You are on page 1of 264

)

y.

El

II

'4

,r

I;?

^w
\o\,;

Li

flO-

'

69

90

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2007

with funding from

Microsoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/corysancientfragOOcoryuoft

&
CORY'S

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS
OF THE

PHOENICIAN, CARTHAGINIAN, BABYLONIAN,

EGYPTIAN AND OTHER AUTHORS.

SI ltto

an& Enlarged Bittern

THE TRANSLATION CAREFULLY REVISED, AND ENRICHED WITH NOTES


CRITICAL

AND EXPLANATORY, WITH INTRODUCTIONS


TO THE SEVERAL FRAGMENTS.

BY
E.
M.C.P.

RICHMOND HODGES,

late Missionary to the


Fellow of the Society of Biblical Archeology
Editor of the "Principia Hebraica ;"
in Egypt, Syria, and North Africa
and Joint-Reviser (with Dr. Gotch) of the "Authorised Version of
the Old Testament" from the Hebrew and Chaldee Texts.
;

Jews

REEVES

&

LONDON
TURNER,
-8/6.

196,

STRAND.
I%

vp

TO

SAMUEL

BIRCH, LL.D.,

Keeper of the Oriental Antiquities

in

the British Museum

President of the Society of Biblical Archeology,


etc., etc., etc.

AS A SCHOLAR TO

WHOM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

INDEBTED FOR THE RESUSCITATION OF SO MUCH OF

THE LONG-BURIED LEARNING OF THE ANCIENT


WORLD, THIS VOLUME

IS

INSCRIBED,

WITH

THE MOST PROFOUND RESPECT AND


%

ADMIRATION, BY

THE EDITOR.

IS

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Those pieces which are for the first time published in this work are

marked with a

*.

Dedication

iii

Advertisement

Editor's Preface

On

the

vii

Progress,

Origin,

and Results of Hieroglyphic and

Cuneiform Decipherment.

On

Phoenician Literature

By

the Editor

Introduction to Sanchoniathon.

xiv

By

the Editor

xxxii

SANCHONIATHON.
The Fragments

of Sanchoniathon

Extracted from Eusebius

Porphyry

21

Philo-Byblius, or Porphyry

22

THE TYRIAN ANNALS.


From Dius and Menander.
The Fragments

of the Tyrian Annals

Extracted from Dius


.

Menander

:
27

28

CONTENTS.

THE PERIPLUS OF HANNO.


Introduction to the Periplus of

The Voyage

of

Hanno

35

Hanno, Commander of the Carthaginians

CHALDEAN

36

HISTORY.

From Berosus, Abydenus, and Megasthenes.


Introduction to Berosus.

The Fragments

By

of Berosus

the Editor

43

Extracted from Apollodorus

The Fragments

51

Abydenus

53

Alexander Polyhistor

Josephus, the Jewish Historian

Athenseus

* Clement, Bishop of Alexandria

Seneca

of Megasthenes

56

64
68

69
70

Extracted from Abydenus

71

Chaldean Fragments.
Of the Ark.

From

Nicolas of

Damascus

Concerning the Dispersion of Mankind

.74

after the Flood.

From

Hestiaeus

74

From Alexander Polyhistor


From the Sibylline Oracles
Concerning the Tower of Babel and Abraham. From Eupolemus
Concerning Abraham. From Nicolas of Damascus
* Of Abraham and his Descendants, and of Moses and the Land
From Justin, out of Trogus Pompeius
of Israel.
Concerning Belus. From Eupolemus
From Thallus
Of the Assyrian Empire. From Ktesias
From Diodorus Siculus
From Herodotus
Of Nabopollasar. From Alexander Polyhistor
Of the Chaldtean and Assyrian Kings. From Alexander PolyConcerning the Tower of Babel.

....
...
....
....

histor

75
75

yy
78

78

82
82

83

83
84
84

85

CONTENTS.

....

Of Sennacherib. From Alexander Polyhistor


Of Sennacherib and his Successors. From Alexander Polyhistor
Of Sennacherib and his Successors. From Abydenus
Of Belus and the Assyrian Empire. From Castor
Chaldaean Theogony. From Damascius
*
From Agathias

...
....
.

86
87

89

90
92
92

EGYPTIAN HISTORIES.
Containing the

Old Chronicle
the

Introduction.

By

the

Remains of

Manetho

and

Laterculus of Eratosthenes.

the Editor

Biographical Notice of Abydenus

95

Megasthenes

Eratosthenes

,,

Apollodorus

Julius Africanus

Alexander Polyhistor

95

96

96
97

George the Syncellus

Introduction to the Lists of Manetho. By the Editor

The Fragments of Manetho


The Egyptian Dynasties. The Dynasty
Demigods
The Egyptian Dynasties after the Deluge
The Second Book of Manetho
The Third Book of Manetho
Of the Shepherd Kings
Of the Israelites
The Old Egyptian Chronicle
Erastosthenes' Canon of the Kings of Thebes

101

102

109

of

the

in

104

.112

117

121

126

131

136

.138

Miscellaneous Fragments.

Of the Exodus.

From
From
From
From
From
From

Chasremon
Diodorus Siculus

.....

Lysimachus

144

Polemo
Ptolemaeus Mendesius

Artabanus

142
143

146
.

146
147

CONTENTS.

The Obelisk of Heliopolis. From Ammianus Marcellinus


Of the Siriadic Columns. From Josephus

148

151

INDIAN FRAGMENTS.
From Megasthenes.
The Fragments of Megasthenes
Of the Ancient Histories of India
Of the Castes of India
Of the Philosophers
Of the Philosophical Sects
Of the Indian Suicides
Of the Philosophers. From Clitarchus
Of the Indian Astronomy. From the Paschal Chronicle
:

153

156
161

162

.....

166
167
167

ATLANTIC AND PANCH^EAN FRAGMENTS.


From Marcellus and Euemerus.
Of the

Atlantic Island.

Panchsean Fragments.

From Marcellus
From Euemerus

....
.

171

172

MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS.
From Hecatseus of Abdera
From Agatharchides of Cnidus
* Concerning the Septuagint Version.
From

**

Of the Jews.

Demetrius Phalereus to the King

....
....
.

the

Epistle of

Fragment of King Hiempsars Punic Books. From Sallust


Velleius Paterculus and ^Emilius Sura
* Cleanthes, Biographical Notice of. By the Editor

.....
.

Hymn of Cleanthes to Jupiter. From Stobasus


Of the Chaldaean Observations. From Pliny
* Of the Manners of the Babylonians. From Nicolas of Damascus
The Canon of the Kings of Egypt. From Diodorus Siculus

* The

Index,

....
.

Rerum

et

Verborum

177

183

185

186

190
191

192

194
194
199

205

ADVERTISEMENT.

The work

of which

we

here present to the public

a new edition, was published by the late Isaac


Preston Cory nearly half a century ago.

few years a new and enlarged edition


for,

After a

was

called

which was so well received by the public that

has long been out of print.

demand by

in great

The book

being

students of antiquity,

resolved on meeting the wishes of the

We

it

still

we have

public

by

issuing a

new

lation to

be revised, and have added introductions

edition.

have caused the trans-

to the several fragments, together with

notes and

explanations supplied from the recently-interpreted


hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts, and from the re-

searches of

sought to

We

competent scholars.

make

have thus

the student acquainted with

the

various sources of information which have been dis-

covered since this collection of fragments


peared, and to throw

some

light

of Nineveh and the temples of


relics of

The 2nd

edition

ap-

from the mounds

Egypt upon these

the long-forgotten past.

first

was published

in 1832.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

In giving to the public a

Ancient Fragments
to the wishes of

new

edition of Cory's

have endeavoured

numerous

to

respond

literary friends

by

fur-

nishing a brief account of the several authors to

whom we

are indebted for these extracts, and, at

same time, some information respecting the decipherment of the hieroglyphic texts of Egypt, and
the cuneiform records of Nineveh and Babylon.
The first edition of this work appeared in 1826,
the

the second in

1832

a time

when

in its infancy,

while

therefore,

Egyptian scholarship was

still

at

cuneiform research had not yet seen the

Young,

discoveries of Champollion,

Brugsch, Chabas,

Le Page

light.

Birch, Bunsen,

Renouf, Godwin, and

a host of other scholars in the former


search,

and of Layard,

Botta,

in the latter,

field

of re-

Rawlinson,

N orris,

Fox

Talbot,

Oppert, Menant, George Smith, Sayce,

and Schrader

The

have furnished so much

valuable information respecting the ancient empires


of

Egypt and

satisfied

by the

Assyria, that

we can no

longer rest

with the meagre accounts transmitted to us


classic writers concerning times

and people

with which they were themselves but imperfectly

EDITORS PREFACE.

Vlll

acquainted.

At a

the labours

of

time, therefore,

distinguished

the

when, thanks to
scholars

named, we can read with considerable


astonishing certainty the papyri of
clay-tablets of Babylon,

it

a moment, and consider

above

and

facility

Egypt and the

behoves us to pause for

how

this

wonderful mine

was discovered, and the means


Cory's Fragments
has been worked.

of ancient treasures

by which

it

constitute a

fitting

supplement

to

fragments

the

which have been exhumed from the mounds of


Nineveh, and rescued from the tombs and

Considered

of Egypt.

pits

in this light

mummythey

be found to explain and complete one another


in the

will
for,

one we have Assyrians and Egyptians speak-

ing for themselves each in his


other the information

is

channel, and reaches

us,

own tongue

only

side

that

in

the

supplied through a Greek

no doubt, more or

coloured by the media through which


It is

it

less

has passed.

when we place the two accounts side by


we are in a position to estimate their

respective values, and reproduce the half obliterated


lines.

in

his

"

The

contents of this volume," says Cory,


i(

preface,

translated from

are fragments, which have been

foreign

languages into Greek, or

have been quoted, or transcribed, by Greeks from


foreign authors

or,

have been written

language by foreigners
archives of their

By way

own

who have had

in the

Greek

access to the

countries."

of supplement

the original

editor

had

EDITORS PREFACE.

IX

added such extracts and fragments as appear to


have descended from more ancient sources, though
they are

now

be found only

to

Greek and Latin

writers.

he continues, "will

find

"

The

in

the works of

classical reader/'

but poor amusement in

perusing a half-barbarous dialect, replete with errors

and inconsistencies

;"

have,

therefore,

with the

two-fold object of diminishing the price and of ob-

space for more valuable matter, adopted

taining

Cory's estimate of the original, and omitted the

Greek
will

text.

By

this

omission the value of the work

not be diminished, the price will be consider-

ably lower, and, without increasing the size of the

book,

am

able to give valuable elucidations of the

fragments from the most recent sources of information.

can

still

Those who
do so

in

Uni-

tiller's

versal History (vol.

Fragmenta Grczca

desire to consult the originals

Bunsen's Egypt's Place in


I.,
x

at the end), or, in

there seemed,

therefore,

no

why I should enhance the price of the book


by publishing these specimens of "a half-barbarous
dialect," or take up the reader's time with " errors
and inconsistencies." I have generally given Cory's
translation, seldom departing from it except where
it was manifestly wrong, ambiguous, or ill-arranged.
Sometimes, to render the book more readable, I
have thrown two sentences into one but in no case
have I departed from the meaning of the author.
reason

Didot, Paris, 1841.

EDITORS PREFACE.

Where the sense was obscure or incomplete" or a


name occurred under an unusual form, I have added
but within brackets, the word required to

in the text,

complete the meaning, or the more usual name of


the person or place.

The purpose

for

which these

is

to enable the

fragments are here brought together


student of antiquity to bring as
focus

it

were

one

into

the scattered rays of light, and to project

all

them, thus concentrated, into the dark cavern of

meval
light

Why

history.
still

more

smoke than

is

then should

defective

by

unavoidable

retain ttnexplained,

we

retaining

more of

its

why

In other words,

pri-

render the

Greek forms of well-known He-

brew, Babylonian, or Egyptian names (as bur translators

have done

meet with Noe

in the

for

New

Testament), where

Noah, Elias

for Elijah, Jesus for

Joshua, and Eliseus for the well-known Elisha

we were

we

If

German author would it, for


instance, be tolerated for a moment if we, following
our author, gave Mailand as the equivalent of
Milan, called Venice by its German name Venedig,
or spoke of Geneva as Genff Whenever, therefore,
I have met with a name which has a well-established
form in our own language, I have given, together
translating a

with the Greek, the usually-accepted English equivalent,

e.g.,

Nabuchodrosorus,

have called by

well-known name of Nebuchadnezzar


I

have

It is

called, as in

his

and Ithobalus

our version of the Bible, Ethbaal.

best not to assume too

much knowledge on

the

EDITORS PREFACE.

more prudent to err on the


than leave them to flounder in the

part of our readers


side of prolixity

it is

mire of uncertainty.

am

Herein I

circumstance which came under

my

he read to

me

a portion of the lecture he was that

name Brittany occurred


was to
he should add some

several times, without any indication

be sought.

suggested that

short parenthetical statement as to


in

some few

west of England on one of his lecture-nights,

night to deliver, in which the

and

reminded of a

notice

Dining with a well-known clergyman

years back.
in the

XI

its

it

being in France,

My friend

what part of that country.

he was

where

did not

quite sure that the

see the necessity of

it

intelligent audience

which he was about to address

knew where

Brittany was

in

short,

they would

almost feel themselves insulted in being told


in France.

he liked

him

told

would put

Would you have

I
it

thought
to

differently,

was
and if

it

the test immediately.

the kindness to ask Miss B.

his

young lady of nineteen to step


into the study and ask her.
If she replies off-hand
I will yield the point, and assume that all the people
are as intelligent and well-read in geography as

eldest daughter, a

Miss B.
ter,

The

reverend gentleman called his daugh-

and put the question.

She appeared much

per-

plexed, and, without attempting a reply, after five

minutes' consideration withdrew covered with blushes,

repeating "

No

don't pa/' to the old gentleman's

evident annoyance.

In speaking of Brittany that

editor's preface.

xii

night the worthy pastor told them to " look for

the

map

some

of France."

critics to

If,

will

is

will recollect, that

be many to

dent

and that

readers that

whom
it is

In short, having set aside the

plan

useless encumbrance, the


to the ordinary English

not happen to have enjoyed the

advantages of an early

my

readers there

explain what seems so very obvious

who does

In carrying

classical training.

shall explain

Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek,

and Egyptian words wherever they

Phoenician,

and thus endeavour


far as these

such matters are not so evi-

Greek text as a costly and


book now addresses itself

out

to

in explain-

sufficiently intelligible,

among my

in

for the benefit of plain English

to classical scholars.

student,

may seem

have spent too much time

ing what to themselves

beg they

therefore,

it

occur,

to place the English reader, so

Fragments are concerned, on a

with the best Oriental scholars of our day.

level

have

also referred the student to authorised translations

of cuneiform and

hieroglyphic texts, whenever

thought that any additional light was thrown by

them upon the statements contained


ments.

Lastly,

place that

it

remains only for

in these

me

to say

have omitted Cory's preface

Fragin this

entirely, as

upon the long-exploded learning of


Jacob Bryant, Faber, and Parkhurst and have dispensed altogether with the Neo-Platonic forgeries
resting chiefly

which Cory had placed


respectively

of,

at the end, bearing the titles

Oracles of Zoroaster, the Hermetic

EDITORS PREFACE.

Xlll

Creed, the Orphic, Pythagorean, and other fragments,


of doubtful authenticity and of

little

We now

value.

possess, thanks to the labours of

MM.

perron, Spiegel, and

the remains of the

Haug,

so-called Zend-Avesta, of

the

Gathas

are

as genuine.

all

which only a small portion

regarded by competent scholars

Comparing these

so-called Oracles of

Zoroaster with the genuine fragments,

reason to reject them

however, they

will

in Stanley's Lives

Anquetil Du-

as spurious.

we have every

Such

as they are,

be found, translated into English,

of the Philosophers.

have pre-

ferred, therefore, in the present edition, to

omit this

farrago of metaphysico-philosophical nonsense, and

have added several fragments of other ancient authors


containing matter of greater importance.

THE EDITOR.
London, 1876.

ON THE

ORIGIN, PROGRESS,

AND RESULTS

OF

HIEROGLYPHIC AND CUNEIFORM

DECIPHERMENT.

Egyptian Hieroglyphics and

The

foundation of

all

their Decipherment.

our knowledge of the monu-

mental and literary treasures of Ancient Egypt

based on the fortunate discovery of


Rosetta Stone,

Museum.

the famous

now treasured up in the


we are told by Dr. Birch

In 1799,

duction to the Study of Hieroglyphics),

is

British

{Intro-

M. Boussard,

of the French Expedition, discovered near Rosetta,

a large stone of black granite,

commonly known

as

the Rosetta stone, or inscription, which, at the capitulation of

Alexandria, was surrendered to General

Hutchinson, and presented by King George III. to

Museum.

the British

"It contained/' he continues, "a trigrammatical


inscription

one

in

hieroglyphics, a second in the

demotic or vernacular, and a third


the

Greek

translation

it

in

Greek."

appeared that

solemn decree of the united priesthood,

in

it

From
was a

synod

at

XV
Memphis,
ferred

honour of Ptolemy V., who had con-

in

upon them

certain benefits.

By

the successive

Thomas Young, Champollion,

labours of Dr.

Deveria,

Dr. Birch, Bunsen, Brugsch, Chabas, and other emi-

nent scholars, the values of the hieroglyphic characters

have been determined, and the two Egyptian


In 1865 a

texts translated.

new

bilingual inscription,

Greek and hieroglyphic, was discovered at San, the


ancient Zoan or Tanis.
This new inscription has
confirmed the accuracy of our previous researches,

and adds a considerable amount of new information,


especially as regards geographical names. 1

now

logists are

inscriptions

able to read the important historical

found at Mount Sinai and

of the land of Egypt.


political, religious,

Egyptians 2
flects

and

now

is

The

in all parts

literature, historical,

philosophical, of the ancient

spread open before

us,

and

re-

a brilliant light upon the ancient fragments of

Manetho and other


1

Egypto-

The

have been
of Isaiah

name

native

difficulty to

writers contained in this work.

of Phoenicia, so long an insuperable

scholars, appears

Keft

ix. 13,

i.e.,

from

a palm-tree.

xix. 15,

and Job xv.

Egyptian text to
See the Hebrew text

this

32.

The most important Egyptian texts, translated by


competent scholars, are now accessible to English readers
2

in vols

II.,

IV.,

and VI. of Records of the Past.

Sons, London, 1873

5.

Bagster

&

XVI

Cuneiform Decipherment.

During the

new and

past quarter of a century a

unexpected revelation has come to us from the plains


of Mesopotamia and the banks of the Tigris.

buried

cities

The

of Babylon and Nineveh, of Erech, and

Arbela, have sprung from their long-forgotten graves,

and yielded
Loftus, their

and Layard, Rawlinson and


ancient records and historic treasures.
to Botta

In our early days Nineveh was but a name, and

Babylon an abstraction

their annals

were

partially

recorded in the venerable pages of Holy Writ, and

we had
tories
sites

glimpses of their ancient glories in the

and poems of the

were unknown, or

classic writers

unidentified,

his-

but their

and the wan-

dering Arab or Eeliyaut pitched his tent and tended


his flocks
Still,

among

amidst

their long-forgotten sepulchres.

all this

ruin

and obscurity there existed

a key to unlock the treasures of the past


only was wanted

We

who

the

man

should discover and employ

it.

purpose, therefore, on the present occasion to

answer the oft-repeated question,


attained the

power

to read

and

How

have we

translate the cunei-

form inscriptions of the Assyrians and Babylonians,

and what proof can be given of our success therein

The

collections of Europe, but,

those of the Louvre and the British

more especially
Museum, contain

innumerable specimens of Assyrian sculpture, and

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.
whole volumes of Assyrian history

xvii

history,

as

has been well observed, written " not in books, nor

on paper, but upon rocks and stones"


cylinders
of baked clay and burnt bricks.
It is, we believe,
generally

known

that these inscriptions, so far as they

relate historical matter, can

lated with almost as

same accuracy,
few,

we

which

much

now be

ease,

read and trans-

and with nearly the

as a page of Sanskrit or Arabic

believe, are acquainted with the process

this

power has been

attained.

The

but

by

readers of

the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society are no doubt

aware of the painful steps by which

been achieved
people

are

not

this success

has

but the great majority of intellectual

being members of that learned Society

in the deepest ignorance with reference to this

interesting question.

Rarely have

we met

with any

one who had clear and accurate knowledge of the


origin of cuneiform decipherment,

and of the vast

importance of the results attained.

Though always

taking a deep interest in such discoveries ourselves,

we

confess that,

years ago what

if

any one had asked us

we knew

of the subject,

five or six

we

should

Very little
Our first accurate and connected ideas upon the
subject were derived from the very valuable work of
M. Menant, " Les Ecritures Cundiformes, Exposd des
travaux qui ont prep art la lecture et V interpretation
have been compelled

des

in

truth to say,

inscriptions de la Perse et

edition, Paris, 1864.

de UAssyrie?

2nd

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XVlll

When

Botta and Layard excavated the mounds of

and brought

Mesopotamia,

treasures to adorn our

to

their

light

buried

museums, and throw a gleam

of light on the sadly blurred and blotted pages of


antiquity, the nature of the cuneiform characters

comparatively unknown.

From the days of the

was

British

Resident at Bagdad, Mr. Rich, and Sir Robert Ker

were

Porter, inscriptions in the cuneiform character

continually being

terpreted
basis

published and conjecturally

by charlatans and pretenders

was found on which

which was

destined

to

to

be

in-

but no real

rear the vast fabric

built.

Grotefend, of

Gottingen, in the beginning of the present century,

was the

first

to lay the foundation-stone of cuneiform

Miinter and Tychsen had previously

decipherment.
identified the

group

for " king,"

and established the

use of the diagonally-placed wedge as a word-divider.

A copy of two short inscriptions found at Persepolis,


was placed before Grotefend, the one of Darius Hys-

He

conjectured

inscriptions

emanating

taspes, the other of his son Xerxes.


that,

probably, these were

from a Persian monarch of the Achaemenide dynasty,


or successors

of

Achsemenes

he fixed upon a

certain group of characters, which, from their

fre-

quent recurrence, might contain the name of some

Taking one of these short inthe names of Xerxes and of Cyrus,

king of that dynasty.


scriptions,

he tried

but without success.

and succeeded.

By

He

then tried that of Darius,

the decipherment of this

name

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.
he obtained
characters

and

the values

XIX

five or six

of

cuneiform

he read the name Dara-ya-vush or Darius,

his title khshayathiya

kkskayatkiydnam, "king of

kings, son of Vistaspa," &c., which furnished several

more phonetic

values.

Distinguished scholars, such

as Westergard, and Rask, of Copenhagen, Lassen,

of Bonn, and Burnouf, of Paris, then took up the

study on the Continent, while Dr. Hincks and Mr.

Fox Talbot devoted


ment of the

Our

their attention to the decipher-

third kind of inscriptions, the Assyrian.

Universities have produced as yet no cuneiform

Hincks and Sayce,

scholars, with the exception of

nor can

we

point out any distinguished clergyman in

the Church, except Mr. Sayce, 1

himself to this study.


difference,

and not a

who

has

Yet, in spite of
little

devoted

much

in-

determined opposition,

progress continued to be made.

Hitherto only copies

of the two short inscriptions found at Persepolis, the

one a decree of Xerxes, the other of Darius, had


formed the sole materials

for study.

longer text

was then found on the rocks of El vend, which soon


attracted the attention of the savants of

Burnouf devoted himself


text,
all

and

these

De

Saulcy to the Assyrian.

inscriptions

Europe.

to the study of the Persian

Fortunately,

emanating from the Persian

monarchs, are drawn up in three languages, and


1

Since this was written the Rev.

J.

translated from the cuneiform text the


nasir-pal,

king of Assyria,

B.C. 883.

it is

M. Rodwell has
Annals of Asur-

XX

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

by

their aid that

the

difficulties,

we have been

able to overcome

otherwise insuperable, of reading the

annals of Assyrian

and Babylonian

brevity

trilingual

known

of
in

the

all

hitherto

Europe, however, limited our knowledge

and

to but a few cuneiform characters,

The

words.

The

kings.

inscriptions

long-desired key

was

still

fewer

at length

found

to

very long inscription of Darius Hystaspes at

in the

We owe

Behistun, in Persia. 1

the

first

copy of

this

very valuable document to Sir Henry Rawlinson,

who,

while

ambassador

engaged
to the

in

duties

official

opportunity afforded hirn by

its

manshah

it.

to procure a

copy of

proximity to Ker-

The

he published with a Latin translation


of

the

Royal Asiatic Society

Assyrian

text,

in the

Journal

with a translation into Latin, in the

to exercise their ingenuity,

cuneiform

Persian text

1846, and the

for

same Journal in 1851.


Here the scholars of Europe had a
exertions.

H. M.

as

Court of Persia, embraced the

The

Persian

text

on which

and one worthy of their


text

is

alphabet of about 40

written

with a

characters

the

Medo-Scythic and the Assyrian translations of the


text are written, the former with a syllabarium,

and

the latter in ideograms, and with a syllabarium. This


inscription,

which

for ages

had attracted the

tion of travellers going into Media,


1

was ascribed

See the article, Behistun Inscription,


Supplement, Arts and Sciences.

Cyclopcedia,

atten-

in

in

the English

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XXI

the time of Diodorus Siculus to the celebrated queen

Semiramis.

Instead of

this,

we know now that

it is

record of the acts and conquests of Darius Hystaspes,

who

there gives his genealogy, and mentions the

various battles fought by him against the successive

The

pretenders to the throne.


it

is

tone of piety in which

shown throughout
victories to Ormuzd, the

written, the religious feeling

in the ascription of all his

supreme deity of the Persians, and the love of truth


there inculcated, render this a very valuable

mony

to the state of religious

The names and

that remote period.

testi-

and moral feeling

at

facts recorded,

most surprisingly confirm the statements of the


Greek authors, Herodotus and Diodorus.

also,

Interesting as the Behistun Inscription undoubtedly

more so as being the starting-point


of Babylonian and Assyrian decipherment.
There
ninety
than
proper-names in the Assyrian
are more
is, it

becomes

still

text of this inscription

and, since proper-names are

not translated, but only transcribed from one language


into another,

follows, that

it

having by the decom-

position of these ninety names, obtained a portion

of the Assyrian syllabary,


to

commence

Inscription

was

renderings our

key

Persian

our

first

lonian language.
obtain a

then in a position

the reading of the remainder of the

The

inscription.

we were

first

text

of the

spelling-book,

Behistun

and

its

dictionary of the Assyrio- Baby-

But,

to the

it

maybe

asked,

Persian text

How
It is

did

we

true that

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XX11

Burnouf, Lassen, Oppert, and

Grotefend,

had laboured with

Sir

H. Rawlinson

Hincks

at the discovery

of the phonetic values of the Persian characters

who gave
of time

us the vocabulary

but

This also was a work

but the publication of the Zend-Avesta by

Anquetil-Duperron, the study of the Zend, or Old


Bactrian,

and Sanskrit languages,

all

Persian words.

In

identical with the Sanskrit,

a brother
be, to exist
all

many

fact,

earth
navi a ship

of the words are

a son
Mga a god

e.g.,

bhumi

contributed to

meaning of the

aid the student in determining the

putra

and many

aham

bu

is

to

only a

I.

Then, again, the modern Persian was of great


Darius commences his address with

tance.

others, are

unchanged Sanskrit words, while Adam

harder form of the Sanskrit

bratar

Darius, the great king, king of kings," &c.

"

assisI

am

Now

such words as khshdyathiya and vazraka were easily


explained

shah

from

king, buzurg

many others.
The labours

of Sir

corresponding Persian words

great

and so of a great

Henry Rawlinson have been

on and perfected by Spiegel, an eminent

carried

German
words

the

savant,

in

and now we

find there are not

twenty

the whole Persian text of the meaning

of which there

is

nian inscription
the Persian text.

is

any doubt.

The

Assyrio- Babylo-

a tolerably correct translation of

Having, therefore, obtained the

values of the Assyrian characters by pulling to pieces,

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.
as

it

XX111

were, the ninety proper-names occurring in the

Assyrian translation,

we were

able,

the Persian translation, to render,

by the help of
word for word,

the meaning of the Assyrio- Babylonian text.

Dr.

Hincks afterwards compiled a syllabary, as did


Sir H. Rawlinson, and Dr. Oppert.

also

An
first

attempt was

now made

time a uni-lingual text

at translating for the

the Standard inscription


This was translated

of Sargon from Khorsabad.

by Major- General

Sir

Henry Rawlinson, and pub-

lished in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society


for

At

1850.

same time,
the same Journal, a
the

Henry

Sir

also

published,

in

inscription

on the famous Black Obelisk, recording

translation of the

the events of the reign of Shalmaneser


of Assyria.

II.,

King

This venerable monument was brought

by Mr. Layard from Nimroud, the ancient Calakh,


and is now in the British Museum. The text of
these two inscriptions, with

many

others of even

greater antiquity, has been published


of the Trustees of the British

The

learned world

still

by command

Museum.

remained incredulous as to

the accuracy of what had been done, and

still,

though

without any sufficient reason, a few persons remain


so.

but

some other eminent


impugned the accuracy of the translations,

Professor E. Renan, and

scholars,
it

arose from their ignorance of the subject, and

from their unwillingness to climb the tedious ascent


which all who pursue cuneiform studies must ascend.

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XXIV

The

of

translation

the

annals of Tiglath-Pileser 1st

mentioned

in the Bible),

four years of

first
(b.

c.

the

ioo) (not the one

by the four most eminent

cuneiform scholars of that day, published in extenso


in the Journal of the

formed a new era

Royal Asiatic Society

in

for i860,

cuneiform scholarship.

Henry Rawlinson, Mr. Fox

Sir

Edward

Talbot, Dr.

Hincks, and Dr. Oppert, of Paris, laboured severally

on

by

are printed side

may

Their independent translations

inscription.

this

side,

and any

impartial critic

see plainly that on the whole there

remarkable coincidence

a very

To

renderings.

their

in

i(

use the words of the arbitrators,

is

That they are

all

agreed, or very nearly so, as to the powers of the


characters,

is

established

by

their concurrent readings

of proper names, which they almost always express


in

same manner

as nearly the

when we

as can be expected,

consider the different values attached by

different persons to the letters of our

Again, they say,


letters

terms

"

The agreement

being established,

it

assumed

to

pondence

in the

alphabet."

as regards the

follows that significant

be also similarly read

will

own

and

this

may be

be the case from the frequent correspassages of the translations.

It

may

be stated generally, that with a few exceptions, the

main purport

of

each paragraph agrees."

They

conclude their judgment on the several translations

Upon the whole,


experiment than which a

as

follows

"

the result of this

fairer test could scarcely

XXV

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

may

be devised

be considered as

establishing,

almost definitely, the correctness of the valuation of


the characters of these inscriptions.
that

further investigations

alter,

or to add

whole,

may be

may

find

It

but, the great portion,

after

possible

something to
if

not the

One would

read with confidence."

have thought that

is

such a decided expression of

opinion by the most competent scholars,

who

con-

sented to act as arbitrators, that the cavillers would

have been
are

still

for ever silenced.

a few
or

certainty,

Fifteen years

who

But

not so

it is

there

are utterly incredulous as to the

accuracy,

of cuneiform

scholarship.

have elapsed since then, and our

cuneiform scholars have not been idle


visited the ruins of

Dr. Oppert

Nineveh and Babylon, and on

his

return published, at the cost of the French Govern-

ment, his excellent and learned work, "Expedition en


Mesopotarnie" which contains numerous texts, with

and vocabularies of words.

translations

The same

author has given us the Annals of Sargon (mentioned


Isaiah xx.), an Early History of Babylon

and

to

him belongs the merit of

Assyrian Grammar. Dr.

Edwin

first

and Assyria,

publishing an

Norris, late secretary

of the Royal Asiatic Society, has given to the world

a translation of the Medo-Scythic text of the Behistun


Inscription

and,

his invaluable

till

his decease,

which have long been


scholars.

was employed on

Assyrian Dictionary^ three volumes of


in the

hands of cuneiform

Monsieur Joachim Menant has favoured

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XXVI

the public with a valuable

language

in

grammar

cuneiform

the

of the Assyrian

Mr.

character;

Fox

many admirable translations


cuneiform inscriptions, and is now engaged in the

Talbot has introduced


of

preparation of a very useful Glossary of Assyrio-

Babylonian words

Museum,

British

is

while Mr. George Smith, of the

deserving of all praise for his very

valuable work, entitled the " Annals of Asurbanipal,


son of Esarkaddon, king of Assyria" with text and
translation

his

complete List of Assyrian Characters

and Ideograms and


;

of

lastly, for his

admirable sketch

Early Babylonian History, published

vol. of the

in the first

Transactions of the Society of Biblical

Archaeolgy, and reprinted, with additions, in

So

of Records of the Past.


origin

far

we have

vol.

traced the

and progress of cuneiform decipherment.

have now

briefly to

iii.

We

speak of the results attained, or

yet to be obtained, by the pursuit of this study.


First.

We have

established the important fact that

the Assyrians were a Semitic people, and spoke a

language akin to
Secondly.
historic

We

times,

Hebrew and
learn

of the existence, in

of a great

Turanian

the plains of Mesopotamia.


prising
allied

fact

to the

that,

at

Arabic.

We

pre-

civilisation in

learn

the

sur-

remote period, a people

Finns and Laplanders, and speaking

a dialect of the great Tartar family, founded the


cities

of

central

Asia,

invented

plex system of writing that

human

the

most com-

ingenuity ever

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

and

devised,

laid the

XXV11

foundation of a civilisation

which lasted with few radical changes down

Some of

time of Alexander the Great.


are

mentioned

Accad

in

people

is

in

Holy

the land of Shinar

mentioned

often

and

Erech and

as

Scripture,

in the

to the

their cities

this

primitive

inscriptions

of

the Assyrian kings, and called Akkadi, or Akkads. 1

We

possess numerous specimens of their literature in

the British

highly

Museum, and we
race,

civilized

find that they

who have

left

annals, scientific treatises, liturgies,


tracts.

were a

us historical

and mythological

language not only permeated

Their

the

Assyrian, but even reached the Hebrew, in which

are found several

hdkal

Akkad

a temple, a
ir

Akkads were

the

words, such as

city,

and many

instructors of

yam

others.

sea,

The

the Assyrians in

and from them the Assyrians


adopted the arrow-headed, or wedge-shaped system
of writing, which we call cuneiform.
Thirdly. We have learned by the decipherment

literature

and

science,

of the Assyrian inscriptions, the origin of that re-

markable Hebrew word


has been the crux of
the word "^
T

Hebrew
1

it

^?

Hebrew

(ASHTE), which
scholars.

Joined to

denotes eleven.

Winer, an eminent

"

having counted ten

scholar, thought that

See the article Chaldee Language, in the English CycloSupplement, Arts and Sciences ; also, M. Francois
Lenormant's learned work, Etudes A cadiennes, Paris, 1873.

pcedia,

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XXV111

upon

their fingers,

mind over and above the

thing kept in
eleven."

in despair,

it

Assyrian

the

in

Hebrew, Arabic, and

Syriac

out

not probable, but

is

Had

Gesenius

would have recognised

lived to our times he

word

scholars,

this conjecture of Winer's, cries

"By Hercules

can offer nothing more satisfactory."

strange

and hence

ten,

Hebrew

Gesenius, the prince of

commenting on
I

must mean some-

ash-tay-asar

ishtin

one

being

this

the

respectively

akhad, wahaad, and ekhdo.

We

Fourthly.

read in the annals of the Assyrian

kings of their wars and conquests

they

what

subdued,

into captivity,

what

they

countries

carried

away

and with what kings they made cove-

To

nants and alliance.


it

peoples

every lover of the Bible

must be a source of great

mention made

satisfaction

to find

in the Assyrian inscriptions of

Tyre

and Sidon, and Jerusalem and Gaza, and Samaria


(sometimes called Omri).
but of

Biblical places,

found there

And

not only names of

Biblical persons

as Hezekiah and

are to be

Jehoahaz,

Ahab

and Jehu, and Hazael, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon,


Under this head of scripand Nebuchadnezzar.
tural
fact,

illustration

that

will

we now

come the deeply

interesting

obtain evidence of the true pro-

nunciation of the sacred and incommunicable


of

God.

It

is,

among Hebrew

we

believe,

generally

scholars, that the

name

admitted

name Jehovah,

the designation of the supreme God,

is

as

incorrect.

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

The Jews never pronounce


meet with

it

New

the

in

this

XXIX

You never

name. 1

Testament

showing that

even at that time either the true pronunciation was


lost,

or

which

it

was considered unlawful

the statement of Philo Judaeus, confirmed

is

Some

Josephus.

it,

by

Hebraists contend for Yahveh as

the correct pronunciation, but with


learn,

pronounce

to

however, from

little

an Assyrian

We

proof.

inscription

of

Sargon's that the correct pronunciation of the most

name

sacred

of

God amongst

the Semitic people

In the Cyprus Inscription of

was Ya-u, or Yahu.

Sargon we read of a certain Ya-hu-bidi, king of

Now

Hamath.

as this king's

the sign indicating a god,


is

a compound

servant,

in

Jehoahaz,

of

it

we

which

is

preceded by

evident that his

correctly

are told to praise

name

as Yahu's

Hebrew name
Yeho-ahaz " one who

resembles the

In the book of Psalms,

holds to Yeho," or Jehovah.


too,

is

some divine name, such

which

more

it is

name

God by

his

name Yah,

an abbreviated form of Yahu.

Lastly.

That

this

was the most sacred name of God

as taught in the mysteries

and Plutarch.

We

may

we

learn from Macrobius

assume, therefore, from the

very accurate mode of Assyrian vocalization, that we


have here the correct pronunciation of a Semitic

1
See on this point the excellent observations of Dr.
Ginsburg, in pp. 22 and 23 of The Moabite Stone, 4to,
Reeves & Turner, 2nd edition, 1871.

XXX

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

name

and that

as found in an Assyrian inscription,

Ya-ho, and not

Ya-hu, or

Jehovah,

pronunciation of what has been

name"

of the

Most High.

Time would
of a

interest

threshold

of

is

which

its

not yet

all

and chronoliterature

are yet

upon the

truth

The

adytum.

points of

Assyrian

We

light.

temple of

of the

penetrated into
banipal

philological,

historical,

throws a flood

many

to point out the

fail

character upon

logical

the correct

is

called " the ineffable

we have

library of

not

Ashur-

and there are

published,

doubtless thousands of deeply interesting inscriptions


of great antiquity

still

mounds
be exhumed

lying buried under the

These have yet to


and brought to light, and we trust that our Government will resume the excavations of Botta and
of Mesopotamia.

