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Engineering Thread Data

Threads
See Health & Safety Notice
Note: This information is produced for Model Engineers only. Commercial users should refer
to the correct British or ISO standards as applicable. See Notes on British & International
Standards
Screw fittings, essentially a matching internal & external constant pitch and diameter helix
(female & male) form an essential part of society as we know it. It remains the ONLY
practical way of joining individual elements in a secure, cheap way that can be assembled &
disassembled as often as required. All this with the minimum of skill & tools. Threads used in
situations where gas or liquid tightness is required can be tapered so as to lock up & seal on
engagement.(BSP)
Threads were developed in many parts of the world, and as such produced a bewildering
array of different standards. All attempts to "unify" the system only succeeded in producing
yet another standard. Almost universal in the UK was BSF (British Standard Fine) BSW
(British Standard Whitworth) & BA (British Association). As a leading manufacturer in the
Industrial age British thread forms were exported around the world. The Motor Industry made
an attempt to use the American " Unified Threads" (many UK car companies had strong US
connections. Ford, Vauxhall etc.) but with the move to a European Union there has been a
strong move to the Metric System (most of the large European car firms are indigenous,
Audi, Fiat, Mercedes, BMW) etc. and it is almost 100% certain that in due course all the
older mainstream threads will slowly fade away as the market for fittings and tools dies off,
and costs rise to uneconomic levels. There is no signs of this as yet. (2005) America has been
slow to embraced the Metric standards but will almost certainly go that way in due course.
As far as thread development is concerned the Metric form is almost certainly the end of the
road. Unless there is some unforeseen technical development the Metric thread will continue
to replace all other types. Virtually all new equipment will use the metric measurement
system which will in turn mean the adoption of metric threads. Any remaining threads will be
" metricated " ie: reissued in metric dimensions as the old imperial units disappear into the
history books along with the rod, pole & perch. The older threads are usually designated
"non-preffered"
As far as Model Engineering is concerned we can more or less do as we please. Much of our
equipment is second hand and probably quite old and we have a need to be able to identify
threaded items and fittings on a regular basis. We also have a thread of our own, the ME or
Model Engineer thread. This is rather unique in only having two pitches for the entire range.
32tpi & 40tpi. and is based on the Whitworth form. Another curious feature of this thread is
that you cannot buy commercial ME nuts & bolts, although steam & boiler fittings are very
often ME. Check first. Another thread much used by model engineers is the BA thread.
(British Association)
An attempt was made some while ago to introduce a set of metric standards for model
engineering work. These are not a further set of standards, only a recommendation of suitable

sizes for model engineering work. They conform in all ways to the ISO standard. Taps & Dies
are available.
A model engineer should have facilities to produce the full range of internal and external ME
& BA threads together with a selection of BSW, BSF & the Metric Fine & Coarse threads up
to at least " or M12 sizes. Other taps such as UNF, UNC BSP can be acquired as required.
Historical Archive
If required information can be supplied on the following threads:- British Standard Cycle,
Loewenherz, Systme International, Pipe & Sparking Plug, Square, Acme, BSP, Royal
Microscopical Society, Royal Photographic Society, Waltham Watch, Watch Pendant, Watch
Crown, Elgin Watch, Cordeaux, Edison Lamp Cap, Briggs Pipe, A.S.M.E, Holtzapffel's,
Swiss Screw, American 8,12 & 16 pitch series, 20 Degree worm, Gas Threads, Progress
Threads, SF French, French Standard, French Metric, German Metric & German Metric Fine.
Most if not all of these threads are well & truly obsolete.
Nomenclature
Left/Right Thread Types
Threads are normally Right Handed and unless otherwise stated this is the norm. This means
that the nut screws on with a CLOCKWISE rotation. Left Hand threads are of course the
opposite. Left Handed Threads are used extensively in the Motor Industry to secure rotating
parts such as Drive Shafts, Gears etc. where the normal angular rotation would tend to tighten
the nut. Left & Right Hand threads are used, as appropriate, on the Offside/Nearside of the
Vehicle. When working on rotating parts always check the hand of the thread or consult the
correct instruction manual. It is not uncommon for Wheel Nuts to be Left or Right handed.
Use caution.
Thread Pitch
Usually expressed in threads per inch (tpi) or as an absolute dimension for one single pitch. ie
1mm. 0.2mm .75mm etc. Multi-start threads are basically the single start form, but with the
pitch doubled etc. Very rare to come across these in model engineering.
Thread Included Angle.
Apart from a number of specialist threads the included angles for the most common threads
are as follows. BA 47. BSW, BSF 55. UNF, UNC, ANF, ANC 60. Metric or ISO 60.
British Standard Cycle Thread (BSC) 60. Acme 29. Do not be tempted to use male &
female threads with differing V angles. All the load is transferred to the thread crests and
causes high stress levels, leading to slackening in service and premature failure.
Root & Crest Form
A major part of any thread is the crest & root form. Usually but not always this takes the form
of a radius. Sometimes a flat. The root & crest form may also vary on the male & female
threads. Production of a correct form, is for the average modeller virtually impossible. The

