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Three-phase soft-switched PWM inverter for motor

drive application
J. Shukla and B.G. Fernandes
Abstract: A novel soft-switched inverter topology in which three mutually coupled inductors at a
time are involved in the resonance process is proposed. By the introduction of magnetic coupling
between three resonant inductors, the zero-voltage instants for the inverter can be generated by one
auxiliary switch. Also, the resonant energy can be recycled, and the maximum voltage stress on the
auxiliary circuit diode components is conned to the DC-link clamp voltage level. The DC link can
be clamped to 1.11.3 times the DC-source value. This is unlike the soft-switched inverter in which
two mutually coupled inductors are at a time are involved in a resonance process [14], wherein the
clamping diode experiences voltage stress of the order of 11 per unit when clamping the DC-link
voltage at 1.1 per unit. The proposed inverter also provides pulse-width modulated operation. An
analysis of this novel quasi-resonant DC-link inverter topology is presented to reveal its softswitching characteristics. Simulation and laboratory experiments are performed to validate the
analysis.

Introduction

Quasi-resonant inverters offer several advantages compared


with resonant DC-link inverters [13] with regard to
resonant link design and control, device rating requirements
and use of pulse width modulation (PWM). Over the years,
extensive research work has been carried out in the eld of
quasi-resonant DC-Link (QRDCL) PWM inverters [417].
The QRDCL inverter schemes generate zero-voltage (ZV)
instants in the DC link at controllable instants that can be
synchronised with any PWM transition command, thus
ensuring a ZV switching condition of inverter devices. As a
result, these inverters can be operated at high switching
frequencies with high efciency.
Among the different types of QRDCL inverter scheme
reported in the literature, the category of inverters in which
an inductor is connected between the DC link and the DC
source are particularly suited for high-frequency and highpower applications [1017]. This is owing to the fact that
these inverters do not have a high-frequency resonant
switch in the main power path of the inverter. However,
higher DC-link voltage stress [11], a high auxiliary switching
device count [13] and the requirement of a separate lowvoltage DC source to clamp the DC link [1517] are the
main limitations of these schemes.
One of the QRDCL inverter topology falling into this
category is the passively clamped QRDCL (PCQRDCL)
inverter reported in [14]. This topology (shown in Fig. 1a)
can be considered to be a state-of-the-art QRDCL scheme
satisfying most of the essential requirements, such as low
clamp factor, simple resonance control, guaranteed zerolink voltage condition, PWM capability, use of only one
auxiliary switch and recycling of resonant energy. It was
shown that, by the introduction of magnetic coupling
r The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2007
doi:10.1049/iet-epa:20050539
Paper rst received 31st August 2005 and in nal revised form 25th May 2006
The authors are with the Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of
Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076, India
E-mail: jagjit@ee.iitb.ac.in, jagjitshukla@yahoo.com

between two resonant inductors, the zero-voltage instants


can be generated by only one auxiliary switch. Also, the DC
link can be clamped at 1.11.3 per unit, and resonant energy
can be recycled. The only drawback of this scheme was the
high reverse voltage requirement of the clamp diode. The
voltage-blocking capability of this diode is of the order of 11
per unit for a clamping factor of 1.1 per unit. This problem
can be solved by use of a separate, low-voltage DC source.
However, realisation of this low-voltage DC source is itself a
problem. In the case of a battery-operated inverter, the clamp
diode can be connected to a separate low-voltage battery
group. In the absence of a battery source, the realisation, of a
separate, low-voltage DC source becomes difcult.
Another possible solution could be to use a DCDC
regulator or a simple R-C parallel circuit to maintain low
voltage (refer to Fig. 1b). The use of a DCDC regulator
increases the component count and control complexity.
Also, if the DCDC regulator is not capable of feeding the
processes resonant energy back to the DC source, then this
energy is dissipated in resistor. This reduces overall
efciency of the inverter. An optimum strategy in which
DCDC regulator maintains a separate low voltage for
clamping purposes and also feeds back the clamp energy to
the DC source has yet not been reported in the literature.
Hence, the objective of this paper is to design a QRDCL
inverter circuit using one auxiliary switch, in which the
maximum voltage stress in all semiconductor diodes is
conned to the DC-link clamp voltage level Vc. Also, the
resonant energy associated with the clamping action is
recovered without the use of an extra switching circuit.
Such a QRDCL inverter scheme is shown in Fig. 2, in
which three mutually coupled inductors are used to achieve
the above features. Only one auxiliary switch is used to
generate zero-voltage instants for the inverter switching
devices.
2

Principle of operation

Through the introduction of magnetic coupling between


three resonant inductors (L1, L2 and L3), as shown in
Fig. 2, the zero-voltage instants for the inverter can be

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93

i3
+

L1

i1

L2
+

D3

IO

L3

Sa

Sb

Sc

VC
Sa

L2

S2

IO

L1
i2

Vs
i3

D3
i1

i2

Sb

S2

Sc

Sa

Sc

VC
Sa

Sb

Sc

D2

D2

IM

IM
a

Fig. 1

Sb

Vs

Inverters

a Passively clamped QRDCL inverter with mutually coupled inductors proposed in [14]
b Quasi-resonant inverter using separate low-voltage DC source for clamping purpose [14]