Layard, send out competent scholars 1 to explore


the

ancient ruins, copy and

translate inscriptions,

and rescue from oblivion the


scriptions of Nebuchadnezzar's,

present,

at

merely refer

improvements of the

his

valuable

have many

but

all

we

in-

possess,

restorations

city of Babylon.

account of his conquests,

The

to

of

stores

We

information contained there.

and

We want the

particularly that

of his

of the Daily Telegraph, with great


have since commissioned Mr. George Smith
to go to Assyria.
Mr. Smith has subsequently undertaken
further researches (in a second journey) at Mosul, for the
1

public

proprietors

spirit,

Trustees of the British Museum.

CUNEIFORM DECIPHERMENT.

XXXI

capture of Jerusalem, and transportation of the Jews,

and there

is

and, with

many

no doubt that such inscriptions

similar records of other kings, are

worthy of our earnest search.


of a past age

exist,

lie

mouldering

Let not those

relics

in their graves.

Let

England's sons,

who

themselves, and

show a deep and

prize

and love the

Bible, exert

sincere interest in

excavations and discoveries which throw light on

sacred pages, and confirm

its

hallowed truths.

its

PHOENICIAN LITERATURE.

XXX11

SANCHONIATHON.

Phcenician literature has perished,


the

of

traces

former

its

Phoenicians, however,

literary

if

it

very early period were

who spoke a language almost


Hebrew 1 we have Biblical evidence,

rested on the single

subsequently called

during

That the

existence.

people,

identical with the

even

at a

leaving barely

the

Debir,

Canaanite

or

was

fact,

that the city

originally

Phcenician

called,

occupation,

name

before Joshua's conquest of the land, by the


of Kiryath-Sepher, or Book-town.

We

know

also,

from other sources, that Phcenician merchants were


often philosophers, Carthaginian generals,

men,

literary

and

states-

men, and that Numidian kings, who

had received a Phcenician education and

training,

possessed libraries of Phcenician works

as

or,

Juba

and Hiempsal, were themselves authors.

The
Jews

Phoenicians, like
for

instance

had

most Semitic
a

nations,

the

very ancient historical

See the Article Phcenician Language and Inscriptions,


English Cyclopaedia (Arts and Sciences Supplement).

in the

PHOENICIAN LITERATURE.

no doubt originating with the

literature,

XXX111
inscriptions,

memory

which, in order to perpetuate the

of past

events were preserved in their temples, and


Semitic world became better

the

Greeks, historical works of

mentioned

to

the

Phoenician origin are

a general way, and, in some cases,

in

supposed

the

known

when

authors

Among them we meet

of

them

are

designated.

with three names, Mochus,

Hypsikrates, and Theodotus, whose works are said


to

have been by one Chaitus translated into Greek.

The work

of Mochus, of which several

tions existed,

the time of
two,

little is

Greek edibegan with the Cosmogony, and after

Eudemus is often quoted. Of the other


known except that Hypsikrates is sup-

by some

posed

Sanchoniathon

be the same as our author

to

an hypothesis grounded upon the

circumstance that Hypsikrates in Greek signifies the

same

as Sanchoniathon in Phoenician, which

interprets 1T03D DD,

height

(i.e.,

heaven)

ner, Theodotus

common
i.e.,

Baal

torical

Movers

SAM-ME-KUNATHO =

is

his throne.

may be

the

the

In the same man-

Greek rendering of the

name tf^tt, BAAL-YITTEN,


Numerous Greek rechauffe's of his-

Phoenician
gives.

works, originally composed in the Phoenician

language, are also

known

to us, bearing the

names of

Asclepiades, Chaitus, Claudius, Julius, Dius, Hierony-

mus the Egyptian, Histiaeus, Menanderof Pergamus,


Menander of Ephesus, Philistus, Posidonius, Philostratus, and Teucer of Cyzicus
while we have it on
;

PHCENICIAN LITERATURE.

XXXIV

King of Numidia, wrote a


quoted by Sallust. Mago,

record, that Hiempsal,

history of Libya, which

is

the famous Carthaginian general, wrote twenty-eight

books on

which Dionysius of Utica ren-

agriculture,

dered into Greek, and Silanus, by

Roman

senate, translated into

command of the
As regards

Latin.

Sanchoniathon, the author of the following fragments,

almost nothing

is

Athenaeus

iii.

(lib.

He

known.
cap.

37),

is

mentioned by

Porphyry, the great

opponent of Christianity (De Abstinentia,


56),

Theodoret (De Cur.

Suidas,

who calls him

Grczc. Affect., serm.

a" Tyrian philosopher

Eusebius (De Prczparatione Evangelica,

For the fragments of


the shipwreck of time,
to Eusebius

and

his

lib.

his

we

lib.

;"

ii.

sec.

by
and, by
ii.),

c.

ii.

11).

work which have escaped


are principally indebted

opponent Porphyry.

perished except those quotations,

made

purposes, by the writers above named.

All has

for polemical

From

their

pages they have been again extracted, put together,

and are here placed before the reader


nation.
original,

for his

exami-

Owing to the entire loss of Sanchoniathon's


we are indebted for what we know of his
a translation into Greek made by a certain

work

to

Philo

(b.c.

100) of Byblus, a coast town of Phoenicia. 1

But we must not withhold from our readers that the


Byblus, the Gebal of the Hebrew Scriptures, is the present Jebail, situated on the sea coast between Beyrout arid
1

Tripoli.

XXXV

PHCENICIAN LITERATURE.

loss of the original, together with the fragmentary-

character of what remains to us of Philo's translation,

diminish not a

little

from

its

Hence many-

value.

have denied the genuineness of these fragments


gether,

alto-

among whom we may mention Ursinus,


Van Dale, Meiners, Hissman, and Lobeck.

Dodwell,

Others, as Grotius, Goguet, Mignot, Ewald, and the


late

Baron Bunsen, have considered these fragments

as genuine, and
really Phoenician,

regard the substance of them as

and therefore of the highest im-

portance.

Those who

advanced

in their favour

desire to see

what has been

may consult with advantage

the Introduction to Goguet's Esprit de Lois, Spiegel's


article, "

p'ddie,

Sanchoniathon," in Hertzog's Real Encyclo-

and especially an able

article

by

Prof.

Renan,

on the Sources of Sanchoniathon s history, entitled


" Mdmoire sur Vorigine et le charactere veritable de
Vhistoire Phoenicienne qui porte

thon"

in

the "

le

nom, de Sanchonia-

Mdmoires de VAcaddmie

tions" Paris, i860.

des Inscrip-

Having thus pointed out the


work of

sources of further information regarding the

Sanchoniathon, and

our task

will

its

historical value,

we

consider

be completed by presenting the frag-

ments to the reader, with such elucidations of the

1
On the opposite side the reader may consult with advantage Mover's, Die Unechtheit der in Eusebius erhaltenen
Fragmente des Sanchoniathon bewiese?t. Jahrbuch fur Kath.

Theologie.

XXXVI

PHOENICIAN LITERATURE.

Phoenician and Greek words as occur therein


then, leaving the student to form his

and

own judgment,

as to their genuineness and importance.

might be written on either side

and,

Volumes
knowing the

weight of argument to be pretty evenly balanced,

we

prefer to take no side, but allow the student, un-

biassed by any opinion of our own, to judge for


himself.

SANCHONIATHON.

Extracted from Eusebius' Pr^paratio


evangelica. 1
"

Now

these things

handed down

whom

book

chap.

6.

a certain Sanchoniathon has

a very ancient author

to posterity,

they testify flourished before the Trojan war,

and who, commended both


lity,

i.,

for his industry

and

wrote the History of the Phoenicians.

writings of this author, Philo, not the

fide-

All the

Jew of

that

name, but of Byblus, having translated out of the


Phoenician, published in the

He

Greek language.

supposes that the beginning of

a dark and condensed windy

air,

all

things was

or a breeze of dark

Eusebius (surnamed Pamphilus), born A.D. 264, was a


Being elevated to the see of Caesarea,
he died about 338. He was a voluminous writer, and among
his other works he composed the Prceparatio Evangelica, in
nine volumes, which he dedicated to Theodotus, Bishop of
Laodicea.
This famous work, upon which his renown
chiefly rests, contains fragments of Sanchoniathon, Berosus,
and others whose works have since entirely perished.
1

native of Palestine.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

and a chaos turbid and black as Erebus

air,

that these were unbounded,

and

1
j

and

for a long series of

ages destitute of form [or limit]. 2 But

when

this

wind

became enamoured of its own first principles (the


chaos), and an intimate union took place, that connexion was called Pothos 3 and it was the begin;

ning of the creation of

knew

not

its

things.

all

own production

And

but,

it

from

(the

its

Chaos)

embrace 4

with the wind, was generated Mot, which some called


Ilus

(mud)

but others the putrefaction of a watery

And

mixture.
creation,

certain

which

and

sprung

animals,

intelligent

they were

"

this

all

the seed of the

And

and the generation of the universe.

there were

from

from

called

not having sensation,

animals

were produced

Zophasemim,

[D^ftlEn ^D^,

From Chaos Erebus and ebon Night

From Night the Day sprang

Whom

to the love of

forth, and shining


Erebus she gave."

air,

Hesiocfs Theogony (Elton's Translation), line 170.

where 2T^ ('EREV), denotes mixture, twilight,


and hence evening. " The earth was without form, and
2

Gen.

2,

Gen. i. 1.
Pothos or Desire.

void."
3

i.

Cupid,

who was held by

This seems

to be the

same as

Epws, or

the Greek mythologists to be the prime

'See

Hesiod's Theogony, v. 120, and


upon it.
4
This union was symbolized among the heathen, and
particularly by the Phoenicians, by an egg enfolded by a
serpent, which disjunctively represented the Chaos and the
cause of all
Wolff's note

tilings.

./Ether

when united the hermaphroditic

but,

of the universe,

i.e.

Cupid, or Pothos.

first

principle

cory's ancient fragments.

of heaven, and
they were formed similar to the shape of an egg.
And Mot shone out with the sun, and the moon, and

Tsophe hashshamayim],

i.e.,

observers

the less and the greater stars.


bius), " is their

But

ism.

let

us

He

the air began to send forth

clouds,

how he

continuation

see in

influence on the sea

and

SueA (adds Euse-

Cosmogony, directly bringing in Athe-

origin of the animal creation.

when

"

and

earth,

states the

says then,
light,

by

'

And

its fiery

winds were produced,

and very great defluxions and outpour-

ings of the heavenly waters.

And

after that these

things were divided and separated from their proper

by the heat of the sun, and then all met again


in the air, and dashed together, whence thunders and
lightnings were formed
and at the crash of those
thunders the above-named intelligent animals were
awakened and frightened with the sound and then
male and female moved on the earth and in the sea.
place

This (says Eusebius)

is

their generation

of animals.

After this our author (Sanchoniathon)/r0<:m& to say,


These things are written in the Cosmogony of
Taautus (Thoth), 1 and in his memoirs, and from the
'

Thoth was an Egyptian deity of the second order,


whose attributes are not well known. The Graeco-Roman
mythology identified him with Hermes, or Mercury. His
sign is the Ibis, and he is the most important, according to
Bunsen, of all the Cabiri. He was reputed to be the inven1

tor of writing, the patron deity of learning, the scribe of the

gods, in which capacity he

is

represented signing the sen-

tences on the souls of the dead.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

mind saw and

conjectures and evidences which his

found

and wherewith he hath enlightened

out,

names of
he makes this

Afterwards (says Eusebius) declaring


the winds, Notus, Boreas

epilogue

But these

'

and

first

the rest,

men

us.

the

consecrated the pro-

them gods, and

ductions of the earth, and judged

worshipped those things upon which they themselves


lived,

and

all

their posterity

and

all

before

them

to

made

libations (or drink-offerings), and


Then he proceeds, 'These were the devices
of worship suited to the weakness and want of boldness of their minds (or narrowness of their souls).

these they

sacrifices.'

Euseb. Prcep. Evan.,

lib.

i.

cap. 10.

Then he says, Of the wind Kolpia 1 and of his


'

Baau, which
mortal men,

Aeon

is

wife,

interpreted Night, were begotten two

Aeon 3 and Protogonus

so called, and

Those begotten
Genos
and
Genea,
and inhafrom these were called
bited Phoenicia, and when great droughts came (upon
discovered food from trees.

Hebrew TV n S Tip, Kol-pi-YAH,


mouth of Yah, or Jehovah.
1

i.e.,

the voice of the

Orelli, the latest editor of these fragments, thinks we


should read Baaut, and that the r has been omitted by
Baaut, he thinks, might be the
error of the copyists.
2

Phoenician word for night, since in Chaldee

means

to

pass

the night, as in

Dan.

vi. 19. (v.

JTG (BOOTH),
18 Eng. Ver.)

Heb. TXT} (khavah)


is taken by Orelli for Eve.
and Protogonus (first-born) for Adam while GENOS he
supposes to be Cain, and Genea his wife.
3

Aeon

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

the land) they stretched forth their

hands

towards the Sun, for

they supposed to

this (he says),

to heaven,

be the only God, the Lord of Heaven, calling him


Beelsamin, which name among the Phoenicians
nifies

sig-

Lord of Heaven, but among the Greeks

is

equivalent to Zeus, or Jupiter.

After these things he charges the Greeks with error,


saying,
For we (the Phoenicians), not vainly, have
'

frequently distinguished those names, but with re-

spect to the later signification of

them from

later

names accruing

to

things, the Greeks, not knowing,

have construed otherwise, being led astray by the


ambiguity of their
'

By Genos

signification.

the son of

Then he

proceeds,

Aeon and Protogonos were

again begotten mortal children, whose names were


Phos, Pur, and Phlox

(i.e.

Light, Fire, and Flame).

These found out the method of generating fire by


rubbing together pieces of wood, and taught men the

These begat sons of vast bulk


fire).
whose names were given to the mountains which they occupied.
Thus, from them were
called Mount Cassius, and Libanus, and Antilibanus,
use of

and

it

(i.e.,

height,

and Brathu. 2
1

i.e.,

'

Of these men,

Cain, as Orelli supposes.

he says, were begotten


His reading

is,

"

From

the race of Aeon," &c.

he has sought in vain for this mountain in the


but thinks it may have been the name
of some mountain in Syria, or Arabia Deserta, where was a
city mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Berathena.
2

Orelli says

ancient geographers

cory's ancient fragments.

(through intercourse), with their mothers,

Memrumus

and Hypsuranius; 1 the women of those times without

shame having

any man they might

intercourse with

chartce to meet.

Then, says

he,

Hypsuranius dwelt

Tyre, and he invented huts constructed of reeds

in

and rushes, and (fotmd out the use of) papyrus.


And he fell into enmity with his brother Usous, who
first

invented a covering for the body, of the skins of

the wild beasts which he could catch. 3


violent tempests of winds

and

And, when

rains came, the

boughs

Tyre being rubbed against each other


And Usous
took fire, and burnt the wood there.
having taken a tree, and lopped off its boughs, was
the first man who dared to venture upon it on the
of the trees in

These two names Bochart takes

of one person.

roumous
says

be from iTO^nftft,

to

Orelli,

"

to

be the designation

Scaliger agrees with him,

the word

Yif/ovpavios,

Mem-

taking

MIMMEROMIM

whence,

Hypsoranius,

is

only

the Greek rendering of these two Phoenician words."


2

"

Who

does not recognise," says Orelli in his note on


" in these words the Mosaic tradition about

this passage,

the Nephilim (or giants), begotten from the intercourse of


the sons of

Genesis
3

vi.

God

with the

of

men

"

See

I, 2.

Scaliger supposed here

Esau.

daughters

Orelli,

some

reference to the hairy

following Bishop Cumberland, thinks that

such a reference is quite inadmissible, and that we should


rather understand some antediluvian descendant of Cain,
named Uz, who gave his name to a part of Syria. See
Genesis x. 23.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


sea.

And

Fire and

he consecrated two

Wind

or

stelae,

pillars,

to

and he worshipped them, and

poured out to them 2 the blood of those wild beasts

he had taken

in the chase.

And when

all

these

men

were dead, those that remained consecrated to them


staves of wood, and worshipped

stelae,

or pillars, and

them every year. And


in times long after these, were born of the race of
Hypsuranius, 3 Agreus and Halieus {i.e. Hunter and
Fisherman), the inventors of the arts of hunting and
4
fishing, from whom hunters and fishermen are named.
Of these were begotten two brothers, the inventors
One of these,
of iron and the manifold uses of it.
called Chrysor (whom he says is Vulcan), exercised
celebrated feasts in honour of

The atmosphere and

winds,

we

are told

by

Julius

Firmicus, received divine honours from the Assyrians and

people on the shores of Africa, while fire was equally


in all the colonies of the Phoenicians, especially
in the temple of the Tyrian Hercules at Cadiz (Gades), to
extinguish the perpetual fire in which was punished with
See Creuzer's Symbolik and Miinter, Religion der
death.

venerated

Karthager, 49, 61.


2

i.e.,

the

pillars, as

of wind and
3

Orelli's note, in

loc.

representing the mysterious agency

fire.

i.e.,

'Elion, or the

On

this

Most High.

passage Orelli says " These are Greek renderIn Hebrew it would read
ings of Syrophcenician names.
thus: 'And 'Elion begat Said and Sidon, whence the
4

Sidones and Sidonians are named


means both to hunt and to fisli"

'

for

Tft (Tsood)

cory's ancient fragments.

himself in words and charms, and divinations

he invented the hook,

and

bait,

coracles, or light fishing boats

of

men who

sailed

his

Diamichius,

who applied

(i.e.,

death as
1

and he was the


sails to the

and

and
first

pro-

Wherefore men worshipped him

pelling of ships).
after

fishing-line,

a God,

and they

the great inventor;

i.e.,

called

him

and some say

making of walls with bricks.


After these things, of his race were born two young
men, one of whom was called Technites, i.e., the
his brothers invented the

Artist

the other, Geinos Autochthon, 2

born, or generated

how

found out

and

to

from the earth

mix stubble with the


made in the sun

By

others, of

whom

This, as

deification.

brick-earth,

seem

to

To

Chrysor,

have attributed

says
all

they were

these were begotten

one was called Agrus

Cumberland remarks,

earth-

These men

itself.

to dry the bricks so

also the inventors of tiling.

i.e.

is

the

Orelli,

"

(Field), the

first

instance of

the

Phoenicians

those arts which the Greeks

and Apollo.
Cumberland supposed, from the Hebrew
"^pH (kharats), which has the meaning of sharpening,
cutting, etc.
In Assyrian it means gold.
referred to the three gods, Vulcan, Mercury,

Chrysor

may

be, as

As Adam may have been designated before by the


name of Protogonus, so here, under the name of Geinos
Autochthon, Orelli supposes to be meant the first man who
settled down and lived in a house constructed of sun-dried
2

bricks, in contrast with the


built of rushes

and

reeds.

nomades and dwellers

in huts

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

other Agroueros, or Agrotes 1 (Husbandman),

who

had a wooden statue that was much venerated, and


a shrine (or portable temple), 2 drawn about in Phoenicia

he

is

by yokes of oxen. And in books (or, at Byblus),


called distinctly The greatest of the Gods. These

added

to the houses courts,

Husbandmen, and such


from these

their origin

and

porticos,

and

crypts.

as hunt with dogs, derive

they are called also Aletae,

From these were descended Amynus


and Magus, who taught men to construct villages
and tend flocks. By these men were begotten Misor
and Titans.

and Sydyk,

that

is,

Wellfreed and Just: and they

found out the use of

who

Taautus,

From Misor 3 descended

salt.

invented the writing of the

first letters

the Egyptians called him Thoor, the Alexandrians

Philo

is

here quite in error, says Scaliger, for instead of

SADEH, a field, he should have read Shaddai, *"W>


Almighty. Philo, or rather Sanchoniathon, is speaking of
gods like Pan, Pales, or Sylvanus, agricultural and pastoral deities
but he confounds one of them with the
greatest god of the people of Byblos, the Shaddai of the
TTlp,

Jews.

Like the ark of the covenant among the Jews. See


vi.
Amos v. 26 and
3, and compare with
Acts vii. 43.

Samuel

Misor, no doubt, indicates the establisher of Govern-

ment
the

in

Egypt, for Mitzraim

Hebrew dual number

country)
Scriptures

is
;

the usual
still

called

word

MlSR

(in

for

for

which name we recognise


the Upper and Lower

Egypt

in Arabic.

in

the

Hebrew

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

IO

Thoyth, and the Greeks Hermes.

But from Sydyk 1

descended the Dioscuri or Cabiri, or Corybantes, or


Samothracian
a ship.

deities.

From

These

(he says), first invented

these descended others

who were

the

discoverers of medicinal herbs, and of the cure of


poisons,

Contemporary with these

and of charms.
2

was one Elioun, called Hypsistus (i.e. the most high)


and his wife named Beruth, 3 and they dwelt about
By these was begotten
Byblus [the Hebrew Gebal].
;

whom they afterwards called

Epigeus, or Autochthon,

Ouranos

(i.e.

Heaven)

so that from

him

that ele-

ment which is over us, by reason of its excellent


And he had a sister of
beauty, is named heaven.
the same parents, and she was called Ge (i.e., Earth),
and by reason of her beauty the earth was called by
the same name.
The father of these, Hypsistus,
[or

one.

ELIOUN],

having been killed through an en-

Hebrew p^% (Tsadik), means the righteous


thinks by this name is designated not any

Sydyk.

Wagner

man, but the

institution of

law and

civil

government.

El 'Elyon is the title given to the god of Melchizedek,


King of Salem, who is called priest of El 'Elyon, which
our version renders priest of the Most High God.
3

Perhaps Berith, which

in

Hebrew

signifies

a covenant

or engagement, whence a Phoenician deity was called Baal-

Zeus Orkios of the Greeks, and the Deus


This legend of El 'Elyon and
Berith (covenant), seems to me an obscure allusion to what
Berith, like the

Fidius of the Romans.


is

related in Genesis xiv. 18

24.

CORY

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

counter with wild beasts, was consecrated

and

his children offered libations

and

I I

deified],

[i.e.

sacrifices to

But Ouranos succeeding to the kingdom of

him.

contracted marriage with his sister

his father,

Ge

and had by her four sons, Ilus who is


called Kronus, 1 and Betylus, and Dagon, which sigBut, by other wives,
nifies Siton (corn), and Atlas.
which
had
much
at
Ge being vexed
Ouranos
issue
(the Earth),

'

and

jealous, reproached Ouranos, so that they parted

But Ouranos, though separated

from each other.

from

her,

with her,

still by force came, and had intercourse


whenever he pleased, and then went home

when he

But,

again.

children he

avenged

had by

herself,

her,

Ge

advice and assistance of


secretary,

his

kill

the

also often defended, or

gathering unto her auxiliary powers.

But when Kronus came

was

attempted to

also

to

man's

Hermes

estate,

by the

Trismegistus, 2

who

he opposed his father Ouranos,

avenging his mother.

And Kronus had

children,

Persephone, 3 and Athena [Minerva]; the former died

by the advice of Athene and Hermes


Mercury] Kronus made of iron a scimitar, and

a virgin
[i.e.

a spear.
allies

of

but,

Then Hermes

[or Thoth^\ addressing the

Kronus with magic words, wrought

Kronus answers

Or, Thoth,

Proserpine.

i.e.,

to the Saturn of the

Romans.

the thrice great Hermes.

in

them

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

12

a keen desire to fight against Ouranos 1 in behalf of

And

Ge.
tle,

thus Kronus, overcoming Ouranos in bat-

drove him from his kingdom, and succeeded him

in the

In the battle was taken a

imperial power.

who was

well-beloved concubine of Ouranos,

preg2

Kronus gave her in marriage to Dagon, and


she was delivered, and called the child Demaroon.
After these events Kronus builds a wall round about
his habitation, and founds Byblus, 3 the first city in
nant

Afterwards Kronus, suspecting his own

Phoenicia.

Hermes

brother Atlas, by the advice of

threw him into a deep cavern


him.

having

At

in the earth,

some

built

light,

and other more complete,

and being out over against Mount

Cassius, there consecrated a temple.

i.e.,

and buried

this time the descendants of the Dioscuri,

ships, put to sea,

[or Thoth],

But the

auxili-

Heaven.

Dagon

is

represented in

Samuel

v. 4,

as an idol of

but in Genesis xxvii. 28,


nearly the same word means com the one being Dagon,
the Philistines, with

the other dagan


3

Byblus, the

most ancient
for the

tail

[p*T].

modern

Jebail, is here represented as the


It was celebrated
Adonis
who, in the
have been slain in an

city of the Canaanites.

worship of

same manner

fish's

Tammuz,

as Elioun,

is

or

said to

encounter with wild beasts. The mysterious rites of this


worship even infected the Jews.
(See Ezekiel viii. 14.)
Byblus was famous for its celebration of the mysteries of
Adonis, which even passed to Athens.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


(who

aries of Ilus,
(as

it

called

were)
after

Kronus), were called Elohim, 1

is

Kronus
Kronus [IL or EL].
the allies of

they were so

And

Kronus,

having a son called Sadidus, dispatched him with his

own

sword, because he held him in suspicion

own hand deprived

with his
in like

manner he

daughter, so that

being

in

cut off the

Kronus by

sent

at the

daughter Astarte,
to cut off

but Kronus took the damsels,

own sisters. Ouranos


sent Eimarmene and Hora,
to make war against him
but

and married them, being


understanding

his

Rhea and Dione,

sisters,

deceit

own

his

amazed

and

And

But, in process of time, Ouranos,

banishment,

with two other

life.

head of

the gods were

all

mind of Kronus.

his son of

this,

with other auxiliaries,

his

Kronus gained the affections of these also, and kept


them with himself. Moreover, the god Ouranos
devised Baetulia, contriving stones that

having

life.

And

to

moved

as

Kronus was born by Astarte

Elohim is the plural of Eloah god.


This plural,
(which some regard as a pluralis excellentiae), is the word
constantly used in the Hebrew Scriptures for God.
Some,
on the other hand, have hence inferred the original polytheism of the Jews.
2

Baetulia.

stones,

Instead

of

XlQovs

as Philo has rendered

Orelli, believe that

it,

efjLxf/vxovs,

we may,

i.e.,

animated

think,

Sanchoniathon had written D^StBS

with

O^IN

(AVANIM NESHAPHIM), anointed stones, from the root Fpttf


(SIIOOPH), used in Syriac (2 Samuel xii. 20, and xiv. 2) in

cory's ancient fragments.

14

seven daughters, called Titanides, or Artemides


again to him were born by

whom was

youngest of

Rhea seven

and

sons, the

consecrated from his birth

by Dione he had daughters, and by Astarte


again two sons, Pothos, [or Desire], and Eros [or

also

And Dagon

Cupid].

after

he had found out bread-

corn and the plough, was called Jupiter Arotrius


the plougher).

To

Sydyk, called the

Just,

by

Titanides, [or daughters of Titan

one of the

Astarte], bare

Asclepius (Aisculapius, god of medicine. )


also, three

(i.e.,

To K ronus,

sons were born in Persea, (a district of

Syria east of the river Jordan,) viz., K ronus, of the


same name with his father, Jupiter-Belus and Apollo.
the sense of anointing.

Philo,

by transposing the

letters

Q and y$, has completely altered the meaning of the author


he undertakes to translate, and rendered him ridiculous.
By this transposition the stones which Jacob set up at
Bethel for a pillow, and which subsequently, when
anointed, he consecrated to God (as we read, Genesis
xxviii. 1 8), have become in Philo's translation animated

Such

instead of anointed stones.

of a spherical

form,

stones, called

Baitylia,

were consecrated, we are told by

Nicolaus of Damascus, to various gods.

We

are,

however,

to understand in this passage of Sanchoniathon, according


to Orelli, either aerolites, or

stones which,

by a

more probably,

superstitious notion

as he thinks,

of the ancients,

were supposed to contain some divine or spiritual essence,


such as the Pessinuntian stone sent by Attalus, King of
Phrygia, to the Romans, in which Cybele, " the mother of
the

gods,"

Roman
advers.

was believed

to

Book xxix.
Gentes, Book vii. chap.
History,

lie

u
46.

See Livy's
and Arnobius,

concealed.

and

xiv.,

5:

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

Contemporary with these were Pontus and Typhon

From Pontus

and Nereus, the father of Pontus.

descended Sidon, who by the excellence of her singing

first

invented the

hymns
But

Poseidon [i.e. Neptune].

who

Melicarthus,

is

of odes or praises
to

and

Demaroon was born

also called Heracles [Hercules].

Afterwards Ouranos again makes war against Pontus,


but parting from him attaches himself to Demaroon.

Demaroon

attacks Pontus

but Pontus puts him to

and Demaroon vows a

flight,

sacrifice for his escape.

In the thirty-second year of his power and reign,


Ilus,

who

Kronus, having

is

his father

Ouranos

an ambuscade for

laid

in a certain place in the

of the earth, and having gotten

him

middle

into his hands,

Cuts off his private parts near fountains

and

rivers.

There Ouranos was consecrated, and his spirit was


separated, and the blood of his private parts dropped
and
into the fountains and the waters of the rivers
;

the place

is

shewn even

to this day.

Then our author,

after mentioning some other matters, proceeds thtcs


1

But Astarte, called the greatest, and Demaroon en-

titled

Zeus, (Jupiter), and

Adodus named

of the gods," reigned over the country

And

of Kronus.

i.e.,

the u king

by the consent

Astarte put upon her head, 2 as a

deified.

Whence

(Gen. xiv. 5)
tzvo horns, or,

in

Bashan a

city sacred to Astarte

Ashteroth-Karnaim
the crescent moon.

i.e.,

was

called

Astarte with the

cory's ancient fragments.

mark of sovereignty, a
was travelling about the
star falling

through the

head

bull's

and when she

habitable world, she found a

which she took up and

air,

consecrated in the holy island of Tyre


Phoenicians say that Astarte

And Kronus

also

and the

Aphrodite [or Venus].

going about the habitable world,

gave

to his daughter

dom

of Attica

is

1
j

Athena

[or Minerva], the king-

and when a plague and mortality

happened, Kronus offered up his only son as a


fice

to his father Ouranos,

Tyre was regarded

sacri-

and circumcised himself,

In support of this

as a holy city.

we have

the testimony of Arrian,

who

dition of

Alexander the Great

There was

"

says, in his

Expe-

in that city

(Tyre), a temple dedicated to Hercules (Melkarth), the

ancient of

all

those recorded in history.

This

is

most

not the

Grecian Hercules, for he was the son of Alcmena. But


was worshipped at Tyre
many ages before Cadmus sailed from Phoenicia and seized

this Hercules, (Baal or Melkarth),

Thebes (in Bceotia), and long before Semele was born to


Cadmus. Nevertheless, the Hercules worshipped by the
Iberians (Spaniards), at Tartessus, who gave the name to
the pillars of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar),

same

is,

in

my

For Tartessus
was built by the Phoenicians, and a temple was reared
there, and sacrifices performed to Hercules after the
opinion,

the

with

the

Tyrian.

manner."
Again, in Book
chap. 24,
They who had fled to the temple of Hercules (being
some of the chief nobility of Tyre, besides King
Azelmicus, and some Carthaginian priests, who, accordPhoenician

ii.,

"

ing to ancient custom, were sent to


to offer sacrifices to Hercules)

pardon."

had the

their

mother-city

benefit of a free

CORY

and compelled

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

his allies to

do the same

1
i

and not

long afterwards he consecrated after his death another


son,

named Muth, 2 whom he had by Rhea. 3

Phoenicians call

him Death and

Pluto.

things Kronus, gives the city of Byblus


Gebal~\, to the

Dione

5
;

goddess

Baaltis,

who

The

After these

is

[Hebrew

also called

and Berytus he gave to Poseidon [or Nep-

What relation Kronus or Saturn may really bear to


Abraham it is difficult to say but there are certain points
1

of resemblance which are quite unmistakable.

and Abraham both

up a son in
moment by a

offer

only saved at the last


2nd, both circumcise themselves
dependents to do the same.
2

The god

or genius of

in this sense,

See also

Death

occurs in Psalm

1st,

Kronus

sacrifice, (Isaac

being

special intervention);

3rd,

both compel their

Pluto.

i.e.,

xlviii.

15.

fDft,

MUTH,

Eng. Vers.

14.

Ps. xlix. 14.

A daughter of Ouranos and Ge, or heaven and earth,


and wife of Kronus or Saturn.
4
In Hebrew this would be J"W3. (BAALATH), the wife,
viz., of Baal.
She was hence, according to Hesychius,
either Juno or Venus.
She was worshipped in Carthage
as Queen of Heaven, as also by the idolatrous Jews.
See Jeremiah vii. 18 and xliv. 17.
5
Dione is also a daughter of Ouranos and Ge, or
In classical mythology she is repreheaven and' earth.
sented as beloved by Jupiter, to whom she bore Venus.
Homer represents Dione as receiving her wounded
daughter with caresses and consolations, and threatening
3

Diomede with a wretched


6

future.

Berytus, once a famous seat of law and, learning,

the seaport for Damascus.

It is

now

called Beyroot.

now

cory's ancient fragments.

tune],

men

and the

Cabiri,

husbandmen and

the

fisher-

and they consecrated the remains of Pontus at


But before these things the god Taautus,
Berytus.
:

having represented

Ouranos, made types

of the

countenances of the gods Kronus and Dagon, and

He

the sacred characters of the other elements.

contrived also for Kronus

the ensign of his royal

power, having four eyes in the parts before and in


the parts behind, two of

them

closing as in sleep

and upon the shoulders four wings, two


flying,

and two reposing as

Kronus

was, that

And the symbol


was watching, and
And in like manner

at rest.

respect to his wings,

he was

flying,

in the act of

whilst he slept

reposed whilst he was awake.


with

that

whilst

he

yet rested whilst he flew.

rested

But to

the other gods there were two wings only to each

upon

his shoulders, to intimate that they flew

the control of Kronus


his head, the

one

he had also two wings upon

for the

most governing

mind, and one for the sense.


1

The

under

part, the

And Kronus coming

Great Gods, eight in number, were


who were especially venerated at
Lemnos, and at Samothrace. The worship of the Cabiri
extended to all the western parts of the ancient world.
Hence, we read of Boeotian, Egyptian, Macedonian,
Etruscan, and Pelasgian Cabiri. They were especially
invoked by sailors, and eventually confounded with the
Dioscuri, i.e., Castor and Pollux.
Cabiri, or

mysterious

The

first

deities,

instance on record of the consecration of

Bp. Cumberland, in

loc.

relics.

9
~

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


into the country of the south,

gave

all

Egypt

to the

god Taautus [or Thoth], that it might be his kingdom.


" These things," says Sanchoniathon, " the Cabiri,
the seven sons of Sydyk, and their eighth brother
Asclepius, [or Esmun, i.e., the eighth], first of all set

down in memoirs, as the god Taautus [Thoth] commanded them. All these things the son of Thabion,
the first hierophant of all among the Phoenicians,

and mixed up with the occurrences and


passions of nature and the world, and delivered to
allegorized,

the priests and prophets, the superintendents of the

mysteries

and

they, perceiving the rage for these

allegories increase, delivered

and

to foreigners

ventor of the three


is

of

whom

letters,

to their successors,

one was

Isiris,

the in-

the brother of Chna, 3

who

called the first Phoenician."

To

the last fragment, being of a very remarkable

character,
"

them

we append Jacob

Bryant's Dissertation :

After having shewn that this

is

the only sacrifice

By the son of Thabion both Cumberland and Wagner


understand Sanchoniathon himself; but Orelli, with more
1

probability, thinks

that Jerombaal or Jerubaal, priest of

meant. Whether the same as Gideon, who


is also called Jerubaal (Judges vi. 32) cannot be decided.
2
By the name Isiris Cumberland thinks Misor, or Mizraim, the brother of Taut, or Thoth, is meant.
3
i.e., Canaan, the native name for Phoenicia, as we find
on the Phoenician coins of Laodicea ad Libanum. See my

the god Iao,

is

Language and Inscriptions," in the


Supplement (Arts and Sciences) to the English Cyclo. 1 874.

article

" Phoenician

cory's ancient fragments.

20

among

the ancients, which

termed mystical ; and

is

that Kronus, the personage

who

chief deity of the Phoenicians

offers

was the

it

and moreover, that

it

could not relate to any previous transaction, he concludes thus


"

The

mystical

of the Phoenicians had

sacrifice

was

these requisites, that a prince

was

his only son

shewn
let

be the victim

to

to offer it
:

said

is

and
have

any thing prior

that this could not relate to

us consider what

and as

upon the

subject, as

For if the
was a type of another to

future, and attend to the consequence.


sacrifice of the Phoenicians

come, the nature of

this last will

representation by which

ing to

this,

it

was

Accord-

whose

associates

process of time to have

in

a son, aya7T7)Tov, well-beloved


:

prefigured.

El, the supreme deity,

were the Elohim, was


begotten

be known from the

who was

some render

it,

to

fiovoyevr),

be conceived

of grace

(of avcofiper), as

my

but according to

his only

inter-

He was to be
fountain of light.
called Jeoud [or TiT\ i.e., only] whatever that name

pretation, of the

may

relate to

and

his father \vrpov,

to

be

by way of

tion, TLpajpoLs Soufjioo-L, to

and avert
<j)6opa<;,

same
able

to

offered tip as

satisfaction,

sacrifice to

and redemp-

atone for the sins of others,

the just vengeance

of God

avri ttjs iravraiv

prevent universal corruption, and at the

time, general ruin.

he was to

the emblems

of

make

And

it is

farther remark-

the grand sacrifice invested with

royalty."

Bryant thinks

it

must be


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.
allowed to be

"

a type of something to

21

come

;"

pre-

he supposes, the offering of Christ upon

figuring, as

Calvary.