ISO Metric threads are however an exception. The standard allows for flat roots & crests (p/8
& p/4) It is possible to produce a "V" tool with a rounded root & let the crest remain as a flat.
Where taps & dies are used the correct form is produced automatically.. When screw cutting
it is now possible to buy ceramic tips that will automatically produce the correct root and
crest radii. Since an insert is required for each form & pitch this puts their use outside the
reach of most modellers due to cost. A 100% sharp "V" is undesirable as it may form the
stress point for fracture and on bolts, cut fingers. Adding a small radius on the "V" tool with a
stone is probably the best we can achieve. Another very good way is to use part of a new tap
as a thread chaser & skim off the last few tenths & form the radii. Application of the correct
root & crest radii does of course reduce the Actual thread depth compared to the full
Theoretical Triangular "V" depth.
Effective or Pitch diameter.
On a parallel thread it is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder which would pass through the
threads at such a point that both male and female thread were the same width. This point is
usually but not always 1/2 the thread depth. It is only at 1/2 depth when the root & crest radii
are the same.
Thread Identification.
With one or two exceptions (Lead screws, Vice Threads etc.) all the threads we meet are of
the "V" form. Only the included angle varies and this is difficult to determine in the smaller
sizes without special equipment. (Optical projectors etc.)
1) The first step is to determine the diameter and see if the thread is (or may be) Imperial or
Metric. For example 5/16" & 8mm are very close together (only 2.5 thou !)
2) Next step is the pitch or threads per inch (tpi) If we ignore the fact that it may or may not
be a metric thread, determine the number of threads in an inch. Lets say it comes to 25.5
approx. This equates to a 1mm pitch & if the dia was 6mm this is almost certain to be an ISO
Metric Coarse M6 thread (ISO is the International Standards Organization) Thread pitch
gauges, Taps, existing threads of known size etc. may be used. Try rolling the thread form
onto a piece of paper and measure the pitch with an eyeglass & dividers.
3) If we can determine the thread included angle as 60 this clinches it. It is very difficult to
establish what the thread angle is, but easy to state what it is not. For example if is bigger
than 47 & smaller than 60 it is almost certainly 55 and so on.
4) Determining the size of internal threads by direct measurement is (for the average
modeller) virtually impossible. The best way is to try a selection of taps or threads until one
fits perfectly without any slop or undue tightness. Unless you are working on safety critical or
highly stressed components it will probably be OK. If possible make or buy a plug type
gauge.
5) Look at the history of the item. Old British machinery, tools etc. probably BSF/BSW. Easy
to tell apart by the pitches. Instruments/Electronics BA. Motor Cycle/Cycle BSC. USA,
UNF/UNC. Continental ISO Metric etc. Old motor cars BSF/BSW, mid 50/60's UNF/UNC
later models Metric.

Thread Data.
Please note that the figures given in the charts have been worked out from first principles and
will NOT be exactly the same as those quoted in the ISO standards. The differences are
usually only 1/10ths of thou.
Tables of threads are usually given in handy reference books but it is not generally known
that all threads are based on a set formula for each thread.
Below is the formula for each thread and each type has a link to an WinZip Excel
spreadsheet.. These charts are interactive and will give true thread details for any size
required. By entering the required %age full thread a correct tapping size can be obtained.
Select your nearest (very close) drill size. See Notes on the Data Sheets You may need to
"unprotect" the data first.
Tapping Sizes
Some confusion often arises when different drill sizes are given to tap the same female
thread. The reason is quite simple. There is no one drill size to tap a given hole !!
1) There may not be an exact drill size for the core diameter required. We use the nearest one
available.
2) In practice it is usual to drill & tap to give a thread which is not 100% full thread. Figures
such as 70%, 75%, 80% full thread are very rarely quoted but must have been used in the
initial calculations
3) It is often desirable for the internal thread to have the crests flat rather than have the full
perfect radiused form. This prevents threads binding & prolongs tool life.
4) When tapping hard material such as Stainless Steel an 70% full thread (female) used with a
100% male bolt may be 100% OK. Use a No.2 tap as less cutting length on the flutes reduces
tap stress. Also consider modern coated taps.
5) It may be virtually impossible to tap 100% full thread anyway without risking a broken
tap. If in doubt drill a tad bigger and use a good fitting male thread with more thread length
engaged.
6) As with all things mechanical, tolerances must be mentioned. Tolerances are mainly the
province of mass production & interchangeability. For our one off's, if it fits to YOUR
SATISFACTION its OK. Thread tolerances can be a very complicated subject & need
sophisticated gauging equipment. Taps are made in a range of tolerances. Class 2 is the
normal specification. Carbon taps are usually cheaper & manufactured to wider tolerances.
All taps are manufactured as "plus on basic" to allow for wear in production. As the tap wears
the thread moves towards nominal.
7) Always use very sharp taps & dies & lubricate well.
8) It is virtually impossible to tap a hole 100% vertical by eye. Whenever possible, use a jig
to ensure that the tap is vertical. Use of a tapping jig will virtually eliminate broken taps.