Fig. 2 Proposed quasi-resonant DC-link inverter using three


coupled inductors

D1

i1

VC

CF

L1
+

L2

i2

Vs
CR
S2

Fig. 3

VC

D
R

D3

Io
L3

i3

D2

Simplified equivalent circuit of proposed QRDCL inverter

generated by one auxiliary switch. Also, the current in the


auxiliary inductor L2 can now reverse during the resonant
cycle. Thus switch S2 can be turned off under the ZV
condition. Clamping is provided by a large lter capacitor
CF, which acts as a low-voltage DC source whose average
current in steady state is zero. The entire resonant energy
associated with the clamping circuit is recycled. This can be
easily observed from the waveform of current iCF owing
through CF, as shown in Fig. 4. At steady state, the area
enclosed by its discharging current (area A1) is equal to the
area enclosed by its charging current (area A2). The voltage
across CF vCF attains a value equal to K  1Vs, where K
is the clamping factor and lies in the range of 1.11.3. This
DC voltage across CF is analogous to a separate lowvoltage DC source, as seen in a few QRDCL schemes
reported in the literature [1417]. Assuming that the inverter
is feeding an inductive load (which can be represented by a
constant current source), the steady-state DC voltage across
94

Fig. 4

Resonant link waveforms

CF depends on the values of L1, L2, L3 and CR and the


coupling coefcients of mutually coupled inductors k12 , k23
and k13 .
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Analysis and modes of operation

Operation of the proposed QRDCL inverter can be


explained by reference to Figs. 25. The various modes of
circuit operation are described as follows.

as follows:


v CR t  t 1

Vs
L1 L2 2M12

 L2 M12 L1 M12 cos ot  t1 


3

3.1 Mode 0 t0  t  t1 : pseudo steadystate mode (S2, D1, D2 and D3 off)


During this mode, the inverter is said to be in pseudo
steady-state mode. The resonant circuit formed by L1 and
CR oscillates. The voltage vCR across capacitor CR alternates
between Vc KVs and 2  KVs. Also, the inductor current
i1 oscillates around the inverter input current (represented
magnitude
of this
by a constant current source Io ), and the p

ripple is Vs  Vc=o1 L1 , where o1 1= L1 CR . The DClink voltage vCR settles to Vs owing to the nite resistance of
the resonant components. This mode of operation ends at
time t1 , when S2 is turned on under the ZV condition to
reduce the DC-link voltage vCR to zero. If we neglect the
resistance of the circuit, the state equations of this mode are
given by
iL1 t  t0 Vs  Vc=R01 sino1 t  t0 Io 1
vCR t  t0 Vs  Vs  Vc coso1 t  t0
2
p
p
where R01 L1 =CR and o1 1= L1 CR . Initial conditions for this mode are vCR t0 Vc and iL1 t0 Io .

3.2 Mode 1 t1  t  t2 : link voltage


reduces sinusoidally (S2 on; D1, D2 and
D3 off)
With S2 on, the resonance between L1, L2 and CR causes CR
to discharge. Current owing through L1 decreases
sinusoidally, and that owing through L2 increases
sinusoidally. When voltage across CR vCR becomes equal
to the sum of vCF and the voltage induced in L3, D3 turns
on, and this mode of operation ends. The equations for
link voltage and currents during this mode can be derived

Fig. 5


i1 t  t1 Io


Vs
oL1 L2 2M12



L1 M12 L2 M12
sin
o

t

t

 ot  t1 
1
2
L1  L2  M12
4

i 2 t  t 1

Vs
oL1 L2 2M12
"
#
L1 M12 2
 o t  t 1
sin ot  t1
2
L2  L2  M12

5
p
2
,
L12 L1  L2  M12
where, o 1= L12  CRp
=L1
L2 M12 and M12 k12 L1  L2 . Initial conditions for
this mode are vCR t1 Vs, i1 t1 Io , and i2 t1 0. The
duration of this mode is given as

 
1
A
cos1
t2  t1
6
o
B
where
A Vc

M23 M13  L2 M12 Vs


L1 L2 2M12

2
VsM23 L1 M12
 M13 L1 M12 L2 M12

L1 M12 L1 L2  M12


2
L1 L2 2M12 L1 L2  M12

Equivalent circuits during various modes of operation

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95

3.3 Mode 2 t2  t  t3 : link voltage


continues to decrease sinusoidally (S2 and
D3 on; D1 and D2 off)
A resonant circuit consisting of mutually coupled inductors
L1, L2, L3 and CR is formed. Capacitor CR continues to
discharge. This mode of operation ends when CR discharges
to zero. The equations governing this mode are
Z t
di1
di2
di3
1
M12
 M13