From Porphyry.

whom

Taaut,
flourished
for his

among

when he

the Phoenicians with great fame

wisdom, arranged

scientific

gion,

the Egyptians call Thoth,

in elegant order,

and

manner, those things which belong to

and the worship of the gods,

first

in

reli-

vindicated

from the ignorance of the lower classes and the

To whom, when

heads of the people.

who

mubelus, and Thuro,

name was

the

god Sur-

afterwards by a change of

called Chrusarthes, succeeded, after a long

interval of ages, they illustrated his secret theology,

which had hitherto been involved


allegory.

shades of

Sanchoniathon proceeds

after,

little

in the

thus

Of the Mystical

Sacrifice of the Phoenicians.

among

"It was the custom

the ancients, in times of

great calamity, in order to prevent the ruin of

all,

for

the rulers of the city or nation to sacrifice to the

avenging

deities the

most beloved of

as the price of redemption


for this

they

who were devoted

purpose were offered mystically. For Kronus

or (Saturn),

who

their children,

whom

the Phoenicians call Israel, 1 and

after his death

was
1

deified,

Queere,

II

and instated

in the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

22

planet which bears his name,

call

still

had

country, called Anobret, an only

on that account

Phoenicians

king,
1

by a nymph of the
son, who,

when he was

styled Ieoud

is

an only son

for,

so the

and when great

danger from war beset the land, he adorned the


altar,

and invested

royalty,

and

Evang.

lib.

son with the emblems of

this

sacrificed him.

From

Eusebius Prcep.

cap. x.

i,

From

Philo-Byblius, or Porphyry,
(// is uncertain),

But,

Wagner and others, this Fragment


most probably, from PorpJiyry.

according

to

is,

ON THE SERPENT.
Taautus

first

consecrated the basilisk, and intro-

duced the worship of the serpent-tribe

in

which he

was followed by
and Egyptians.
For this animal was held by him to be the most
inspirited of all the reptiles, and of a fiery nature
the

inasmuch as
ving by

its

it

Phoenicians

exhibits an incredible

spirit

celerity,

without either hands, or

mo-

feet,

or

any of those external organs, by which other animals


effect their motion.

By

i.e.,

And

in its

progress

it

assumes

Conceiving by favour, as interpreted by Bochart.

name he

this

thinks Sarah, the wife of

Abraham,

is

intended.

*VTV

Hebrew

Yakhid,

only-begotten,

text of Gen. xxii.

2.

or

only son.

See the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


a variety of forms, moving

in

what degree of swiftness

pleases.

long-lived,

it

23

a spiral course, and at

And

it is

and has the quality not only of putting


and assuming a second youth but

off its old age,


it

And when

receives a greater increase.

filled

sumes

very

the appointed measure of


itself,

its

as Taautus has laid

books, wherefore this animal

is

it

existence,

down

has
it

ful-

con-

in the sacred

introduced in the

sacred rites and mysteries. .-Euseb. Prcep, Evang,

Bk.

i.,

chap. 10.

End of the Fragments

of Sanchoniathon.

THE FRAGMENTS

THE TYR1A.N ANNALS


FROM

DIUS AND MENANDER.

THE TYRIAN ANNALS.

From
n

Upon

the death of

Abibalus

[Hiram] succeeded

to the

eastern parts of the

city,

to

his

kingdom.

and enlarged

son Hiromus

He
it

raised the

and joined

the temple of Jupiter Olympius, which stood

it

before upon an island, by

space

gold

Dius.

up the intermediate

and he adorned that temple with donations of

and he went up

filling

into

Libanus [Lebanon], to

cut timber for the construction of the temples.


it is

mas

to

return,

To

And

said that Solomon, king of Jerusalem, sent enig-

Hiromus [Hiram], and desired others in


with a proposal that whichsoever of the two

Or Melkarth,

i.e.,

King of

the City, the Baal of Tyre.

and richly adorned temple


was erected, which was renowned throughout the world.
Annual gifts were sent thither from Carthage and the
most distant Phoenician colonies. During my residence at
this

deity a very ancient

Safed, in Galilee, in 1855, a great treasure of Tyrian coins

was discovered, some of the finest of which I purchased.


On one side was seen, beautifully executed, the head of
the Tyrian Baal on the other an eagle (the symbol of the
Syro-Macedonian dynasty, which at that time governed
Tyre), with the inscription in Greek, which being translated
reads, " Of Tyre a holy city and asylum."
;

28

cory's ancient fragments.

was unable

to solve them, should forfeit

the other.

Hiromus [Hiram], agreed

posal, but

was unable

a large sum as a

And

it

is

to

to the pro-

to solve the enigmas,

forfeit.

money

and paid

said that one

Abdemonus, a Tyrian, solved the enigmas, and proposed others which Solomon was not able to unriddle,
for which he repaid the fine to Hiromus [Hiram]."
yoseph. contr. Ap. lib.
c. 17.
Syncel. Chron. 182.
i.

End of the Fragment from Dms.

From Menander.
"After

Hiromus [Hiram]
kingdom, and reigned

the death of Abibalus,

him

his son succeeded

in his

having lived

thirty-four years,

out that part of the city which

fifty-three.

is

called

temple of Jupiter.

And

laid

Eurychoron

and consecrated the golden column which


2

He
is

'}

in the

he went up into the forest

1
Literally, the broad dance.
It designates, no doubt, an
open space, as a square or promenade.

Jupiter Belus, or Olympius

some

writers he

is

i.e.,

the Tyrian Baal.

By

From

this

called the Tyrian Hercules.

deity the two mountains on the Strait of Gibraltar are

Abyla on the one side and


Calpe on the other for, so far the Tyrian Hercules (or
Baal) is said to have carried his conquests; in other words, so
far did Phoenician commerce, at a very early period, extend.
called the Pillars of Hercules


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.
on the mountain

called

2Q

Libanus [Lebanon], to

cedars for the roofs of the temples

fell

and having de-

molished the ancient temples, he rebuilt them, and


consecrated the fanes [or temples] of Hercules
Baal] and Astarte

[i.e.,

he constructed that of Hercules

month Peritius [i.e., February] then that


of Astarte, when he had overcome the Tityans who
had refused to pay their tribute and when he had
reduced them he returned.
In his time was a certain young man named Abdemonus, who used to
solve the problems which were propounded to him
by Solomon, king of Jerusalem." From yosephzcs
contra Apion, lib.
cap. 18
and yosephus Antiq.
in the

first,

i.

Jud.

lib. viii.

cap.

Of the
"

Upon

5.

Successors of Hiram.

Hiromus [Hiram], Baleazarus


kingdom he lived fortyand reigned seven. After him, Abdas-

the death of

his son, succeeded to the

three years,
tratus

[Abd-Astarte], his son, reigned nine years,

having lived twenty-nine.

Against him the four sons

of his nurse conspired and slew him.


eldest reigned twelve years.

Of

these, the

After them Astartus,

the son of Delaeastartus, reigned twelve years, having


lived fifty-four.

After him his brother Aserumus,

reigned nine years, having lived


slain

by

his brother Pheles,

fifty-four.

who governed

He

was

the king-

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

30

dom

eight months, having lived

murdered by a

who

He

having lived sixty-

was succeeded by his son, Badezorus,

reigned six years, having lived forty-five.

years,

having lived thirty-two.

Phygmalion,

who

lived fifty-six.

reigned nine

He was

succeeded by

Aftion,

Of the

in

lib.

i.

reigned forty-seven years, having

In the seventh year of his reign, his

sister [Dido), fled

Carthage

His

who

successor was Matgenus, his son,

"

He was

priest of Astarte, Ithobalus [Ethbaal],

reigned thirty-two years,

eight.

who

fifty years.

from him, and founded the city of

Libya

(b.c.

878).

From Josephus contra

cap. 18,

Invasion of Salmanasar (or Shalmaneser.)


1

Elul^us reigned

thirty-six years

and he

fitted

out a fleet against the Kittaeans (Chittim or Cypriots)

who had

revolted,

and reduced, them

to obedience.

But Salmanasar, the king of the Assyrians^ sent them


assistance,

and overran Phoenicia

made peace with

and when he had

the Phoenicians he returned with

all

Called LULIA, in the cuneiform inscription of Senna-

cherib (Taylor cylinder line 35). This interesting historical


document has been translated into English, and will be

found at

p. 35

of vol.

i.

of " Records of the Past."

Norris,


cory's ancient fragments.

And

his forces.

and many other

31

1
Sidon, and Ake, and Palsetyrus, 2

cities

revolted from the Tyrians, and

put themselves under the protection of the king of

But as the Tyrians

Assyria.

the king

still

made another expedition

the Phoenicians furnished

eighty gallies

refused to submit,

him with

them

and

sixty ships

and

against

and the Tyrians attacked him with

twelve ships, and dispersed the hostile


prisoners to the

amount of

fleet,

and took

hundred men

five

which account the Tyrians were held

upon

in great res-

But the king of Assyria stationed guards

pect.

upon the

river

and

at the aqueducts, to prevent the

Tyrians from drawing water


five years,

during

all

and

this

which time they were obliged to

drink from wells which they dug."

Joseph, Antiq.

Jud.

lib. ix. c. 14.

in his

Assyrian Dictionary {sub voce LULI,

name Luliah
at line

continued

p. 670),

3 of the

Nebbi-Yunas

inscription

says the

18, and
which records the

occurs also in the Bellino cylinder,

i.

campaigns of Esarhaddon.
I do not find the name in
either.
In the Bellino no mention of Sidon at all, while
in the Nebbi-Yunas the King is called Abdi-Milkutti.
Josephus (Antiq. ix. 14) calls him Elulaeus, King of Tyre.
Acco, now St. Jean dAcre
the Ptolemais of the
Testament. It occurs in Judges i. 31 Micah i. 10
(Heb. text), and 1 Maccab. v. 22.
1

New
2

i.e.,

Old Tyre.

corys ancient fragments.

32

Of the Kings and Judges from Nebuchadnezzar


to Cyrus.
In the reign of Ithobalus

[or,

Ethbaal *], Nabuchod-

onosorus [Nebuchadnezzar] beseiged Tyre for


teen years.

After him

After him reigned

two months

months

Baal ten years.

Judges [or Suffetes], were appointed

judged the people

who

Ecnibalus, the son of Balsachus,

Chelbes,

thir-

the

son

of Abdaeus,

ten

Abbarus, the high-priest, three months

Mytgonus and Gerastratus the son of Abdelemus,


six years

after

them Balatorus reigned one

year.

After his death they sent to fetch Merbalus from

Babylon

and he reigned four years

and when he

died they sent for Hiromus [Hiram], his brother,

who

reigned twenty years.

king of

Persia."'

In his time Cyrus was

Joseph, contr. Ap.

lib.

i.

cap. 21.

Ethbaal seems to have been a common Phoenician


The first Tyrian king of this name gave his
name.
daughter Jezebel, (whence our name Isabella), to wife to
The sovereign here mentioned
Ahab, King of Israel.
transferred the seat of government to Tyre on the island,
which, in the time of Alexander the Great, was joined to
Old Tyre on the mainland.
1

city

Menander does not say


was taken.

We

that at the end of the time the

learn this, however, from other sources,

although some, from the silence of Menander, have inferred


that Nebuchadnezzar raised the siege and departed without
capturing Tyre.

End of

the

Fragments from Menander.

THE PERIPLUS

HANKO

The

Periplus of

Hanno the Carthaginian

is

an

account of the earliest voyage of discovery in existence.

It is

document, which was suspended

official

of

II,

taken from an original, and apparently,

or Saturn, at Carthage.

Falconer and Bou-

gainville both agree in referring

tury before the Christian era.

troduced by a few

lines,

it

to the sixth cen-

The

Periplus

reciting a decree

Carthaginians, relating to the voyage and


It is

temple

in the

its

is

in-

of the
objects.

commancommencing from

then continued as a narrative by the

der, or

by one of

his companions,

the time the fleet had cleared the Pillars of Hercules

the

Straits of Gibraltar.

THE PERIPLUS OF HANNO.


1

The Voyage

Hanno,

of

Commander of the

Carthaginians.

Round

the parts of Libya beyond the Pillars

Hercules,

Saturn

which he

[i.e.,

deposited in

the

of

temple of

or Israel.]

II,

was decreed by the Carthaginians, that Hanno


should undertake a voyage beyond the pillars of
He
Hercules, and found Libyphcenician cities.
It

sailed accordingly with sixty ships of fifty oars each,

and a body of men and women

to the

number of

thirty thousand,

and provisions and other necessaries.

When we

Pillars [of

had passed the

Hercules] on

our voyage, and had sailed beyond them for two


days,

we founded

Thymiaterium.

the

first

Below

it

city,

which we named

lay an extensive plain.

Proceeding thence towards the west, we came to

Derived from 7rpt around, and -n-Xovs a sailing, a voyage;


hence Periplus = a circumnavigation.
2
The mountains Abyla and Calpe, situated on either
side of the Strait of Gibraltar, were called by the ancients
the Pillars of Hercules.
3

Probably Mogadore.

cory's ancient fragments.


Soloeis,

a promontory of Libya,

covered with

Neptune

trees,

a day towards the


lying not far

east,

from the

Here

of large reeds.

a place

we

until

sea,

and

arrived at a lake

filled

elephants,

the lake about a day's


called

sail,

Cariconticos,

and Melitta, and Arambys.

with abundance

and a great number

Having passed

we founded

cities

near

and Gytte, and Acra,

Thence we came

the great river Lixus, which flows from Libya.

banks the

Lixitae,

amongst

flocks,

friendly terms.

by

sected
river

a shepherd-tribe, were feeding

whom we

continued some time on

Beyond the

pitable Ethiopians,

who

Lixitae dwelt the inhos-

pasture a wild country inter-

large mountains, from which, they say, the

Lixus flows.

In the

neighbourhood of the

mountains lived the Troglodytae, 3


appearances,
in

whom

from them,

we

men

of various

the Lixitae described as swifter

running than horses.

ters

Having procured

interpre-

coasted along a desert country,

towards the south, for two days.

Thence we

ceeded towards the east the course of a day.

we found
1

in a recess of

Cape Bojador.
Supposed to be
i.e.,

Dwellers in caves.

pro-

Here

a certain bay a small island,

identical with the

Rio d'Ouro.
8

to

On

its

to

for the space of half

of other wild beasts were feeding.

the sea,

thickly

where we erected a temple

and again proceeded

37

River d'Ouro

or

cory's ancient fragments.

38

containing a circle of five stadia, where


colony,

and

called

voyage that
thage

it

Kerne.

this place lay in

for the length of our

We

we

settled a

judged from our

a direct line with Car-

voyage from Carthage to

the Pillars, was equal to that from the Pillars to Kerne.

We
sailing

then came to a lake which

we reached by

up a large river called Chretes. 2

had three

islands, larger

proceeding a day's
the lake, that

sail,

than Kerne

we came

This lake
from which

to the extremity of

was overhung by

large

mountains,

inhabited by savage men, clothed in skins of wild


beasts,

who drove

us

away by throwing

stones,

and

Sailing thence we came


was large and broad, and full
and river-horses whence returning

hindered us from landing.


to another river, 3 that

of crocodiles,

back we came again to Kerne.

Thence we

sailed towards the south twelve days,

coasting the shore, the whole of which

is

inhabited

by Ethiopians, who would not wait our approach, but


fled from us.
Their language was not intelligible,
even to the Lixitae who were with us.
Towards
the last day we approached some large mountains
covered with

trees, the

scented and variegated.

wood of which was sweetHaving sailed by these

Probably, the island of Arguin, under the southern

Cape Blanco.
2

Perhaps the river St. John.


Perhaps the river Senegal.

CORY

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

mountains for two days,

opening of the sea

fire

arising,

more or

either

an immense

to

on each side of which, towards

the continent, was a plain


night,

we came

39

at

in

intervals,

Having taken

less.

we sailed forwards for


we came to a large

five

we

from which
all

saw,

by-

directions,

water there,

in

days near the land, until

bay, which our

interpreters

informed us was called the Western Horn. 1

In this

was a large island, and in the island a salt-water


and in this another island, where, when we had

lake,

we

landed,

could discover nothing in the day-time

except trees
burning,

and heard the sound of

We

drums, and confused shouts.

and our diviners ordered us


Sailing quickly

burning with

away

fires

supplied from

full

for four days,

of

fire.

than the

When

island.

passed a country

and streams of

The

we

terrified

We
;

rest,

fire

country was
sailed

and passing

discovered at night a country

In the middle was a lofty

fire,

which seemed to touch the

day came, we discovered

it

called the Chariot of the Gods. 2


after

abandon the

the heat.

much

cymbals,
afraid,

into the sea.

being

pipes,

fires

were then

we

and perfumes

it fell

quickly thence,

to

thence,

impassable on account of

on

we saw many

but in the night

to

larger
stars.

be a large

On

hill,

the third day

our departure thence, having sailed by those

Probably Cape Palmas.

Perhaps Sierra Leone.

40

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

streams of

fire,

Southern Horn

we
1
j

arrived

a bay called the

at

the bottom

at

of which lay an

island like the former, having a lake,

another island,

full

and

in this lake

of savage people, (the greater

whom were women), whose bodies were


and whom our interpreters called Gorillae.

part of
hairy,

Though we pursued
of

them

precipices,

but

all

the

fled

men we

from

could not seize any

us,

escaping over the

and defending themselves with

Three women

were,

however,

taken;

stones.

but

they

attacked their conductors with their teeth and hands,

and could not be prevailed upon

Having

killed them,

we

to

accompany

We

their skins with us to Carthage.

did not

further on, our provisions failing us.

End of

us.

flayed them, and brought

the Periplus

of Hanno.

p
Probably Cape Three

Points.

sail

THE FRAGMENTS
OF

THE CHALDEAN HISTORY


BEROSSUS, ABYDENUS, AND

MEGASTHENES.

BE ROSU

S.

Berosus, or Berossus, for his

name

variously

is

by ancient writers, was a priest of Bel, and


most probably a native of Babylon. His name
may be from tfVta (BEROSH) a fir-tree WDM "Q
written

(BAR ASYA)

"Son

ile.,

the learned Scaliger

of the Physician;" or, as

"

If the

from

conjectured,

BIR, Son, and Hosea hence

Son

BAR,

be the correct etymology, he

latter

or

of Hosea."

may

have been of Jewish origin. By some he is made to


be a contemporary of Alexander the Great but it
;

is

more probable

Ptolemy
Martyr

will

Cumaean

have

Sibyl,

King of Egypt.
that he was the father

it

who
is

that of Tatian, the Assyrian,

us that Berosus dedicated his

fiT

of the

lived in the reign of Tarquinius

Chaldean History to Antiochus

T&

Justin

but the most probable opinion, and the

best supported,

Syria.

in the reign of

Philadelphus,

Superbus

tells

that he flourished

(Tatian

Oratio contra

Three Books of
Soter,

tS Hera SeXevKov

King

of

Grczcos) (AvTioxy

avrov rpLTcp) which Eusebius

into KvTio^oi

who

rpLTco.

has

altered

George, the

Syncellus, of Byzantium, states that Berosus lived


at

the
little

same time
before

Manetho the Egyptian, or


and Manetho, we know, was a
as

contemporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who began

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

44

38

over

reign

his

year's

voured to

Egypt,

B.C.

and

284,

reigned

whence the learned Scaliger has endeaprove that Berosus may have lived from

the time of Alexander the Great to the 13th year of

Antiochus Soter, King of Syria, and even beyond


that period.

Our author was held

in

great repute

by ancient writers, and his authority was great with


Tatian confesses
both Greek and Latin authors.
that he had not himself read the works of Berosus,
but frankly acknowledges that he

is

indebted for the

information he gives of him to Juba

who had

Mauritania,

written

Vitruvius (Book

Assyrians.

that having left Babylon

ix.,

Kiig

ii.,

of

history

chap.

1)

of

the

informs us

upon the conquest of that

by Alexander, and being acquainted with the


Greek language, Berosus established himself in Asia

city

Thence

Minor, intending to teach Oriental science.

he removed
observatory,

which

To

to the island of Cos,

and

where he had an

opened a school of astronomy,

at that period also

comprehended

him, says Pliny (Natural History,

Athenians erected a statue


a gilded tongue,

knowledge,
predictions.

and

He

the invention of

[Hemicyclium

on

account

the
is

in the

of

wonderful

also credited

some kind

tells

vii.

37), the

Gymnasium with
his

astronomical

accuracy

of

his

by Vitruvius with

of astronomical clock.

excavatum ex

quadrato

maque succisum Berosus Chaldaeus


Pliny

astrology.

ad

encli-

dicitur invenisse.]

us that the genuine works of our author

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

45

contained astronomical observations for a space of

from Nabonassar to B.C. 270.

480

years,

his

works have perished except a few fragments

but

is

it

i.e.,

unanimously agreed among ancient writers

the Berosus

that

All

who wrote

the history of

the

Chaldeans, also wrote various astronomical treatises.


Josephus, Plutarch, Eusebius, George the Syncellus,

Athenseus, Pliny,

many

Seneca,

other ancient authors,

tioned our author,


his works.

We

or

have expressly men-

have given quotations from

cannot, however,

deny that many of

the fragments of Berosus which have

have been more or

us,

and

Pausanias, Jerome,

less

come down

to

sometimes

corrupted,

through the carelessness of copyists, at others inten-

Whether he

tionally to serve the writers purpose.

had ever seen the Hebrew Scriptures


certain.

is

very un-

Josephus says that he made mention of

Abraham, but without expressly naming him, calling


him " a just and great man among the Chaldeans,

who

lived in the 10th generation after the

flood,"'

and saying that he was an observer of the heavens.


It

is

certainly very

remarkable that he should

have given a description of the Flood

much resembling
Genesis, but

enumerated

still

the

more

account

in

in

by Berosus,

as

reigning

Flood, should agree so closely (not in

Noah

is

so*

of

striking that the ten kings

before

represented

the

name but

number), with the ten generations from

Noah.

terms

Book

the

Adam

by Xisuthrus

in

to

the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

46

hero of the Deluge, according to Berosus

may be meant by Oannes and


very
Bel,

Berosus,

difficult to say.

would have access

therefore whatever

is

to the

stated

but who

the Annedoti,

it

as priest of the

temple archives,

by him

is

god
and

of the highest

is

importance.

We

have the names of a dynasty of Chaldean

down

kings handed

from Berosus.

to us,

These

supposed by some to be

are

EVECHOUS, who reigned 6

Chomasbolus
PORUS
Nechobes
Abius
Oniballus

))

35

43

>>

45

J>

40

>)

45

ZlNZIRUS

George the Syncellus

also gives a

dynasty, consisting of six kings,

Babylon

years.

list

who

but whence he obtained

it

Arab

of the

reigned over

we

are not

These are

informed.

Mardokentes, who
Sisimadacus
Gabius

reigned 45 years.
28
37

Parannos
Nabonnabos
(name

Among

40
25
4i

lost)

the thousands

deposited in the British

of cuneiform

Museum,

inscriptions

there are very few

which contain any general chronology of the AssyrioBabylonian

Empire,

although

we

possess

few

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

47

which give the number of years that had elapsed

between

particular

Museum

rejoices,

and

important

events.

however, in the possession of

Our
some

Synchronous History of
and Assyria, which describes the wars,

precious fragments of

Babylon

and other important transactions between


kingdoms of Babylonia and Assyria during

treaties,

the

several centuries, but

we have no connected and

con-

tinuous history.

This most important document was translated and


part

in

published by

years ago.
ing

Sir

Henry Rawlinson some

translation of the

whole of

some recently-discovered fragments,

by Rev. A. H. Sayce,

is

now

it,

includ-

translated

to be found in the

Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology,


vol.

ii.

pt.

Past, vol.

i.,

and again republished

iii.,

in

Records of the

p. 25.

Then we have another most

valuable aid to

Assyrian chronology in the Assyrian Canon, 1 which


extends, however, only from B.C. 909 to B.C.

680

comprising a period of about 230 years, the chro-

nology of which

is

confirmed and verified by a solar

eclipse therein mentioned,

and which we know hap-

pened on June 15th, B.C. 763. Translations of this


Canon were published in the Aihenceum (Nos. 18 12
and 2064) by Sir Henry Rawlinson, and subsequently
in a more complete form by Schrader in his admir1

The Assyrian Canon, by George Smith.

Bagster, 1875.

cory's ancient fragments.

48

work

able

Alte Testament.
It

Die Keilinschriften und Das

entitled,

Leipzig,

1869.

had long been a matter of speculation among


whence Berosus drew his

scholars as to the source

information regarding the early times of the Baby-

The

lonian Empire.

general opinion, however, was

that in his capacity of priest of Bel, he

the temple to

documents unknown

whilst the spread of the

had access

to

in

the vulgar,

Greek language

in

Asia

Macedonian conquests, furnished him


with an enquiring public who would welcome such
through the

information,

drawn

as

were out of the mysterious

it

Such opinion has

darkness of Babylonian temples.

met with a remarkable confirmation.


Mr. George Smith, of the British Museum, the able
decipherer of the Deluge, and other cuneiform
quite recently

tablets,

has announced,

in

the

Transactions of the

Soci&y of Biblical Archeology, that he has discovered

what he believes

to

be the very tablets whence the

priest of Bel derived his

not the case,

it

will

at

information.
least

be very

If

account for the remarkable agreement which

upon

many

points

between

the

such be

difficult to

we

statements

find

of

Berosus, and the information supplied by the cunei-

form

tablets.

Thus, the
kings

who

first

dynasty of Berosus consists of ten

reigned before the flood, answering to the

ten antediluvian Patriarchs of the

The

first

name

in

the

list

Old Testament.

of Berosus

is

Alorus,

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

49

answering to Adi-ur of the cuneiform, which


"

god Ur."

devoted to the

His

fifth

signifies

name

is

Amegalarus, which possibly represents the cunei-

form Amil-ur-gal,

i.e.,

two names of

last

man, or servant of Urgal.

The

dynasty are Otiartes and

this

Xisuthrus answering to the cuneiform Ubara-Tutu

and

The former name

Si-sit.

=a

given, in one copy

which corresponds

of Berosus, as Ardates,

Assyrian ardu

is

servant, while

Tutu

is

to the

the

name

god hence, servant of Tutu, which is also


Tsisit
the meaning of the Accadian Ubara- Tutu.
or Sisit is the Hero of the Flood, the history
of a

by Berosus, so remarkably corresponds with the Biblical account of the Noachian


of which, as given

Deluge that no one can doubt that both proceed


from one source
except the

We

they

names, from some

shall see this

we come
ing of the

are evidently transcriptions,

document.

ancient

brought out more distinctly when

The

to his History of the Deluge.

name

is,

however, conjectural,

read-

as to the

pronunciation, while the meaning of the two characters

composing

it

appears to

denote

him who

escaped the flood.

Mr. George Smith

Discoveries, pp.

with the
cally,

name

167,

179,

has

since

announced {Assyrian

182) that he has found a tablet

of the hero of the Deluge written phonetiso that Xisuthrus is evidently only

KHA-SIS-ADRA

a Greek corruption.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

50

For

further information concerning the

of Berosus

we must

refer

Chaldceorum Histories

quce

the reader
supersunt,

Fragments
to,

"

Berosi

cum Com-

mentatione" edited by Dr. Richter, Leipzig, 1825,


to

which we acknowledge ourselves much indebted,

in regard to the notes

work.

We

and explanations given

in this

must, however, mention in the highest

terms of commendation, two works which have


cently appeared, the one

re-

by Mr. George Smith, en-

The Chaldean Account of Genesis (London,


18/5), being illustrations of the Book of Genesis
from cuneiform sources the other an important work

titled

by M. Francois Lenormant, Essai de Commentaire


des Fragments Cosmogoniques de Berose, d'apres les
Textes Cuneiforms et les Monuments de I Art
Asiatiqite.

8vo.

Paris, 1872.

BEROSUS:
Extracted from Apollodorus.

Of the Chaldean
"

This

to

is

Kings.

the history which Berosus has transmitted

He

us.

tells

us

that

the

first

king

was

Alorus

sari 2

and afterwards Alaparus and Amelon, who

of Babylon, a Chaldaean

he reigned ten

came from Pantibiblon 3 then Ammenon the Chaldaean, in whose time appeared the Musarus Oannes,
;

Annedotus, from

the

Erythraean 4 sea.

the

(But

Alexander Polyhistor, anticipating the event, has


said that he appeared in the

dorus says that

it

was

first

year

but Apollo-

after forty sari

Abydenus,

however, makes the second Annedotus appear after


twenty-six

sari.)

Then succeeded Megalarus, from

the city of Pantibiblon, and


sari

and

after

he reigned eighteen

him Daonus, the shepherd, from

Pantibiblon, reigned ten sari

in his time, (he says),

is the name of an ancient Babylonian deity.


For the explanation of the Babylonian words saros,
nerosy and sossus, see p. 53 of the present work, line 8th
from the top.
3
This is the Greek rendering of Sippara, called Sepharvaim, or the two Sipparas in our Bible. 2 Kings xvii. 24.
4
This signifies both the Red Sea and the Persian
Here it must mean the latter.
Gulf.
1

Ur


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

52

appeared again, from the Erythraean

(or

Red)

sea, a.

same form with those,

fourth Annedotus, having the

above, the shape of a fish blended with that of a

Then Euedoreschus

man.

reigned from the city of

Pantibiblon for the period of eighteen

In his

sari.

days there appeared another personage, whose name

was Odacon, from the Erythrean (or Red) sea, 2 like


the former, having the same complicated form, between a fish and a man. (All these, says Apollodorus,
related particularly and circumstantially whatever

Oannes had informed them of. Concerning these


Abydenus has made no mention.)

appearances

Then Amempsinus,
and

reigned,

ten

being the eighth

he,

Then

sari.

Upon

So

happened.

sari.

the

In his time the great Flood

sum

to

collectively

of Syncellus

sari.

39,

is

ten

reigned

Extracted

and Eusebins

5.

Sippara, or Sepharvaim.

The

Larissa, the

in a

they

one hundred and twenty

the Chronicon

Chronicon

the kings

total of all

period which

the

from

from Laranchae,

for eight sari.

the death of Otiartes, his son, Xisuthrus, 4

reigned eighteen

amounts

Laranchae, 3

in order, ruled for

Otiartes, a Chaldaean

and he ruled

reigned,

and

a Chaldaean from

Persian Gulf.

modern Senkereh. The name Larsa occurs


cuneiform inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, now in the

British
4
i.e.,

Museum.

See also Xenophon's Anab.


Khasis-Adra.

Bk

iii.

c. 4.

BEROSUS:
From Abydenus.

Of the Chaldean Kings and the Deluge.


"

So much concerning
It is said that

Alorus 1

pointed

the

the
first

wisdom of the Chaldseans.


king of the country was

who gave out a report that he was apby God to be the Shepherd of the people

he reigned ten

sari.

Now

a sarus

three thousand six hundred years

dred

and a

is

esteemed to be

a neros, six hun-

sossus, sixty.

After him Alaparus reigned three

sari

to

him

succeeded Amillarus, from the city of Pantibiblon,

who

reigned thirteen sari

in his

time a semi-daemon

called Annedotus, very like to Oannes, 2

came up a

After him

Ammenon

second time from the


reigned twelve

blon 3
sari

sari,

sea.

who was

of the city of Pantibi-

then Megalarus, of the same place, eighteen

then Daos, the shepherd, governed for the

space of ten

sari,

he was of Pantibiblon

in his

time

came out of the sea


whose names were Euedocus, Eneugamus,

four double-shaped personages


to land,

1
Ur, an ancient Babylonian deity, mentioned in the
Cuneiform inscription of Urukh as the eldest son of Bel.
See Records of the Past, vol. iii. pp. 9, 10.
2
Perhaps the god Anu, of the Assyrian inscriptions.
3
Sippara, or Sepharvaim.

*i


CORY

54

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

Eneuboulos, and Anementus.

After these things

was Anodaphus, in the time of Euedoreschus.


There were afterwards other kings, and last of all
So that, in all, the number
Sisithrus (Xisuthrus).
amounted to ten kings, and the term of their reigns
And, among
to one hundred and twenty sari.
other matters not irrelevant to the subject, he con-

After Euedo-

thus concerning the deluge.

tinues

some others reigned, and then Sisithrus


(Xisuthrus).
To him the god Kronus (i.e. Saturn)
foretold that, on the fifteenth day of the month Desius
there would be a Deluge, and commanded him to
reschus

deposit

the writings whatever he had in the city

all

of the Sun, in Sippara.

Sisithrus (Xisuthrus),

when

he had complied with these commands, instantly


to

Armenia, and was immediately inspired

by God.

During the prevalence of the waters

sailed

Sisithrus (Xisuthrus) sent out birds that

judge

if

the flood had subsided.

unbounded

sing over an

and not finding any

sea,

place of rest returned again to Sisithrus.

repeated

and when upon the

he might

But the birds pas-

third trial

This he

he succeeded,

for the birds then returned with their feet stained

with mud, the gods translated him from

With

respect to the vessel,

Armenia,
bracelets

it

is

38, Eusebius, Prcepar.


v.,

which yet remains

in

a custom of the inhabitants to form

and amulets of

Chronic 011

among men.

8.

its

wood.

Evangel,

lib.

From
ix

t>

Syncellus

and Eusebius


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

Of the Tower
'

They say

that the

own

first

55

of Babel.

inhabitants of the earth,

and despising the gods, undertook to build a tower, whose


top should reach the sky, upon that spot where

glorying in their

Babylon now stands.

strength and

But,

when

it

size,

approached the

heaven, the winds assisted the gods, and overturned


the

work upon

at Babylon,)

tongues

its

contrivers,

the same language.


{i.e.

which they

ruins are said to be

and the gods introduced a diversity of

among men, who

Kronus

(its

till

And

that time

a war arose between

Saturn) and Titan

built the

tower

is

had all spoken

now

and the place

in

on

called Babylon,

account of the confusion of the languages


fusion

is

by the Hebrews

called

Eusebius, Prcep. Evangel,

lib. ix.

and Eiisebius* Chronicon

13.

Babel."

for con-

From

Syncellus Chron. 44,

is the Greek
form of the Assyrian name
Gate of God. It was regarded as a holy city.
The Hebrew word BlLBOOL, resembling Babilu in sound,
and signifying confusion, gave rise to the narrative of the
confusion of tongues, and led to the Jewish explanation
1

Babylon

Bab-ilu,

of the

i.e.,

name Babel

as connected with that event.

story

somewhat similar is found in a cuneiform inscription translated by Mr. Boscawen, and published in the Trans. Soc.
Bib. Arch., vol.

iv.

BEROSUS

From Alexander Polyhistor.

Of the Cosmogony and Causes


Berosus,

in his first

of the Deluge.

book concerning the history of

Babylonia, informs us that he lived in the time of

Alexander, the son of Philip.

were written accounts preserved

that there

with

And he

the

greatest

care,

mentions

at

Babylon

comprehending a term of

These writings contained


a history of the heavens and the sea of the birth of
mankind also of those who had sovereign rule and
of the actions achieved by them.
And, in the first place, he describes Babylonia as
a country which lay between the Tigris and EuHe mentions that it abounded with wheat,
phrates.
and in the lakes were found
barley, ocrus, sesamum
which
were good to be eaten,
gongae,
called
the roots
fifteen

myriads of years.

and were,

in respect to nutriment, like barley.

There

were also palm-trees and apples, and most kinds of


fruits

fish,

merely of
of water.

too,

flight,

The

and birds

both those which are

and those which take


part of

to the

element

Babylonia which bordered

upon Arabia was barren, and without water but


that which lay on the other side had hills, and was
;

fruitful.

At Babylon

there

was

(in

these times) a

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

57

great resort of people of various nations,

habited Chaldea, and

who

in-

and order,

lived without rule

like the beasts of the field.

In the

year there

first

made

a part of the Erythraean sea


Babylonia, an animal
called Oannes.

fish

and

its

appearance, from

which bordered upon

endowed with

reason,

who was

(According to the account of Apollo-

dorus) the whole

body of the animal was

and had under a

like that of

head another head,

fish's

also feet below, similar to those of a man, sub-

joined to the

fish's tail.

was

articulate

him

is

and human

and a representation of

in the day-time,

used to converse with

but took no food at that season

and language

voice, too,

preserved even to this day.

This Being,

men

His

them an

and
taught them

insight into letters,

kii?d of art.

He

to fo ind temples, to

and he gave

sciences,

and every

to construct houses,

compile laws, and explained to

them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He


made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and
showed them how to collect fruits. In short, he
instructed them in everything which could tend to
soften manners and humanise mankind.
From that
so

time,

were

universal

his

material has been added by

When

the sun set

it

for

way

sea,

and abide

he was amphibious.
1

The

Persian Gulf.

nothing

of improvement.

was the custom of

plunge again into the

deep

instructions,

this

all

Being

to

night in the


cory's ancient fragments.

58
After

there appeared other animals,

this,

which Berosus promises to give an

Oannes, of

when he comes

account

like

to the history of the kings.

Moreover, Oannes wrote concerning the generation


of mankind

of their different

their civil polity

what he
"

ways of

and the following

is

life,

and of

the purport of

said,

There was a time

in

which there was nothing

but darkness and an abyss of waters, 1 wherein resided

most hideous beings, which were produced of a two-

Men appeared

fold principle.

with two wings, some

They had one

with four wings, and two faces.

but two heads

the

body,

one of a man, the other of a

woman. They were likewise, in their several organs,


Other human figures were
both male and female.
to be seen with the legs and horns of goats.
Some
had horses' feet others had the limbs of a horse
behind, but before were fashioned like men, resem;

bling hippocentaurs.

the heads of

men

and the

of fishes.

of dogs

tails
:

men,

too,

and dogs, with fourfold bodies,


Also horses, with the heads

and other animals, with the heads

and bodies of horses and the


short, there

tails

of fishes.

In

were creatures with the limbs of every

species of animals.
serpents,

bred there with

Bulls, likewise,

with

assumed each
1

Add

other

to

these fishes, reptiles,

wonderful

other's shape

animals,

which

and countenance.

Compare with Genesis

i.

Of

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

59

these were preserved delineations in the temple

all

of Belus at Babylon.

The

who was supposed to have presided


which
over them, was a woman named Omoroca 1
"

person,

in the

Chaldee language
Thalassa

interpreted

is

to the

is
2
,

Thalatth
the sea

which

Greek

according

but,

in

most true computation, it is equivalent to Selene,

the moon.

All things being in this situation, Belus

came, and cut the

woman

asunder

and, out of one

and of the other


same time he destroyed
the animals in the abyss.
All this (he says) was an
allegorical description of nature.
For the whole
universe consisting of moisture, and animals being
half of her, he formed the earth,
half the heavens

and

at the

continually generated

therein

above-mentioned, cut off his

the

own head

the other gods mixed the blood, as

with the earth

On

this

call

it

(Belus),

upon which
gushed

out,

and from thence men were formed.

account

it

is

that

men

partake of divine knowledge.

men

deity

and

are rational,

This Belus,

whom

Dis, (or Pluto,) divided the darkness,

and

separated the heavens from the earth, and reduced


the universe to order.

