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Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

Random Supplemental Data


1 acre = 43,560 ft2

1 m = 1000 mm

1 mi2 = 640 acres = 2.78784 x 107ft2

1 hectare=2.47 acres

1 m = 3.28 ft

1 inch = 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm

1 m = 1000 liters

Surface area of a sphere = 4r2

1 km2 = 106 m2

=3.14159265358979323846

Diameter of the earth = 12,756 kilometers (at the equator)


Relative humidity, Rh=e/es ; e = actual vapor pressure of the air. ees at dew point temperature
Weibull plotting position (prob. of exceedence, P): m/(N+1), m=rank; N=total number
P(either A or B) = P(A) + P(B) (if A and B are independent and mutually exclusive)
P(both A and B) = P(A) x P(B) (if A and B are independent)
P(not A) = 1 - P(A)

or

(Prob. of exceedence) = 1 (Prob. of non-exceedence)

P(no occurrences of A in any of N time periods) = (1 P)N where P is the probability of any one
event occurring (probability of exceedence)
P(one or more occurrence in N time periods) = 1-(1-P)N
1
1
where P=prob. of exceedence; F=prob. of non-exceedence
=
P 1 F
Residence time = Volume/(inflows)

Return Period T: T =

Standard Normal Deviate, z = (x-)/


Mass (Volume) Balance: I O = dS/dt S/t I=inflow O=outflow
Standard flood frequency analysis equation: X = X + KS
Rational Formula Q=CiA (i in inches/hr, A in acres, Q in cfs; or i in m/s, A in m2, Q in m3/s)
Bed Shear Stress o = yS o where =specific weight of water, y=flow depth and So=bed slope
Reservoir Storage Required=max(I-O) (maximum between peak and subsequent low value)
Infiltration Trench Design: Vin=Qt; Vout=KHLt; Vstorage=WHLn
Infiltration/runoff Equations:
Horton
NRCS
kt
f p = f c + ( f 0 f c )e
(P 0.2S )2 when P> 0.2S P, Q in length units
Q=
P + 0.8S
1000

Ia=0.2S
S =
10
CN

=1 for S in inches, =25.4 for S in mm.


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Santa Clara University


Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

Equations for time of concentration (length L in m, slope S0 is unitless, time units as noted):
Kirpich
Kerby
NRCS
(nL )0.8
Sheet
Flow:
t
(hrs)
=
0
.
0288
0.77
0.467
s
L
Lr
P20.5 S 00.4
t c (min) = 0.019 0.385

t c (min) = 1.44
S0
S
0
L
Overland/Concentrated Flow: t sc =
Kinematic Wave
Vsc
t c (min) =

6.99 nL
i 0.4 S 0

where Vsc = kS 00.5

0.6

where i is in mm/h
1.5

129 nL
solved for i: i = 2.5
t c S 0

Santa Clara University


Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

Note: F(-z) = 1 F(z)


Values in table are F(z), vertical axis is z to one decimal, columns are for the second decimal
place.

Santa Clara University


Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

Unit peak discharge for SCS rainfall distribution type I,


used in TR-55 graphical peak flow formula.

Santa Clara University


Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

NRCS TR-55 equations: I a = 0.2 S


=1 for S in inches, =25.4 for S in mm.
Q=

(P 0.2S )2
P + 0.8S

1000

10
S =
CN

when P> 0.2S (P, S, Q have


same units)

NRCS TR-55 graphical peak flow equation: Qp=quAQF where A is basin area, F is
pond/swamp factor, and qu unit peak flow. For Central/Southern California, assume a Type 1
rain distribution, so qu can be determined from the figure above.
Muskingum method: S1 = K [XI 1 + (1 X )O1 ] = K[weighted flow] O2 = C 0 I 2 + C1 I 1 + C 2 O1
t + 2 X
t 2 X
2(1 X ) t
K
K
K
C2 =
C1 =
C0 =
t
t
t

2(1 X ) +
2(1 X ) +
2(1 X ) +
K
K
K

( )

( )

Storage indication equation:

( )

( )

( )
( )

2S t
2S

+ Ot = (I t + I t 1 ) + t 1 Ot 1
t
t

2 S t 1
2S

Ot 1 = t 1 + Ot 1 2Ot 1
t
t

Darcys Law and groundwater hydraulic head


h
h
P
Hydraulic head, h EGL elevation = z +
Q = KA
or V = K
L
L

Actual velocity Vactual = V/n where V=Darcian velocity, determined from Darcy's law.
n=porosity.
Reservoir Trap Efficiency

Santa Clara University


Department of Civil Engineering

CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering


Spring 2013

NRCS Curve Number Adjustment

Shields Diagram:

x-axis: R*=U*ds/ where ds=mean particle diameter (d50, the diameter for which 50% is finer by
weight) , =kinematic viscosity of water. U*=(o/) where is the density of water. y-axis:
*=o/[(s-)ds] where s=specific weight of the sediment material (for sand: s =2.65) .
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