i1 t
L1
dt
dt
dt CR 0
i3 t  i2 t  Io dt Vs
7
Z t
di2
di1
di3
1
M21
 M23

i1 t i3 t
L2
dt
dt
dt CR 0
i2 t  Io dt 0
8
Z t
di3
di1
di2
1
 M31
 M32

L3
i1 t
dt
dt
dt CR 0
i3 t  i2 t  Io dt vCF
9
p
p
where M13 k13 L1  L3 , M23 k23 L2  L3 , M12 M21 ,
M23 M32 , and M13 M31 . Initial conditions for this mode
are i1 i1 t2 , i2 i2 t2 , i3 0 and vCR vCR t2 . It was
found that this mode of operation occurs for a negligible
small interval of time. From Fig. 4, it can be observed that
the duration of this mode is very small compared with the
time taken by the DC-link voltage to reduce to zero from
source voltage value (which itself is small). Thus the change
in currents i1 , i2 and i3 during this mode is negligibly small
and can be neglected. Also, as the area enclosed by current
iCF during this mode is negligible, the contribution of this
mode towards steady-state DC-voltage build-up across CF
is neglected. A situation in which three mutually coupled
inductors are involved in a resonance process with CR
occurs twice during the entire circuit operation. One such
situation occurs during this mode, and another occurs
during mode 4 of operation (discussed later). During mode
4 of operation, such a situation lasts for a longer duration
and, hence, is not neglected.

3.4 Mode 3 t3  t  t4 : zero link voltage


condition (S2 on and D2 off; inverter
freewheeling diodes on; D3 on; D1 off)
During this interval, the freewheeling diodes in the inverter
legs represented by D start conducting. Link voltage is
clamped at 0 V, and the inverter devices can be turned
on/off under zero-voltage condition. A linearly increasing
discharge current iCF ows out of the positive electrode of
capacitor CF. Current owing through L1 increases linearly,
and that owing through L2 decreases linearly. Owing to
magnetic coupling between L1 and L2, current owing
through freewheeling diodes across the PWM inverter
switches decreases linearly. This mode of operation ends
when current owing through the freewheeling diodes
reduces to zero. The equation for link voltage and currents
can be derived as
v CR t  t 3 0

10

i1 t  t3 i1 t2



2
t  t3 L2 M13  M12 M23 vCF L2 L3  M23
Vs

D
11
i 2 t  t 3 i 2 t 2

96

t  t3 L1 M23  M12 M13 vCF M13 M23  L3 M12 Vs


D
12

i3 t  t3 i3 t2



2
t  t3 L1 L2  M12
vCF L2 M13  M12 M23 Vs

D
13
2
2
where D L1 L2 L3  L3 M12
 L2 M13
2M12 M13 M23 
2
L1 M23 . Initial conditions for this mode are i1 i1 t2 ,
i2 i2 t2 , i3 t2 0 and vCR 0. It should be noted that
the initial conditions for currents i1 ; i2 and i3 are their
respective values at the end of mode 1 (the effect of mode 2
is neglected), and that of vCR is zero.
The duration of this mode is given as

TZero t4  t3

i2 t2 Io  i1 t2  i3 t2  D
14
vCF  C Vs  E

where C L2 M13  M12 M23 M13 M12  L1 M23 L1 L2 


2
2
M12
, and E L2 L3  M23
L3 M12  M13 M23 L2 M13 
M12 M23 .
The expression for the area enclosed by current iCF i3
during this mode is given as

2
2
t4  t3
L1 L2 vCF  M12
vCF L2 M13 Vs
iCF ;area;M3

M12 M23 Vs
2D

15

3.5 Mode 4 t4  t  t5 : capacitor CR


charges: stage 1 (S2 on then off; D2 off then
on; D3 on; D1 off)
During this mode of operation, CR charges owing to the
resonance caused between mutually coupled inductors L1,
L2, L3 and CR . Capacitor CF continues to discharge. The
state equations for this mode are the same as that of
mode 2, except for the initial conditions. If circuit
parameters and initial conditions are used, the analytical
solution of the mathematical equations governing this mode
becomes difcult to solve manually. However, if the
numerical values of a few circuit parameters are known a
priori, these equations can be solved with ease. Software
packages such as Mathematica can be used as an aid to
solve the equations. As an example, if numerical value of
circuit parameters such as Vs 600, Io 50, L1 281 mH,
L2 29 mH, L3 43:8 mH, k12 0:9, k13 0:6, k23 0:5,
CR 22 nF are used, with symbolic notations for vCF ,
i1 t4 , i2 t4 , i3 t4 , the state equations and the expression
for area enclosed by iCF are given in Appendix 9.
Note that, when the above equations are solved, the
capacitor voltage vCF and initial conditions for currents at
the start of this mode i1 t4 ; i2 t4 ; i3 t4 are kept as
symbolic notations. This helps to solve the circuit from the
previous mode to the next mode of operation, and to prove
the concept of steady-state DC-voltage build-up across CF,
on which the entire circuit operation is based (discussed in
the following Section). If (29) is plotted with respect to time,
there will be two zero-crossings or solutions (see Fig. 4).
This implies that i2 reverses its direction, making the antiparallel diode of switch S2 D2 conduct for a short interval.
When D2 is conducting, S2 is turned off under zero-voltage
and zero-current switching conditions. This mode of
operation ends when D2 turns off.

3.6 Mode 5 t5  t  t6 : capacitor CR


charges: stage 2 (S2, D1 and D2 off; D3 on)
During this mode of operation, a resonant circuit consisting
of L1, L3 and CR is formed. Voltage across CR continues to
increase. This mode ends when the sinusoidally decreasing
discharge current iCF decreases to zero. At this instant,
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D3 turns off. The equations governing this mode are given as


Z t
di1
di3
1
 M13

i1 t i3 t  Io dt Vs 16
L1
dt
dt CR 0
di3
di1
1
 M13

L3
dt
dt CR

i1 t i3 t  Io dt vCF 17

The state equations during this mode are derived based on


the same arguments made in the previous mode of operation.
The initial conditions during this mode are: vCR vCR t5 ,
i1 i1 t5 , i2 i2 t5 and i3 i3 t5 . The state equations
and the expression for area enclosed by iCF during this mode
are given in Appendix 9.