But the animals so recently

This is a Greek corruption of the


NjTftV Amqia, i.e., the deep the ocean.

Aramaic word,

tha
salt

Thalath, or Thalassa,

is

the Egyptian feminine

hence,

the sea.

evidently ra aAs,
article the,

i.e.,

ra for

and the Greek

a\<s >

60

cory's ancient fragments.

created, not being able to bear the prevalence of


light, died.

Belus upon

this,

though by nature very

inhabited,

one of the gods

was taken

off,

to take

men and

off his

fruitful,

head

it

and from thence

to

form other

animals, which should be capable of bear-

Belus also formed the

ing the light.

sun and the moon, together with the

stars,

and the

five planets.

book was the history of the ten

(In the second

kings of the Chaldeans, and the


reign,

ordered

and when

they were to mix the blood with the

of the earth,

soil

seeing a vast space quite un-

periods of each

which consisted collectively of one hundred

and twenty^sari, or 432,000 years, reaching to the


time of the Flood.
For Alexander, surnamed
Polyhistor, as from the writings of the Chaldeans,

enumerating the kings from the ninth, Ardates,

who

Xisuthrus,

manner

in this

is

called

by them the

to

tenth, proceeds

:)

After the death of Ardates, his son, Xisuthrus,


In his time
succeeded, and reigned eighteen sari.
happened the great Deluge the history of which is
;

given

in this

him

to

in

manner.

The

Deity, Kronus, appeared

a vision, and gave him notice, that upon

month Daesia 1 there would


be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed.
He therefore enjoined him to commit to writing a
the fifteenth day of the

The

May

5th

month

and June.

of the

Macedonian

year, answering to

cory's ancient fragments.

clusion of

all

things,

down

Sun

at

Sippara

with him into

it

and

in

and

and

the city of the

to build a vessel,

his friends

con-

final

term

to the present

bury these accounts securely

to

and

beginning-, progress,

the

history of

6i

and

relations

to take

and

to

convey on board everything necessary to sustain

and

life,

either

to take in also all species of animals that

fly,

or rove upon the earth

Having asked the

to the deep.

was

to sail

he was answered,

upon which he
mankind.

and

offered

And

and

Deity, whither he
"

To

up a prayer

two.

ready

and

Gods

the

for the

"
:

good of

he obeyed the divine admonition

built a vessel five stadia in length,

Into this

trust himself

and

in

breadth

he put everything which he had got

conveyed into

last of all

it

his

wife,

After the Flood had been

children,

and

upon the

earth,

and was

sent out

some

birds 2 from the vessel, which, not

friends.

in

time abated, Xisuthrus

finding any food, nor any place to rest their feet,

returned to him again.


days, he sent

them

After an interval of some

forth a second time,

and they

now returned with their feet tinged with mud. He


made a trial a third time with these birds, but they
returned to him no more

from whence he formed a

judgment, that the surface of the earth was

now

The sun was worshipped by the Assyrians as a God,


under the name of S/iamas, the Hebrew Shemesh.
1

Compare with Genesis

viii.

12.

62

cory's ancient fragments.

above the

waters.

opening

Having, therefore, made an

in the vessel,

and

upon looking

finding,

out,

that the vessel was driven to the side of a mountain,

he immediately quitted
wife, his daughter,

being attended by his

it,

and the

Xisuthrus imme-

pilot.

diately paid his adoration to the earth, and, having

constructed an

These

altar, offered sacrifices

things

being

Xisuthrus, and those

with him, disappeared.

duly

to the gods.

both

performed,

who came out of the


They who remained

vessel, finding that the others did not return,


out,

many
name of

in the

came

lamentations, and called continually

with

on the

vessel

Xisuthrus.

They saw him no

but could distinguish his voice in the

air,

more,

and could

hear him admonish them to pay due regard to the

He

gods.

likewise informed

them

that

it

was upon

account of his piety that he was translated 2 to live

with the gods

that his wife

and daughter, with the

To

had obtained the same honour.

pilot,

this

he

added that he would have them make the best of


their

way

to Babylonia,

at Sippara,

and search

which were

to

for the writings

be made known to

all

mankind and that the place where they then were


was the land of Armenia. 3 The remainder having
:

See Genesis

Compare with

viii.

20.

this the translation of

Enoch, Genesis

v.

23, 24.
3

Compare with Genesis viii. 4. Ararat


name of Armenia. See 2 Kings xix. 37.

is

the

Hebrew

cory's ancient fragments.

heard these words, offered

and taking a

The

vessel,
it

gods

journeyed towards Babylonia.

being thus stranded in Armenia, some

yet remains in the Gordyaean mountains


;

Armenia

with which

it

and the people scrape

off the bitumen, 2

had been outwardly coated, and make

by way of an alexipharmic 3 and amulet. In


manner they returned to Babylon and having

use of
this

sacrifices to the

part of
in

circuit,

63

it

found the writings at Sippara, they set about building

cities,

and erecting temples

Chron.

Chron. 28.

SynceL

thus inhabited again.

and Babylon was

Euseb.

5, 8.

Of Abraham.
After the Flood, in the tenth generation, there

was a

certain

for his justice

man among
and great

the celestial sciences.

the Chaldeans, renowned

exploits,

and

for his skill in

Euseb. Praep. Evang.,

lib. ix.

Of Nabonasar.
The

Chaldeans, (from

whom

the Greek mathe-

maticians copy,) are accurately acquainted with the

motion of the stars only from the reign of Nabo-

The mountains of Kurdistan.


Or mineral pitch. See Genesis

3
i.e.,

vi.

14.

an antidote to poison, and an amulet, or charm,

against the evil eye.


cory's ancient fragments.

64

For Nabonasar

nasar.

collected

the chronicles

all

of the kings prior to himself, and destroyed them,

enumeration of

so that the

commence

might

with

Chaldean kings

the

him.

From

Syncellus'

Chronicon, 207.

Of the Destruction

He
{i.e.,

of the Jewish Temple.

(Nabopallasar) sent his son, Nabuchodonosor,

Nebuchadnezzar) with a great army against

Egypt, and against Judea,

he subdued them

was

all,

at Jerusalem,

out of their

Babylon

upon

had revolted from him

that they

own

and

it

and

being informed

and by that means

set fire to the

temple that

and removed our people 1


country,

and transferred them

happened that our

(He then

to

was desolate

city

during the interval of seventy years,


of Cyrus king of Persia.

entirely

until the

days

says, that), this

Babylonian king conquered Egypt, and Syria, and


Phoenicia,
all

that

Chaldaea.

and Arabia, and exceeded

had reigned before him


Joseph

contr. Apion.,

in

Babylon and

in

lib.

his exploits

1,

c.

19.

Of Nebuchadnezzar.

When

Nabopollasar, his (Nebuchadnezzar's) father,

heard that the governor,

whom

he had set over

Egypt, and the parts of Ccelesyria and Phoenicia,

had revolted, he was unable

The

Jews.

to put

up with

his

CORY'S ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

delinquencies
of

parts

his

any longer,

army

(Nebuchadnezzar),
sent

son,

who was

him against the

committed certain

but

his

to

rebel

65

Nabuchodonosor

then but young, and

and Nabuchodonosor

fought with him, and conquered him, and reduced

And

the country again under his dominion.

happened that

his father,

Nabopollasar,

fell

it

into a

distemper at this time, and died in the city of


Babylon, after he had reigned twenty-nine years.
After a short time, Nabuchodonosor (Nebuchadreceiving the

nezzar),

death,

the affairs

set

countries in order,

had taken from


Syrians,
to

some

of his

intelligence

of

Egypt

and

fathers

other

the

and committed the captives he


Jews and

the

Phoenicians

and of the nations belonging


of his friends,

in

order that

to

and

Egypt,

they might

conduct that part of his forces that had on heavy


armour, together with the rest of his baggage, to

Babylonia

while he went in haste, with a few

followers, across the desert to Babylon.

was come

there,

he found that

affairs

When

he

had been well

conducted by the Chaldeans, and that the principal


person
him.

among them had preserved the kingdom for


now obtained possession of

Accordingly, he

all

his father's dominions.

to

be distributed

places

He

ordered the captives

in colonies, in the

of Babylonia,

most suitable

and adorned the temple of

Belus, with the other temples, in a

sumptuous and

pious manner, out of the spoils he had taken in this


E

cory's ancient fragments.

66

He

war.

also rebuilt the old city,

added another

to

on the

it

afterwards might have

outside,

who

restored Babylon, that none

and so

power

city,

it

to divert

the river, so as to facilitate an entrance into


this

far

should besiege

in their

it

(Babylon), and

it

and

he did by building three walls about the inner

and three about the outer one.

When

of these

and bitumen, and some

walls he built of burnt brick,

of brick only.

Some

he had thus admirably

fortified

the city with walls, and had magnificently adorned

new

the gates, he added also a

which

his forefathers

exceeding them
It

had dwelt, adjoining them, but

in height

and

in its great splendour.

would, perhaps, require too long a narration,

any one were

to describe

it;

large and magnificent as

it

fifteen days.

what was
with

all

if

however, as prodigiously
was,

it

was

finished in

In this palace he erected very high

by stone

and by planting

called a pensile paradise,

and replenishing

walks, supported

it

palace to those in

sorts of trees,

pillars

he rendered the prospect

an exact resemblance of a mountainous country.


This he did

to please his queen, 1 because she

been brought up
mountainous
i, c.

19.

had

Media, and was fond of a

in

situation."

Joseph

Syncel. Chron. 220.

lib. 9.

Amytis.

contr. Apion.,

lib.

Euseb. Prcep. Evan.,

cory's ancient fragments.

67

Of the Chaldean Kings after Nebuchadnezzar.


"

Nabuchodonosor,

after

the above-mentioned wall,


life,

fell sick,

when he had reigned

upon

and departed

forty-three years

this

where-

son Evilmerodachus (Evilmerodach 1

his

Jeremiah

he had begun to build

Hi.

obtained

31)

governed public

affairs

in

the

an

kingdom.

illegal

He

and improper

manner and, by means of a plot laid against him


by Neriglissoorus, (Neriglissor), his sister's husband,
he was slain when he had reigned only two years.
After his death, Neriglissor, who had conspired
against him, succeeded him in the kingdom, and
reigned four years.
His son, Laborosoarchodus,
obtained the kingdom, although a mere child, and
But, on account of the evil
reigned nine months.
;

practices

against

which he manifested, a plot being made

him

by

his

friends,

he was tortured to

death.

After his death, the conspirators having assembled,

by common

consent, put the

crown on the head of

Nabonnedus, 2 a man of Babylon, one of the leaders


of that insurrection.
walls of Babylon

It

was

in his reign that the

were curiously

built of

burnt brick

and bitumen.
In the seventeenth year of
reign,

Cyrus came out of

i.e.

Man

(Nabonidus's

his,

Persia, with a great

or servant of Merodach.

army,

Nabonidus.

cory's ancient fragments.

68

the rest of Asia, he

and having conquered

all

hastily to Babylonia.

When Nabonnedus

dus), perceived that

he was advancing

(Naboni-

to attack him,

and opposed him, but was


with a few of his attendants, and

he assembled

his forces

defeated, and
was shut up

fled

Whereupon

the city Borsippus.

in

came

Cyrus took Babylon, and gave orders that the outer


walls should be demolished, because the city had
proved very troublesome

He

take.

and

him,

to

difficult

to

then marched to Borsippus, to besiege

Nabonnedus [Nabonidus]

but, as

Nabonnedus de-

livered himself into his hands without holding out

the place, he was at

who gave him

first

kindly treated by Cyrus,

a habitation in Carmania, and sent

him out of Babylonia.

Accordingly, Nabonnedus

[Nabonidus] spent the remainder of


country,
i, c.

and there

Joseph, contr. App.,

died."

Etiseb. Prczp. Evan.,

20.

Of the Feast
" Berosus,

history, says

Loos,

is

for five

the

in

That

first

his time in that

lib.

of Sacea.

book

of his Babylonian

the eleventh month, called

in

celebrated in Babylon the Feast of Sacea,

days

in

which

it

is

the custom that the

masters should obey their domestics, one of


is

lib.

co.

whom

led round the house, clothed in a royal garment,

and

him

Athenceus,
1

they
lib.

call

Zoganes."

Extracted from

14.

The Macedonian month Loos answers

to our July.

cory's ancient fragments.

69

Concerning the Innovations introduced into the


Religion of the Persians by Artaxerxes II.

They (the Persians) neither received images of


wood nor stone, as the Greeks nor worshipped
"

ibises

and ichneumons,

only reverenced

fire

like

Egyptians

the

and water,

like philosophers.

Berosus, however, relates in the 3rd

Chaldean

that

Histories,

worshipped images

in

but

after

many

human form

Book

of his

ages

they

this

being

in-

troduced by Artaxerxes, the son of Darius, the son


of Ochus,

who having

set

up the image of Venus

Anaitis in Babylon, and Susa, and Ecbatana, Persia,


Bactria,

Damascus, and Sardis, charged the people

to worship

it."

Extracted from

Clement, Bishop

Alexandria [Admonitio ad Gentes),

p. 43.

of

CHRONOLOGICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL


FRAGMENTS.

Of the Great Year


"

Berosus,

who

thus

interprets the Babylonian

tradition, says that these events take place

to the course of

the stars

according

and he affirms

it

so

positively as to fix the time for the (general) confla-

gration of the world, and the Deluge.


that

all terrestrial

things will be

He

maintains

consumed when the

which now are traversing their different

planets,

courses, shall

all

coincide in the sign of Cancer, and

be so placed, that a straight


through

all

But the Flood

their orbs.

place (he says)

when

line could pass directly

the

will

take

same conjunction of the

planets shall take place in the constellation Capri-

The summer

corn.

the

winter

Quczst.

iii.,

in

29.

the

is

in the

latter,"

former constellation,

From

Seneca,

Nat.

MEGASTHENES

From Abydenus.

Of Nebuchadnezzar.
"

Abydenus,

in his history of the Assyrians, has pre-

served the following fragment of Megasthenes,

who

That Nabucodrosorus [Nebuchadnezzar],


having become more powerful than Hercules, invaded Libya and Iberia, [Spain], and when he had
rendered them tributary, he extended his conquests
over the inhabitants of the shores upon the right of
the sea.
It is, moreover, related by the Chaldseans,
that as he went up into his palace he was possessed
by some god and he cried out, and said " Oh
says

Babylonians,
foretel

unto you a calamity which must shortly come

to pass,

queen

Nabucodrosorus (Nebuchadnezzar)

I,

which neither Belus

Beltis,

turn away.

my

ancestor, nor his

have power to persuade the Fates to

Persian mule shall come, and, by the

assistance of your gods shall impose

yoke of slavery

upon you the

the author of which shall be a

Medfe, the foolish

should thus betray

pride

my

of Assyria.

subjects,

Oh

wander through some


cities

he

some

sea,

that

or whirlpool, might receive him, and his


blotted out for ever

Before

memory be

or that he might be cast out to


desert,

nor the trace of

men

where there are neither


a solitary exile

among

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

72

rocks and caverns, where beasts and birds alone

But

abide.

for

me, before he shall have conceived

these mischiefs in his mind, a happier end will be

When

provided."
expired,

he had

and was succeeded by

who was

[Evilmerodach],

Neriglisares [Neriglissor],

prophesied, 'he

thus

his son,

by

slain

Evilmaruchus
kinsman,

his

and Neriglisares

left

And when

son, Labassoarascus [Labarosoarchod].

he also had suffered death by violence, they made

Nabannidochus 1 king, being of no relation


In his reign Cyrus

royal race.

to the

[king of Persia]

took Babylon, and granted him a principality, [or

made him
the

a satrap], in Karmania.

Now, concerning

by

Nabuchodonosor,

rebuilding

Babylon

of

he, [Megasthenes], writes thus

the beginning

[Thalath]
cease,

all

from

It is said that

things were water, called the sea

that Belus caused this state of things to

and appointed

to each its proper place,

he [Belus] surrounded Babylon with a wall

and

but in

process of time this wall disappeared, and Nabu-

chodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar] walled

and

it

remained

time of the

so,

with

its

it

in

again,

brazen gates, until the

Macedonian conquest,

[i.e.,

by Alex-

ander the Great], and after other things he says

Nabuchodonosor having succeeded


built the walls of

days

Babylon

and he turned the

Nabonidus.

Nahar Malcha,

or

in

to the

kingdom,

a triple circuit in fifteen

river Armacale, 2 a branch

Ar Malcha,

i.e.,

the royal

river,

or canal.

cory's ancient fragments.

of the Euphrates and the Acracanus


city of

Sippara

he dug a receptacle

73

and above the


for the waters,

whose perimeter was forty parasangs, and whose


depth was twenty culpits and he placed gates at
the entrance thereof, by opening which they irrigated
;

and these they

the plains,
[sluices]

call

Echetognomones

and he constructed dykes against the

irruptions of the Erythraean sea], the Persian Gulf]

and

built the city of

of the Arabs
calling
lib.

10.

Teredon against the incursions

and he adorned the palace with

them hanging gardens.

Euseb.

Prczt>.

Euseb. Chron. 49.

End of

the

Fragments of Megasthenes.

i.e.,

Sepharvaim.

trees,

Evan.,

CHALDEAN FRAGMENTS.
Of the Ark.
From Nicolaus of Damascus, who

lived about

the time of augustus c^sar.


"

There

is

above Minyas,

a very great mountain, which


a ship)

to which

it

is

land of Armenia,

in the

called Baris 1

is

many

said that

(i.e.

persons re-

treated at the time of the Flood, and were saved

and that one


ark,

in particular

and was landed on

was carried
its

summit

thither in an

and that the

remains of the vessel were long preserved upon the


mountain.

whom

this

was the same individual of

Moses, the legislator of the Jews, has

mention. "

Book

Perhaps

3.

i.

From

Josephus

Antiq.

Eusebius Praep. Evang.,

of

the

made
Jews,

9.

HESTIAEUS.
Concerning the Dispersion of Mankind after
the Flood.
"

The

priests

who escaped took

with them the im-

plements of the worship of the Enyalion Jove, and

Epiphanius, one of the Fathers, calls this mountain

Lubar

the Zend-Avesta styles

it

Al

Bordj.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

came

75

But they were again

to Senaar, in Babylonia.

driven from thence by the introduction of a diversity of tongues,

upon which they founded

colonies in

various parts, each settling in such situations as

them to occupy."
From yosephui Antiq. of the yews ; and Eusebius'

chance, or the direction of God, led

Preparatio Evangelica,

9.

ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR.
Concerning the Tower of Babel.
"

The

when all men formerly spoke


some among them undertook to

Sibyl says, that

the same language,


erect a large

and

lofty tower, in order to climb into

But God,

heaven.

(or the gods),

sending forth a

whirlwind, frustrated their design and gave to each


tribe a particular

fusion of tongues)

language of
is

its

own, which

the reason that the

name

{con-

of that

city is called Babylon."


" After the Flood,

Titan and Prometheus

Titan undertook a war against Kronus."

from Syncellus, 44.


chap.

4.

lived,

Extracted

yosephus' Antiq. of yews,

Bused. Praep. Evang.,

9.

FROM THE SIBYLLINE ORACLES,


"

But when the judgments of Almighty God


Were ripe for execution when the tower
;

Rose

to the skies

and

upon Assyria's

plain,

i.

cory's ancient fragments.

76

And

all

mankind one language only knew

A dread commission from on high was given


To

the fell whirlwinds, which with dire alarms


Beat on the tower, and to its lowest base

Shook it convulsed. And now all intercourse,


By some occult and overruling power,
Ceased among men. By utterance they strove,
Perplexed and anxious, to disclose their mind,
But their lip failed them and in lieu of words
Produced a painful babbling sound the place
Was thence called Babel by the apostate crew
Named from the event. Then severed, far away
They sped, uncertain, into realms unknown
Thus kingdoms rose, and the glad world was filled."
;

The
tus

Sibyl having

Titan, and Iape-

as the

three sons of the Patriarch

who governed

the world in the tenth genera-

(Japheth)

(Noah),

named Kronus,

tion, after

the Flood, and mentioned the division of

the world into three parts,

(viz,

by Shem, Ham, and

which each of the Patriarchs ruled

JaphetJi), over

peace, then relates the death of Noah, and the

in

war

between Kronus and Titan.


N.B.

The

translation given

above

IV. of Bryant's Ancient Mythology.

above given
lines are

is

is

from Vol.

The fragment

mentioned by Josephus

and some

quoted by the Christian Fathers, Athena-

goras and Theophilus of Antioch.

cory's ancient fragments.

yy

FROM EUPOLEMUS.
Concerning the Tower of Babel, and Abraham.

"The City of Babylon owes its foundation to those


who were saved from the catastrophe of the Flood

these were the giants, (Heb. D^7D2

and they

built the

tower which

is

= fallen

ones),

noticed in history.

But the tower being overthrown by the interposition


of God, the giants were scattered over

He

the earth.

says, moreover, that in the tenth generation,

in the City of Babylonia, called

some,

all

is

called the city Urie,

Camarina (which, by

and which

signifies

city of the Chaldeans), there lived, the thirteenth in

descent, (a

man named), Abraham,

race and superior to

Of him they

man

of a noble

others in wisdom.

all

was the inventor of


astrology and the Chaldean magic, and that on account of his eminent piety he was esteemed by God.
relate

that he

under the directions of

It is further said, that

he removed and lived

in Phoenicia,

God

and there taught

the Phoenicians the motions of the sun and moon,

and

all

in great

other things

for

which reason he was held

reverence by their king. 1

Eusebius Praep. Evan.,

Extracted

9.

Abimelech, king of Gerar.

from

cory's ancient fragments.

yS

FROM NICOLAS OF DAMASCUS.


Concerning Abraham.

"Abram was king

of Damascus, and

came

thither

as a stranger, with an army, from that part of the

country which

But

Chaldeans.

above

situated

is

Babylon of the
he again emi-

after a short time

grated from this region with his people, and transferred

his dwelling to the land

Canaaea, but

time called
together with

with him, of whose history

even

to

this

The name
day

pointed out which

ham."
9,

now

called

at that

Judaea;

the multitude which had increased

all

another book.

is

which was

shall give

of

Abram

an account
is

well

Damascus, and a

in

is still

Extracted

called the

in

known

village

is

House of Abra-

from Eusebius, Praep.

and Josephus, Antiq. of the Jews,

i.

Evang.

7.

OF ABRAHAM AND HIS DESCENDANTS AND


OF MOSES AND THE LAND OF ISRAEL.
From

Justin,

out of Trogus Pompeius.

3, 3, 5.

"The

xxxvi.

xviii.

2, 3, 6.

Jews was from Damascus, a


of Syria, whence also the Assyrian

origin of the

most famous
kings,

Book

Book

city

and queen Semiramis sprang.

The name

of

CORY S ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


the city was given
of

whom

79

from king Damascus,

it

in

honour

the Syrians consecrated the sepulchre of

his wife Arathis as a temple,

and regard her as a

goddess worthy of the most sacred worship.

After

Damascus, Azelus, 1 and then Adores, Abraham, and


Israhel

were

their kings.

But a prosperous family

made Israhel more famous than any of


ancestors.
Having divided his kingdom in con-

of ten sons
his

sequence, into ten governments, he committed them

and

to his sons,

called the

whole people Jews, from

who died soon after the division, and ordered


memory to be held in veneration by them all, as
The youngest
portion was shared among them.

Judas,
his
his

of the brothers was Joseph,

whom

the others, fearing

made

his extraordinary abilities, secretly

some

and sold

to

by them

into Egypt,

foreign merchants.

and having

prisoner,

Being carried

there,

by

his great

powers of mind, made himself master of the

arts of

magic, he found, in a short time, great favour with the

king; for he was eminently skilled

was the
dreams.

first

in prodigies,

and

to establish the science of interpreting

And

nothing, indeed, of divine, or

law seems to have been unknown to him

human

so that he

foretold a famine or dearth in the land (of Egypt),

some years before


have perished by
advice,

happened, and

Egypt would
famine, had not the king, by his
ordered the corn to be laid up for several
1

it

all

Hazael, King of Syria.

80

cory's ancient fragments.

years
his

such being the proofs of his knowledge, that

admonitions seemed

to

proceed,

not from a

His son was Moses, whom,

mortal, but a god.

besides the inheritance of his fathers knowledge, the

comeliness of his person also recommended.

Egyptians,

the

being troubled with

scabies

and moved by some oracular

leprosy,

expelled him, with those

who had

Becoming

and

prediction,

the disease, out of

Egypt, that the distemper might not spread

a greater number.

But

among

leader, accordingly, of

the exiles, he carried off by stealth the sacred utensils


of the Egyptians, who, endeavouring to recover them

by

force of arms,

home

to return

and Moses, having reached Damascus, the

birth-place

Mount

were obliged by tempests

of his fore-fathers, took

Sinai

suffered,

on

possession

his arrival at which, after

of

having

together with his followers, from a seven

days' fast in the deserts of Arabia, he consecrated

every seventh day, (according to the present custom


of the nation), for a fast-day, and to be perpetually
called a Sabbath, because that
their

hunger and

remembered

day had ended

their wanderings.

that they

at

once

And, as they

had been driven from Egypt

for fear of spreading infection,

they took care, in

order that they might not become odious, from the

same

cause, to the inhabitants of the country, to

have

no communication with strangers; a rule which, from


having been adopted on that particular occasion,
gradually became a custom and part of their religion.

cory's ancient fragments.

8i

After the death of Moses, his son Aruas 1 was


priest for celebrating the rites

from Egypt, and soon


afterwards,

the

same

it

made

which they brought


king

after created

and ever

was a custom among the Jews to have


and priests and, by

chiefs both for kings

uniting religion with the administration of justice,


it

almost incredible

is

The

how

powerful they became.

wealth of the (Jewish) nation was augmented

by the

duties on balm, (balsam), which

only in that country; for there


with an unbroken ridge of
in the

is

produced

a valley, encircled

is

as

hills,

were a wall

it

form of a camp, the space enclosed being

about 200 acres, and called by the name of Hierichus,

(Jericho)

remarkable
ness,

and

which valley there


for

chequered

balm-trees.

shape,

in

both

The

with

a wood,

is

and

fertility

its

pleasant-

of palm and

groves

balm-trees resemble pitch-trees 2 in

except that they are not so

dressed after the manner of vines

and

and are

tall,

at a certain

season of the year they exude the balm.


place

is

not less

of the sun in

sun
is

it,

admired

than for

its

for

But the

warmth

the genial

fertility

for,

though the

in that climate is the hottest in the world, there

constantly in this valley a certain natural subdued

tepidity in the

Asphaltites,

air.

which,

Aaron.

In this country also

from

its

magnitude

the lake

is

and

Pitch-pine.

the

-cory's ancient fragments.

82

Dead Sea

stillness of its waters, is called the

for, it

by the winds, because the bituminous matter, with which all its water is clogged,
is

neither agitated

resists

even hurricanes

and

it

nor does

it

admit of naviga-

inanimate substances sink to the bottom;

tion, for all


will

support no wood,

except such as

is

smeared with alum."

Extracted from the Philippine

History

the

of fustin,

Abbreviator of

Trogns

Pompeius.

CONCERNING BELUS.
From Eupolemus.
"

who

For the Babylonians say that the first was Belus,


is the same as
Kronus.
And from him de-

scended Belus and Chanaan

and

this

Chanaan was

the father of the Phoenicians.


"
is

Another of

called

his sons

was Khum,

(i.e.,

by the Greeks Asbolus, the

Ham), who

father of the

Ethiopians, and the brother of Mestraim, 1 the father


of the Egyptians.

The Greeks

say,

moreover, that

Atlas was the discoverer of astrology."

from

Eusebitis, Praep.

Evang. Book
y

Extracted

ix.

From Thallus.
"

Thallus makes mention of Belus, the King of the

Assyrians, and Kronus, (Saturn) the Titan, and says,


1

Mizraim.

cory's ancient fragments.

83

made war against Zeus,


who are called gods. He

that Belus, with the Titans,


(Jupiter)

and

his compeers,

Gygus was

says, moreover, that

Tartessus
"

smitten,

fled to

(in Spain).

According

to the history of Thallus, Belus pre-

ceded the Trojan war 322 years."

ad

and

From

Theophylact

Autolycus, 281-2.

OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.


From
" In like

manner,

all

Ktesias.
the other kings succeeded,

the son receiving the empire from his father, being


altogether thirty in their generations to Sardanapalus.

In his time the empire passed to the

Medes from

the Assyrians, having remained with them upwards


of 1,360 years, according to the account of Ktesias
the Cnidian, in his second book."

Diodorus Siculus, Book

ii.

p. jy.

From Diodorus
"In

the

manner above

Extracted from

Siculus.

related, the

empire of the

Assyrians, after having continued from Ninus thirty

and more than 1,400 years, was finally


dissolved by the Medes." Extracted from Diodorus

generations,

Siculus,

Book

ii.

p. 81,


cory's ancient fragments.

84

From Herodotus.
"

The Medes were

from the Assyrians,

the

who began

first

after

they had maintained the

dominion over Upper Asia


years."

the revolt

for

a period of 520

Extracted from Herodotus,

Book

i.

ch. 95.

OF NABOPOLLASAR.
From Alexander Polyhistor.
"

Nabopollasar,

(whom Alexander

Polyhistor calls

Sardanapallus), sent to Astyages, the satrap of Media,

and demanded

his daughter,

Amuites, 1 in marriage

Nabuchodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar]. He
was the commander of the army of Saracus, King
for his son,

of the Chaldeans, and, having been sent upon


expedition, turned

his

marched against the


Saracus, confused
palace,

arms against Saracus, and

city of

by

his

and burnt himself

Ninus (Nineveh).

approach, set
in

it.

And

obtained the empire of the Chaldeans.


father

From

of

Nabuchodonosor"

Eusebius' Ckronicon, 46.

some

Amytis.

fire

But
to his

Nabopollasar

He

was the

[Nebuchadnezzar].

cory's ancient fragments.

85

OF THE CHALDEAN AND ASSYRIAN KINGS.


From Alexander

Polyhistor.

" In addition to the above, Polyhistor continues thus

After the deluge, says he, Evexius held possession


of the country of the Chaldeans during a period of
four neri.
belus,

And

who

he was succeeded by his son, Comos-

held the empire four neri and five sossi.

But, from the time of Xisuthrus 1 and the Flood, to that

period at which the


lon,

there were

Medes took

altogether

possession of Baby-

86 kings.

Polyhistor

enumerates and mentions each of them by name,

from the volume of Berossus


reigns of

all

when their power was thus firmly


Medes suddenly levied forces against

But,

established, the

Babylon to surprise
kings chosen from

224 years

Then
these

it,

and

among

to place

upon the throne

themselves.

He, (Poly-

then gives the names of the Median kings,

eight in number,

years.

the duration of the

which kings comprehends a period of

33,091 years.

histor),

who

reigned during the period of

and, again, eleven kings during

Then 49

2
.

kings of the Chaldeans, 458 years.

nine kings of the Arabians, 245 years. After


successive periods of years,

he

Semiramis reigned over the Assyrians.

states

And

all

that

again

he minutely enumerates the names of 45 kings,


assigning to them a term of 526 years. After whom,
1

Khasis-Adra.

No number

is

given in the original text.

cory's ancient fragments.

86

he

was a king of the Chaldeans whose

says, there

name

was Phulus, of

whom

also the historical writ-

Hebrews make mention under the name

ings of the

of Phulus (Pul), who, they say, invaded the country

Extractedfrom the Armenian Chroni-

of the Jews."

con of Etisebius, 39.

OF SENNACHERIB.
From Alexander
" After the

Polyhistor.

reign of the brother of Senecherib, Akises

reigned over the Babylonians

governed

for the space of

and,

when he had

30 days, he was

slain

by

Marodach Baladanus, who held the empire by force


during six months and he was slain, and succeeded
;

by a person named

Elibus.

his reign, Senecherib,

But, in the 3rd year of

king of the Assyrians, levied

an army against the Babylonians

and, in a battle in

which they were engaged, conquered him and took

him prisoner, with his adherents, and commanded


them to be carried off into the land of the Assyrians.
Having taken upon himself the government of the
Babylonians,
their king,

he appointed his son Assordanius, 2

and

he, (Sennacherib), again retired into

Assyria.
"

When

made a
1

hostile descent

Belibus, in the

Cylinder.
2

he received a report that the Greeks had

upon

Cilicia,

Annals of Sennacherib, of the Bellino

(See Records of the Past, vol.

Esarhaddon.

he marched

i.,

p. 26.)


cory's ancient fragments.
against them, and fought with

them a pitched

though he suffered great

in which,

&j
battle

loss in his

own

army, he overthrew them, and upon the spot he


erected the statue of himself as a
victory

upon

it

and ordered

in the

Tarsus

it

to posterity.

He

down

And,

he called Tharsis.

after

the

built also the

after the likeness of Babylon,

of his

prowess to be inscribed

Chaldaean characters, to hand

remembrance of
city of

his

monument

which

enumerating the

vari-

ous exploits of Sinnecherim, (Sennacherib), he adds


that he reigned 18 years, and

was cut

off

by a con-

spiracy,

which had been formed against his

his son

Ardu-Musanus."

A mien.

Extracted

from

life

by

Eusebins,

Chron., 42.

OF SENNACHERIB AND HIS SUCCESSORS.


From Alexander Polyhistor.
"

And

after

him

(Pul),

according to

Polyhistor,

Senecherib was king.

[The Chaldaean

makes mention of
Senecherib himself, and Asordanus (Esarhaddon)
his son, and Marodach Baladanus, as well as Nabuhistorian also

chodonosorus.] 1
"

And

and

Sinecherim (Sennacherib) reigned 18 years

after

years.
1

him

his son

(Esarhaddon) reigned eight

Then Sammuges (Saulmugina

?)

reigned 2

These remarks, within brackets, are by Eusebius.

cory's ancient fragments.

&8

and likewise

years,

brother

his

21

years.

Nabupalsar, (Nabopollassar), reigned 20 years

him

after

Nabucodrossorus,

Then
;

and

(Nebuchadnezzar),

reigned 43 years.
Therefore, from Sinecherim to Nabucodrossorus

comprehended a period altogether of 88 years.


After Samuges, Sardanapallus 1 the Chaldean, reigned

is

He

21 years.

army

sent an

to the

assistance of

Astyages the Mede, Prince and Satrap of the family,


that

he might give Amunhean, 2 the daughter of

Astyages, to his son Nabucodrossorus (Nebuchadnezzar).


Then Nabucodrossorus reigned 43 years,
and he came with a mighty army, and led the Jews,
and Phoenicians, and Syrians into captivity. And
after

Nabucodrossorus, his

(Evil-Merodach

man,

i.e.,

son,

Amilmarudochus,

Servant of Merodach),

reigned 12 years.

And

after him, Neglisarus

(Neriglissor), reigned

over the Chaldaeans 4 years and then Nabodenus,


(Nabonidus), reigned 17 years.
In his reign, Cyrus,
;

the son of Cambyses, invaded the country of the

Babylonians.

Nabodenus, (Nabonidus), went out to

give him battle, but was defeated, and betook himself


to flight

He

was

and Cyrus reigned

killed,

took place

however,

in the plain of

Nabopollasar, sec

in

Babylon 9 years.
another battle, which
at

Daas. After him Cambyses

p. 84.

Amytis.

cory's ancient fragments.

reigned 8 years

then Darius 36 years

89
;

and

after

him, Xerxes, and the other kings of the Persian line."

Extracted from

Euseb. Armen.

Ckron., pp.

41,

42, 44, 45-

OF SENNACHERIB AND HIS SUCCESSORS.


From Abydenus.
"At

same

the

to his

who was
among the

twenty-fifth,

can hardly be recognized

Senecherib,
kings.

time, the

was he who subjected the city of Babylon


power, and defeated and sunk a Grecian fleet
It

upon the coast of Cilicia. He built also a temple at


Athens, and erected brazen statues, upon which he
engraved his own exploits. And he built the city of
Tarsus, after the plan and likeness of Babylon, that
the river

Cydnus should flow through Tarsus,

in the

same manner as the Euphrates intersected Babylon.


Next in order after him reigned Nergilus (Neriglissor ?), who was assassinated by his son Adramelus, (Adrammelech ?) and he also was slain by
Axerdes (Sharezer ?), his brother by the same father
but of a different mother,

and shut

it

up

Byzantines).

mercenary

in the city of

who pursued
Byzantium,

Axerdes was the

soldiers,

a follower of the

one of

wisdom

first

whom was

his

army,

{lit.,

of the

that

levied

Pythagoras,

of the Chaldeans

he also

90

;;

cory's ancient fragments.

reduced under his dominion Egypt, and the country

came Sardanapallus. 1

of Coele-Syria, from whence


"

After him, Saracus reigned over the Assyrians

and when he was informed that a very great multitude of barbarians had come up from the sea to attack
him, he sent Busalossorus, as his general, in haste to

Babylon.

But he, having with a treasonable design

obtained Amuhean, [Amytis], the daughter of Astyages, the prince of the Medes, to be affianced to his

son Nabuchodrossorus, (Nebuchadnezzar), marched


straightway to

surprise

the

of

city

Ninus,

i.e.,

Nineveh.
" But,

when

Saracus, the king, was apprized of

these proceedings, he burnt the royal palace.

all

And

Nabuchodrossorus, (Nebuchadnezzar), succeeded to


the empire, and surrounded Babylon with a strong

Extracted from Euseb.

wall."

Arm.

Chron. 53.

OF BELUS AND THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.


From
"

Belus, says Castor,

Castor.

was king of the Assyrians

and, under him, the Cyclops assisted Jupiter with

thunderbolts and lightnings, in his contest with the


Titans.
1

At

The name

persons leaves
{i.e.,

that

it

time there were kings

Sardanapalus

being

applied

to

of

the

various

doubtful whether Saracus or Busalossorus,

Nabopollassar), be intended.

Or

original,

entrusted the palace to Egoritus.

according to the Armenian editor.

Doubtful

in the

cory's ancient fragments.


Titans, one of

whom was

Ogygus.

91

(After a short

digression he proceeds to say,) that the giants, in

by
the assistance of Hercules and Dionysus, who were
themselves of the Titan race. Belus, whom we have
their attempted inroads

upon the gods, were

slain

mentioned above, was,

esteemed a

after his death,

After him, Ninus reigned over the Assyrians

god.

He

52 years.

married Semiramis, who, after his

Then

decease, reigned over the Assyrians 42 years.

