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Spring 2013

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

1 m = 1000 mm

1 hectare=2.47 acres

1 m = 3.28 ft

1 m = 1000 liters

1 km2 = 106 m2

=3.14159265358979323846

Relative humidity, Rh=e/es ; e = actual vapor pressure of the air. ees at dew point temperature

Weibull plotting position (prob. of exceedence, P): m/(N+1), m=rank; N=total number

P(either A or B) = P(A) + P(B) (if A and B are independent and mutually exclusive)

P(both A and B) = P(A) x P(B) (if A and B are independent)

P(not A) = 1 - P(A)

or

P(no occurrences of A in any of N time periods) = (1 P)N where P is the probability of any one

event occurring (probability of exceedence)

P(one or more occurrence in N time periods) = 1-(1-P)N

1

1

where P=prob. of exceedence; F=prob. of non-exceedence

=

P 1 F

Residence time = Volume/(inflows)

Return Period T: T =

Mass (Volume) Balance: I O = dS/dt S/t I=inflow O=outflow

Standard flood frequency analysis equation: X = X + KS

Rational Formula Q=CiA (i in inches/hr, A in acres, Q in cfs; or i in m/s, A in m2, Q in m3/s)

Bed Shear Stress o = yS o where =specific weight of water, y=flow depth and So=bed slope

Reservoir Storage Required=max(I-O) (maximum between peak and subsequent low value)

Infiltration Trench Design: Vin=Qt; Vout=KHLt; Vstorage=WHLn

Infiltration/runoff Equations:

Horton

NRCS

kt

f p = f c + ( f 0 f c )e

(P 0.2S )2 when P> 0.2S P, Q in length units

Q=

P + 0.8S

1000

Ia=0.2S

S =

10

CN

1

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

Equations for time of concentration (length L in m, slope S0 is unitless, time units as noted):

Kirpich

Kerby

NRCS

(nL )0.8

Sheet

Flow:

t

(hrs)

=

0

.

0288

0.77

0.467

s

L

Lr

P20.5 S 00.4

t c (min) = 0.019 0.385

t c (min) = 1.44

S0

S

0

L

Overland/Concentrated Flow: t sc =

Kinematic Wave

Vsc

t c (min) =

6.99 nL

i 0.4 S 0

0.6

where i is in mm/h

1.5

129 nL

solved for i: i = 2.5

t c S 0

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

Values in table are F(z), vertical axis is z to one decimal, columns are for the second decimal

place.

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

used in TR-55 graphical peak flow formula.

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

=1 for S in inches, =25.4 for S in mm.

Q=

(P 0.2S )2

P + 0.8S

1000

10

S =

CN

same units)

NRCS TR-55 graphical peak flow equation: Qp=quAQF where A is basin area, F is

pond/swamp factor, and qu unit peak flow. For Central/Southern California, assume a Type 1

rain distribution, so qu can be determined from the figure above.

Muskingum method: S1 = K [XI 1 + (1 X )O1 ] = K[weighted flow] O2 = C 0 I 2 + C1 I 1 + C 2 O1

t + 2 X

t 2 X

2(1 X ) t

K

K

K

C2 =

C1 =

C0 =

t

t

t

2(1 X ) +

2(1 X ) +

2(1 X ) +

K

K

K

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

2S t

2S

+ Ot = (I t + I t 1 ) + t 1 Ot 1

t

t

2 S t 1

2S

Ot 1 = t 1 + Ot 1 2Ot 1

t

t

h

h

P

Hydraulic head, h EGL elevation = z +

Q = KA

or V = K

L

L

Actual velocity Vactual = V/n where V=Darcian velocity, determined from Darcy's law.

n=porosity.

Reservoir Trap Efficiency

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

Shields Diagram:

x-axis: R*=U*ds/ where ds=mean particle diameter (d50, the diameter for which 50% is finer by

weight) , =kinematic viscosity of water. U*=(o/) where is the density of water. y-axis:

*=o/[(s-)ds] where s=specific weight of the sediment material (for sand: s =2.65) .

6

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