3.8 Mode 7 t7  t  t8 : clamping action


(S2, D2 and D3 off; D1 on)
During this mode of operation, the DC-link voltage vCR is
clamped at Vs vCF KVs. Current owing through
L1 i1 is fed to CF by diode D1. This current decreases
linearly. This mode of operation ends when i1 becomes
equal to inverter load current Io . After this mode of
operation, the DC link returns to mode 0 of operation. The
link current and voltage equations are
iL1 t  t7

Vs  Vc
t  t7 iL1 t7
L1

vCR t  t7 Vs vCF

21
22

The duration of this mode is given as

3.7 Mode 6 t6  t  t7 : capacitor CR


charges: stage 3 (S2, D1, D2 and D3 off)

t8  t7

During this mode of operation, a resonance circuit


consisting of L1 and CR is formed. Voltage across CR
continues to increase. Current owing through L1 decreases
sinusoidally. This mode ends when the voltage across CR
reaches the clamp voltage level KVs Vs vCF . The link
current and voltage equations are

Io  i1 t7 L1
Vs  Vs vCF

23

The expression for the area enclosed by current iCF during


this mode is given as
iCF ;area;M7 0:5t8  t7 i1 t7  Io
4

24

Link design and control scheme

iL1 t  t6 Io i1 t6  Io coso1 t  t6

Vs  vCR t6
sino1 t  t6
R01

18

vCR t  t6 i1 t6  Io R01 sino1 t  t6


 Vs  vCR t6 coso1 t  t6 Vs

19

The duration of this mode is given as


q1
0
2ab

2ab2 4b2  c2 a2  c2
1
A
t7  t6
tan1 @
2b2  c2
o1
20
where a Vs  vCR t6 , b i1 t6  Io R01 and c vCF .

Fig. 6

The design of QRDCL topology with three coupled


inductors shown in Fig. 2 involves the selection of
parameters L1, L2, L3, CR , M12 , M23 and M13 to the satisfy
the desired link waveform specications such as dv=dt,
di=dt, value of K, peak currents in L1, L2, L3 and TZero . The
design process for the proposed QRDCL circuit topology is
iterative in nature, wherein a simulation study or calculations based on (1)(24) are required to adjust the link
parameters and to verify that the design specications are
met. The following design guidelines are recommended for
the design of the topology.
Initially, suitable values for L1 and CR are chosen.
Inductance L1 consists of the sum of DC-source inductance
and externally connected inductance between the DC
source and the DC link. It prevents a signicant rise in

Plot of vCF against iCF ;area;average , TZero and zero-voltage turn-off time available for S2

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97

source current above load current value Io when the


DC-link voltage reduces below Vs. Hence, L1 in the range
of 100500 mH is selected. Capacitance CR consists of stray
capacitance across the PWM inverter DC-busbar terminals
and externally connected resonant capacitor. Generally, CR
in the range of 10100 mH is selected.
Inductances L2 and L3 and coupling coefcients k12 , k23
and k13 are chosen in the following range: L2 0:1 L1 ,
L3 1:5 L2 , k12 maximum possible (usually k12 in the
range of 0.850.95 can be obtained), k13 0:6k12 and
k23 minimum possible (usually k23 in the range of 0.40.5
can be obtained). Practical considerations limit the minimum value of k23 that can be obtained. Once all circuit
parameter values are chosen based on the above-mentioned
guidelines, the circuit equations for various modes of
operation are executed to check whether essentially required
specications are met (such as the steady-state DC-voltage
build-up across CF, which decides the clamping factor K of
the inverter DC-link voltage). Capacitor CF is chosen such
that constant voltage with negligible ripple is maintained
across it. As the average value of the charging and
discharging current owing through CF is negligibly small
(of the order of 0.250.5 A), an empirical value in the range

Fig. 7

of 5005000 times the value of CR is sufcient to give


satisfactory performance. Thus, under steady-state conditions, when steady DC voltage builds up across CF, the
following condition must be satised:
iCF ;area;average iCF ;area;M7  iCF ;area;M3
iCF ;area;M4 iCF ;area;M5 0

25

where, iCF ;area;M7 is the area enclosed by iCF during mode 7.


When the average area enclosed by the current through
CF iCF ;area;average is calculated, a suitable value for vCF 
0:1Vs is assumed, and (15), (32), (36), (24) and (25) are
evaluated. This process is repeated by either the increasing
(if iCF ;area;average 40) or decreasing (if iCF ;area:average o0) of the
value of vCF until the value of iCF ;area;average becomes zero.
The value of vCF at which iCF ;area:average becomes zero is the
value of the steady-state voltage across CF . The proposed
circuit with the parameters given in mode 4 is solved using
MATLAB, and the plot of vCF against iCF ;area;average is
shown in Fig. 6. It can be observed that the steady-state
voltage attained across CF is 121 V. Figure 6 also shows
the plot of the zero DC-link voltage period and zero-voltage
turn-off period available for S2.