Zames, (who

is

the

same

as Ninyas,) reigned. .(Then

he enumerates each of the successive kings

in order,

all, down to Sardanapallus, by


names whose names, and the length

and mentions them


their respective

of their reigns,

we

mentions them

in his

shall also give presently.

Canon

in the following

Castor

words)

We have first digested into a Canon the kings of the


commencing with Belus

Assyrians,

have no certain
his reign,

tradition

we have merely

commenced

it

set

down

his

series

with another

name, and

from Ninus
Ninus,

obtained the empire after Sardanapallus


this

we

respecting the length of

the chronological

and have concluded

but, since

who

that,

in

manner, the whole length of the time, as well

as of the reign of each king, might be plainly set


forth.

Thus,

it

will

be found, that the complete sum

1
Dionysus is the Greek name for Bacchus.
It is of
Assyrian origin, being properly *D^ VH DAYAN-NISI, i.e. r
'

Judge of Men, ox Ruler of Men, a


as a deity.

title

'-T

of the Sun, (Shamas)

cory's ancient fragments.

92

1280.'"

of the years amounts to

Arm.

Euseb.

Extracted

from

Chron., p. 81.

From Damascius.
"

But the

Babylonians,

the

like

Barbarians, pass over in silence the

of the universe, and

the

of

rest

One

principle

they constitute two,

Tauthe

and Apason, making Apason the husband of Tauthe,


and denominating her the 'mother of the gods/ And,
from these proceeds an only-begotten son, Moymis,
which,

conceive,

no other than the

is

intelligible

world proceeding from the two principles.


them,

also,

Dachus

another progeny

and again a

from which
Illinus,

is

And

and Aus.

Anus and
Aus and Davke is born

of

proceed,

a son called Belus, who, they say,


the world

Dache and

Kissare and Assorus,

third,

three others

last

derived,

From

the Demiurgus."

is

the fabricator of

From Agathias.
"

But Jupiter they

they

call

they

call

Sandes,

call

Belus,

and Venus

differently

as

and Hercules they

Anaitis,

Berosus the

and the

rest

Babylonian,

and Athenocles and Simacos, among others who


have written the
Medes, have

antiquities of the Assyrians

related."

De

and

rebus gestis Justiniani,

ed.

Bonaventitrcz, Parisiis, 1650.

1
For illustration and explanation of this fragment see
The Chaldaean Account of Genesis, pp. 64, 66.

Samdan

in Assyrian.

THE FRAGMENTS
OF

THE EGYPTIAN HISTORIES


CONTAINING

THE OLD CHRONICLE


THE REMAINS OF MANETHO
;

AND

THE LATERCULUS OF ERATOSTHENES.

INTRODUCTION.
ABYDENUS
Was

a Greek writer, contemporary with, and disciple

of Berosus,

the Chaldean, about B.C.

268.

He

wrote a history of the Chaldean empire, fragments of

which are preserved to us


bius, Cyrillus,

Abydenus,

Euse-

Some regard him as


Palaephatus, who was also an

and Syncellus.

same person

the

in the writings of

i.e.,

as

a native of the city Abydus.

MEGASTHENES,
A

Greek historian and geographer, who was sent


by Seleucus Nicator as ambassador to India, about
On his return he wrote a book on India,
295 B.C.
which has unfortunately perished, with the exception
of such fragments as are preserved in the works of
Strabo, Josephus, and Arrian.

The

fragments of the

Indica have been collected and published by Schwandeck with notes


y

and explanations (Bonn, 1846). They

are also to be found, with a Latin translation, in

Mullers Fragmenta

Grceca.

cory's ancient fragments.

96

ERATOSTHENES
Was

an African by

Strabo

calls

he found

in

He

him.

the pride of Cyrene, as

reduced two sciences, which

their infancy, to a

He

and chronology.
held,

birth,

system

geography

was born about 276

B.C.,

and

under Euergetes, king of Egypt, the honourable

post of Director of the Alexandrian Library.


researches

into

His

Egyptian history and chronology

were undertaken by command of the King, and, consequently, with every advantage that royal patronage

They were more especially devoted


so-called Theban kings," and were completed

could procure.
to the "

and edited by Apollodorus, the chronographer.

APOLLODORUS,
To whom we

are indebted for the preservation of

some of these precious fragments, was a native of


Athens, the son of Asclepiades, and pupil of Aris-

He

tarchus.

flourished about B.C.

140,

and con-

tinued the chronological researches of Eratosthenes


of Cyrene.
lodorus,"

He

is

styled " the chronographer, Apol-

by Clement, Bishop of Alexandria, and, by

Diodorus Siculus, he

is

distinguished as " Apollodorus,

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

who

treats of the

besides
theca

He

computation of time."

wrote,

mythological work called the Biblio-

his

of

97

which we possess three entire books

chronicle in

iambic verse, comprising a period of

1040 years from the Trojan war down to his own


time.

He

was, in

grammarian by

fact,

both a chronographer and

profession.

Eratosthenes was the

founder of chronology and geography


dorus, having taken

and Apollo-

up the interrupted researches of

Eratosthenes, became the publisher and continuator


of his work.

JULIUS AFRICANUS.
Julius Africanus, or the African,

Emmaus

the third century.

He

is

regarded as the

of the Lists of Manetho, and


piled a

was Bishop of

[Nicopolis], in Judaea, at the beginning of

chronological work,

is

in

first

editor

said to have
five

books,

com-

all

of

which, excepting only a few fragments, have unfortunately perished.

These precious

relics

admirably arranged
Sacrce, vol.

iii.

have been collected and

by Routh,

They

in

his

exhibit throughout the

of judgment, integrity, and information


collecting

Reliquice

man

zealous in

and examining the oldest Chaldean and

Egyptian records, especially those of Berosus and


Manetho.

cory's ancient fragments.

98

As he

did not attempt

the arrangement of a

system of Annals with a regular notation of syn-

he gave the traditions unadulterated,

chronisms,
just

as

he found them, contenting himself with

own

proving from their

internal evidence the extra-

vagance of those myriads of years admitted

in the

computation of his Pagan opponents.

He

would seem, however,

formation of a scheme

to

have attempted the

of dates,

according to the

scriptural years of the world, with incidental

nota-

tions of synchronisms, in order to bring the Bible-

history

into

chronology.

a certain connection with the Greek

We

know from

ment of Africanus

Syncellus and a frag-

himself,

that

he assumed the

year of the world 5500, (which we, following the

Hebrew

text,

according to Archbishop Usher,

make

4004), to be that of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ.

This assumption, which upon

his

authority has

remained a standard dogma with the Fathers of the

Greek Church,

calculations of the

Sir Isaac

in

is,

Newton

far preferable

truth,

to the

Western Churches and those of


it rests, however, upon wholly

conjectural grounds.

According

to Africanus, following the Septuagint

computation,
A.M.
The Flood occurred
The Birth of Abraham-

Joseph's Death

The Exodus

2262

-----

of the Israelites from

Egypt

2302
3563
3705

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

99
A.M.

Building of Solomon's Temple

Olympiad

First

after the

(Contemporaneous

Exodus 1020
with

4457

4725

Jotham,

King of Judah).
Beginning of the Reign of Cyrus, King
of Persia
(In the

The

.'

4942

year of the 55th Olympiad).

first

Birth of Christ

From

this table

we

5500

see that Africanus, in the

disputed dates, adheres to the Alexandrian tradition

he,

consequently, assumes 215 years for the

sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt.

But neither the

Bible,

least explanation of the

nor Josephus, affords the

744 years assigned by him


Exodus and the building

as the period between the

of the Temple.
sideration that,

We
it is

must, however, take into con-

with him a settled thing, that the

Ogyges and the reign of


Olympiad was 1020 years.

period from the Flood of

Phoroneus to the

He assigns

first

same period for the interval between


Moses and Solomon and agrees with Josephus in
this

admitting 25 years for Joshua.


Africanus fortifies
himself in this delusion on the subject of Greek

synchronisms by two totally inadmissible assumptions.

First,

by a statement of Polemus,

that in

the time of Apis, son of Phoroneus, a portion of


the Egyptian

army

left their

own

blished themselves in Palestine

country, and esta-

by
upon no

and, secondly,

a statement in the text of Apion, (resting

cory's ancient fragments.

ioo

better authority than that of Ptolemy the

the

to

sian),

in

effect that,

Mende-

the time of Inachus, 1

under the reign of Amos, Moses led the

Israelites

This gives us a key to his asser-

out of Egypt.

tion in this version of the Lists of

Manetho, that

Moses withdrew from Egypt under Amos, the


of the

8th dynasty.

Amos

tion that

above statement of

But, the

Ptolemy the Mendesian

on the assump-

rests solely

destroyed Avaris, the stronghold of

the Hyk-sos, or Shepherd- Kings.

Admitting

the only conclusion to be drawn from


that the expulsion of the

was ascribed

to

Hyk-sos from

From

Amos.

it

was the

so-called

this,

would

it

all

Egypt

we

learn,

Mephra-Tuthmosis, (whose

reign cannot be placed earlier than fifth in the


of the

8th dynasty),

convention with

who

the

be,

the notices, however,

contained in Manetho's historical work,


that

chief

list

occupied Avaris after his

Hyk-sos.

It

however,

is,

Exodus with
That they were

altogether nugatory to confound the

the

expulsion

of

the

Hyk-sos.

even contemporary events seems irreconcilable with

any

The

traces of historical truth in the

Book

of Exodus.

love of synchronisms exercised an evil

fatal

upon the worthy Africanus, and thus prevented any close examination of Manetho's account.
Abridged and adapted from Bunsen's Egypt's
influence

Place in History\ pp. 212


1

The

first

217.

king of Argos,

B.C.

1910.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

IOI

ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR.
This writer was born

in Ionia or Phrygia,

K rates. On

a pupil of the grammarian


his great

and was

account of

fame as a scholar he obtained the epithet of


Captured in the war which the Romans

Polyhistor.

waged

against Mithridates, king of Pontus, he

was

bought by Cornelius Lentulus, who made him tutor

He

to his sons.

men

received from his master the cogno-

among the
became known as

of Cornelius, (a custom then in use

Romans)

and, as a freed-man,

He

Alexander Cornelius Polyhistor.


in the

time of the dictator Sylla, that

and perished

Lentulus was destroyed.

We

are chiefly indebted

Suidas, for

what

of Byzantium,

little

is

Rome

about 85 B.C.,

by which the house of


He was a voluminous

in the flames

writer, but unfortunately his

lived at

works have

to the

all

perished.

Byzantine writer,

we know of Polyhistor. Stephen

(De Urbibus

et Populis),

says that

Polyhistor was a native of Cotiaei, a city of Phrygia,


that he

was

either a son, or a disciple of Asclepiades,

and that he wrote forty-two books on

all

kinds of

subjects.

Clemens

of Alexandria 1 quotes

book of a work,

"

Concerning the

Clemens Alex. Stromata,

p.

from the

Jews" and

first

Eusebius

332, cd Sylburg.

cory's ancient fragments.

102

him

of

speaks

also,

Richter 2 says

it

him

praise. 1

56,

much

for

that he

xiii.

is

relates in

(Vide Pliny, Historia Nat.

his Natural History.


ix.

highest

the

cannot be doubted that Pliny

greatly indebted to

2i, vii. 49,

with

iii.

xvi. 6, xxxvi. 17, edit.

39,

Harduin.)
Plutarch and Photius, (cod. 188), have also mentioned Polyhistor

but

we have no

proof that Poly-

had himself read the books of Berosus the


Chaldaean, because he appeals to Apollodorus in

histor

reference to subjects related

by the former.

SYNCELLUS.
George the Syncellus,
the

(i.e.

the cell-companion), of

Greek Patriarch of Constantinople, (Byzantium),

was born about

a.d.

He

800.

is

the author of a

chronography, which extends from the Creation of


the world

down

to a.d. 284.

upon the authority of


both of

whom

Julius Africanus

he accuses of serious

and Eusebius,

errors.

To

this

a.d.

for

Eusebius, in his Praeparatio Evangelica.

In

p. 33.

rests chiefly

continued down to 813, by Theophanes


saurian we are indebted
several fragments

work
the

His work

his Berosi

Book

Chaldceorum Histories qua

Leipsig, 1825.

ix. 17.

stipersunt,


Cory's ancient fragments.

103

of Berosus, Manetho, and other writers whose works

have long since perished.


Further information concerning these writers
Apollodorus,
canus,

Manetho, Julius Afri-

Eratosthenes,

and Syncellus

with

critical

estimate of

the value of their respective systems of chronology,


will

be found

in the learned

work of Baron Bunsen,

Egypt's Place in Universal History, vol.


I

am

greatly indebted.

i.,

to

which

INTRODUCTION TO THE LISTS OF


MANETHO.
Before the

sera of the

Ptolemies no native work was

accessible to the Greeks, either

on the doctrine, the


Manetho, an

chronology, or the history of Egypt.

Egyptian

priest,

of Sebennytus, undertook to supply

the deficiency in regard to each of these branches,

and thereby formed an epoch

in the researches of

the Greeks, and of the Egyptians themselves.

His

work comprised a period of 3,555 years,


from Menes, the first human monarch of Egypt,
down to Alexander the Great. " The period," says
Syncellus, "of the hundred and thirteen generations,
described by Manetho in his three volumes, comhistorical

prises a

and

sum

fifty-five

thousand

total of three

years

that

;"

to the death of the

is,

five

younger Nectanebo, the

the native kings of Egypt.


centuries belonged to the

Of

Old Empire, nine

to the

Manetho, whose

Egyptian name was clearly Manethoth

or

last of

this period, thirteen

Middle, and thirteen to the New.


thoth

hundred

from the time of Menes

i.e.,

Ma-n-

who was given by Thoth," (the Mercury


Hermes of the Egyptians,) is known to ancient
"

he

authors as a priest of Sebennytus, living in high


estimation at the court of the

first

Ptolemy, the son

It is probable that
surnamed Soter.
Manetho also lived under Ptolemy Philadelphus II.,
since the authors of the Apotelesmata, and the Book

of Lagus,

cory's ancient fragments.

of Sothis, or the Dog-star,

105

who usurped

his

name,

dedicated their forgery to that king.

Manetho, the Egyptian scholar and

priest, evi-

dently owes his high reputation to the merit of being


the

who

first

critic

upon

distinguished himself as a writer and

and philosophy, as well as chro-

religion

nology and history

using the Greek language, but

drawing his materials from native sources, especially


the Sacred Books of his nation. "Manetho, the
tian,"

Egyp-

says Eusebius, "not only reduced the whole

Egyptian history into a Greek form, but also their


entire
1

system of theology, in his

The Sacred

treatise, entitled

Book,' as well as in other works."

Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus, 1 in the second quarter


of the

century, describes

fifth

de Therapeut), as

" the

is

by

the

personage

Osiris,

deities."

man whom
;

and

is

all

Aristotle

Or

honour

hand of

our ancient authori-

become almost a mytho-

his works, with the exception

time.

What

away by the

the

school

of

had prepared, and Manetho, under Greek

Cyropolis, in Syria, a city built


of,

Manetho

historian, sage,

of a few fragments, have been swept


destructive

Apis and

Diogenes Laer-

This distinguished

mention with respect,

logical

and

Plutarch, ^Elian,

and Suidas.

and scholar
ties

Isis

and the other Egyptian

also quoted

tius,

ii.

author of a mythological

work, or works, concerning


Serapis,

Manetho (Sermon

and in gratitude

their nation

to,

by the Jews

in

Cyrus, as the liberator of

from Babylonian servitude.

cory's ancient fragments.

106

auspices, but with

Egyptian learning, had matured,

Eratosthenes of Cyrene, and Apollodorus of Athens


carried to perfection

by

so that,

their efforts, the

common

chronology of Egypt became the

Unfortunately, nothing remains of the

of mankind.

number of kings

labours of Apollodorus except the


for the

property

middle Empire

while Eratosthenes's register

of the earlier Pharaohs has reached us only in a

meagre epitome.

To George

tium, (Constantinople),

we

Syncellus of Byzan-

are indebted for an extract

from a work of Eratosthenes devoted to the subject


of Egyptian chronology, which he introduces with
the following

prefatory

remarks

"

Apollodorus,

the chronographer, has described another dynasty of

Egyptian kings, called Thebans, thirty-eight

whose united reigns comprised

ber,

num-

in

1,076

years.

This succession extends from the year of the world,


2900 (or, according to Syncellus, from the 124th
year after the Confusion of Tongues), to the year
Eratosthenes,

3975.

by Apollodorus),

(as stated

compiled his notices of these kings from Egyptian

monuments and lists, by order


arranged their names each with

tion

in the following order."

Kings beginning with Menes


with

its

Greek
list

tosthenes,

its

is

Greek

Then follows a

and

transla-

List of

every Egyptian name

translation annexed.

years for each reign

have a

of the King,

The number

also subjoined.

of Egyptian kings,

of

Thus we

drawn up by Era-

and edited by Apollodorus, the chrono-

cory's ancient fragments.

grapher

beginning with

added

to

another

it

continuity of succession.

and

all

Menes, and containing

1,076 years

thirty-eight reigns in
self

107

list

the editor him-

of fifty-three kings, in

But, having, like Josephus,

the Christian chronographers, placed

and the Exodus

Moses

at the beginning of the eighteenth

dynasty, what, then, was to be done with the other


fifty-three kings

dynasty

It

who

is,

reigned before the eighteenth

then, to this circumstance that

we

are indebted for the copious extracts from Manetho's

work of the names of the kings of that


dynasty.
Eratosthenes began his labours with
Menes, and, no doubt, concluded them with some
historical

notable

epoch

sortie

important

historical

crisis.

This event was unquestionably the invasion of the


Shepherds, and the occupation of the Egyptian throne

by the Shepherd-kings, (the Hyk-sos) for the whole


history of Egypt turned upon this event, as proved
by the monuments and attested by Manetho.
Eratosthenes, therefore, must be our guide for the
chronology of the Old Empire, so long as his data
are in harmony with those derived from the monuments.
The Old Empire terminated with the third
;

king of the thirteenth dynasty

the occupation of

Memphis by the Shepherd-kings was


the commencement of the Middle Empire, and their
expulsion that of the New. For the Middle Empire

the throne of

we must
lists

follow Apollpdorus of Athens,

of kings furnished

for,

if

the

by Eratosthenes embraced

cory's ancient fragments.

108

the Old Empire, Apollodorus must have

commenced

with the Middle Empire, for his fifty-three kings


follow immediately

upon those of Eratosthenes.

Nor

can there be any reasonable doubt as to the extent


of the period they occupied.

Syncellus did not deign

to transcribe their names, because they

him

The names

utterly useless.

appeared to

of the kings of the

eighteenth Dynasty consequently were not

among

them, for he was not only well acquainted with those,


but considered them of

the greatest

importance.

Syncellus subjected this Dynasty, (the eighteenth,) to

a very careful analysis, because the birth of Moses

and the Exodus were connected with

it.

The

labours of Apollodorus did not, therefore, extend to


the
as

New

Empire.

Such an hypothesis were indeed,

Bunsen remarks, hardly

Manetho

in itself admissible,

assigns, at most, fifty-seven

for

Theban kings

of the thirteenth Dynasty to this period, and those


of Apollodorus are also expressly called Thebans.
Lastly, the correspondence

three in

between the number

Apollodorus, and

fifty-seven

in

fifty-

Manetho,

were as close as could reasonably be expected or


desired as an argument in favour of their identity of
period.

Everything, therefore, combines, as Bun-

sen states, to show the probability of our having

discovered

the

true

system of Eratosthenes

Apollodorus, and with

it

standing of the Lists of Manetho.

Place in History, 142-144,

and

a key to the right under-

Bunsen s Egypt's

et passim.

MAN

ETH

Of the Writing
ff

It remains, therefore, to

O.

of Manetho.

make

certain extracts con-

cerning the dynasties of the Egyptians, from the


writings of Manetho, the Sebennyte, the high-priest

of the idolatrous temples of Egypt, in the time of

Ptolemaeus Philadelphus.

own

These, according to his

account, he copied from the inscriptions which

were engraved,
characters,

in the sacred dialect

upon the columns

land by Thoth, the

Greek

and committed

up

in the Seriadic

Hermes, (Mercury)

were translated from the sacred

after the Flood,


lect into the

first

set

and hierographic

and
dia-

tongue, in hieroglyphic characters,

to writing in books,

and deposited by

Agathodsemon, the son of the second Hermes, the


father of Tat, (Taut of the Phoenician mythology),
in the penetralia of the

He

temples of Egypt.

has

addressed and explained them to Philadelphus, the

second king (of Egypt)

who bore

the

name

of Ptole-

maeus, in the book which he has entitled Sothis, (or

This

the Dog-star). "

The
"

To

phus
1

epistle is as follows

Manetho, 1 the Sebennyte,


to Ptolemy Philadelphus.

Epistle

of

the great and august King, Ptolemy Philadel-

Manetho, the High-priest and Scribe of the

This Epistle

is

now

generally regarded as that of the

pseudo-Manetho not the Manetho who wrote the


kings, but one who assumed and abused his name.
;

lists

of


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

IIO

sacred adyta in Egypt, being by birth a Sebennyte

and a

citizen of Heliopolis, to his sovereign Ptolemy,

humbly greeting

" It is right for us,

attention to

all

most mighty King,

things which

it

should take into consideration.

is

to

pay due

your pleasure

we

In answer, then, to

your inquiries concerning the things which shall

come to pass in the world, I shall, according to your


commands, lay before you what I have gathered
from the sacred books written by Hermes Trismegistus,

our forefather.

Sovereign.
,,

Farewell,

Syncel. Chron. 40.

my

Prince and

Euseb. Chron.
'

M A N E T H O.
THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES.
The Dynasty
The

(Vulcan),

of the Demigods.

of the Egyptian kings was Hephaestus,

st

who

reigned 724 and a half years and four

days.

The 2nd was

Helios

(i.e.

the Sun), the son of

Hephaestus (who reigned) &6 years.

Agathodaemon, who reigned 56 and a half


years and ten days.
3rd,

Kronus (Saturn) 40 and a


Osiris and Isis, 35 years.

4th,
5th,

6th,
7th,

years.

Typhon, 29

half years.

years.

Horus, the demigod, 25 years.


6th, Ares (Mars), the demigod, 23 years.
8th,

10th, Anubis, the

nth, Heracles

demigod, 17 years.

(i.e.

Hercules)

the

demigod,

years.
1

2th, Apollo, the

13th,

Ammon,

demigod, 25 years.

the demigod, 30 years.

demigod, 27 years.
15th, Sosus, the demigod, 32 years.
14th, Tithoes, the

6th, Zeus,

[i.e.,

Syncel. Chron. 19.

Jupiter], the

demigod, 20 years.

Euseb. Chron.

7.

15

cory's ancient fragments.

1 1

THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES AFTER THE


DELUGE.

The
i.

First

After the dead demigods, the

sisted of eight kings, of

the Thinite

wound
2.

the

Dynasty.

whom

first

he reigned 62 years,

dynasty con-

was Menes
and perished by a

the

first

received from a hippopotamus.

Athothis, his son, reigned 57 years


palaces

at

Memphis, and

he

built

the anatomical

left

books, for he was a physician.


3.

4.

Kenkenes,

his son, reigned 31 years.

Venephes, his son, reigned 23 years. In his


Egypt.
He

time a great plague raged through


erected the pyramids near Cochome.
5.

Usaphaedus, his son, reigned 20 years.

6.

Miebidus, his son, reigned 26 years.

7.

Semempsis,

his son, reigned 18 years.

In his

reign a terrible pestilence afflicted Egypt.


8.

Bieneches, his son, reigned 26 years.

The whole number

of years

amounted

to 253 [or

263, according to the true reckoning].

The Second Dynasty


Consisted of nine Thinite kings.
1.

tus,
2.

During
chasm of the earth opened near Bubas-

Boethus the First reigned 38 years.

his reign a

and many persons perished.

Kaeachos reigned 39

years.

Under him

the

CORY

Apis

bulls,

Heliopolis,

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

I I

Memphis, and Meneus, (Mnevis), in


and the Mendesian goat, were appointed
in

to be gods.

Binothris reigned 47 years.

3.

decided that

women might

In his time

it

was

hold the imperial govern-

ment.

it

4.

Tlas reigned

7 years.

5.

Sethenes reigned 41 years.

6.

Chseres (reigned) 17 years.

7.

Nephercheres (reigned) 25 years.

is

said that the Nile flowed with

In his time

honey during

eleven days.
8.

Sesochris,

whose height was

and

five cubits

his

breadth three, (reigned) 48 years.


9.

Cheneres 30 years.

The whole number

of years

The Third
Of
1.

nine

Memphite

is

302.

Dynasty,

kings.

Necherophes reigned 28 years.

In his time

the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians

but,

on

account of an unexpected increase of the moon, they


surrendered themselves for
2.

Tosorthrus reigned

Asclepius

[i.e.,

his medical

stones,
3.

fear.

He

29 years.

is

called

Aesculapius], by the Egyptians, for

knowledge.

He

and greatly patronised

Tyris reigned 7 years.

built a

house of hewn

writing.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

114

5.

Mesochris 17 years.
Soiphis [or, Souphis] 16 years.

6.

Tosertasis 19 years.

7.

Achis

8.

Siphuris 30 years.

9.

Kerpheres 26 years.

4.

[or,

Aches] 42 years.

Altogether 214 years.

The Fourth Dynasty,


Of eight Memphite
1.

kings of a different race.

Soris reigned 29 years.

Suphis reigned 63 years.


He built the largest
pyramid.
He was also called Peroptes, and was
2.

translated to the gods,

and wrote the sacred book.

3.

Suphis (or Cheops) reigned 66 years.

4.

Mencheres (Men-ke-ra) 63

5.

Ratoeses 25 years.

6.

Bicheres 22 years.

7.

Sebercheres 7 years.

8.

Thamphthis 9

years.

years.

Altogether 274 years [or 284, according to the


correct computation.]

The Fifth Dynasty,


Consisting of nine Elephantine kings.
1.

Usercheris reigned 28 years.

2.

Sephres 13 years.
Nephercheres 20 years.

3.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


4.

Sisiris* 7 years.

5.

Cheres 20 years.

6.

Rathuris 44 years..

7.

Mencheres 9

8.

Tarcheres

9.

Obnos

years.

[or,

[or,

II5

Tatcheres] 44 years.

Onnos] 33

Altogether 248 years

[or,

years.

218 years.]

The Sixth Dynasty,


Consisting of six

Memphite kings.
who was killed by

Othoes, 30 years,

2.

Phius reigned 53 years.

3.

Methusuphis 7 years.

4.

Phiops,

and reigned

who began

till

to reign at six years of age,

he had completed his hundredth year.

5.

Menthesuphis reigned one year.

6.

Nitocris,

who was

the most

handsome woman

of her time, of a fair complexion


third pyramid,

his guards.

and reigned 12

she built the

years.

Altogether 203 years.

The Seventh Dynasty,


Of seventy Memphite

kings,

The Eighth
Of

twenty- seven

146 years.

who

reigned 70 days.

Dynasty,

Memphite

kings,

who

reigned

corys ancient fragments.

il6

The Ninth Dynasty,


Of

nineteen Heracleotic kings,

who

reigned 409

years.

The

was Achthoes, the worst of all his


did much harm to all the inhabipredecessors.
tants of Egypt, was seized with madness, and killed
1.

first

He

by a

crocodile.

The Tenth Dynasty,


Consisting of nineteen

Heracleotic

kings,

who

reigned 185 years.

The Eleventh Dynasty,


Consisting of sixteen
kings,

who

Diospolite,

Among them Ammenemes, who

Theban),

reigned 16 years.

The sum total of the above-named


who reigned 2,308 years and 70 days.
cellus

(or

reigned 43 years.

Chronicon 54
)

to

59

kings

is

192,

From Syn-

Euseb. Chron., 14

and

15.

THE SECOND BOOK OF MANETHO.


The Twelfth
Of

seven Diospolite, (or Theban), kings.

i.

Geson Goses

or, Sesortosis], the

46

Dynasty,

[or,

Sesonchosis

or,

Sesortosis;

Ammanemes. He

son of

reigned

years.
2.

by

Ammanemes

He

reigned 38 years.

was

slain

his eunuchs.
3.

Asia

Sesostris 41 [or, 48] years.


in nine years,

He

and Europe as

conquered

far as

all

Thrace

everywhere erecting monuments of his conquests of


those nations

statues of

acted bravely, but


figures

to

be the
4.

pillars.

By

sic]

as a

5.

6.

Ammenemes

7.

Skemiophris, his
1

who

tomb

Ammeres

Altogether

who

sexual organs
is

supposed

after Osiris.

first

their

the Egyptians he

Lachares 8 years,

Arsenoite

nations

the degenerate he erected

women, engraving

of

upon the

among

men among

built the

Labyrinth

in

for himself.

reigned 8 years.
8 years.
sister,

years.

60 years.

The Thirteenth Dynasty


Consisted of 60 Diospolite, (or Theban), kings,

They reigned 453


Armenian copy of Eusebius).

whose names are


{according to the

lost.

years.

cory's ancient fragments.

1 1

The Fourteenth Dynasty.


who

Consisting of J6 Xoite kings,

484] years.

(The number 484

is

ruled 184 [or,

from the Armenian

version of Eusebius.)

The names

are entirely

lost.

The Fifteenth 1 Dynasty


Of

the Hyk-shos or Shepherd-Kings.

There

were

six

Phoenician

i.e.,

or

This dynasty took Memphis,

Canaanitish kings.

and

foreign,

a city in the Sethroite nome, whence they

built

made an

invasion,

and conquered

all

Egypt.

Of

these
1.

Saites [or, Salatis] reigned 19 years, after

the Saite

nome

or district

is

3.

Beon [or, Bnon] reigned 44 years.


Pachnan [or, Apachnas] 61 years.

4.

Staan 50 years.

5.

Archies

6.

Aphobis

2.

[or,

[or,

whom

called.

Assis] 49 years.

Apophis] 61 years.

Altogether 284 years.

The Sixteenth Dynasty


Of

32 Grecian shepherds,

who

reigned 518 years.

The Seventeenth Dynasty


Consisted of 43 shepherd-kings and 43 Thebans,
[or, Diospolites.]

This

is

the Seventeenth

Dynasty according

to Eusebius.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

The Shepherds and Thebans

II9

reigned altogether

151 years.

The Eighteenth Dynasty,


Of

sixteen Diospolite,

Amos

{or,

Theban), kings.

whose time Moses went


Egypt, as we have shown.
2. Chebros 13 years.
3. Amenophthis 24 years.
4. Amersis [or, Amensis] 22 years.
1.

5.

6.

in

Misaphris 13 years.
Misphragmuthosis 26 years,

in

forth

from

whose time the

Flood of Deucalion happened.


7.

Tuthmosis reigned 9

years.

Amenophis 31 years. He is supposed to be


1
the Memnon, to whom the musical statue (in Egypt)
was erected.
9. Horus reigned 37 years.
8.

10.

Acherrhes

[or,

1 1

Rathos

12.

Chebres 12 years.

1 3.

Acherrhes

14.

Armesses

15.

Ramesses

16.

Amenoph

[or,

[or,

The

Rathotis] 6 years.

[or,
[or,

Altogether 263
1

Akenchres] 32 years.

Akenchres]

Armais]

2 years.

5 years.

year.

Amenophath] 19

years.

[or, 259].

researches of Pococke and Hamilton have long

since proved this to be the

Memnon

of the Ancients, while

the hieroglyphic labours of Champollion have established

the claims of

Amenoph

to the statues

he erected.


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

120

The Nineteenth Dynasty,


Consisted of seven Diospolite, (or Theban), kings,
i.

Sethos reigned 51 years.

2.

Rapsakes

3.

4.
5.

6.

[or,

Rampses] 61

Ammenephthes 20
Rameses 60 years.

years.

years.

Ammenemnes [or, Ammenemes] 5 years.


who is called by Homer, Polybus.

Thuoris,

Alcandrus, 7 years, in whose time


Troy), was taken.
7.

I lion,

{i.e.,

Altogether 209 years.


In this second book of

96 kings, and

Euseb.

121 years.

Chron. 15

to 17.

Manetho

are contained

Syncel. Chron. 59 to 75.

THE THIRD BOOK OF MANETHO.

The Twentieth
Of

2 Diospolite, (or

Dynasty,

Theban), kings,

who

reigned

135 years.

The Twenty-first
Of seven Tanite
Smedes

1.

[or,

Dynasty,

kings.

Smendes] reigned 26

2.

Psusenes, or Psuneses, 46 years.

3.

Nephercheres 4 years.

4.
5.

6.
7.

years.

Amenophthis 9 years.
Osochor 6 years.
Psinaches 9 years.
[or, Psusennes] 30 years.

Susenes

Altogether 130 years.

The Twenty-Second Dynasty,


Of

nine Bubastite kings.

1.

Sesonchis (or Shishak)

2.

Osoroth

3. 4, 5.

[or,

Osorthon]

21 years.
1

5 years.

Three others reigned 25

See

Kings

xi. 40.

years.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

122
6.

Takellothis 1 13 years.

7, 8, 9.

Three others 42

Altogether reigned

years.

20 years.

The Twenty-third Dynasty,


Of
1.

four Tanite kings.

Petoubates reigned 40 years, in whose time the

Olympiads began.
2.

Osorcho 8

whom

years,

the

Egyptians

call

Hercules.
3.

Psammus

4.

Zeet 31 years.

10 years.

Altogether 89 years.

The Twenty-fourth

Dynasty.

Bocchoris, [or Bonchoris], the


years, in

whose reign

(a

Saite,

reigned 6

miracle occurred),

for

sheep spoke.
Total 990 years.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty,


Consisted of 3 Ethiopic kings.
1.

Sabbakon, who having taken Bocchoris captive,

burnt him

alive,

and reigned 8

Perhaps Tiglath

Pileser,

years.

king of Assyria, or some one

ruling as a tributary to the Assyrian monarch.

cory's ancient fragments.

who

123

2.

Sevechus, 1 his son,

3.

Tarkos, or Tarakos [Tirhakah], 2 18 years.

reigned 14 years.

Altogether 40 years.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty,


Consisting of 9 Saite kings.

2.

Stephinates reigned 7 years.


Nechepsos reigned 6 years.

3.

Nechao

1.

Necho) 8 years.
Psammitichus 54 years.

4.

Nechao,

5.

He

(or

(or

Necho), the 2nd reigned 6 years.

took Jerusalem, and carried away captive Joahaz,

the king, to Egypt.


6.

Psammuthis 6

7.

Vaphris (or Hophra) 19 years, to

years.

remainder of the Jews

fled

whom

the

when Jerusalem was

taken by the Assyrians.


8.

Amosis 44

9.

Psammacherites

Altogether

years.
3

6 months.

50 years and six months.

The Twenty- seventh


Of

Dynasty,

eight Persian kings.

Cambyses reigned over Persia,


dom, 5 years, and over Egypt 6 years.
1.

Called So, or Seve, in 2 Kings xvii.

Kings xix.

his

own

king-

4.

9.

Eusebius omits the

the beginning as the

last king,

first.

and

inserts

Ammeres

at

cory's ancient fragments.

124
2.

Darius, the son of Hystaspes, 36 years.

3.

Xerxes the Great

4.

Artabanus

5.

Artaxerxes 41 years.

6.

Xerxes

7.

Sogdianus

8.

Darius, the son of Xerxes, 19 years.

21 years.

months. 1

months.
7

months.

Altogether 124 years and four months.

The Twenty-eighth
Amyrteos, the

Dynasty.

Saite, reigned 6 years.

The Twenty-ninth

Dynasty,

Consisting of four Mendesian kings.


1.

Nepherites reigned 6 years.

2.

Achoris 13 years.

3.

Psammuthis

year.

4.

Nephorites 4 months.

5.

Muthis

year.

Altogether 20 years and four months.

The Thirtieth Dynasty,


Consisting of three Sebennyte kings.
1.

Nectanebes reigned 18 years.

1
Eusebius omits Artabanus, and between Cambyses and
Darius places the Magi, with a reign of seven months.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


2.

Teos

3.

Nectanebos 18 years.

25

2 years.

Altogether 38 years.

The

Thirty-first Dynasty,

Consisting of three Persian kings.

who

(Darius) Ochus,

1.

Egypt two

ruled Persia 20 years and

years.

Arses, or Arses Ochus, (or Artaxerxes), reigned

2.

3 years.
3. Darius 4 years.
Altogether 9 years.

Total 1,050 years.

From

Syncell.

Chron. 73

to

J&

and Euseb. Chron.

16, 17.

Note by

the Editor.

For the

royal names, the length

the

sum

must

different readings of the

respective reigns, and


which are often divergent, I

of their

total of the years,

refer the student to Vol.

i.

of Dr. Birch's edition of

Bunseris~Egyflt's Place in History\ Appendix, p. 642

where, in Greek and Latin, will be found the


cellus,

Eusebius, Eratosthenes, and others.

lists

736,
of Syn-

MANETHO.

Of the Shepherd- Kings.


"

We had formerly a

In his time

God was

it

came

king whose name was Timaus.


to pass,

displeased with us

know

and there came up from

men

the East, in a strange manner,


race,

who had

and

easily

battle.

not how, that

of an ignoble

the confidence to invade our country,

subdued

by

it

their power, without

And, when they had our

hands, they burnt our

temples of the gods,

cities,

and

rulers

in

their

and demolished the

inflicted

every kind of

barbarity upon the inhabitants, slaying some, and

reducing the wives and children of others to a state

king,

At length they made one of themselves


whose name was Salatis he lived at Mem-

phis,

and rendered both the upper and lower regions

of slavery.

of

Egypt

tributary,

and stationed garrisons

which were best adapted

for that purpose.

in places

But he

directed his attention principally to the security of

the eastern frontier

for

he regarded with suspicion

the increasing power of the Assyrians, who, he foresaw, would one day undertake an invasion of the

kingdom.

And, observing

in the Saite

nome, upon

the east of the Bubastite channel, a city which from

some

ancient theological reference was called. Avaris;

1;

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


and finding
rebuilt

it

admirably adapted to his purpose, he

and strongly

it,

garrisoned

it

fortified

in

summer
and

it

with walls, and

with a force of two hundred and

To

thousand armed men.

troops,

27

fifty

this city Salatis repaired

and pay

time, to collect his tribute,

his

to exercise his soldiers, in order to strike

terror into foreigners.

