = total head reading at traverse, in of water
p3 = static pressure at plane of traverse, lb/ft2
R = Gas constant, 96 ft-lb/(lb OK)
Then neglecting compressibility (p.37)
V

2 g ( H h2 ) 5.20

(1)

Assuming isothermal expansion from atmospheric pressure to the conditions obtaining at the traverse
plane:
2

Combining (1) and (2)

p3
R TA

70.72 B 5.2 H
96 T A

..(2)

T A ( H h2 )

21.32

67.3 ft / sec

B 0.0735H

Velocity is plotted against radius in Fig.7 and against (radius) 2 in Fig.8. The mean ordinate of the
latter curve, 89.1 ft/sec, gives the mean velocity at this cross section.

The corresponding calculated flow volume at atmospheric pressure is:


Q

4.67(29.6 0.0737 7.45)


29.6

4.56

ft 3 / sec

This agrees well with the calculated flow volume for the nozzle, 4.47 ft3/sec, and suggests that, for
the latter, a coefficient of discharge of substantially 1.00 is applicable instead of the assumed value of 0.985.

4. VELOCITY PROFILE, THEORETICAL


Let: V = velocity at radius r ft, in ft/sec
R = radius of pipe, ft
2
o = shear stress at the pipe surface, lb/ft
r = any radius, ft
The semi-theoretical equation for velocity profile (p.359) is:
V

0g
2

and

o g

5.6161 log
0.129 r 5.0

p R2

l 2R

p R

l 2

.. (3)

(4)

In the test considered above:


p
l

0.50 lb / ft 3 ,

R 0.129 ft,

0.0739 lb / ft 3

= 1.57 x 10-4 ft2/sec, giving :


V = 21.6 log (23,900 (0.129 - r)) + 18.745
This equation is plotted in Fig.7, and shows good agreement of the observed velocity profile with the
theoretical one.
and

5. LOSSES IN FITTINGS
The fittings investigated by the method mentioned earlier, and shown diagrammatically in Fig.9,
were :
(a) Bend, (b) Plain Elbow, (c) Cascaded Elbow, (d) 10 ft length of sound absorbing pipe followed
by bend.
The rate of flow was kept constant throughout these tests by adjusting the diaphragm value on the fan
outlet.

The conditions were:


head 1.13 in of water, giving :

TA 292 K , B 29.60

72

in of mercury,

Q 3.77 ft 3 / sec, mean

velocity

ft / sec

In Fig.10 static depression is plotted against distance from pipe inlet for the five combinations given.
It will be observed that, particularly after the elbows, irregularities occur in the pressure gradient in the earlier
part of the pipe. By the time pressure tapping No.8 is reached, however, the pressure gradient is substantially
uniform, and losses in the various combinations are compared on the basis of readings taken at this point,
with other results given in the first two columns of the table. The values for head loss, expressed as a
proportion of mean velocity head, are given in the third column.
Proportion of mean velocity head
Considerations
Head Loss in of Water
(Loss coefficient K)
(a) bend
0.06
0.053
(b) plain elbow
0.49
0.43
(c) cascaded elbow
0.31
0.27
(d) bend + sound absorbing pipe
0.81
0.717
These results indicate that the losses in a cascaded elbow with while losses in bend are much lower.
The pressure gradient in the brass pipe for fully developed flow at this velocity is: 0.081 in of water
per foot. For the sound absorbing pipe the loss is 0.8110 0.06 = 0.075 in of water per foot. Losses in the
sound absorbing pipe are, therefore, slightly less than in the brass pipe.
It is convenient to express the losses due to each fitting as loss coefficient K, (p.385).

1. Velocity profile total head static head


traverse plane perspective block Red 105
2. Fittings losses Fittings 3 (a) Bend (b) Plain Elbow (c)
Cascaded Elbow ( 9) ,
Fitting 1 Fitting nozzle head

1. Reynold number, Red


2. (3)

3. ()2 excel

Vi dAi
1
V
V dA

A
A

Vi 2ri ri

i 1

R 2

V 2r r
i

i 1

R2

2
R2

V r r
i i

i 1

4. 3
5. ISA-1932 Nozzle.
V Nozzle 6.497

h Nozzle (t air 273)


h
(t 273)
m / s 21.32 Nozzle air
ft / s
B 0.0735hStatic
B 0.0735hStatic

Q R 2V Nozzle

6. Fitting losses 3 , Red loss Coefficient (K)

1.5 HP MOTOR
PROBE SUPPORT

SUDDEN
ENLARGEMENT
DIFFUSER

PARABOLIC NOZZLE

254 IN. (6.45 M)

241 IN. (6.13 M)


PRESSURE TAPPINGS, PRESSURE
RECOVERY REGION

TOTAL HEAD TUBE TRAVERSE


IN PERSPEX BLOCK

8 PRESSURE TAPPINGS, FOR


PRESSURE GRADIENT

AXIAL PROBE FOR STATIC


PRESSURE TRAVERSE
PIPE BORE 3.1 IN. (78.8 MM)

FIG 1 APPARATUS

6 IN. CENTRIFUGAL FAN

DAMPER FOR FLOW


CONTROL

VELOCITY PROFILE

100

MEAN VELOCITY =

88.7 ft/sec

80
VELOCITY, ft/sec

60

EQUAL AREA

40
20
0
1.0

2.0

2.4

(RADIUS)2 in2
FIG 8 VELOCITY VS (RADIUS)2

BEND

CASCADED ELBOW

Fig 9 Fittings for the Experiment

PLAIN ELBOW

R 0.600

2.50

R 1.00
2.25

3.000.001

Unit: inch

ISA 1932 Nozzle


Nozzle and Pitot tube
Nozzle

Flow

hNozzle

Inclined Manometer

Pitot tube

Flow

hTotal

2
hStatic

hVel = hTotal hStatic

Pitot tube
VPitot

2 water ghvel

air

2 water ghvel

Pair
RTair

2 (1 gm / cm 3 ) g (hvel mm)
( Hg gB water ghstatic )
(0.287kJ / kgK ) (tair 273) K

2 (1 gm / cm 3 ) (hvel mm)
(13.6 gm / cm 3 ) ( B mm) (1 gm / cm 3 ) (hstatic mm)
(287 J / kg ) (tair 273)
2 (1 ) (hvel )
Nm / kg
(13.6 ) ( B) hstatic
(287) (tair 273)

6.497

2 (287) (hvel ) (tair 273) 2 2


m /s
13.6 ( B 0.0735hstatic )

hvel (tair 273)


hvel (tair 273)
m / s 21.32
ft / s
B 0.0735hstatic
B 0.0735hstatic

Nozzle
VNozzle 6.497

hNozzle(tair 273)
h
(t 273)
m / s 21.32 Nozzle air
ft / s
B 0.0735hStatic
B 0.0735hStatic