Simulation results

a M12 is increased from 81.5 mH to 85.5 mH in steps of 2 mH


b M13 is increased from 66.56 mH to 74.56 mH in steps of 4 mH
c M23 is increased from 17.81 mH to 21.81 mH in steps of 2 mH
d CR is increased from 22 nF to 28 nF in steps of 3 nF
98

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For the same circuit, the effect of change in various


circuit parameters (M12 , M13 , M23 , CR , L1, L2 and L3) was
studied using a SABER simulator. The simulated waveforms for each individual parameter change are shown in
Figs. 7 and 8, respectively. In this study, each circuit
parameter was given an incremental change (while other
parameters were kept constant), and the results were
plotted. These results are enumerated in Table 1 and can
help in ne-tuning the circuit parameters until the required
specications are met. For example, if the zero-voltage turnoff switching property for S2 is not satised during mode 4
of operation, then M12 should be given an incremental
change until this property is satised.
It is found that average current stress on additional
switching devices such as S2, D1 and D3 are negligibly small.
From the simulation study on the proposed circuit with the
parameters given in mode 4, the average values of current
owing through S2, D1 and D3 are found to be 0.46 A, 0.3 A
and 0.26 A, respectively, and their peak values of currents
owing are found to be 24 A, 2.5 A and 8 A, respectively
(see Fig. 4). Thus S2, D1 and D3 are selected based on their

Fig. 8

Table 1: Effect of parameter variation on circuit performance


Circuit
parameter

Zero-voltage
time period
Tzero

Clamp voltage
Available
level Vs vCF zero-voltage
turn-off
period for S2

k12 m

decreases

negligible
change

increases

k13 m

negligible
change

decreases

increases

k23 m

negligible
change

increases

negligible
change

CR m

increases

decreases

decreases

L1 m

increases

decreases

decreases

L2 m

decreases

marginal
increase

marginal
increase

L3 m

negligible
change

increases

negligible
change

Simulation results

a L1 is increased from 281 mH to 321 mH in steps of 20 mH


b L2 is increased from 29 mH to 49 mH in steps of 10 mH
c L3 is increased from 43.8 mH to 73.8 mH in steps of 15 mH
d During regeneration by taking Io  50 A
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99

peak current rating and the maximum voltage they need to


block. The maximum voltage that S2 needs to block is
during mode 7 of operation and is given as
 
di1
Vmax;blocking;S2 Vs vCF  M12 
26
dt mode 7
The value of M12  di1 =dt during mode 7 of operation is
negative and is of the order of 3040 V for the circuit
parameters given in mode 4. It can be easily veried from
Fig. 4 that the value of di1 =dtmode 7  357143 A s1 ,
which gives the product M12  di1 =dtmode 7 29 V ( for
M12 81:24 mH). Thus the maximum voltage stress on S2
is marginally higher than DC-link clamp voltage level
VC Vs vCF . This increased voltage stress on S2 beyond

PWM
Command
Generator
(Phase A)

Sa
Q
D
To Phase A
Flip
Switches
Flop
Q
CLK
Sb

PWM
Command
Generator
(Phase B)

Q
D
Flip
Flop
Q
CLK

Sc
D

Thus the maximum reverse voltage across D3 always


remains marginally less than the DC-link clamp voltage
level. It can be observed from Fig. 4 that the maximum
reverse voltage across diode D1 occurs during mode 3 and is
equal to the DC-link clamp voltage VC Vs vCF .
The block diagram of the control circuit for soft-switched
PWM inverter control is shown in Fig. 9. Depending upon
the PWM inverter modulation strategy, the PWM command generator generates the switching signals for the
inverter devices. The change in the conducting state of any
inverter switch is rst detected by the edge detector, which
generates a turn-on signal to the auxiliary switch S2. This
initiates the resonant cycle. The pulse width of the signal
applied to the gate of S2 is equal to sum of the time required
for the DC-link voltage to reach zero and TZero . To
synchronise the change in the conducting state of the
inverter devices with the zero link voltage instant, three

To Phase B
Switches
Sd

Se
D D Q
To Phase C
Flip
Switches
Flop
Q
CLK
Sf

PWM
Command
Generator
(Phase C)

the DC-link clamp voltage level can be considered negligibly


small.
The maximum reverse voltage appearing across diode D3
also occurs during mode 7 of operation and is given as
 
di1
Vmax;reverse;D3 Vs  M13 
27
dt mode 7

Link
Detector

Edge
Detector

Mono
Shot

To Auxiliary
Switch S2

Fig. 9 Control circuit for synchronising inverter switching with


zero DC-link voltage instants

Fig. 10

Simulated plots of vCF and iCF during starting

Table 2: List of SABER templates used for simulating various circuit components and power dissipated in them for different
values of inverter switching frequencies
Circuit component

SABER
template

Template properties/
comments

Power dissipated
with SPWM, 5 kHz

Power dissipated
with SPWM, 6 kHz

Power dissipated
with SPWM, 7 kHz

L1 (281 mH, air core)

r 220 mO

9.1 W

9.81 W

10.9 W

L2 (29 mH, air core)

r 80 mO

0.52 W

1.86 W

1.91 W

L3 (43.8 mH, air core)

r 120 mO

0.18 W

0.45 W

0.55 W

Switch S2

irg4ph50u

Inbuilt Saber Template


Analogy Inc.