And
after

Salatis died after a reign of nineteen years

him reigned Beon

forty-four years

and he was

succeeded by Apachnas,

who

and seven months

him reigned Apophis sixtyfifty years and one month.

after

one years, and Ianias


After

all

these reigned Assis forty-nine years and

two months. These


them, and, during

six

all

made war upon

they

reigned thirty-six years

were the

the

Hyk-shos, that

amongst

the

Egyptians,

is,

hope of

in

was

All this nation

the Shepherd- Kings

for

Hyk, according to the sacred


denotes king, and sos signifies a shepherd

first

dialect,

rulers

the period of their dynasty,

exterminating the whole race.


styled

first

syllable,

but this according to the vulgar tongue


these two words

whom some

is

and,

of

compounded the term Hyk-shos,

say were Arabians.

This people, thus

denominated Shepherd- Kings, and their descendants


retained possession of

Egypt

for the space of 5

years.

After these things, he (Manetho), relates that the


kings of Thebais, and of the other parts of Egypt,

made an

insurrection against the

Shepherds

and,

cory's ancient fragments.

128
that a long

them,

and mighty war was carried on between

by a king

the Shepherds were subdued

till

whose name was Alisphragmuthosis and, that they


were by him driven out of the rest of Egypt, and
shut up within a space containing ten thousand acres,
which was called Avaris. All this tract of country,
;

Shepherds surrounded with a

(says Manetho), the

vast and strong

they might retain

wall, that

all

their

possessions and their booty within a fortress.

And Thummosis,

the son of Alisphragmuthosis,

endeavoured to force them by a


the place with a

thousand

men

siege,

and beleaguered

body of four hundred and eighty

but, at the

moment when he

despaired

them by siege, they agreed to a capitulation, that they would leave Egypt, and should be
permitted to go out, without molestation, wheresoever they pleased. And, according to this stipulation,
they departed from Egypt with all their families and
effects, in number not less than two hundred and
forty thousand, and bent their way through the
of reducing

desert towards Syria.

the Assyrians,

they built a

But, as they stood in fear of

who had

city, in

then dominion over Asia,

that country

which

Judaea, of sufficient size to contain

men, and named


(In

another

Manetho

says),

Shepherds,
Captives.

in

it

is

now

called

this multitude of

Jerusalem.

book

That

of

the

this people,

their sacred

Egyptian

who

histories,

are here called

books were also styled

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

29

After the departure of this nation of Shepherds


to Jerusalem, Tethmosis, the king of Egypt,

drove them

twenty-five years and four

out, reigned

months, and then died

who

him

after

his son,

Chebron,

took the government into his hands for thirteen

him reigned Amenophis for twenty


years and seven months then his sister Amesses,
2 1 years and nine months.
She was succeeded by Mephres, who reigned 1
after him Mephramuthosis,
years and nine months
who reigned 25 years and 10 months then Thmosis,
who reigned nine years and eight months after
whom Amenophis reigned 30 years and 10 months
then Orus (Horus), who reigned 36 and five months

years

after

then his daughter Akenchres,


v

and one month


years

and

and another Akencheres


after him,

reigned 12 years

her, Rathotis

after

then Akencheres

who

for

nine

years and five months,

years and three months

Armais reigned four years and one month

and Ramesses
then Armesses,

(the Great)
(i.e.,

one year and four months

Ramses), the son of Miammoun,

who

reigned 66 years and two months after him


Amenophis for 1 9 years and six months he was
succeeded by Sethosis, who is called Ramesses, who
maintained an army of cavalry and a naval force.
This king, (Sethosis), appointed his brother Armais
as his viceroy over Egypt.
He also invested him
;

with

all

the other authority of a king, but with the

following restrictions, viz.

1st,

That he should not

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

130

wear the crown

2nd,

Nor

interfere with the queen,

the mother of his children


Sethosis

royal concubines.

Nor abuse the


then made an expedi;

3rd,

tion against the island of Cyprus, and Phoenicia, and

waged war with the Assyrians and Medes and he


subdued them all, some by force of arms, and others
without a blow, by the mere terror of his power.
;

And
still

being puffed up with his success, he advanced

more

confidently,

and overthrew the

cities,

and

subdued the countries of the East.


But Armais, who was

left

in

Egypt, took advan-

tage of the opportunity, and fearlessly committed

all

those acts which his brother had enjoined him not to

do

he violated the queen, and continued an un-

restrained intercourse with the concubines, and, at


the

persuasion

of

his

friends,

he assumed the

diadem, and openly opposed his brother.

But the

ruler over the priests of

Egypt sent

to

Sethosis,

and informed him of what had happened,

and how

his brother

to his power.

turned to

had

Upon

Pelusium,

set himself

this Sethosis

up

in opposition

immediately

and recovered

re-

kingdom.

his

The country of Egypt took its name from Sethosis,


who was called also /Egyptus, as was his brother
Joseph,
Armais known by the name of Danaus."
1

contr.

Ap.
1

lib. I. c.

14, 15.

Danaus was the

first

king of the Argives.

corys ancient fragments.

Of the
"

Israelites.

This king, (Amenophis), was desirous of behold-

ing the gods, since Horus, one of his predecessors in

He

the kingdom had seen them.

communicated

his

same name with himself,


Amenophis, the son of Papis one who seemed to
partake of the divine nature, both in his wisdom and
in his knowledge of futurity.
Amenophis returned him for answer, that he
might behold the gods if he would cleanse the land
of all lepers, and other unclean persons that were in
it.
Well pleased with this information, the king
gathered together out of the land of Egypt all that
laboured under any defect of body, to the number of
80,000, and sent them to the quarries, (in the Mafra,
desire to a priest of the

or, Sinaitic peninsula),

which are situated on the east

side of the Nile, that they

be separated from the

And

(Manetho), says, there were

he,

some learned
the leprosy.
prophet,

should
it

priests

who were

And Amenophis,

fearing lest

fall,

might work

in

them, and

rest of the Egyptians.

the

among them

(also) infected

the wise

with

man and

vengeance of the gods

both on himself and on the king, should

appear that violence had been used towards them,

added

this

also in a prophetic spirit

that

certain

people would come to the assistance of these polluted wretches,


it

in

and would subdue Egypt, and hold

possession for thirteen years.

These

tidings

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

I32

however he dared not


but

communicate

and destroyed himself;

to pass,

to the king,

an account of what should come

left in writing-

was

to

which the king

at

fearfully distressed.

word for word)


work in the quarries

(After which, he writes thus,

'

When

those that were sent to

had continued

for

some time

in that

miserable state,

the king was petitioned to set apart for their habitation

and protection the

left

desolate

them

by the Shepherds

their desire

ancient theology,

When

these

and found

it

is

now
a

which had been

city Avaris,

this

city,

Typhonian 1

men had

and he granted
according to the
city.

taken possession of the

city,

well adapted for a revolt, they appointed

over themselves a ruler out of the priests of Heliopolis, 2

one whose name was Osarsiph, 3 and they

bound themselves by oath


Osarsiph then,

dient.

that they

would be obe-

in the first place

enacted this

law, that they should neither worship the \_Egyptian\

gods, nor abstain from {eating) any of those sacred

animals which the

Egyptians hold

them

veneration, but sacrifice and slay


1

in

the highest
all

and that

Typhon was the Ahriman, or Satan, of the Egyptian


"Down to the time of Rameses, B.C. 1300, he

theology.

was one of the most venerated and powerful gods. After


about 970 B.C. he was regarded as the foe of Osiris and all
the gods of Egypt."
BUNSEN'S Egypt's Place, vol. p. 456.

Called

By

On

Genesis

i.,

An

in Egyptian.
50
Osarsiph he means Moses, the Jewish lawgiver and

deliverer.

in

xli. 45,

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

33

they should connect themselves with none but such

When

as were of that confederacy.

such laws as these, and

many

he had made

others of a tendency

Egypthey should employ the

directly in opposition to the customs of the


tians,

he gave orders that

multitude of hands in rebuilding the walls about the


city (Avaris),

and hold themselves

in readiness for

war with Amenophis the king whilst he (Osarsiph)


took into his confidence and counsels some others
of the priests and unclean persons.
He then sent
;

ambassadors to the

Jerusalem

city called

to those

Shepherds who had been expelled by Tethmosis, 1

whereby
himself,

he

informed

them

of

the

of

affairs

and of the others who had been treated

in

the same ignominious manner, and requested they

would come with one consent,


this
first

war against Egypt.


place to reinstate

He

them

to his assistance in

also

promised

in the

in their ancient city

and

country, Avaris, and provide a plentiful maintenance


for their

numerous

host,

sion might require.

He

and

fight for

them as occa-

informed them, moreover,

that they could easily reduce the land (of Egypt)

under their dominion.


this

The Shepherds

message with the greatest

tered to the
to Avaris.

joy,

received

and quickly mus-

number of 200,000 men, and came up

Now

Amenophis, king of Egypt, when

he was informed of their invasion, was in great consternation,


1

remembering the prophecy of Amenophis,

Tethmosis was a sovereign of the 18th dynasty, accord-

ing to Eusebius.

cory's ancient fragments.

134

the son of Papis, and he assembled the armies of


the Egyptians, and took counsel with the leaders,

and commanded the sacred animals to be brought to


him, especially those which were held in the greatest
veneration in the temples, and particularly charged
the priests to conceal the images of their gods with

the utmost care.

Ramesses from

called
five

And

who was

his son Sethos,

his father

also

Rampses, being but

years old he committed to the protection of a

friend.
tians,

And

he marched with the rest of the Egyp-

being three hundred thousand warriors, against

who advanced

the enemy,

not attack them, thinking

meet him

to
it

wage war
and came again to

would be

against the gods, but he returned,

but he did

to

Memphis, where he took Apis, (the sacred bull), and


the other sacred animals he had sent for, and retreated
immediately into Ethiopia, together with

and

all

the multitude of the Egyptians

all

his

army,

for the

king

was under obligations to him, wherefore


he received him kindly, and took care of all the multitude that was with him, while the country supplied
of Ethiopia

all

that

was necessary

to

him

cities

to continue

and

from

thirteen years.

for their food.

He also allotted

villages during his exile,


its

which was

beginning during the predestined

Moreover, he pitched a camp for an

Ethiopian army upon the borders of Egypt, as a


protection to king Amenophis.

While such was the

state of things in Ethiopia,

the people of Jerusalem, having

come down

in

com-

pany with the unclean of the Egyptians, treated the

"

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

inhabitants with such barbarity that those

who

35

wit-

nessed their impieties believed that their joint sway

was more execrable than that which the Shepherds


They not only set
(alone) had formerly exercised.
fire to the cities and villages, but committed every
kind of sacrilege, and destroyed the images of the
gods, and roasted and fed upon those sacred animals
and having compelled the
that were worshipped
priests and prophets to kill and sacrifice them, they
;

cast

them naked out of the country.

It is

polity

and

also said that the priest

who ordained

and laws was by


was named Osarsiph, from

their

birth a native of Heliopolis,

that he

Osiris, the

god venerated at Heliopolis. He adds, however,


that when he went over to these people his name
was changed, and he was called Moyses (Mouses or
Moses). Manetho again says, 'after this Amenophis
returned from Ethiopia with a great force, and
Rampses his son also, with other forces, and encountering the Shepherds and the unclean people, they

defeated them, and slew multitudes of them, and pur-

sued the remainder to the borders of Syria (Judea).'

From Josephus against Apion.

Book

i.,

cap. 27.

"The authenticity of the account of Josephus," says Dr.


Eisenlohr, " is not to be doubted, for, if he had not found
the story in Manetho, he would not have thought it necessary to denounce it. It has long been accepted by Egyptologists," says he,

really to the

"that the narration of Josephus refers


Transactions of
Israelites."

Exodus of the

Soc. Bib. Archcsol. vol.

Editor.

i.,

part

2.,

p.

380

1.

Note by the

THE OLD EGYPTIAN CHRONICLE

"

Among

the Egyptians there

called the

a certain tablet

is

Old Chronicle, containing

thirty dynasties

113 descents, during the long period of 36,525

in

The

years.

Auritae

The

third of Egyptians.

To
as he

was

series of princes

first

that of the

the second was that of the Mestraeans

Hephaestus

Chronicle runs as follows

Vulcan]

[or,

is

the
:

assigned no time,

apparent both by night and day.

is

Helius

[or,

the Sun] the son of Hephaestus (Vul-

can) reigned three myriads of years.

Then Kronus

Saturn] and the other twelve

[or,

divinities reigned 3,984 years.

Next

who

in

order are the demigods, in

eight,

reigned 217 years.

After these are enumerated

Cynic

circle,

The

17th,
8th,

19th,

generations of the

which take up 443 years.

6th Dynasty

which lasted 190

number

is

of the Tanites, eight kings,

years.

Memphites
Memphites
Diospolites

in

descent

14 in descent

103 years.

348 years.

(or

Thebans)

(or

Thebans)

8 in

in descent;

194 years.
20th, Diospolites

228 years.
21st,

Tanites; 6

in

descent; 121 years.

descent


cory's ancient fragments.

22nd, Tanites

3 in descent;

23rd, Diospolites (or

137

48 years.

Thebans)

2 in

descent; 19

years.

24th, Saites

3 in descent

25th, Ethiopians
26th,

Memphites

27th, Persians

28th

(No

7 in descent

5 in descent;

years.

44

44

years.

177 years.

124 years.

information).

29th, Tanites
30th,

3 in descent

in descent

Tanite

Embracing

in all

36,525 years."

Eusebius Chron.

39 years.
;

8 years.

30 Dynasties, and amounting to

From
6.

in descent

Syncellus' Chronicon. $\

and

ERATOSTHENES'
Canon of the Kings of Thebes.

The

who

first

reigned was Mines, (Menes), the

Thebinite, the Thebaean


Dionius. 1

He

which

is

by

interpretation

reigned sixty-two years, and lived in

the year of the world 2,900.

The 2nd

Theban kings reigned Athothes

of the

the son of Mines (Menes), 59 years.

by

Hermogenes.

interpretation

He

is

called

In the year of the

world 2,962.

The

3rd of

Athothes, of the

Theban Egyptian kings was


same name, 32 years. In the year

the

of the world 3,021.

The

Theban kings was

4th of the

son of Athothes, 19 years.

5th of the

interpretation he

is

In the year of the world 3,053.

called Philesteros.

The

By

Diabies, the

Theban kings was Pemphos, the

He

son of Athothes,

who

reigned 18 years.

In the year of the world 3,072.

is

called

Heraclides.

The 6th of the Theban Egyptian kings was Tcegar


Amachus Momchiri, the Memphite, who is called a

i.e.,

a Diospolitan

for

Thebes, (called

was designated by the Greeks


Jupiter (Ammon.)

No

as Diospolis ;

in our Bibles),
i.e.

the city of

cory's ancient fragments.

man redundant

in his

139

members, 79 years and

a.m.

3,090.

The

7th of the

his son,

who

Theban Egyptian

Ares the

is

kings, Stoechus

senseless, reigned 6 years,

a.m. 3,169.

The 8th of the Theban Egyptian kings Gosormies, who is called Etesipantus, reigned 30 years,
and

a.m. 3,175.

The

Theban Egyptian kings Mares,

9th of the

his son,

who

is

called Heliodorus, 26 years,

and

a.m.

3*205.

The

phes, which
years,

and

signifies

common

son,

reigned

20

a.m. 3,231.

The nth
which

Theban Egyptian kings Anoy-

10th of the

Theban Egyptian kings

of the

signifies the

Sirius,

son of the cheek, but, according to

others Abascantus, reigned 18 years, and a.m. 3,251.

The

Theban Egyptian kings reigned

2th of the

Chnubus Gneurus, which

Chryses the son of

is

Chryses, 22 years, a.m. 3,269.

The

Ranosis, which

The

is

Archicrator, 13 years, a.m. 3,291.

Theban Egyptian kings, Biuris,


Anno Mundi 3,304.
Theban kings, Saophis Komastes,

14th of the

reigned 10 years.

The

Theban Egyptian kings reigned

13th of the

15th of the

or according to some, Chrematistes


or money-getter), reigned

29

{i.e.,

years,

the trafficker,

and

this

was

about a.m. 3,314.

The

6th of the

Theban

kings, Sensaophis the

2nd, reigned 27 years> a.m. 3,343.

CORY

I40

The

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

Theban

17th of the

kings, Moscheris Helio-

dotus, reigned 31 years, a.m. 3,370.

The

Theban

8th of the

kings, Musthis, reigned

33 years, a.m. 3,401.


The 19th of the Theban kings,

Pammus Archon-

des, reigned 35 years, a.m. 3,434.

The
named

20th

of the

the Great,

Theban

kings,

Apaphus,

sur-

said to have reigned 100 years,

is

with the exception of one hour, a.m. 3,469.

The

21st of the

Theban

kings,

Acheskus Okaras,

reigned one year, a.m. 3,569.

The 22nd
who reigned

of the

Nikephorus.

Her

The

Theban sovereigns was

instead of her husband (she

Nitokris,

Athena

is

reign was 6 years, a.m. 3,570.)

23rd of the Theban kings, Myrtaeus

Am-

monodotus, reigned 22 years, a.m. 3,576.

The
Robust,

24th of the

who

is

Theban

called

kings,

Thyosimares the

the sun, reigned

years,

a.m. 3598.

The
is

25th of the

Theban

kings, Thinillus,

which

the augmenter of the country's strength, reigned

8 years, a.m. 3,610.

The
who is

26th of the

Theban

kings, Semphrucrates,

Hercules Harpocrates, reigned 18 years, a.m.

3,618.

The

27th of the

Theban

kings,

Chuthur Taurus

the tyrant, 7 years, a.m. 3,636.

The

28th of the

Theban

kings,

corus, reigned 12 years, a.m. 3,643.

Meures

Philos-

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

The

29th of the

Cosmus

The

Theban

Theban

30th of the

Chomaephtha,

kings,

Philephaestus, reigned

141

years, a.m. 3,655.

kings,

Ancunius Ochy-

tyrannus, reigned 60 years, a.m. 3,666.

The 3 1 st of the Theban kings, Penteathyris,

reigned

42 years, a.m. 3,726.

The 32nd

of the

Theban

kings,

Stamenemes the

second, reigned 23 years, a.m. 3,768.

The

33rd of the Theban kings, Sistosichermes,

the strength

of Hercules, reigned

55

years,

a.m.

3,791.

The

34th of the

Theban

kings, Maris, reigned 43

years, a.m. 3,846.

The 35th of the Theban


Hermes (Mercury), the son

kings, Siphoas,

who

is

of Hephaestus, reigned

5 years, a.m. 3,889.

The

36th of the

Theban

kings,

reigned

14 years, a.m. 3,894.

The

37th of the

Theban

kings, Phruron,

who

is

Nilus, reigned 5 years, a.m. 3,908.

The

38th of the

Theban

kings,

Amuthantaeus,

reigned 63 years, a.m. 3,913.

From
123, 147.

Syncelhcss Ckronicon, 91, 96, 101, 104, 109,

MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS.
OF THE EXODUS.
From Chaeremon.
"After him,

Manetho),

(i.e.,

Chaeremon, who

wish to examine

have composed a
same name as does
Manetho to the king Amenophis, and his son
Ramesses, and says as follows
Isis appeared to Amenophis in his dreams, rebuking him that her temple should have been overthrown
professes

He

history of Egypt.

to

gives the

in

war.

told

him

Upon which
that

if

Phritiphantes, the sacred scribe,

he would clear Egypt of

all

polluted

persons, he would be delivered from these terrors.

He

therefore collected 250,000 unclean persons,

drove them out

two
of

(of

scribes, called

whom was

names were

and

Their leaders were

Egypt).

Moyses and Josephus; the

a sacred scribe

but their Egyptian

respectively, that of

and that of Josephus Peteseph.

latter

Moyses

Tisithene,

They bent

their

way towards Pelusium, where they met with 380,000


men left there by Amenophis, whom he would not
suffer to come into Egypt.
With these they made
a treaty, and invaded Egypt.

But Amenophis waited

not to oppose their incursion, but fled into Ethiopia,


leaving his wife pregnant

and she concealed herself


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.
in

a cavern, where she brought forth a

named him

when he

Messenes, who,

child,

43

and

arrived

at

manhood, drove out the Jews into Syria, being


about 200,000, and recalled his father, Amenophis,
Extracted

from Ethiopia."
Apion, Book

i.

from

From Diodorus
"

Josephits against

ch. 32.

There having

Siculus.

arisen in former days a pestiferous

disease in Egypt, the multitude attributed the cause

of the evil to the Deity

for a

very great concourse of

foreigners of every nation then dwelt in Egypt,

were addicted
sacrifices

of the

worship and

so that, in consequence, the due honours

gods

inhabitants

to strange rites in their

fell

into disuse.

Whence

of the land inferred, that

the native
unless they

removed them, there would never be an end of


distresses.

They

these foreigners

whom

who

their

immediately, therefore, expelled


the most illustrious and able of

passed over in a body, (as some say), into

Greece, and other places, under the conduct of cele-

brated leaders, of

whom

Danaus, and Cadmus.

the most renowned were

But a large body of the

people went forth into the country which


called Judea, situated not far distant

being altogether desert

now

from Egypt,

The

leader

was Moses, a man very remarkable


great wisdom and valour.
When he had

of this colony
for his

in those times.

is

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

144

taken possession of the land,

founded that which


the

most

Eel.

i,

other

cities,

called Jerusalem, which

now

is

Extracted from Book

celebrated."

he

xl.

p. 921.

The

rest of the fragment gives an account


Jewish polity, laws, &c. It was the beginning

Note.

of the

is

among

of Diodoruss "History of

the

Jewish

War" and

is

preserved by Photius, {Bishop of Constantifiople.

From Lysimachus.
"

He

king of

says, that in the reign of Bocchoris,

Egypt, the Jewish people, being infected with leprosy,

and sundry other

scurvy,

diseases, took shelter in

the temples, where they begged for food


in

and

that,

consequence of the vast number of persons

who

were seized with these complaints, there arose a


famine

in

Egypt.

Upon

this,

Bocchoris, king of the

Egyptians, sent persons to enquire of the Oracle

Ammon,

of

directed

him

respecting this scarcity, and the


to cleanse the temples

and impious men, and

of

all

god

polluted

them out into the


desert, but to drown those who were affected with the
leprosy and scurvy, inasmuch as their existence was
displeasing to the Sun then to purify the temples,
upon which the land would recover its fertility.
When Bocchoris had received the oracle, he asto

cast

The temple of Jupiter Ammon was situated


Oasis of Siwah, as it is now called.
1

in

the

cory's ancient fragments.

145

sembled the priests and attendants of the

commanded them

to

gather together

persons and deliver them

them

but to wrap the lepers in

them

sheets of lead, and cast

they had drowned those

when
to

with the leprosy

rest,

and

left

them

to

But they took counsel among

perish in the desert.

and torches

After

into the sea.

afflicted

and scurvy, they coHected the

fires

the unclean

over to the soldiers to lead

forth into the desert

themselves, and

all

and

altars,

night

came on they

lighted up

defend themselves, and fasted

all

the next night to propitiate the gods to save them.

Upon

the following day a certain man, called Moyses,

counselled them to persevere in following one direct

way

till

they should arrive at habitable places, and

enjoined them to hold no friendly communication

men

with men, neither to follow those things which

esteemed good, but such as were considered

and

overthrow the temples and

to

as often as they should

altars of the

meet with them.

evil

gods

When

they had assented to these proposals, they continued


their journey through the desert, acting
rules,

and

after

upon those

severe hardships, they at length

arrived in a habitable country, where, having inflicted

every kind of injury upon the inhabitants, plundering

and burning the temples, they came


land which

and

is

now

settled there.

From

Upos, a

called Judea,

This

city

at length to the

and founded a

city

was named Hierosyla, 1

temple, and

o-vXaw, to

plunder.

cory's ancient fragments.

146

from their (plundering and sacrilegious) disposition.

But

after

in

when they acquired

times,

changed

to obliterate the reproach, they

and

called the

strength

name,

its

Hierosolyma, and themselves

city

Extracted from Josephus against

Hierosolymites."

Apion, 34.

From Polemo.
"

Some

Greeks also

of the

relate

Polemo,

flourished in those times.

of his Grecian histories, says

'

Moses
book

that

in the first

that in the reign of

Apis, the son of Phoroneus, a part of the Egyptian

army

deserted

from

habitation in that

Egypt,

part

and

who went

out with Moses."

Extracted

Africanus, as quoted by Etisebius, Prcep.

Book

is

called

These indeed were

Palestine, not far from Arabia.'

they

took up their

of Syria which

from

Evang.,

x.

From Ptolemaeus Mendesius.


"Amosis, who lived about the same time with
Inachus the Argive

(i.e.,

the king of Argos), over-

threw the city of Avaris, as Ptolemaeus Mendesius


has related in his chronicle."

Extracted

from

the

Stromala of Clemens, Bishop of Alexandria, quoted


by Eusebius, Prcep. Evang.,

Book

x.

corys ancient fragments.

47

From Artabanus.

And they (the Jews) borrowed of the Egyptians


many vessels, and no small quantity of raiment, and
11

every variety of treasure, and

passed

over

the

branches of the river towards Arabia, and upon the


third day's
tion

march they arrived

upon the Red Sea.

at a convenient

And

the

sta-

Memphites say

that Moyses, being well acquainted with that part

of the country, waited for the ebbing

made

tide,

and then

the whole multitude pass through the shallows

But the Heliopolitans

of the sea.

(or people of

On), say that the king pursued them with a great

army, and took with him the sacred animals, in order


to recover the substance

which the Jews had bor-

rowed of the Egyptians.

But that a divine voice

in-

Moyses to strike the sea with his rod and


that when Moyses heard this, he touched the waters
with his rod, whereupon the waves stood apart, and
structed

the host went through along a dry path.

moreover, that

when

He

says,

came up with
flashed on them

the Egyptians

them, and pursued them, the

fire

from before, and the sea again inundated the path,

and that
fire

or

all

the Egyptians perished either

by the return of the

by the

waters.

But the Jews escaped the danger, and passed thirty


God rained upon them a

years in the desert, where

kind of grain called panic, 1 whose colour was like


1

eXvfios.


cory's ancient fragments.

148

He

Moyses was ruddy, with


white hair, and of a dignified deportment, and that
when he did these things, he was in the eighty-ninth
snow.

says also that

year of his age."

Evangn Book

Extracted from Eusebius, Praep.

x.

Artabanus, evidently an Alexandrian Jew,

is

said

The

to have written about a century before Christ.

fragments of his history which have been preserved


follow the Scriptures) with some few variations and

In

additions.

Memphite and

this account both the

the Heliopolitan traditions are referred

tunately

its

authenticity

very

is

much

to.

Unfor-

to be suspected.

THE OBELISK OF HELIOPOLIS.


From Ammianus Marcellinus.

The

interpretation begins

South

upon the southern

side.

Side.

Verse the First.


"

The Sun

upon you

whom

the

to

king Rhamestes.

to rule graciously over

Sun

loves

is

have bestowed

all

He

the world.

Horus the Brave, the lover

of truth, the son of Heron, born of God, the Restorer

of the

World

He whom

king Rhamestes, valiant

the sun has chosen

in battle, to

whom

is

the

all

the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


earth

is

subject

by his might and bravery.

49

Rhamestes

the king, the immortal offspring of the Sun."

Verse the Second.

Horus the Brave who is in truth appointed


he who renders Egypt
the Lord of the Diadem
glorious and possesses it he who sheds a splendour
" It is

over Heliopolis, and Regenerates the rest of the

Honours the gods who dwell


him the Sun loves.

world, and
polis,

in

Helio-

Verse the Third.

Horus the Brave, the offspring of the Sun, Allglorious whom the Sun has chosen, and the valiant
Ares (Mars) has endowed. His goodness remains
for ever, whom Ammon loves, who fills with good
the temple of the Phcenix.
To him the Gods have
granted life, Horus the brave, the son of Heron
:

Rhamestes, the king of the world:

He

has protected

Egypt and subdued her neighbours Him the Sun


The gods have granted him great length of
life.
He is Rhamestes, the Lord of the World, the
:

loves.

Immortal.

Another

Side.

Verse the Second,


"

the Sun,

the great

God, the sovereign

heaven, have bestowed upon you

life

without

ol

satiety.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

I50

Horus the Brave, Lord of the diadem, incomparable,


the Sovereign of Egypt, he

who

statues of (the gods) in this palace,

manner

Heliopolis, in like

Sun

has placed the

and has beautified

as he has honoured the

The

himself, the sovereign of heaven.

of the Sun, the

offspring

King immortal, has performed a

goodly work."
Verse the Third.
"

I,

the Sun, the

God and Lord

bestowed strength and power over

Rhamestes

he

whom

of heaven, have
all

things,

Horus, the lover of

Lord of the Seasons, and Hephaestus

(i.e.,

on king

truth,

the

Vulcan),

the father of the Gods, have chosen on account of his


valour,

the all-gracious king, the

is

offspring

and

beloved of the Sun."

Towards the East.


Verse the First.
"

The

great

God from

Heliopolis, celestial,

the Brave, the son of Heron,

and
of

whom

all

the

the

Sun

begot,

Gods have honoured, he is the ruler


earth; he whom the Sun hath chosen is the
the

king, valiant in battle.

him the

whom

Horus

all-glittering

Him Ammon

loves;

and

has chosen his eternal king."

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

151

OF THE SIRIADIC COLUMNS.


From
"

Josephus.

All these (the sons of Seth), being naturally of a

good

disposition, lived happily in the land without

apostatising,

and

free

from any

and they studiously turned

whatsoever

evils

their attention to the

knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their configurations.

time be lost

And

should at any

lest their science

among men, and what they had

viously acquired should perish, (inasmuch as

pre-

Adam

had acquainted them that a universal aphanism, or


destruction of all things, would take place alternately

by the

and the overwhelming powers of

force of fire

water), they erected

and the other of

two columns, the one of brick


and engraved upon each of

stone,

them

their discoveries

pillar

should be dissolved by the waters, the stone

so that, in case the brick

one might survive to teach men the things engraved

upon

same time inform them that a


brick one had formerly been also erected by them.
it,

and

at the

remains even to the present day in the land of

It

Siriad."

Extracted from

of the yews''

Book

i.

ch.

Note by the Editor.


renew the inquiry

to

antediluvian columns, or

yosephus

"Antiquities

2.

"

We

do not here propose

concerning
stelae,

the

celebrated

on which the lore of

Various readings of this word are given, as Syriada,


Voss proposes that we should read, Eirath.

Sirida, Seiria.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

152

wisdom, was said

this primaeval world, with all its

to

be transmitted.

Plato,

it is

well-known, speaks of

We

these columns in the opening of the Timceus.

examine, in the 5th book, whether this be any-

shall

thing more than a figurative description, and

we may be

justified

These

pillars,

is

it

book of Enoch*

far

assuming any connection

in

between the Egyptian legend and the two


Seth mentioned by

how

Josephus.

(Antiq.

pillars of

ch.

i.,

2).

obvious, have reference to the

perhaps also to the

pillars

of

Akikarus, or Akicharus, the Prophet of Babylon, (or


the Bosphorus), whose

have

stolen,

and on which Theophrastus composed

to us, these primaeval stelae

appearance
are

first

Hermes,

said to

is

In the Egyptian traditions that have

a treatise.

down

wisdom Democritus

mentioned
in

in

Stobaeus

do not make their

and fourth

until the third

come

centuries.

They

the so-called Fragments of


afterwards,

in

Zosimus

of

Panopolis, evidently in the colouring of JudaisingChristian writers

but, in their worst shape, in the

work of an impostor who


assumed the name of Manetho. That in this latter
instance, at least, they were connected with the
narrative of Josephus, is shown by their allusion to

fourth century,

the

'

in

the

Syriadic Country.'"

Extracted

Egypt's Place in History,

vol.

i.,

from Bunsen's

p. 7, 8.

* See the English translation of this book from the


Ethiopic by Abp. Lawrence, (Oxford, 1821), and compare
with it the extracts from it in Syncellus, upon the socalled Egregors, alluded to in the Epistle of

Jude

(verse 6).

THE

INDIAN FRAGMENTS
FROM

MEGASTHENES,

INDIAN FRAGMENTS.

MEGASTHENES.
"

Megasthenes

also appears to be of this opinion,

informing us that no reliance can be placed upon the


of the Indians.

ancient histories
'

army

there never was an

For/ says he,

'

sent forth

by the

Indians,

nor did ever a foreign army invade and conquer that


except the expeditions of Hercules and

country,

Dionysus,

and

(Bacchus),

Macedonians.

Yet,

this

Sesostris

{invasion)

the

(Nebuchadnezzar),

among

the

carried his
i.e.,

the

Chaldeans,

most

Tearcon

renowed

exceeded

There are on

here called pillars,


2

and

Hercules,

it is

said,

But Navocodrosorus led

arrived.
to

Thrace and Pontus.

hursus the Scythian, also overran

(monarch)

far as the Pillars 1 {of Hercules,

arms as

army from Spain

their

But Navocodrosorus

the Strait of Gibraltar), to which also,


2

and

Egyptian,

Tearcon (Tirhakah) the Ethiopian, extended


conquests as far as Europe.

the

of

all

either side of the Strait


viz.,

Idant-

Asia as

far

two mountains,

Gebel Tarifa and Abyla.

Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia.

his

cory's ancient fragments.

156

But none of

Egypt.

as

these ever

all

invaded

India.'

Semiramis died before she commenced the under-

But the Persians sent the Hydracse to

taking.

collect a tribute from India

but they never entered

the country in a hostile manner, but only approached


it

when Cyrus

Megasthenes,

sagetae.

Mas-

led his expedition against the

however, with

some few

others, gives credit to the narratives of the exploits

of Hercules and Dionysus (Bacchus)


historians,

thenes, set

but

all

other

among whom may be reckoned Eratosthem down as incredible and fabulous,

and of the same stamp with the achievements of the


heroes

Book

among

Extracted from Strabo,

the Greeks."

xv. 686.

Of the Castes
"

Megasthenes

India

is

says, that the

is

held

in

notwithstanding their number

when they

of one of them.

all

among which

estimation as the
is

the smallest.

that
first,

The

feasts of

makes use of the

services

But the kings publicly gather them

together in an assembly which

Synod, at which,

and prepare the

sacrifice

the dead in private, each

year,

whole population of

divided into seven castes

of the Philosophers

people

of India.

in the

is

called the great

commencement

of each

new

the philosophers assemble at the gate (court)

of the king, so that, whatever each of

them may have

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

may have observed

collected of things useful, or

the state,

law that

if

in public.

And

it is

any one of them be three times convicted

of falsehood, he shall be
life

it

rela-

and animals, and of

tive to the increase of the fruits

he may produce

I57

doomed

to silence during

but the upright they exonerate from tax and

The second division is the caste of the Agriculturists, who are the most numerous and worthy.
They pursue their occupation free from military duties
tribute.

and

fear

neither concerning themselves with

nor public, nor indeed any other business.

same time and place the military


arrayed and engaged with an enemy whilst

happens that
class is

civil,

It often

at the

the agricultural, depending upon the other,

(i.e.,

the

military caste) for protection, plough and dig without

And, since the land

any kind of danger.

of the king, they cultivate

upon

The

one-fourth of the produce.

the Shepherds and Hunters, to


ful to hunt, graze,

and

held

paying rent of

third caste

whom

sell cattle, for

a premium and stipend.


of wild beasts

hire,

all

is

is

alone

that of

it is

law-

which they give

For ridding the land

and birds which destroy the

also,

grain, they

are entitled to a portion of corn from the king, and

lead a wandering

life,

living in

tents.

Hunters and Shepherds, the fourth caste

After the
is

that of

the Artisans and Innkeepers, and bodily Labourers

of

all

of

it,

kinds, of

whom some

bring tribute,

or,

instead

perform stated service on the public works.

But the manufacturers of arms and builders of ships

cory's ancient fragments.

158

are entitled to pay and sustenance from the king, for

The keeper

they work only for him.


stores gives out the

governor of the ships

arms to the
lets

soldiers,

them out

and merchants. The

sailors

fifth

and the

for hire to the

caste

who, when disengaged, spend the

of the military

is

the Military,

rest of their

at ease, in stations or barracks assigned

time

them by the

whenever occasion may require, they


may be ready to march forth directly, carrying with
them nothing else than their bodies. The sixth caste
consists of the Inspectors, whose business it is to pry
king, so that,

and report them

into all matters that are carried on,

privately to the king, for which purpose in the towns

they employ courtesans, and camp-followers in the

They

camp.

are chosen from the most upright and

The

honourable men.

seventh caste includes the

Councillors and Assessors of the king,

by whom the

government, and laws, and administration are conducted.

It is

unlawful either to contract marriages

with another caste, or to change one profession or


occupation for another, or for one

more than one

{profession),

man

to undertake

the

unless

person so

doing shall be one of the Philosophers,

who

are

privileged on account of their dignity.

As

regards the Governors,

some preside over the

rural affairs, others over the civil, others, again,

the military.

To

the

first

class

is

over

entrusted the in-

spection of the rivers, and the measurement of the


fields

after

the inundations, as in

Egypt, and the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

covered aqueducts, by which the water

distri-

is

buted into channels for the equal supply of


according to

The same have

wants.

their

serts.

They

according to their dethe tribute, and

also

collect

all,

the

power of dispensing

care of the Hunters, with the

rewards and punishments

59

inspect

upon the

all

the arts which

as

of wrights, (vXoTOfKop), and carpenters, and the

exercised

are

They

workers of brass and other metals.


struct the highways,

place a mile-stone

and

into six pentads,


tive works,

also con-

at every ten stadia they

to point out the turnings

(0-777X77),

The

distances.

and

land,

governors of

cities

are divided

some of whom overlook the opera-

and others have charge of

all

foreigners,

them an allowance, and taking cognizance of their lives, if they give them habitations
else they send them away, and take care of the goods
of such as happen to die, or are unwell, and bury
distributing to

them when dead. The


registers of the births

they take place


tribute, that

deaths

no

and

third class of {governors) take

and deaths, and how and when


this (is done) for the

births, either of

sake of the

good or bad, nor any

maybe unnoticed. The fourth class has the care

of the innkeepers and exchanges


also of the measures

they

may be

Nor

is

and

these have charge

qualities of the goods, that

sold according to the proper stamps.

any one permitted

pay a double

tribute.

to barter

The

fifth

more unless he

class presides

over

the manufactured articles, arranging them, and sepa-

cory's ancient fragments.

160

common, and the


fine upon those who

rating the stamped goods from the


old from the new, and laying a

The

and

last class

exact the tithe

things sold, with the

power of

inflicting

mix them.
of

on

all
all

sixth

Each, therefore, has his private

such as cheat.

