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You are on page 1of 7

Notes

Section 8.4

Page 1 of 7

Big Idea: The graph of any quadratic function is a parabola that can quickly be sketched by transforming the

graph of the parabola y = x2 with a vertical shift, a horizontal shift, a reflection about the x-axis, and/or a vertical

stretch or compression.

Big Skill: You should be able to sketch a quadratic function by completing the square so that the function

explicitly show the transformations to be made, and then using those transformations to make the sketch.

Definition: Quadratic Function

2

A quadratic function (in general form) is a function of the form f x ax bx c where a, b, and c are real

numbers and a 0. The domain consists of all real numbers. The point (0, c) is the y-intercept of the graph of

the quadratic function. The graph of a quadratic function is always a parabola.

A quadratic function (in standard form) is a function of the form f x a x h k where a, h, and k are

2

real numbers and a 0. The point (h, k) is the vertex of the graph of the quadratic function.

A quadratic function (in factored form) is a function of the form f x a x r1 x r2 where a, is a real

number (a 0), and r1 and r2 are complex numbers (remember that the real numbers are a subset of the complex

numbers). The points (r1, 0) and (r2, 0) are the zeros of the graph of the quadratic function, provided r1 and r2

are real numbers.

2

Graph of the Quadratic Function f x x

x

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

y = x2

9

4

1

0

1

4

9

Notice that the graph open up.

Notice that the y-axis (eqn: x = 0) is an axis of

symmetry.

Algebra is:

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 2 of 7

The graph of every quadratic function can be obtained by transforming the graph of y = x2 with:

1. a vertical shift,

2. a horizontal shift,

3. a reflection about the x-axis,

4. and/or a vertical stretch or compression

2

Graph of the Quadratic Function f x x k (a vertical shift):

of shifting the graph vertically (up/down).

The graph of y = x2 + k is the graph of y = x2 shifted up

by k units when k is a positive number.

The graph of y = x2 + k is the graph of y = x2 shifted

down by k units when k is a negative number.

Notice that the vertex is at (0, k).

Notice that the graph still opens up.

Notice that the y-axis (eqn: x = 0) is still the axis of

symmetry.

Practice:

1. Sketch a graph of y = x2 + 1.5 and y = x2 3.

Algebra is:

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 3 of 7

2

squaring has the effect of shifting the graph

horizontally (left/right).

The graph of y = (x h)2 is the graph of y = x2 shifted

right by h units when h is a positive number.

The graph of y = (x h)2 is the graph of y = x2 shifted

left by h units when h is a negative number.

Notice that the vertex is at (h, 0).

Notice that the graph still opens up.

Notice that the vertical line x = h is the new axis of

symmetry.

Practice:

2. Sketch a graph of y = (x + 1.5)2 and y = (x 3)2.

Algebra is:

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 4 of 7

2

Graph of the Quadratic Function f x ax (a reflection about the x-axis, and/or a vertical stretch):

squaring can reflect the graph about the x-axis, or

produce a vertical stretching of the graph.

The graph of y = ax2 is the graph of y = x2 stretched

vertically upwards when a is a positive number greater

than 1.

The graph of y = ax2 is the graph of y = x2 compressed

vertically upwards when a is a positive number less

than 1.

The graph of y = ax2 is the graph of y = x2 reflected

about the x-axis and stretched vertically downwards

when a is a negative number less than -1.

The graph of y = ax2 is the graph of y = x2 reflected

about the x-axis and compressed vertically downwards

when a is a positive number greater than -1.

Notice that the vertex is at (0, 0).

Notice that the graph opens up when a>0 and

opens down when a< 0.

Notice that the vertical line x = 0 is still the axis of

symmetry.

Practice:

3. Sketch a graph of y = 1.5x2 and y = -x2.

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 5 of 7

2

If a > 0, sketch the parabola opening up, otherwise

sketch it opening down.

If |a| > 0, sketch the parabola vertically stretched,

otherwise sketch it vertically compressed.

The picture to the left shows the steps for graphing

y 1.5 x 3 1 :

2

Sketch parabola opening down

Sketch parabola vertically stretched.

Practice:

4. Sketch a graph of y

1

2

x 2 3 .

4

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 6 of 7

2

Graph of the Quadratic Function in General Form f x ax bx c :

f x a x h k by completing the square

2

2

transformations.

To graph y x 2 2 x 5 :

y x2 2x 5

y 1 x 2 2 x 1 5

y 1 x 1 5

2

y x 1 6

2

Practice:

5. Sketch a graph of y x 2 4 x 1 .

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

Section 8.4

Page 7 of 7

6. Sketch a graph of y 3 x 2 3 x 1 .

the study of how to perform multi-step arithmetic calculations more efficiently,

and the study of how to find the correct number to put into a multi-step calculation to get a desired answer.

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