4.5 W

9W

10.5 W

Diode D1

mur10150e

Inbuilt Saber Template


Analogy Inc.

0.21 W

0.33 W

0.6 W

Diode D3

mur10150e

Inbuilt Saber Template


Analogy Inc.

0.84 W

2.59 W

4W

Inverter switches

irg4ph40u

Inbuilt Saber Template


Analogy Inc.

48 W

52 W

60 W

Free-wheeling
diodes across
inverter switches

dp

Inbuilt Saber Template


Analogy inc.

5.2 W

5.7 W

6.2 W

68.55 W

81.74 W

94.66 W

Total

Load and source parameters are: RL 19.68 O, LL 63.94 O, Vs 600 V, Power factor 0.7, Output power 3.6 kW
100

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D-type ip-ops are used. The switching signals generated


by the three-phase PWM command generator drive the

D-input pins of the ip-ops, and the output pins Q and Q
drive the corresponding top and bottom switches of the
Table 3: Inverter efficiency for three different switching
frequencies
SPWM carrier
frequency, kHz

Average switching
frequency of S2, kHz

% efficiency

30

98.09

36

97.72

42

97.37

Fig. 11

Experimental results

a DC-link voltage vCR (top trace, 200 Vper division), S2 gate driver
input signal (middle trace, 10 V per division) and current through L2
(bottom trace 16 A per division)
Time: 5 ms per division
b DC-link voltage (top trace 300 V per division), current through L2
(middle trace, 10 A per division), and current through L1 (bottom
trace, 10 A per division)
Time: 5 ms per division

PWM inverter. When the link voltage reaches zero, the


zero-voltage detector outputs a signal that is used to clock
the D-type ip-ops. Thus it synchronises the change in the
conducting state of the inverter devices with the zero link
voltage instants, so that the conducting state is changed
only at zero-voltage condition.
5

Simulation results

A simulation study of the proposed circuit with parameters


given in the mode 4 was performed to verify the analysis
and to predict the performance under various load
conditions. Simulation results for Io 50 A are shown in
Fig. 4. It is observed that the fall time of the link voltage is
about 533 ns. The zero link voltage condition, which is
utilised for soft-switching of the inverter poles, is maintained

Fig. 12

Experimental results

a Current through L2 (top trace, 10 A per division), current through L1


(middle trace, 10 A per division) and current through CF (bottom
trace, 10 A per division)
Time: 5 ms per division
b DC-link voltage (top trace, 300 V per division), current through L1
(middle trace, 5 A per division) and current through CF (bottom trace,
5 A per division)
Time: 20 ms per division

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101

for about 686 ns. The rise time for the DC-link voltage to
reach clamp voltage level after a brief zero-voltage period is
3.6 ms.
The proposed circuit behaves identically when load
regenerates (Io in Fig. 3 reversed in direction). A simulation
study was carried out during regeneration with Io 50 A
(see Fig. 8d). Figure 10 shows the waveforms of the current
through CF and its voltage during starting. It can be
observed that vCF settles at 100 V, giving a clamp factor of
K 1.16. The on-time of S2 is 1.5 ms.
So that the theoretical efciency of the inverter at
difference switching frequencies can be estimated, the
proposed circuit was simulated using actual SABER
templates for various components. The inverter was
assumed to be feeding an RL load at power factor of 0.7,

Fig. 13

Table 4: List of motor parameters


Motor parameter

Value

Rated voltage

400 V

Rated line-current

7.8 A

Stator connection type

Star connected 3F 4 pole

Frequency

50 Hz

Rs

1.1 O

Rr

0.9 O

Xsl

1.8 O

xrl

1.8 O

XM

68 O

Experimental results

a DC-link voltage vCR (top trace, 250 V per division), inverter line-to-line voltage (middle trace, 250 V per division) and current through L1 i1
(bottom trace, 8 A per division)
Time: 20 ms per division
b Waveforms at fundamental frequency of 50 Hz: DC-link voltage vCR (top trace, 500 V per division), inverter line-line voltage (middle trace, 500 V
per division), and motor phase current (bottom trace, 16 A per division)
c Waveforms at fundamental frequency of 60 Hz: inverter lineline voltage (top trace, 300 V per division) and motor phase current (bottom trace,
10 A per division)
Time: 5 ms per division
102

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fundamental frequency of 50 Hz and modulation index of 1.