But

duties.

it is

the public business of them

control the private, as well as


nation,

and

and

death

civil,

affairs

all

to

of the

to inspect the repairs of the public works,

prices,

and the markets, and the

and

ports,

temples.

After the civil-governors there

which presides over military


manner,
is

is

is

a third college,

and

this, in

like

divided into six pentads, of which the

first

affairs,

consociated with the governor of the fleet

second with him

who

the

presides over the yokes of

oxen by which the instruments are conveyed, and


the food for themselves and the oxen, and

other baggage of the army.

moreover, attendants

who

They have

all

the

with them,

play upon drums and

bells,

together with grooms and smiths, and their under

workmen
sound of

and they send

bells,

forth their foragers to the

recompensing their speed with honour

or punishment, and attending to their safety.


third class

have the charge of the

of the cavalry

the elephants.

the

fifth

The

infantry; the fourth

of the chariots

the sixth of

Moreover, there are royal stables for

the horses and beasts

and a royal

arsenal, in

the soldier deposits his accoutrements

done with them, and gives up

which

when he has

his horse to the

master

cory's ancient fragments.

of the horse, and the

They

same with

ride without bridles

i6i

respect to his beasts.

the oxen

draw the cha-

along the roads, while the horses are led in

riots

halters, that their legs

may

not be injured, nor their

impaired by the draught of the chariots.

spirit

In

addition to the charioteer, each chariot contains two


riders

but, in the

ductor

upon

is

equipment of an elephant,

the fourth, there being three

its

con-

bowmen

also

it.

The

Indians are frugal in their

cularly in the

camp

diet,

more

parti-

and, as they use no superfluities,

they generally attire themselves with elegance.

The relation of Strabo

is

continued, with

an account

and customs of the Indians, containing


of
some extracts from Megasthenes irrelevant to the
the laws

antiquities.

Of the
"

That

is

Philosophers.

much more worthy of

thenes reports, that the rivers

gold

and that a

tribute

is

credit

which Megas-

down

roll

crystals of

collected from thence for

the king, for this also takes place in Iberia (Spain).

And, speaking of the Philosophers, he says that those

who

inhabit the mountains are votaries of Dionysus

(Bacchus), and they point to traces of

him among

them, inasmuch as with them alone the vine grows


naturally wild, as well as the ivy,

and

laurel,

and

and the box, and other species of evergreens,


of which, beyond the Euphrates there are none,

myrtle,

cory's ancient fragments.

62

except such as are kept as rarities in gardens, and

The

preserved with great care.

following are also

customs of Dionysiac, (or Bacchic)

origin, viz., the

wearing of linen tunics and turbans, the use of

and perfumes, and the preceding


bells

and drums when he goes

The inhabitants of

their kings with

on a journey.

forth

the plain, however, are devoted to

the worship of Hercules."

Book

oils

Extracted

from

Strabo,

xv. 711.

Of the Philosophical

"He

makes

also another division of the Philoso-

two races of them, one of

phers, saying that there are

which he
manes.

Sects.

calls the

Of these

Brahmans, and the other the Ger-

the Brahmans are the

inasmuch as their discipline

more

preferable

is

excellent,

for,

as soon

as they are conceived, they are committed to the charge

of

men

skilled in

magic

arts,

who approach under

the

pretence of singing incantations for the well-doing

both of the mother and the

child,

to give certain wise directions

the mothers,

who

supposed to

be more

willingly

though, in

reality,

and admonitions

pay attention

and

to them, are

fortunate in parturition.

After their birth, they pass from the care of one

master to that of another, as their increasing age


quires the

more

their time in

which

superior.

The

re-

Philosophers pass

a grove of moderate circumference,

lies in front

of the city, living frugally, and lying

cory's ancient fragments.

163

They abstain
upon couches of leaves and skins.
also from animal food, and intercourse with females,
upon serious

intent

them

and communicating

discourses,

But

to such as wish.

it is

considered improper

any other

for the auditor either to speak, or to exhibit

sign of impatience

for, in

case he should, he

is

cast

out of the assembly for that day as one incontinent.

After passing thirty-seven years in this manner, they

betake themselves to their

own

professions,

they live more freely and unrestrained

assume the linen

tunic,

and

and wear gold

where

they then

moderation

in

They

upon

their hands,

flesh,

except that of animals which are serviceable to

in their ears.

also eat

mankind but they, nevertheless, abstain from acids


and condiments. They practise polygamy for the
;

sake of having large

families,

because they think that

from many wives a larger progeny


If they

have no servants,

own

proceed.

will

their place

is

supplied by

more
nearly any person is related to another, the more is
he bound to attend to his wants. The Brahmans do

the service of their

children

for,

the

not permit their wives to attend their philosophical


lectures, lest, if

they should be imprudent, they might

divulge any of their secret doctrines to the uninitiated

and,

if

they be of a serious turn of mind,

they should desert them.

For, no one

who

pleasure and pain, even to the contempt of

lest

despises
life

and

death, (as a person of such sentiments as they profess

ought to

be),

would voluntarily submit

to

be under

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

64

They hold

the domination of another.

opinions upon the nature of death

the present

life

various

for they regard

merely as the conception of persons

presently to be born; and death they consider as the


birth into a life of reality

and happiness, to those who

Upon

philosophise rightly.

this

account they are

studiously careful in preparing for death.


that there

is

neither

which take place


say,

if

good nor

among men

They hold

evil in the accidents

nor would men, they

they regarded them aright, (as mere visionary

They,

delusions), either grieve or rejoice at them.


therefore,

neither

any signs of joy

themselves, nor exhibit

distress

at their occurrence.

Their speculations upon nature, he says, are

some

respects, childish, though

in

he admits that they are

better philosophers in their deeds than in their words

inasmuch as they believe many things contained

in

However, they hold several of


same doctrines which are current among the
Greeks
such as, that the world is generated and

their mythologies.

the

destructible,

God who
throughout
all

and of a spherical

administers
its

figure, and, that the

and forms

whole extent

it,

pervades

things are different, that water, for instance,

first

principle of the fabrication of the world

after the four elements, there

it

that the principles of

is

a certain

fifth

is
;

the
that

nature,

of which the heavens and stars are composed; that the

earth

is

situated in the centre of the whole.

add much, of a

like nature,

They

concerning generation and

cory's ancient fragments.

They have

the soul.

speculations, after the

many

also conceived

manner of Plato

165

in

fanciful

which they

maintain the immortality of the soul, and the judg-

ments of Hades,
'Such

description.

(hell),
is

and doctrines of a similar

Megasthenes's account of the

Brahmans.

Of

the Germanes, he says, those are considered the

most honourable who are called Hylobii, and

live in

the woods upon leaves and wild

fruits,

selves with the bark of trees,

and abstaining from

sexual intercourse, and wine.

They

hold communi-

kings,

who

cation,

by messengers, with the

clothing them-

inquire of

them concerning the causes of things and, by


means, the kings serve and worship the deity.
;

their

After the Hylobii, the second in estimation are the


Physicians, philosophers

men, simple
selves to a

who

in their habits,
life

conversant with

are

but not exposing them-

abroad, living upon rice and grain,

which every one to

whom

they apply freely gives

They are
women fruit-

them, and receives them into his house


able,
ful

by the use of medicines,

to render

and productive, either of males or females

they perform their cures, rather by attention to


than by the use of medicines.

they approve more


poultices

all

others

deleterious effects.

commonly

Among
of

but
diet,

medicines

ointments

and

they consider not free from

These, and others of this

exercise their patience in labours

and

trials,

sect,

so

as to have

attained the capability of standing in one position,

cory's ancient fragments.

66

unmoved,

who

a whole day.

for

There are others

also,

pretend to divination and enchantments, and

are skilful in the concerns of the inhabitants,


their laws.

These lead a mendicant

villages

and towns

cities.

They do

and of

among

life

the

but the better class settle in the

not reject such of the mythological

stories concerning

Hades

able to virtue and piety.

them favourWomen, among some of

as appear to

these sects, are suffered to philosophise, but, in that


case, they are required to abstain

course."

Of the
Megasthenes,
says, " There

is

to themselves
rash.

selves

from sexual

Extracted from Strabo, Book

in his

inter-

v. p. 712.

Indian Suicides.
account of the Philosophers,

no prescribed rule
but those

for putting

who do

it

an end

are esteemed

Those who are hardy by nature cast themupon a sword, or from a precipice those who
:

are incapable of labour leap into the sea

those

who

are patient of hardships are strangled, while those of

a fiery temperament are thrust into the


last

was indeed the

fate of Calanus,

fire.

This

an intemperate

man, and addicted to the pleasures of the table, at the


court

of Alexander (the Great)!'

Strabo,

Book

Extracted from

xv. p. 718.

End of the

Indian Fragments of Megasthenes.

cory's ancient fragments.

Of the
"

Philosophers.

167

From Clitarchus.

According to the statement of Clitarchus, they

place in opposition to the Brahmans, the Pramnse, a

contentious and argumentative set of men,

who deride

the Brahmans as arrogant, and ridiculous, on account


of their studies in physiology and astronomy.

They

are divided into the Mountaineer, the Naked, the


Citizen,

and the Rural

sects."

Of the Indian Astronomy.


From the Paschal Chronicle.
"
{i.e.,

About the time of the construction of the Tower,


of Babel), a certain Indian, of the race of Ar-

phaxad,

made

his

appearance

a wise man, and an

astronomer, whose name was Andubarius.

he who

first

It

was

instructed the Indians in the science of

Astronomy."

p. 36.

Note by the Editor. Although from the earliest times to


which historical research carries us back, an active trade seems to
have been carried on between India and Western Asia, yet, Megasthenes is the earliest authority to which we can appeal for
information, regarding the immense continent lying between the
Indus and the Ganges. In the Hebrew Scriptures, the ivory, apes,
and peacocks, brought to Judea by the ships of Tarshish, are
designated by genuine Hindu, (i.e. Tamil), names ; [see my article,
Dravidian Languages in the English Cyclopced.), Supplement, Arts
and Sciences] and at least one city of Syria, (the Hierapolis of the
Greeks), was called by the Sanskrit name of Mabug, from maha =
while India is enumerated among the 127
great and Mgd = & god
provinces subject to the rule of Xerxes in Esther i. 1, and viii. 9.
The Sanskrit, the ancient language of Hindustan, abounds in
;

cory's ancient fragments.

68

works of science, theology, law, grammar, and poetry both


lyrical and dramatic ; yet, it is a remarkable fact, that no historical
work exists in any language of India of a date anterior to the
Mohammedan conquest, by Mahmood of Ghuzni, (a.d. i,ooo),
except the poetic chronicle of Kashmir, called the Raja Tarangini,
and the Ceylonese historical work called the Mahawanso. " That
no Hindu nation but the Kashmirians," says Sir William Jones,
" have left us regular histories in their ancient language we must
ever lament " while Monier Williams, the Sanskrit Professor at
Oxford, says, {Introd. to Nala, p. xvii.), "all Hindu Chronology is
more or less conjectural." It is, indeed, uncertain, at what period
;

the Hindus acquired the art of writing ; for " no inscriptions," says
Professor Max Miiller, (Sanskrit Grammar, p. 3), " have been
met with in India anterior to the rise of Buddhism. The earliest
authentic specimens of writing are the inscriptions of Priyadarsi,
These are written in two different
or Asoka, about B.C. 250.

The alphabet which

found in the inscription of


and most closely
connected with the Aramaic branch of the old Semitic, or
Phoenician, alphabet .... while that which is found in the
inscription of Girnar, and which is the real source of all other
Indian alphabets, has not, as yet, been traced back in a satisfactory
manner, to any Semitic prototype." It is therefore to the fortunate
who had accompanied Alexander
circumstance of Megasthenes,
being accredited as Ambasthe Great in his Indian Expedition
sador from Seleucus Nicator to Sandracottus, (whom we identify
with the Chandragupta of Hindu story) that we are indebted for
the earliest information in regard to India which has reached
The royal seat of this monarch was at Patawestern nations.
liputra, (Palibothra, or Patna) ; and a poem by Somadeva, after
relating the story of the revolution which took place at Pataliputra,
and the massacre of Nanda, and his sons, speaks of the usurpation
The age of the
of Chandragupta, and of his residence there.
the third or fourth in direct descent from Chandragreat Asoka
gupta, is one of the well-known epochs of the promulgation of the
for Mihinda, Asoka's brother, preached the
Buddhist faith
alphabets.

Kapurdigiri

is

is

clearly of Semitic origin,

" The
doctrines of Buddha to the distant inhabitants of Ceylon.
Quarterly
history of ancient India," says a writer in the
Review for July, 1870, "is like a series of writings on a palimpsest

behind Buddhism, which is our first historical starting point, we


find a form of Hinduism, which is the last stage of the religion ot
the Brahmanas, before it assumed its modern developments as we
trace them in classical Sanskrit literature
and it is far behind the
oldest of the Brahmanas, that we must look for the period of the
Rig-Veda, upon which all Sanskrit literature is based."
;

THE

ATLANTIC AND PANCHAEAN

FRAGMENTS
FROM

MARCELLUS AND EUEMERUS.

ATLANTIC AND PANCHAEAN


FRAGMENTS.

Of the Atlantic

Island.

From Marcellus.
"
is

That such and so great an island formerly existed,


recorded by some of the historians who have

treated of the concerns of the outward sea.

For

they say, that in their times there were seven islands

were sacred

situated in that sea, which

to Proser-

and three others of an immense


magnitude, one of which was consecrated to Pluto,

pine, (Persephone),

another to

Ammon, and

between them

was no

less

to

the one which

Poseidon

was

situated

the size of this last island

than a thousand stadia.

of this island preserved a tradition,

concerning

The

inhabitants

handed down from


existence of

the

Atlantic island, of prodigious magnitude, which

had

their

ancestors,

really existed in those seas,

period of time, governed


tic

"

Ocean.

Ethiopian

Such

all

the

and which, during a long


the islands in the Atlan-

the statement of Marcellus in his

is

History."

Extracted from Proclus in

Timczus.

i.c,

Neptune.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

I7 2

PANCHAEAN FRAGMENTS.
From Euemerus.
"

Euemerus, (the

Cassancler the king,

was a favourite of
and being, upon that account

historian),

constrained by his master to undertake

some

useful,

voyage of discovery, he says


that he travelled southwards to the ocean, and having

as well as extensive,

sailed

from Arabia Felix, stood out to sea several

among

days, and continued his course


that

sea,

one of which

the islands of

exceeded the rest

far

in

magnitude, and this island was called Panchsea.

He
it

observes, that the Panchaeans

were singular

for their piety,

with magnificent
silver

and

sacrifices,

He

gold.

was consecrated

who

inhabited

honouring the gods

and superb offerings of

says, moreover, that the island

to the gods,

and mentions several

other remarkable circumstances relative to


quity,

and the richness of the

institutions

and

services,

some

of which

related in the books preceding this.

that
in

it,

upon the brow of a


there

its

He

we have

relates also,

certain very high

mountain

was a temple of the Triphylaean Zeus,

founded by him at the time he ruled over

anti-

arts displayed in its

Or Euhemerus

all

the

of Messana, an atheistic philosopher,

friend of Cassander, kinsj of

Macedon.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

73

habitable world, whilst he was yet resident amongst

men.

In this temple stood a golden column, on

which was

inscribed, in the

Panchaean characters, a

regular history of the actions of Ouranos, and Kronus,


(Saturn),

and Zeus

(Jupiter).

In a subsequent part of his work, he relates that


the

first

justice

king was Ouranos, a

man renowned

for

and benevolence, and well conversant with

the motion of the stars

who honoured

was the

and, that he

the heavenly

Gods with

first

sacrifices,

upon which account he was called Ouranos (Heaven).

He

had two sons by

were called Pan and Kronus; and daughters

and Demetra. 2

who
Rhea

his wife Hestia, (Vesta),

And Kronus

reigned after Ouranos

and he married Rhea, and had by her Zeus, and Hera, 3


and Poseidon.

And when Zeus

succeeded to the

kingdom of Kronus he married Hera, and Demetra,


and Themis, by whom he had children by the first,
the Curetes 4 and Persephone, (Proserpine), by the
He
second, and Athena, (Minerva), by the third.
went to Babylon, where he was hospitably received
by Belus, and afterwards passed over to the island of
Panchaea, which lies in the ocean, where he erected
;

Cybele, "the great mother," the

Ops

of the

Roman

mythology.
2

Ceres.

Juno.

Priests of Jupiter in the island of Crete,

goddess Cybele.

and of the

174

an

altar to

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


Ouranos, (Heaven), his forefather.

From

who was then


from whom Mount Casius,

thence he went into Syria to Cassius,


the ruler of that country,
(on the borders

thence into

of Egypt), receives its name. Passing


he conquered Cilix, the governor

Cilicia,

of those parts

and, having travelled through

other nations, he was honoured by

acknowledged as a god."

Casius is the
Egypt, now called

and universally

Eusebius Prczp. Evang.

as quoted from Diodorus Siculus

all

many

Eel., p.

ii.,

68 1.

name of a mountain on the coast of


Ras Kasaroun. It lies east of Pelusium.

Another Mount Casius, (Jebel Okrah), is placed in the


north of Syria, on the coast, south of the Orontes. It is
uncertain which Mount Casius is intended in the text.

End of the Atlantic and

Panchcean Fragments.

MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS.

MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS.

HECATAEUS OF ABDERA.
"

For Hecataeus

who was both a

of Abdera,

sopher, and one very useful in active

temporary of Alexander the Great

life,

philo-

was a conand

in his youth,

was afterwards with Ptolemy, the son of Lagus. He


wrote a book expressly about the Jewish affairs, (not
by-the-by only), out of which book I am willing to
run over a few things, of which

by way of epitome.

And,

have been treating

in the first place,

demonstrate the time when

this

Hecataeus

will

lived.

For he mentions the battle between Ptolemy and


Demetrius, King of Syria, near Gaza, which was
fought in the eleventh year after the death of Alex-

ander the Great, and


relates in his history.
this

Olympiad, as Castor

in the cxvii.

For,

Olympiad, he says

when he had

further, that in this

piad, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus,

at Gaza, this Demetrius,

Antigonus,
is

cxiv.

King

who was surnamed

agreed by

all,

Olympiad.

that
It

set

conquered

in battle

of Syria, the son of


Poliorcetes.

Now

Alexander the Great died


is,

down
Olym-

it

in the

therefore, evident that our

nation, (the Jews), flourished in his time,

time of Alexander the Great.

and

in the

Wherefore, Hecataeus

cory's ancient fragments.

178

speaks to the same purpose as follows,

viz.,

that

Ptolemy, after the battle at Gaza, got possession of


the places in Syria

and many when they heard of

Ptolemy's moderation and humanity, went along with

him

and were willing

to Egypt,

affairs;

him

to assist

one of whom, says Hecataeus, was Hezekiah,

man

the high-priest of the Jews, a

of about sixty-six

among

years of age, and held in great dignity

own people

He

(the Jews).

management

of

affairs, if

although, as he says,

his

was a very sensible

man, and could speak ably, and was very


the

in his

skilful in

any man ever were

so,

the priests of the Jews took

all

tithes of the products of the land,

and managed public

number not above 1,500 at the


Hecataeus makes mention of this Hezekiah
most.
a second time, and says, that as he was possessed of
so great a dignity, and was become familiar with us,

affairs,

and were

in

so did he take certain of those that were with him,

and explained

to

people, for he
polity

down

clares again,

that

we

them

had

all

in writing.
'

habitations

and

civil

Moreover, Hecataeus de-

what regard we have

for

our laws, and

resolve to endure anything rather than trans-

gress them, because

Whereupon he

we

those

think

it

right for us to

do

so.

adds, that although they are held in

bad reputation among


all

the circumstances of their

their

all

who come

treated reproachfully

their neighbours

to them,

by the

Persia, yet they cannot

and among

and have been often


kings,

and satraps of

be dissuaded from carrying

CORY

ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

out what they think best; and

when they

79

are stripped

of everything on this account, and are tortured, and

brought to the most terrible kinds of death, they meet


them,

(i.e.,

the tortures), after a most extraordinary

manner, beyond

all

other people, and will not re-

nounce the religion of their

Hecataeus

forefathers.

a few incontestible proofs of

also produces not

when he

their resolute tenaciousness of their laws,

When

this

once Alexander the Great

informs

us,

was

Babylon, and had purposed to rebuild the

at

that

'

temple of Belus, which had


order thereto,

fallen to decay,

he commanded

all

his

and

soldiers

in

in

general to carry earth thither, the Jews, and they


alone,

would not comply with that command.

Nay,

they underwent blows, and were mulcted in heavy


fines

on

this account, until the

king forgave them, and

permitted them to live in quiet.


that

when

country,
altars,

the Macedonians

He

came

and demolished the

to

says, moreover,

them

into that

[old] temples,

and the

they assisted them in demolishing them

all

them in rebuilding them), they


underwent the payment of fine to the Satraps,

but, (for not assisting

either
or,

sometimes obtained forgiveness/ adding

that

'these

account/

men

He

further,

deserve to be admired on that

also speaks of the

mighty populousness

of our, (the Jewish), nation, and says, that 'the Persians formerly carried

away

many

ten

also, that

not

into captivity

thousands of our people to Babylon, as

a few ten thousands were removed, after the death

cory's ancient fragments.

180

of Alexander, into

Egypt and Phoenicia, on account

He also

of the rebellion in Syria.'

how

History

as well as of

large the country

takes notice in his

which we

is,

inhabit,

excellent character, saying that

its

'

the

land which the Jews inhabit contains three millions


of arourae, (or Egyptian acres), and

most excellent and

fruitful soil

The same

dimensions.'

nor

generally of a

is

is

Judea of

lesser

writer describes our city of

Jerusalem, as of a most excellent structure, and very


large,

He

and inhabited from the most ancient times.

number of men

also discourses of the

in

it,

and

of the construction of our temple, after the following

manner

There are many

'
:

says he,

'

in the country of

about

fortified city, of

which

is

inhabited by

fifty
t

and

fortresses

Judea

but there

There

about the middle of the

city

a wall of stone, the length of which

is

cubits,

500

is

feet,

with double cloisters (or

same place there is a


not made of hewn stone, but composed

having double gates).


altar,

one

furlongs in circumference,

Jerusalem.

square

is

20,000 men, and this city they

call

and the breadth 100

villages,'

In the

of white stones gathered together, having each side

twenty cubits

Near

it is

in length,

a large

and ten cubits

edifice,

wherein there

and a candlestick, both of gold, and two


weight.

Upon

these there

extinguished, neither
is

is

light,

is

height.

an

altar,

talents in

which

by night nor by

no image nor votive offering

in

is

day.

nothing at

never

There
all

is

there planted, neither a grove nor anything of the

181

cory's ancient fragments.


Priests remain night

kind.

and day

performing certain purifications, to

in the temple,

whom

it

gether prohibited, while there, to drink wine.


taeus

also testifies,

is alto-

Heca-

that we, (the Jews), fought as

army of Alexander, and afterwards


I will add further
in the service of his successors.
what he learned, as he says, when he was himself
with the same army, concerning what was done by a
auxiliaries in the

certain

Jew

As

He

in that expedition.

thus relates the

was myself going to the Red Sea,


there followed us a man, whose name was Mosollam
he was one of the Jewish horsemen who conducted
story

'

us,

a person of great courage, of a strong body, and

one allowed by

among

either the

all

to be the

most

skilful

Greeks or barbarians.

archer

Now,

this

man, as people were passing along the road in great


numbers, and a certain augur was taking an augury

by a bird, and required them all to stand still,


Mosollam enquired what they were staying for.
Hereupon the augur showed him the bird from
whence he took his augury, and told him, that if the
bird stayed where he was, they ought all to stand still
but, that if he got up and flew onward, they ought to
advance

but,

on the other hand,

To

ward, they must retire again.

made no

reply, but,

drawing

his

he flew back-

if

this

Mosollam

bow, shot at the

it, and killed it.


When, therefore, the augur
and others of the company were very angry, and
cursed him, he answered them thus
Why are you

bird, hit

'

cory's ancient fragments.

i82

mad

so

most wretched bird

as to take this

your hands

How

can

into

any true

this bird give us

information concerning our march, which had not the


foresight even to save himself

For, had he been

come to
Mosollam

able to foresee the future, he would not have


this place,

the

but would have been afraid,

Jew should shoot

at

and

lest

him/

kill

But of the testimony of Hecataeus we have said

enough

such as desire to

easily obtain

them from

know more

his book."

From Josephus against


"

For Alexander did

them may

of

Apion, Book

ii.

sec. 4.

not, therefore, assemble, or

get together some of our nation to Alexandria, be-

cause he wanted inhabitants for this his


building of which he had bestowed so
this

was given

men

on the

pains; but

to our people, (the Jews), for a reward,

because he had, upon a careful


to be

city,

much

trial,

found them

of virtue and fidelity to him.

Hecataeus says concerning

us,

all

For, as

'Alexander honoured

our nation, (the Jews), to such a degree that, for the


equity and fidelity which the Jews manifested towards

him, he permitted them to hold the country of


aria free from

tribute.

Of

the

Samsame opinion was

Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, as to those Jews

who

For he entrusted the fortresses


hands, believing they would keep

dwelt in Alexandria/
of Egypt into their
them faithfully, and

valiantly

and,

when he was

cory's ancient fragments.

183

desirous of securing the government of Cyrene, and

the other

cities

of Libya to himself, he sent a body

of Jews to inhabit them."

AGATHARCHIDES OF CNIDUS.
"

Agatharchides, as

though

in the

supposes

much for me
having made mention of

not think

shall

way

too

to

name

us Jews,

of derision at our simplicity, as

For,

to be.

it

it

the affairs of Stratonice,

donia into Syria, and

'

he

when he was discoursing of


how she came out of Mace-

left

her husband, Demetrius,

while yet Seleucus would not marry her as she


expected,

army at
about Antioch, and

but while he was raising

Babylon, stirred up a rebellion

an

how, after the king had returned, and on his taking

Antioch she

fled to Seleucia,

and might have

sailed

away immediately had she not complied with a dream


which forbade her to do so, and hence was captured
and put

to death/

When

Agatharchides had premised

this story,

and

had jested upon Stratonice for her superstition, he


gives a like example of what was reported concerning
us,

and writes thus

who

dwell in a

city,

'

There are a people


the strongest of

city the inhabitants call Jerusalem.

called Jews,

all cities,

They

which

are accus-


cory's ancient fragments.

184

tomed

to rest

on every seventh day,

at

which times

they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any

affairs

of life, but spread

out their hands in their holy places, and pray

Now

the

till

came to pass, that when Ptolemy,


the son of Lagus, came against this city with his
evening.

it

army, these men, in observing this


instead of guarding the

theirs,

country to submit

itself to

was openly proved


practice.

mad custom
suffered

city,

a bitter lord

and

their

have commanded a

to

of

their

law

foolish

This accident taught all other men but the

Jews, to disregard such

dreams as these were, and

not to follow the like idle suggestions, delivered as a


law, when, in such uncertainty of

human

they are at a loss what they should

reasonings,

do.'

Now

this

our procedure seems a ridiculous thing to Agatharchides

but

it

will

appear, to such as consider

it

without prejudice, a great thing, and one that de-

served

many encomiums

mean, when certain

men

constantly prefer the observation of their laws, and


their religion towards

God, before the preservation

of themselves and their country."


against

Apion.

Book

i.

sec. 22.

From

Josephus

cory's ancient fragments.

Concerning the
Translation

185

the
of the Hebrew Books made
into Greek by order of Ptolemy PhilaSeptuagint Version,

or

delphia, King of Egypt.

From

of Demetrius Pkalereus, keeper of


the Royal Library at Alexandria, to the king.
the Epistle

Demetrius to the great King.


"

When

thou,

king, gavest

me

a charge concern-

ing the collection of books that were wanting to

fill

your library and the care that ought to be taken


about such as are imperfect,

diligence about those matters.

you, that

we want the books

have used the utmost

And

hereby inform

of the Jewish legislation,

with some others, for they are written in the

Hebrew

characters, and, being in the language of that nation,

are to us unknown.

Now

it

is

necessary that thou

shouldst have accurate copies of them.


this legislation, (the

law of Moses),

And

is full

indeed,

of hidden

wisdom, and entirely blameless, as being the

legisla-

For which cause it is, as Hecataeus


of Abdera says, that the poets and historians make
no mention of it, nor of those men who lead their
tion of

lives

God.

according to

it,

since

it is

a holy law, and ought

not to be published by profane mouths.


please thee,

king, thou

mayest write

If

then

it

to the high

cory's ancient fragments.

86

priest of the Jews, to

every

tribe,

laws, that

and

by

send six of the elders out of

most

those, such as are

skilful

of the

means we may learn the clear


meaning of those books, and may

their

and consistent

obtain an accurate interpretation of their contents

and so may have such a

collection of these as

suitable to thy desire."

From Josephus s Antiquities

of the

J^ews,

Book

xii.

section

From

may be

4.

P S

L.

Sallust.

De Bello Jugurthce.
"

But what race of men

Africa,

had possession of

first

and who afterwards

and

arrived,

in

manner they have become blended with each


though the following

differs

commonly

current, yet

preted to

me

The

from the report which

will

give

from the Punic,

books, which are called


1

'

the books

it,

(i.e.,

first,

'

possessed

whose

food,

herb of the

field,

flesh of wild animals.

were ruled neither by custom,

inter-

Carthaginian)

a rough unpolished people,

to which they added the

was

it

is

of King Hiempsal!

like that of cattle, consisted of the

ment

as

Gaetulians and Libyans,' says he,

Africa at

what
other,

law, nor

They

any govern-

but strolling and wandering about, had their

abode wherever night compelled them

to stay.

But

cory's ancient fragments.


after

Hercules had perished

in Spain, as the Africans

suppose, his army, composed of


different nations,

upon the

among themselves
Of
soon dwindled away.
tending

187

men

belonging to

loss of their leader, con-

for the chief


this

command,

numerous host the

Medes, Persians, and Armenians, having been con-

veyed

ships

in

to

Africa,

occupied those

nearest to the Mediterranean Sea.

The

places

Persians,

however, settled nearer the (Atlantic) Ocean


in place of houses,

their ships, turned

used

upwards, there being no

wood

and,

bottom

in the country,

nor

any opportunity of buying, nor even of bartering


Moreover, a wide sea
with the Spaniards for any.
and an unknown language prevented all intercourse.
These colonists, by degrees mixed with the Gaetulians, 1

(i.e.,

the aborigines) in marriage.

From

the

cumstance, however, of their frequently making


different soils,

and

cir-

trial

the consequent shifting about

of

from

Numidians?
of the Numidian

place to place, they called themselves

And,

to

The

this

day, the

cottages

Gaetulians are the Berber tribes,

now known by

names of Kabyles, Shelloofs, Beni-Mezab, &c, who are


cognate in race and language with the aborigines of the
Canary Islands. Their languages constitute the sub-Semitic
branch of the Semitic linguistic family. Vide my article
Semitic Languages, in the English Cyclopcedia, Supplement
(Arts and Sciences).
2
From the Greek vc/xciv, to feed, because they were fed,
or maintained, by wandering about like grazing cattle.
the

cory's ancient fragments.

88

peasants, which

are

by them mapalia, are

called

oblong, with their sides bulging out, like the hulls

Now

of ships.

Armenians,

the Libyans joined the

for they lived

Medes and

nearer the African

{i.e.,

Mediterranean) Sea, the Gaetulians more under the


sun,

(i.e.,

not far from the scorching

further south,

and

latitudes),

these,

Armenians) very soon had towns


Spain only by

and

the Liby-Medians

(i.e.,

for,

divided from

the Strait (of Gibraltar), they

and the

Spaniards began to interchange commodities,


barter) with
in course of

The

one another.

(or

Libyans, however,

time corrupted their name, calling them,

in their

barbarous language, Mauri, (or Moors),

stead of

Medi

But the

in-

or Medes.

affairs

of the Persians were soon in a

flourishing condition, for afterwards, under the

name

of Numidians, (having separated from their parents

on account of

their vast numbers), they obtained

possession of those parts nearest to Carthage, which


are

now

called Numidia.

Afterwards both

parties,

relying on one another, reduced their neighbours to


subjection, either

by arms or

themselves, especially those


est to our,

(i.e.,

and reputation

terror,

and acquired

who had advanced

the Libyans being less warlike than


Finally,

most of the lower

the north coast), of Africa were seized

Numidians,

all

near-

the Mediterranean) Sea, both glory

the Gaetulians.

in the

for

parts,

(i.e.,

upon by the

the conquered tribes being confounded

name and

nation of their rulers.

In subse-

cory's ancient fragments.

189

quent times the Phoenicians, some with the object of


diminishing the overflowing population

at

home,

others through a longing for power, having gained

over the people, together with those fond of changes


in

government, to their undertaking,

built

Hippo, 1

Hadrumetum, and Leptis, with other towns on the


These cities, having grown much larger in a
coast.
short time, became some a security, others an ornament to their founders. As to Carthage 2 itself, I
There are two ancient cities on the north coast of Africa
which were formerly called Hippo (Phoenician ^V UBBO,
a bay). The one was Hippo Regius, once the residence of
the Numidian kings, and the episcopal see of St. Augustine,
now Bona. It is between the Cap de Fer (Ras Hadeed)
and La Calle the other, formerly called Hippo Zarytus
Hippo of the Canal) standing on a beautiful land(i.e.,
locked harbour, with a narrow entrance (like a canal) to the
1

Mediterranean,

The

canal).

is

now

former

called

is

in

Ben Zert {i.e., son of the


and belongs to the

Algeria,

French the latter to Tunis. It is uncertain which of the


two is intended by our author.
2
Carthage was founded by Dido, who is also called
Elisa, about 100 years before Rome.
Upon the murder
of her husband, (Sichaeus or Acerbas), by Pygmalion her
brother, she fled from Tyre, and founded this famous city.
It was for many centuries the rival of Rome, but about
the Roman general.
1 50 B.C. it was destroyed by Scipio,
It is said to have continued burning for seventeen days.
Extensive ruins and mounds of earth, extending from the
;

sea to the walls of Tunis, along the shore of the lake, with

here and there a few broken arches of an aqueduct, are


that remain of this once proud city,
it is

said,

was nearly twenty-four

all

whose circumference,

miles.


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

I9O
think

it

better to be silent, rather than say but

on such a

subject,

little

and besides, brevity obliges

me

Extracted from Sallust de

to hasten to another."

Bello Jugnrtkcz, cap. xvii

xix.

VELLEIUS PATERCULUS and ^MILIUS SURA.


The

was subsequently transferred


from the Assyrians, (who had held it 1,070 years), to
the Medes, from this time for a period of 870 years.
"

Asiatic empire

For Sardanapalus, King of the Assyrians, a man


wallowing
sion

from

being the thirty-third

in luxury,

and

Ninus

Semiramis,

founders of Babylon, from

whom

in succes-

the

the

(reputed)

kingdom had

passed in a regular descent from father to son,

was deprived of his empire, and put to death by


./Emilius Sura, also, in his
Arbaces the Mede.
Annals of the Roman People, says, That the Assyrian
.

princes extended their empire over

all

nations.

They

were succeeded by the Medes, then by the Macedonians, and shortly afterwards

by two

and Antiochus, both of Macedonian

kings, Philip

origin,

who, not

long after the destruction of Carthage, were conquered

by the Romans, who then obtained the empire of


the world.

To

reign of Ninus,

this time,

King

from the beginning of the

of the Assyrians,

who

first


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

191

obtained the empire, there has elapsed a period of


years."

1,995

of

Roman

Extracted from the

Velleius Patercuhcs,

Book

i.

chap.

History

6.

CLEANTHES.
Clean thes was a Stoic philosopher, born at Assos,

Troad, about

in the

b.c.

Athens he attended the

264.

On

his arrival at

lectures of Zeno, the Stoic,

while so great was his poverty that, in order to maintain himself,

he was obliged to draw water for the

gardens of Athens by night, to provide himself the

means of devoting himself to philosophy by day,


whence he was nicknamed Phreantes, or the wellHe was accustomed, from want of means
drawer.
to purchase writing materials, to write

down on

the

blade-bones of oxen, and on pieces of pottery, his

by Zeno, whose pupil


nineteen years, and whom he suc-

notes of the lectures delivered

he remained
ceded

for

in his school.

Among

his disciples

were King

Antigonus, and the philosopher Chrysippus.


said to

have taught that the sun

ciple of the

world.

has come down to us

is

He

is

the ruling prin-

specimen of his teaching

in his

noble

hymn

to Jupiter,

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

192

one of the most sublime


canon of revelation

poetry outside the

efforts of

The Hymn

of Cleanthes.

Extracted from Stobceus.

TO JUPITER.

"

thou who, under several names, art adored,

but whose power

entire

and

infinite

Jupiter,

of immortals, sovereign of nature, governor of

first

and supreme

all,

is

man

suppliant prayer, for to

Whatever

invoke thee.

drew

earth

is

lives

given the right to

and

being from thee

its

my

legislator of all things, accept

moves on

we

this

are a faint

similitude of thy divinity.


I

will

will address, then,


I

suspended

seems

to

moves

along,

roll

over

and which

around the earth, obeys thee

and

silently

it

hands

strikes,

it

submits to thy mandate.

flaming, gifted with an immortal

and

all

nature

directest the universal spirit

and

our heads,

That

thunder, minister of thy laws, rests under thy

invincible
life,

prayers to thee, and never

cease to praise thy wondrous power.

universe

The

my

is

terrified.

which animates

all

Thou
things,

lives in all beings.

Such,

almighty king,

is

thy unbounded sway

In heaven, on earth, or in the floods below, there

nought performed or produced without

is

thee, except


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

93

which springs from the heart of the wicked.

the

evil,

By

thee confusion

is

changed

into order

the warring elements are united.

By

ment, thou so blendest good with

evil,

a general and eternal harmony in

man, wicked man, alone breaks

Wretched

of the world.

by thee

a happy agreeas to produce

all

But

things.

this great

being,

who

harmony

seeks after

good, and yet perceives not the universal law which


points out the

happy.
justice,

He

way

to render

him

at

once good and

abandons the pursuit of virtue and

and roves where each passion moves him.