The per-phase load parameters, DC-source value and
SABER templates used for the simulation study are given
in Table 2. As L1, L2 and L3 were chosen to be air core
inductors, a linear inductor template with nite resistance
was used for simulation. If actual SABER templates are
used, the average power dissipated in each circuit
component can be determined from the simulation results.
These results are given in Table 2.
Once the total power dissipation in the entire circuit has
been found, the efciency can be calculated. The efciency
of the inverter for three different switching frequencies is
given in Table 3. It should be noted that the calculated
efciencies of the proposed soft-switched inverter, as listed
in Table 3, are based on simulation results.
6

Experimental results

So that the simulated results could be validated, a


laboratory prototype was built and tested under various
load conditions. The circuit parameters used for the
experimental study are given in the mode 4 description of
circuit operation. Other circuit parameters are: Vs 300 V,
CF 5 mF, and the on-time of S2 2.5 ms. Figures 11a12b
show the recorded waveforms under no-load condition.
Figure 11a shows vCR , the gate signal of S2, and the current
through L2, and Fig. 11b shows vCR and currents through
L2 and L1. The clamp factor K achieved was 1.3. Figure 12a
shows the currents through L1, L2 and L3, respectively, and
Fig. 12b shows vCR , L1 current and current through CF. It
can be observed from Fig. 11a, that the fall time of
the link voltage is approximately 800 ns. The zero link
voltage condition, which is utilised for soft-switching of
inverter poles, is maintained approximately for 700 ns.
The DC-link voltage rises is three distinct steps to reach
clamp voltage level after a brief zero-voltage period. The
time taken for the DC-link voltage to reach clamp voltage
level after a brief zero-voltage period is approximately
5.5 ms.
It can be observed that there is fairly good match of
simulated waveforms (Fig. 4) and those obtained from the
prototype. In the experimental set-up there are stray
inductances and capacitances that cause deviation from
the simulation results. To demonstrate the PWM capability,
a three-phase sine-triangle PWM command generator was
implemented to control the six inverter switches. The output
of the soft-switched inverter is directly connected to threephase induction motor whose parameters are given in
Table 4. The sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) technique is used
control the output voltage of the inverter. The frequency of
the carrier wave is maintained at 6 kHz. The measured
waveforms are shown in Figs. 13ac. Figure 13a shows the
link voltage vCR , inverter lineline voltage and current
through L1. Figure 13a clearly shows that the change in
lineline voltage is synchronised with the zero-voltage
instants of the DC link. The load current is sinusoidal,
and the performance of the link is found to be satisfactory.
7

Conclusions

In this paper, a new circuit topology for a QRDCL softswitching PWM inverter is proposed. It is a simple softswitching topology that is easy to implement and control.
The proposed circuit uses one additional switch to create
zero-voltage instants in the DC link. The maximum voltage
stress on auxiliary circuit diodes is conned to the DC-link
clamp voltage level. Also, the resonant energy associated

with clamping is recycled. The proposed inverter conguration is a solution to the problem of maintaining a
separate low-voltage DC source using a low-power DC-toDC converter for clamping the DC link. It is shown that the
extra resonant energy can be recycled, while the voltage
stress on the clamping diode is maintained equal to the DClink clamp voltage level. The introduction of magnetic
coupling between three resonant inductors can minimise the
device count. Various modes of operation and link waveforms were analysed to reveal the soft-switching characteristics. Simulation and experimental studies were carried out
to verify the proposed concept.

References

1 Divan, D.M.: The resonant dc link inverter a new concept in static


power conversion. IEEE-IAS Annual Conf. Rec., 1986, pp. 648656
2 Divan, D.M., and Skibinski, G.: Zero switching loss inverters for high
power applications. IEEE-IAS Annual Conf. Rec., 1987, pp. 627634
3 Merterns, A., and Divan, D.M.: A high frequency resonant dc link
inverter using IGBTs. IPEC Tokyo, Japan, 1990, pp. 152160
4 He, J., and Mohan, N.: Parallel resonant dc link circuit a novel zero
switching loss topology with minimum voltage stresses, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., 1991, 6, pp. 687694
5 He, J., Mohan, N., and Wold, B.: Zero voltage switching PWM
inverter for high frequency DC-AC power conversion, IEEE Trans.
Ind. Appl.., 1993, 29, pp. 959968
6 Jung, and Cho, G.: Novel type soft switching PWM converter using a
new parallel resonant DC link. IEEE-IAS Conf., 1991, pp. 241247
7 Malesani, L., Tenti, P., Tomasin, P., and Toigo, V.: High efciency
quasiresonant dc link three-phase power inverter for full-range PWM,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 1995, 31, pp. 141148
8 Choi, J.W., and Sul, S.K.: Resonant link bidirectional power
conversion Part-I: Resonant circuit, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
1995, 10, pp. 479484
9 Wang, K., Jiang, Y., Dudovsky, S., Hau, G., Boroyevich, D., and Lee,
F.C.: Novel dc-rail soft switching three-phase voltage source inverter,
IEEE Trans Ind. Appl., 1997, 23, pp. 509516
10 Divan, D.M., Malesani, L., Tenti, P., and Toigo, V.: Asynchronised
resonant dc link converter for soft switched PWM, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., 1993, 29, pp. 940948
11 Lai, J.S., and Bose, B.K.: High frequency quasi-resonant DC voltage
notching inverter for AC motor drives. Proc. IEEE Conf., 1990,
pp. 12021207
12 Vassilios, G., and Ziogas, P.D.: An optimum modulation strategy for
a novel notch commutated three phase PWM inverter, IEEE Trans.
Ind. Appl., 1994, 30, pp. 5261
13 Hui, S.Y.R., Gogani, S., and Zhang, J.: Analysis of a quasi-resonant
circuit for soft-switched inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 1996,
11, pp. 106114
14 Chen, S., and Lipo, T.A.: A novel soft switched PWM inverter for
AC motor drives, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 1996, 11, pp. 653659
15 Jafar, J.J., and Fernandes, B.G.: A new quasi-resonant DC-link
PWM inverter using single switch for soft switching, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., 2002, 17, p. 1010
16 Jafar, J.J., and Fernandes, B.G.: A quasi-resonant DC-link PWM
inverter for induction motor drive. In IEEE-IAS Annual Conf. Rec.,
1999, pp. 19972002
17 Jafar, J.J., and Fernandes, B.G.: A novel quasi-resonant DC-link
PWM inverter for induction motor drive. In IEEE-PESC Conf. Rec.,
1999, pp. 482487

9 Appendix

9.1 State equations during mode 4 of circuit


operations
i1 t  t4 23:2556 0:534888i1 t4 0:465112i2 t4
1:08022i3 t4 0:0078125t  t4 2
cos373683t  t4 11:363 0:22726i1 t4
 0:22726i2 t4  1:21087i3 t4 cos3:72354
 106 t  t4 11:89260:237852i1 t4
 0:237852i2 t4 0:130654t4 sin373683t  t4 
 3:54682  0:106768 vCF sin3:72354  106 t  t4 
 2:63439 0:00224885 vCF 41561:1t  t4 vCF 28

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103

i2 t  t4 26:7444 0:534888i1 t4 0:465112i2 t4


1:08022i3 t4 cos373683t  t4 6:68997
0:133799i1 t4  0:133799i2 t4  0:712902i3 t4

9.2 State equations during mode 5 of circuit


operations
i1 t  t5 12:0485 0:759029i1 t5  0:240971i3 t5

cos3:72354  106 t  t4 33:4344  0:668688i1 t4

1:31032  106 t  t5  0:045118 vCR t  t5

0:668688i2 t4  0:367315i3 t4 sin373683t  t4 

 0:000976563t  t5 2  2183:84t  t5 vCF

 2:088190:0628597 vCF sin3:72354  106 t  t4 


 7:406220:00632232 vCF 41561:1t  t4 vCF

cos1:62534  106 t  t5 0:240971i1 t5

29
i3 t  t4 cos373683t  t4 8:50709  0:170142i1 t4

0:240971i3 t5  12:0485 sin1:62534


 106 t  t5 1:24596  0:00861631 vCR t5
0:0065397 vCF

33

0:170142i2 t4 0:90654i3 t4 cos3:72354


 106 t  t4 8:50709 0:170142i1 t4  0:170142i2 t4

i3 t  t5 37:9515  0:759029i1 t5 0:240971i3 t5

0:0934603i3 t4 sin373683t  t4 2:65539

 1:31032  106 t  t5 0:045118 vCR t  t5

0:0799336 vCF sin3:72354  10 t  t4 


 1:88445 0:00160866 vCF

30

0:000976563t  t5 2 2183:84t  t5 vCF


cos1:62354  106 t  t5 0:759029i1 t5

vCR t  t4 45:4545  106 6:96892  109

0:759029i3 t5  37:9515 sin1:62534

 459:557  13:8338 vCF  2:09814  109

106 t  t5   3:92462  0:0271404 vCR t5


0:0205993 vCF

 1526:41 1:30302 vCF 45:4545  106

34

 2:09814  109 6890:76  137:815i1 t4


 i2 t4  75:703i3 t4 sin3:72354  106 t  t4 

vCR t  t5 vCR t5 0:013655410589:3

 2:09814  109 cos3:72354  106 t  t4 

 73:2297 vCR t5 55:5806 vCF 45:4545

 1526:41 1:30302 vCF 6:96892  109

 106 0:00016276t  t5 4:36557  1011

7

 2:54897  10 i1 t4 t  t4 4:77932
 108 i2  t4 t  t4 373683t  t4

t  t5 2  3:00418  1010 102400  2048i1 t5

459:557 cos373683t  t4  1472:29


 sin373683t  t4   29:4457i1 t4 sin373683t  t4 
29:4457i2 t4 sin373683t  t4  156:891i3 t4
sin373683tt4 13:8338 cos373683tt4 vCF 31
The expression for the area enclosed by current iCF i3
during mode 4 is given as

 2048i3 t5 sin1:62543  106 t  t5 


 3:00418  1010 cos1:62534  106 t  t5 
 10589:3  73:2297 vCR t5 55:5806 vCF

35

The expression for the area enclosed by current iCF i3


during mode 4 is given as

iCF ;area;M4 4:56936  108 50  i1 t4 i2 t4

iCF ;area;M5 3:00418  1010 77724:6  1554:49i1 t5

 0:549308i3 t4 sin3:72354  106 t  t4 

 1554:49i3 t5 sin1:62534  106 t  t5  3:00418

 4:55311  107 15:6069  0:469806 vCF

 1010 8037:62  55:5834 vCR t5 42:1837 vCF

4:56936  108 11:0758 0:00945482 vCF

 1  cos1:62534  106 t  t5 

 1  cos3:72354  106 t  t4  4:55311  107

0:0000813802t  t5 466347  9326:95i1 t5


2961:05i3 t5  8:05061  109 t  t5

 cos373683t  t4 15:6069  0:469806 vCF


sin373683t  t4 50  i1 t4 i2 t4
5:32814i3 t4

104

277:205 vCR  t  t5 2t  t5 2 1:34175


32

 107 t  t5 vCF

36

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