Sordid wealth, fame, and sensual pleasures become,

by

turns, the objects of his pursuit.

whom

all gifts

descend,

who

God, from

sittest in thick

darkness,

thunder-ruling Lord, dispel this ignorance from the

mind of man

deign to enlighten his soul

draw

that eternal reason which serves as thy guide

support in the government of the world

honoured with a portion of


turn,

this light,

it

to

and

so that,

we may,

in

our

be able to honour thee, by celebrating thy great

This is the proper


in a hymn.
For surely nothing can be more de-

works unceasingly
duty of man.

lightful to the inhabitants of the earth or the skies,

than to celebrate that divine reason which presides

over nature."
ations, 181

1,

From

Rev. II. Card's Literary Recre-

p. 10.

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

194

CHALDEAN OBSERVATIONS

OF THE

From

Pliny.

" Anticlides relates, that letters

Egypt, by Menon,
the most ancient
to

prove

in

Phoroneus,

fifteen years before

King

of Greece, and he endeavours

by the monuments.

it

were invented

On

the other hand,

Epigenes, a writer of very great authority, informs us,


that

among

the Babylonians, observations of the stars

were preserved, inscribed upon baked


to a period of

who

are

720 years.

tiles,

extending

Berosus and Kritodemus,

the most moderate in their calculations,

nevertheless extend the period of the observations to

480
use

Whence may be inferred


of letters among them."
Nat. Hist.
years.

For
to

the following interesting extract

the eternal
lib. vii.,

I am

56.

indebted

Dr. Samuel Birch, Keeper of Oriental Antiquities

in the British

Museum.

THE MANNERS OF THE BABYLONIANS.


From Nicolas of Damascus.
"

In

the

Medes, and

King

of

reign

of

Artseus,

the

King

of

the

one of the successors of Sardanapalus,

the

Assyrians,

there

was amongst

the

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


Medes, one Parsondes, a

man renowned

for

95

his

courage and strength, and greatly esteemed by the

King, on account of his good sense, and the beauty

He

of his person.

and

whether he fought on

in battle,

chariot,

particularly excelled in the chase,

or on

Now

horseback.

foot,

this

from his
Parsondes

observed, that Nanarus, (the governor or tributary

was very careful in his personal


attire, and wore ear-rings, and shaved himself carefully, and was effeminate, and unwarlike, and he
disliked him exceedingly
so he asked Artseus, the
King, to deprive Nanarus of his government, and to
bestow it on himself.
But Artaeus, having bound
himself by the compact entered into by Arbaces, was
loth to act unjustly towards the Babylonian, and

king), of Babylon,

gave no answer

The matter, however,


who promised great
sutlers who would catch

to Parsondes.

reached the ears of Nanarus,


rewards to any one of his
his

enemy.

when

It

happened one day that Parsondes,

hunting, went far from the King, to a plain

near Babylon.

Sending

his servants into a neigh-

bouring wood, that they might drive out, by their


shoutings, the wild beasts, he remained outside, to

take

the game.

Whilst chasing a wild ass he

separated himself from his attendants, and

came

to a

part of the Babylonian territories, where the sutlers

were preparing markets


he asked of them

have

this

Nanarus.

for

to drink

Being

thirsty,

and they, delighted

to

opportunity of seizing him, gave him that

cory's ancient fragments.

196

which he required, took charge of

him

They then

refresh himself.

his horse,

and bade

placed a sumptuous

him with very sweet wine,


mixed with a certain intoxicating drug, and brought
beautiful women to keep him company so that, at
length, overcome by the wine, he fell fast asleep.
The sutlers then took him, and brought him bound

feast before him, served

to

When

Nanarus.

Parsondes had recovered from

him for
did you, who have

the effects of the wine, Nanarus upbraided


his conduct.

'

Why

'

said he,

never suffered any wrong at

man-woman
birth

my

hands,

my

(androgyne), and ask

of Artaeus, as

noble

'

if

me

call

government

were of no account, although of

Many

thanks to him that he did

not grant your request.'


Parsondes, nothing abashed, replied,

'

Because

thought myself more worthy of the honour

for

I
I

am more

manly, and more useful to the king than

who

are shaven, and have your eyes underlined

you,

with stibium, and your face painted with white-lead.'


'

Are you not ashamed,

then,' said

Nanarus,

being

'

such as you describe yourself to be, to have been so

overcome by your stomach and passions, that you


should have fallen into the hands of one so greatly
inferior to yourself?

softer

by

and

Belus,

fairer

But

will

quickly

than any woman.'

and by Mylitta

which the Babylonians give

for
to

beckoning to a eunuch, 'Lead

And he swore

such
their
off'

make you

is

name

the

Venus

then

cried he, 'this

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

97

Shave, and rub with a pumice-stone, the

fellow.

whole of

and

plait his hair as

Let him underline his

with his voice, that


musicians; with

women

do.

on the harp, and

to sing, to play

Bathe him

except his head.

his body,

twice a day, and anoint him.


eyes,

Let him learn

accompany it
he may be amongst the female

whom

he

to

shall pass his time,

having

same garments as
they do. The eunuch did as he was commanded, and
kept Parsondes in the shade, washing him twice
every day, and polishing him with a pumice stone,
and making him pass his time in the same way as the
women, so that he became, very shortly, fair, tender,
and woman-like singing and playing even better
a smooth skin, and wearing the

The

than any of the female musicians.

having offered a reward, and searched


favourite, at last concluded, that

King, Artaeus,
in

vain for his

he had been devoured

by wild beasts whilst hunting.


Parsondes,

mode

of

life

having passed
at

seven years

in

this

Babylon, induced a eunuch,

who

had been severely flogged, and insultingly treated


by Nanarus, to run away, and inform Artaeus of

what had happened


sent an

envoy, to

to

him.

demand

Artaeus immediately
the

liberation

of

his

But Nanarus, frightened, declared


that he had never seen Parsondes since he had
former favourite.

disappeared.
bassador,

Artaeus, however, sent a second

much

ammore powerful
and threatened by letter, to

greater in rank, and

than the former one,

cory's ancient fragments.

198

put to death the Babylonian, unless he delivered up


his captive.

now

Nanarus, being

greatly alarmed, promised to

give up the man, and, moreover, apologised to the

ambassador, declaring, that he was sure the King

would

see, that

he had justly treated one who had


King's favour.

He

then entertained the ambassador with a great

feast,

endeavoured

to ruin

him

in the

during which entered, to the number of 150, the


female

players,

amongst

whom was

Parsondes.

Some sang, and others played on the flute but the


Mede excelled them all, both in skill and beauty, so
;

when

was over, and Nanarus asked


the ambassador, which of the women he thought
superior to the rest in beauty, and accomplishments,
that,

the feast

he pointed, without

Nanarus,

hesitation, to Parsondes.

clapping his hands, laughed a long time, and then


said,

'

Do

you wish

tainly,' replied

to take her with

the ambassador.

her to you/ said Nanarus.

me

?'

'

'

Why

But

you
I

'

will

'

Cer-

not give

then did you ask

exclaimed the ambassador. 'This,' said Nanarus,

after a little hesitation,

have come
he swore

'

'

is

Parsondes, for

whom

you

and, the ambassador disbelieving him,

to the truth of

what he had

said.

On

the

following day, the Babylonian placed Parsondes in a

wagon, and sent him away, with the ambassador,


Artaeus,

who was

at Susa.

But the King did not

to
re-

cognise him, and was a lone time before he would believe that so valiant a

man

could become a

woman.

cory's ancient fragments.

199

Parsondes exacted a promise from Artaeus that he

would revenge him upon Nanarus. And when the


King came to Babylon, he gave Nanarus ten days to
right; but the Babylonian, alarmed,

do what was
fled to

Mitraphernes, the chief of the eunuchs, and

promised him, for himself, ten talents of gold and ten


gold cups, and 200 of

silver,

money, and several

suits

and 100

talents of silver

of clothes

and

for the

King, 100 talents of gold, and 100 gold cups, and 300
of silver,

and 1,000

numerous

dresses,

save his

and other

The

eunuch,

in the

who was

by the King, succeeded

estimation

money, and

fine gifts, if

and keep him

life,

Babylon.

talents of silver

he would

government of
held in great

but Parsondes

waited his opportunity, and afterwards, finding an


occasion, took his revenge both

eunuch."

Quoted

Remains,

vol.

ii.,

on Nanarus and the

in

Layard's

Nineveh and

its

p.

329 333,

as translated

by

Dr. Birch, from the Prodromus Hellenikes Bibliothekes, 8vo.

Pains, 1805,

p.

229.

CANON OF THE KINGS OF EGYPT.


From Diodorus
"

Some

of

them

fable that

reigned over Egypt, during


years,

and that the

last of the

Siculus.

gods and heroes


little

less

first

than 18,000

gods who reigned was

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

200

Horus, (the son of

kingdom

relate, also, that the

Egypt was governed by men during

of

nearly 15,000 years,

which we

They

sis).

down

to the i8o//

visited Egypt, that

is

in

during the reign of

Ptolemy, called the younger Dionysus,

The

Olympiad,

(i.e.,

Bacchus).

kings of Egypt were for the most part natives,

except the Ethiopians, Persians, and Macedonians,

who

acquired the government for short

periods.

There reigned, altogether four Ethiopians, not

in

the length of

whose

reigns occupied collectively nearly 36 years.

The

succession, but at intervals

Persians, under their king Cambyses, subdued the

(Egyptian) nation, by force of arms and occupied the

throne

135 years, inclusive of the period of the in-

surrections,

which the Egyptians made from time

time, unable to endure the severity of their rule,

to

and

to submit to the impiety displayed

by them towards

the gods of the land.

Lastly, the

Macedonians and

276 years.

All the rest of

their successors reigned

the time was

filled

up with native

princes, viz.,

470

After the gods, Menas (i.e.,


5 queens.
Menes), was the first king of the Egyptians. After

kings,

him,

it

and

is

said, that

two of the descendants of the

before-named king reigned during more than 1,400


years.

Then

Busiris.

the last bore the

8 of his descendants, of

same name

as the

first.

He

whom

founded

the city called by the Egyptians the city of the Sun,

or Diospolis, but by the Greeks, Thebes.

descendant of

this

The

8th

king bore the surname of his

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.


father,

201

Uchoreus, and built the city of Memphis, the

most celebrated of

all

Myris (or Mceris), who dug

the lake above the city of Memphis.


rations of kings.

whose

Sesoosis,

Seven gene-

exploits

most celebrated, and the greatest of

who preceded

Twelve

the cities of Egypt.

generations of kings.

him, fitted out a

of 400 ships, and subdued

all

were the

the kings

on the Red Sea,

fleet

the islands, and

all

all

the parts of the mainland bordering on the sea as

He

far as the Indies.

army by

land,

Ganges, and conquered

and

all

marched,

and subdued
all

all

India,

with a mighty

also,

Asia

passed over the

even

to the

Ocean,

the nations of the Scythians, and most of the

islands of the Cyclades.

and overran

all

He

Thrace, and

then invaded Europe,

made

it (i.e.,

Thrace),

the boundary of his military expeditions, and set up


pillars

(crTrjXas)

in

Thrace and many other

places,

commemorating his conquests.


He also divided
Egypt into 30 parts, which the Egyptians call nomes,
and appointed governors (nomarchs) over each nome.
And, after a reign of 33 years, he destroyed himself,
on account of the
Sesoosis,

Many

failure of his eyesight.

the second, the son of the preceding.

kings succeeded him.

Amasis,

who was conquered by

Aktisanes,

the

Ethiopian.
Aktisanes, the Ethiopian.

Mendes, an Egyptian, who


rhus.

is

the

same

as

Mar-

CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

202

He
as a

constructed the building called the Labyrinth,

tomb

An

for himself.

interregnum for

5 generations.

Ketna (or Ketes), who is Proteus.


Rhemphis.
Seven insignificant kings ruled, of whom no deed
nor work worthy of record is handed down, except
of one, who was called N ileus, from whom the river
receives

its

name

of

Nilus

which formerly was

called ^Egyptus.

was Chembres, the Memphite. He


reigned 50 years and built the largest of the three

The

8th king

Pyramids.
After his death, his brother, Kephren received the

kingdom, and reigned 56 years.


that

it

was not the

however,

Chemname was

brother, but the son of

who succeeded

bres,

Some say,

him, and that his

Chabryis.

Mykerinus,
the

whom

others call Cherinus, the son of

builder of the former Pyramid, undertook to

build a third, but died before the completion of the

work.

Tnephachthus.
Bocchoris

(or

Bonchoris),

the wise,

the

son of

Tnephachthus.
After a long time Sabacon reigned over Egypt,

being by race an Ethiopian.

In Arabic, NiL signifies

Bahrat Neel.

blue,

hence

'

the blue Nile,'


CORYS ANCIENT FRAGMENTS.

An

203

interregnum of two years.

Twelve

chiefs, 15 years.

Psammitichus the

who was one

Saite,

of

the

twelve chiefs.
After four generations reigned Apries, (Pharaoh

Hophra), 22 years.

He was

strangled.

Amasis.
He died after a reign of 55 years, at the
time that Cambyses, king of Persia, invaded Egypt,
i.e.,

in the 3rd

(viz.,

the Olympic games)

rinaean

Book

year of the 63rd Olympiad, in which

was

victor."

Parmenides the Cama-

From Diodorus

ii.

FINIS.

Siculus, Hist.,

INDEX,
RERUM ET VERBORUM.
Aaron

(Aruas), 81, note

Abascantus, 139

Abraham, was king of Damascus, according

Abydenus, Notice

of,

to Justin, 79

Nicolas of Damascus, 78

quoted, 71, 89

95
Abyla, a Mountain in Africa (now Ceuta), 28, note

Accad, a

city,

mentioned

36,

note

155, note

in Genesis, xxvii

Accadi or Akkadi, the Accadians, xxvii


were a Turanian, or Tartar people,

allied to the Finns, xxvi, xxvii

Accadian, or Akkad, words found in the Assyrian and Hebrew Languages, xxvii

Accad Language,

treated under the

head of Chaldee Language

English Cyclopaedia, xxvii

Achaemenes,

xviii

Achaemenide Dynasty,
Acra, a

city,

mentioned

xviii

in the Periplus of

Hanno, 37

Acracanus, name of a river near Babylon, 73


Adores, king of Damascus (in Justin), 79

Adodus, " king of the Gods,"

ALon, 4
^sculapius, god of medicine, 14
Africanus (Julius) Bishop of

Emmaus, Notice

of,

97

Agathias, quoted, 92

Agatharchides of Knidus, quoted, 183

Agreus and Halieus, Inventors of Hunting and Fishing, 7


Agrotes, 9
Agroueros, 9
Ahriman, the Evil Deity (Satan or Typhon), 132, note
Ake* (Acco, St. Jean d'Acre, Ptolemais), 31

in the

INDEX.

206

Akicharus, the prophet of the Bosphorus, or Babylon,

52

Alaparus, 53

Alexander the Great,

72, 177

Alexander Polyhistor, Notice


Alorus, the

first

of,

101

King of Babylonia,

identified with Adi-Ur,

49

Amegalarus, identified with Amil-ur-gal, 49


Amempsinus, a Chaldsean, from Laranchae (Larissa), 52
Amil-ur-gal, a Babylonian king (Amegalarus), 49

Amillarus, 53

Amiqa

(or

Omoroca), the ocean, the deep,

Amqia, misprint

Ammenon,
Anaitis, the

for

59,

note

Amiqa, 59

53

Venus

of the Armenians, her worship

Persia by Artaxerxes

Annals of Tiglath

II.,

introduced into

69

Pileser, xxiv

of Asurbanipal, translated

by Mr. George Smith, xxvi

of Sargon, published by Dr. Oppert, xxv


of Ashur-nasir-pal, by Rodwell, xix

Annedoti, 46

Annedotus,

51, 53

Anodaphus, 54
Anquetil Duperron,

xiii,

xxii

Antichdes, quoted, 194

Antiochus Soter, king of Syria, 43, 44


i.e. Anu (Heaven), 92

Anus,

Anu, the God, or Heaven

deified, 92

Apason, the husband of Tauthe, 92


Apis, the deified bull, 134

Apollodorus, Notice

of,

96

quoted, 51

57

Arab, xvi

Arabian dynasty, 46
Arambys, a City mentioned
Ararat, the

Hebrew name

in the Periplus, 37

of Armenia, 62, note

Ardates (or Otiartes), the 9th antediluvian king of Babylon, 49, 60


Arguin, Island of, 38
Ark,

54, 61, 62, 63, 74,

Armenia,

75

54, 62, 63,

Artaxerxes

II.,

74
son of Ochus, introduces idolatry

among the

Persians, 69

11

INDEX.

207

Asclepiades, xxxiii
Asclepius, 14

Ashteroth-Karnaim,

i.e.

the two-horned Astarte, a City of Bashan, 15,

note
Ashur-banipal, called also Asurbanipal, son of Esarhaddon, xxvi
Ashte', in the

compound Hebrew word,

Ashtay-'asar, an Assyrian

word, xxviii

Asordanius (Esarhaddon), King of Assyria, 86


Assorus, 92
Assyria, Expeditions to, for Cuneiform Investigation

Dr. Oppert's, xxv

Mr. George Smith's, xxx, note


Assyrian grammar, by M. Joachim Menant, xxvi
dictionary, compiled

Excavations,

and published by Dr. E. Norris, xxv

xvi., xxx., xxxi.,

note

Decipherment, Historical Account

of,

xxi

Assyrians, The, spoke a language cognate with Hebrew, xxvi

were a Semitic people, xxvi


Assyrio-Babylonian words, glossary
Astarte, a Phoenician Goddess,

Venus

of the

Romans,

16,

is

of,

by Mr. Fox Talbot, xxvi

the Aphrodite of the Greeks and the

30

puts on her head as a sign of sovereignty a bull's head, 15

Asur-banipal, his Annals published by Mr. George Smith, xxvi


his library not all published,

Asur-nasir-pal, B.C. 883

xxx

his annals translated

by Rodwell, xix

Athena, or Athene (Minerva), a Daughter of Kronus,


receives from

Kronus the Kingdom of Attica, 16

Athenocles, 92
Atlas, a son of

Aus,

i.e.

Ouranos and Ge (Heaven and Earth),

Hea, the

Avaris, a

Typhonian

one of the three great gods of Babylon, 92

sea,

city,

the refuge of the expelled shepherds, 100,

126, 127, 128, 132, note;

133, 146

Axerdes, son of Nergilus, levied mercenary soldiers, 89


Azelmicus, a King,

16,

note

Baal, called Jupiter Olympius by Dius, 27


Baaltis, or Dione, a goddess, 17

Baaut

(night), 4, note

28, note

INDEX.

208

Baau, wife of Kolpiyah, 4


Babylon, properly Bab-ilu, means Gate of God,

55,

note

yj

Baitylia, stones so called, consecrated to various gods, 14, note

Balsacus, 32
Behistun, Inscription of Darius Hystaspes, xx, xxi

Merodach, son of Hea and Davkina, 92

Bel, formerly called

Belus (the same as Kronus), 82

Temple

his

Babylon, 60, 90, 91

at

Berathena, a city of Arabia or Syria,

5,

note

Berbers and Getulians mentioned, 187, note

language belongs to the sub-Semitic branch of the Semitic

their

languages, 187
Berosus, was Priest of Bel, Notice
Beruth,

of,

43,

50

berith, covenant, the wife of Elioun, 10

nn?,

i.e.

Berytus (Beyroot) the Port of Damascus, 17


Birch, Dr., quoted,

xiv., xv.,

194

Biuris, 139

Bocchoris, King of Egypt, 144

Borsippus (Borsippa), 68

Bunsen (Baron),
152

his

work

" Egypt's Place in History" quoted, 104, 108,

125, note

Byblus (Gebal

in

Hebrew, now called

Mysteries of Adonis or

Jebail), xxxiv, note

Tammuz

celebrated

at, 12, 17, 12,

Cabiri, or Dioscuri, the Samothracian Deities so-called, 10;


18

19,

3,

note

Cadiz, or Gades, temple of the Tyrian Hercules

Canaan (Chna) the native name of


Casius, Mount,

at, 7,

note

Phoenicia, 19, note

174, note

5,

Chaldasan Account of the Deluge, 49,

52, 54,

60

Dynasties, 46

Chaos,

Chna

note

2,

(called the first Phoenician), 19

Chrusarthes, formerly calledlThuro, 21


Chrysor,

i.e.

Vulcan, deified under the

Clay Tablets,

xvii,

194

Cleanthes, Notice of his Life, 191

His

Hymn

to Jupiter, 192

name

note

of Diamichius, 7, 8

note

INDEX.

209

Clemens, Bishop of Alexandria, quoted, 69, 96

Composite creatures, 58
Cotiaei, a city of Phrygia, birth-place of

Creation, Account of the,

3, 59,

Alexander Polyhistor, 10

60

Cybele (Rhea) the mother of the gods, note, 14


Cyprus, an Assyrian inscription of Sargon found there, now in the
Berlin

Museum,

gives us the divine

name Yau, Greek

iAfl,

xxix

Cyrus or Cyropolis, a city of Syria, 105, note

Daas, Plain

of,

Cyrus slain there, 88

Dache, corresponds to the

Lahma

of the cuneiform texts, 92

Dachus, corresponds to the Lahama of the cuneiform, 92


Daesia and Daesius, Macedonian month, corresponds to our

May and

June, 54, 60

Dagan,

in

Greek SITON, corn,

Dagon, a god of the

12,

note

Philistines, 12, note

Damascius, quoted, 92

Damascus, so called from a king of that name, 79


Danaus, 130
Daonus, or Daos, the shepherd,
Davke,

i.e.

Death, genius

Deluge

51, 53

Davkina, goddess of the lower regions, and wife of Hea, 92


of,

called

tablets, in the

Muth by

the Phoenicians, 17

cuneiform character, discovered and translated

by Mr. George Smith, 48


Demetrius, king of Syria, son of Antigonus, 177

Diamichius, the great inventor, 8


Dido, Foundress and Queen of Carthage, 30

Diodorus Siculus, quoted,


Dionysus, (Heb.

'p'j p."n),

83, 143

Bacchus, 91, note

Diospolis, Thebes, called

no

in the Bible, 138, note

Dravidian Languages, 167, note

El-'Elyon, the most High God,

10,

note

Elioun, Hypsistos, 10

Elohim

(gods), plural of Eloah, 13, note

Elulaeus, king of Tyre, 30, 3

Eneuboulos, 54

Eneugamus, 53

200

INDEX.

2IO
Enyalian Jove, the worship

of,

transferred to Shinar in Babylonia, 74

Epigenes says the Babylonians wrote on baked


Erythrean Sea,

tiles,

194

Theban canon, 138


designates both the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf,

Erastosthenes, the Cyrenian, notice

of,

96

his

52

Euedochus, 53
Euedoreschus,

52, 54

Euemerus, or Euhemerus, quoted, 172


Eupolemus, quoted, 82
Eusebius, Bishop of Crcsarea, notice
Evil Merodach, man,

Exodus of the

of, 1,

note

servant of Merodach), 72, 88

i.e.,

Israelites, 135,

note

Fox, Talbot, Mr., translated the

inscription

of Tiglath-Pileser,

i.,

xxiv

Gaetulians and Libyans mentioned, 186


Ge {i.e., earth) married Ouranos (heaven), 10,
Gebal,

Gideon
Gorillae,

Hea

11, 12

Byblus, xxxiv, note

i.e.,

(called Jerubaal), 19, note


i.e.,

gorillas, the

name

first

occurs in Hanno's Periplus, 40

(Aus) god of the Sea and Hades,


rally),

{i.e.

of the lower regions gene-

son of Anu, 92

Hecataeus of Abdera, quoted 177

183

Heliopolis, city of the Sun, called

On

in the Scriptures, note, 132

Herodotus, quoted, 84

Hiempsal, king, xxxiv.

quotation from the Punic books

of,

186

Hierosyla, so called from plundering and sacrilege, Jerusalem, 143

Hierichus (Jericho), 81

Hippo, two

cities

on north coast of Africa so

called, 189, note

Histiseus, quoted, 74

Hyk-shos, or Hyk-sos, Shepherd- Kings, 127

were subdued by Alisphragmuthosis, 128


Hylobii

{i.e.

Hypsistus,

dwellers in forests

i.e.

from

Hypsuranius, the same as Memrumus,


iah,

i.e.

uAt?,

a wood, and

toco,

Elioun, the husband of Beruth, 10


6, 7,

note

Yau, or Yahu, identified with Jehovah,

xxviii., xxix.

to live)

INDEX.
II,

or Israel,

Illinus
Ilus,

i.e.

i.e.

Isiris,

name

211

of Kronus), 21, 35, note

Elu=the Earth, one

Kronus, or

Israel, or

II,

of the three great gods, 92


11, 13, 21,

36

the inventor of the three letters, and brother of Chna, 19

name

Israel (a Phoenician

jEOUp, or Yeood,

nymph

the

of Kronus), 21, note

Yakhid, only son ; name of a son of Kronus by

i.e.

Anobret, 22, note

Jerusalem, 183

Jove (the Enyalaean), mentioned, 74


Jove, i.e. Jupiter, or Zeus in the Greek language
Jupiter

Ammon,

ruins of his temple in the Oasis of Siwah, 144, note

Keft, the ancient name of Phoenicia,


Khasis-Adra (Xisuthrus) 49, note
Kronus, or II, or Israel, 11, 12, 13,

compared with Abraham,

17,

xv.,

note

14, 16, 17, 18,

20

note

Ktesias, quoted, 83,

Lahmu and Lahamu,


Dachus,

92.

identified

Laranchae (Larissa, or Larsa),


Larissa, or Larsa,

by Mr. George Smith, with Dache and

See under Dache in the Index.

now

52,

note

called Senkereh, 52, note

Larissa (Laranchae or Larsa), 52, note


Lixitae, natives of Africa,

37

Lixus, a river in Africa, 37

Manetho,

notice

of,

104

Introduction to the Lists


his

his

name assumed by

name,

of,

95

lived at Palibothra
;

104

52

Megasthenes, notice

168, note

of,

another, 109, note; forgeries issued under

ambassador

to the Court of Sandracottus,

quoted, 155

Melikarthus, or Melcarth, the Baal, or Hercules of Tyre,


28, note

Menander, quoted, 29

32

15, 27,

note

INDEX.

212

Merodach, the god of Babylon, afterwards called

Bel,

was son of Hea

and Davkina, 92
Merodach, called the Demiurgus, or creator, 92
Misor, the establisher of government in Egypt, 9, note
Misr, is the modern name of Egypt in the Arabic language,
Mitzraim, the

Hebrew name

Miinter, Bp., quoted,


Mylitta, Assyrian

Movers, Dr., his

7,

note

name

article

Moymis and Tauthe,

note, 9

of Egypt, 9, note

of Venus, 196

on Sanchoniathon, referred

of Damascius, identified with

to, note,

xxxv

Mummu-Tiamatu,

" the sea-chaos," by Mr. George Smith. See his Chaldceafi Account

of Genesis, 64
Moses, called Osarsiph, 132, note

Nephilim,

i.e. fallen

Neptune, Poseidon

in

133, 135

ones, or giants, 6, 77, note

Greek,

17, 171

Norris, Edwin, his dictionary of the Assyrian language

Omoroca,

59

Panic, a kind of grain, 147


Pantibiblon (Sippara) 51,

52,

note

Parsondes, a favourite of Artaeus,

harem
Periplus of Hanno, Introduction

is

caught by Nanarus and put into

his

to,

35

Philo of Byblus, translated Sanchoniathon's work into Greek,


Phoenicia, ancient

name

of,

Keft, xv., note

Phreantes, a nickname of Cleanthes, 191


Pillars of Hercules,

i.e.,

the Strait of Gibraltar, 28, 35, 36, 155

Polemo, quoted, 146

Ptolemy the Mendesian,

100, 146

Pythagoras, a Soldier in the

Rawlinson,

Army

of Axerdes, 89

Sir Henry, publishes the Behistun Inscription, xx

Renan, Ernest, Professor, mentioned,

xxiii

wrote on the sources of Sanchoniathon's History, xxxv


Rosetta stone, contains a trigrammatical inscription, xiv

Sacea, the

feast of, celebrated at Babylon, 68

INDEX.

213

Safed, a city of Galilee, Tyrian coins found there in 1855, 2 7> not e
Salatis, or Saites, 118, 126

Samdan, the Assyrian name of Hercules, 92, note


Sandes, (properly Samdan), the Assyrian name of Hercules, 92
Sennacherib, 86, 87, 88, 89
Seth, or Set,

Typhon, the asinine deity of the Syrian

the cuneiform inscriptions Syria

from

is

tribes,

whence

in

called u donkey-land," imiri-su

yon.

Sethosis, 129

Shaddai (Almighty) confounded with sadeh, a


Shepherds, also called Captives, 128

field, 9,

note

driven out by Tethmosis, 100,

129, 133

Sibyl, The, quoted, 75

Sinecherim, 87, 88

Sippara (Tantibiblon) city

of,

the Sepharvaim of Scripture, note, 51

Siriadic land, 109, 151


pillars,

or columns

or columns of Seth, 152

Sisithrus (Xisuthrus) 49, 54, 85

Siton (Corn in Greek, in Hebrew, dagan), 12, note

Smith (George) interprets the Deluge Tablets, 48


Smith, G., his Chaldaean Account of Genesis mentioned, note,
Sydyk, the righteous one,
Syncellus, George, notice
Syria, called

10,

note

of, 102, 104,

" ass-land,''

50,

92

father of the Cabiri, 19

106

imirisu, in the cuneiform inscriptions

worshipped Set or Seth, or Typhon.

Taautus

(or

Thoor, or Thoyth, or Thoth),

i.e.,

Hermes,

10, 11

Talbot, Fox, Mr., translates the inscription of Tiglath Pileser

Tamil words found

Tammuz,

/.*.,

in the

Hebrew

Adonis (Duzi or Turzi,

i.,

xxiv

Scriptures, 167, note


in the cuneiform), 12

the Mysteries of celebrated by the Jews, 12, note

at Athens, ibid

at Byblus, 13

Tauthe (Mother of the Gods, and Wife of Apason), the same as tamti,
the Sea, 92

Technites,

*.*.,

the Artist, 8

Teredon, a City built by Nebuchadnezzar, 73


Tethmosis, or Tuthmosis, the Expeller of the Shepherds,

100, 133

INDEX.

214
Thebes
Thoth,

in Egypt, called
i.e.,

No

Ammon No

and

Hermes, or Mercury,

Troglodytae,

i.e.,

3, II,

in

our Bible, 138, note

19

Cave-Dwellers (Periplus), 37

Typhon, Set, the asinine Deity of the Syrians, who are called by

Balaam "children,"
Tyre, a Holy City, note

i.e.,

16,

" worshippers of Seth," 132

27 note

Ubara-Tutu, i.e., Ardates, or Otiartes, 49


Ur, eldest Son of Bel, a Babylonian Deity so called,
Us5us,

name

also of a

of a

God mentioned

Suburb of Tyre, so

in the

51,

note

53,

note

Cuneiform Inscriptions, and

called, 6.

Velleius Paterculus, quoted, 190


Venus, called Anaitis by the Assyrians, 92

Aphrodite by the Greeks, 16

Astarte by the Phoenicians, 16

Vulcan

(in

Greek, Hephaestus),

with bil-kan,

God

of Fire,

Chaldean Account of Genesis,

Xisuthrus, or

identified with Tubal Cain, and


Son of Anu, by Mr. G. Smith, in

is

p.

56

Tsisit or Sisit (Khasis-Adra, the hero of the Flood)

49,85
Zeus, the Greek name of Jupiter, the

Ammon

of the Egyptians

Belus, Bel, or Baal of the Semitic nations, 10, note

Zoganes

(the

Hebrew

Zoroaster (Zerdusht),

-jjd,

Sagan,

xii., xiii

i.e.,

chief, or ruler),

68

the

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

Acme
t

Under

Library Card Pocket


Pat.

" Ref. Index File."

Made by LIBRARY

BUREAU

11

if
iVllUUHH

uiOKnVHYMXuM

tHHi/MiiiinYriYi

If

n.0<
Mill
,YnYi
'w'y

.iVnXinv^riXLnvlinjiv'vSyoioiMy

;il<

.IAIIIi>l!l.<l,lt.liJ).fl.ll.ll.l.!.!l.!l!U.<)yi

Wis

cm

m
nil! urn .utnu iiiui ii
iViViYiyivriiViYriVivri-iVuViVir-''

\
:

-''
uMimi.iiir.iniinr
nYOYiYiYin Yi: 1Y1Y1 YiYiYjYiY

1 1

YOiYiYiYiViYiYiYiYiYiYiYVhYmT
us nYl! ii nil
YiYtYiiYl YiY
..mill
iin.YiYnYniY.i
Y,Yi YiYsYtYiYfiYi Yi YiY.YuYiYj Y
i

ui 111

i'i

YMiYiYiiYiYiYiYiYiYiYiYiYiYiYi

iijr^XOuYjYriYmYYiYOy/.OX':

<|>Y

'.'.t.t.'.'.f.'.M).iX'.'.'.i.i)yi,i.:i,<;t>:i>:ii,

<*

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

lOYij^iY.YaYiriiYiYdYiY.Yl.V
.'.ii.i.M.'.'.i.ii.i.i.O.ii.ij.M.i.K.i.i.i.i.iYn;

!.! .11 .1

U.I

.!

Mlll.ltlr

1,1 .1.1 .1,1,1.1.1,1 .1.1,1

ii.i,i,i,i.i.i,i>),..i;0;>):yr.ii,Oi.tYii,.Yii

II
i.'.iy

II

II

1 ! 1 1 i I

! 1

II 11

1 ( 1 1

Yl

! 1 ( 1
''''

tun YuYi ill n Ym'l Yi'i


XOiOWiOWfrOttOfexo:
1

..

.l,l,H.I.U.I.l.',.!,l,\H.i,i,l,n.l

<,!.),! .1,1

I,!,..

'.il.t.'.M.i.Vi.l.l.l.'.lJ.i.iyil.l.i.ii/n'.il.
1,1,1,1.! nil nil unAYuiYmYiY
'ni.iiujiYn'uMiOiYn'i'iiYi

>.u.i)Yi'i;.iVi>yi}Vi;HH)Yi;iYO>YiYiY
inimiv.ii.!i;iii.i.ii.iiinu:iii!ii!
.'.',' .U.'.U.'.O ffW''
}}}))}> '.'.i.i

M)U

'

Hiiiimiiri!i)ii!inii
n'l
,Y/ii>H,iiHY;YmYiYi'YrinY!<! Yv
;. ii in '11111
imiu'miY' I'uVii
ii ; (i u iYlY> HMYi'iYiYiY
i,;.ii.i.r.i .uTi
iiYnYiYnYi

II

1 1

i'i i

.i.t.i.i r.i.i.lY.;.;

II .1.1

1.1

.1.1

..,,

.11,11.1 ,111.1

ll!H,

.ID

.1.1

llldll IIH.II-IIIIIII II"


'}f .'.'.' .1.1 >.'.! .1.0.1 .'.'.l.l.l.V

iiuhhiiOiioimhiii
II

IY1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

l\

1 1 i 1

II

'Vn.Y, YiYiYnYiiYi-Xlii;
'

1 1

1 1

If IS

"

II

i I

iiYn'iYHYiYriYHi'iYiY

.nYiYiYniYiYHYniYl
.i.i.!J.i.i.i.i.'.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.ij
|
.

AO., .i.i,".i .iyi.i,'.i.'-.i.'.'.i.i'.


i.s 1

1 1

; 1

iy.u;.i.i.i.i

1 i

Oiin.nnXO.ii .m:.! nY
mi

i.i.i i.i.i '...i;

I.M.I.'.' ,'..! .'J .'J .'.' .'.i.i.' .i).,'


c
'.'.i.i.i.i.i.i.'.i,'.i.'.i,i.i.i/.i.i.iyn
'.i..'.i.'.'.'.".'.'.i.'.i.'.).i).i.'.'J.i.i

.'ii

mi H mi

in

ii ii

l.l,!,!.l.l.ll,l,l,llll.lll/ll!Yi

;>.OJ

in

MIIII>'lMf'M'M

n iin.YinYri.riY

ii.li ii

"

'III.

'

I'I

nil

'.i

1'

ii

.1.1.1.1.1.1

in ii
in;

ii

i.i

..

i.i i.)

Ml'

llll
n..i ii
ii i iii

l.l.l .1.1

.1.1
1

ii

iVsV

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1

ii ii

1)

,1,1.1

ii

1 1 1 1

1 1

( (

i.i.i.i.u.i.i,i

i.mii

in iijri Yl

i.iin.i

m,

i s I

Hi

1 1 1
i '!

i.i

mi

in Yl

'O^'i.iyiYiYiYixtiyyijYivivo/yiY.OiYjxiYiYiYiYr
,

,,

..!.!li.!!:!!!!!!!,,!!:;!J!:!!H!

!..:'

wmmmmyw
ii

mil itmiiiiiiiii.mil

MIIIIIIIIIIIIIIK1IIUI.I.IIK.I
II
'Mill. Ill
1
II
Hi
1

1 1

1 1

i.iii.i.tiirXiii.r.iY.iYi.iYiYiiiiYuYi'

..i.i.t,).i.M.M.i.i.i...i,,iX)Xi..Yi;i;M;))u>Y
i.f.i.i i.i.i i.i.i

mi

in in

m
mm inmimini mini
lit

ii

(i

Yi

u.'.i.t.i.'.i.i.i.i.fjyiji

1 i.i 1 1 1

it

"'."".-..ii

1 1 1 1

".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.".'..iy)yy.C,..,,
'.'.' .'.i.v

l.H.I
.'.' .'.'.'
'

;:l

m
'. 1

.i.i .'.i.i.'.i.i.i.'.i.i.i.i.i.'.i

I.i .1.1.1

Ml

.'.'.'.i.i'.'.';.'

.'.

II.

i.i

.i.'.ua'.C.

Y'.M.'.i.i.iY'.l.'.'YU.f.i..
'

II

Hill

i.i.i.ii.i.Hininiiiii'Hijun
H .!,< i.iHI.ntH.II 11/1*1 nYl....
,1

lY'Yi.'.'i.i.'.i.i.ixij.ixixi'xiXiX'yo

mi

ii

i.i.ini-iiii-ni.',

mnn.iiMimin.im'
III.I.H(lll.(XU|H

i.i

i:n.

'.U.'.i.'.'.'.i.'.i.i.i.'.l.'.iYi.i.l.n.i.i

i.ii.iiiiiliiiiii'iiiiinii

.hi

ii

in

H!!!Jii

:!!!Ji:!!;!:!y!!!:""il!,!,!!!{!!!!

'-

i..,

'if.

in

m3m
wmm
liYitrti

ti