Health & Safety Notice


I recently read a note in quite a large Car & Motorcycle restoration guide that UNC &
Whitworth nuts & bolts were interchangeable. This is complete rubbish & whilst some sizes
are superficially the same ie: Pitch & Diameter, the Thread Angle IS NOT.(60/55) This means
that all the load is directed onto the thread crests and roots and not full flank contact. DO
NOT ATTEMPT TO MIX THE TWO. If in doubt throw away. One way to tell a UNF /UNC
thread is to look for joined up circles on the flats of the nuts/bolts. ie: OOOOOO This is NOT
however a 100% guide. I have also noticed UNF/UNC forged into the head. Another way is
to use the Across Flats dimension. This is unique to UNC fasteners, it is not a whole metric
size nor is it the same as the equivalent Whitworth fastener. Non of these methods are 100%
reliable. Use a proper thread gauge if possible or try to measure the core diameters with the
correct thread micrometer. If the fit is tight or loose it is probably an incorrect mix. Also note
that Stainless Steel fittings ARE NOT AS STRONG as HIGH TENSILE steel bolts etc. DO
NOT USE in highly stressed applications where bolt failure could lead to an accident without
full professional advice as to grade, thread form and suitable diameter. If in doubt always use
the Manufacturer's correct part for the relevant application.
Thread Data & Formulae
BSW (British Standard Whitworth)

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


h = Angular Depth = 0.960491 x P
D = Depth of Rounding = 0.073917 x P
h/6 = Shortening = 0.160083 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.640327 x P

r = Radius at the Crest & Root = 0.137329 x P


C = Core diameter = Major Diameter - 1.280654 x P
Effective or Pitch Diameter = Major Diameter - .640327 x P
BSF (British Standard Fine)

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


h = Angular Depth = 0.960491 x P
D = Depth of Rounding = 0.073917 x P
h/6 = Shortening = 0.160083 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.640327 x P
r = Radius at the Crest & Root = 0.137329 x P
C = Core diameter = Major Diameter - 1.280654 x P
Effective or Pitch Diameter = Major Diameter - .640327 x P
ME (Model Engineer)

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


h = Angular Depth = 0.960491 x P
D = Depth of Rounding = 0.073917 x P
h/6 = Shortening = 0.160083 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.640327 x P
r = Radius at the Crest & Root = 0.137329 x P
C = Core diameter = Major Diameter - 1.280654 x P
Effective or Pitch Diameter = Major Diameter - .640327 x P
BA (British Association)

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


h = Triangular height = 1.1363365 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.60000 x P
t = Shortening = 0.2681688 x P
r = Radius at the Crest & Root = 0.1808346 x P
Effective or Pitch Diameter = Major Diameter - 0.6000 x P (d)
C = Core diameter = Major Diameter - 1.2000 x P (2d)
Nuts and Bolts across flats is nominally 1.75 x Major Diameter
For Model Engineering purposes nuts and bolts are obtainable
with the hexagon heads one size less across flats, this gives a better scale effect.
ISO Metric Fine
ISO Metric Coarse

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


H = Angular Depth = 0.866025 x P
H/8 = Shortening of major dia = 0.108253 x P
H/4 = Shortening of minor dia = 0.216506 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.541266 x P
r = Radius at the Root = 0.1443 x P
Hn = Basic height of Internal Thread = 0.54127 x P
Hs = Basic height of External Thread = 0.61344 x P
Note: The form of the Metric Series of Threads varies between Internal & External Threads,
in particular the root and crest details. This allows for flat (truncated) or radiused forms.
Engineers requiring more specific information should refer to the relevant ISO Standards.
This data base is far to small to fully cover this subject.
Unified National Fine (UNF)
Unified National Coarse (UNC)

P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)


H = Angular Depth = 0.866025 x P
H/8 = Shortening of major dia = 0.108253 x P
H/4 = Shortening of minor dia = 0.216506 x P
d = Actual Depth = 0.541266 x P
r = Radius at the Root = 0.1443 x P
Hn = Basic height of Internal Thread = 0.54127 x P
Hs = Basic height of External Thread = 0.61344 x P
United States Standard (USS)
United States Form (USF)
Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE)

This form also occurs in the National Coarse (N.C.) and National Fine (N.F.) series of
threads.
It is very similar to the UNF and UNC threads but has a Flat Root & Crest.
P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)
H = Theoretical Depth = 0.866 x P
D = Actual Depth = 0.6495 x P
F = Width of Flat = 0.125 x P
A = Depth of Flat = 0.108 x P
Sharp V-thread. (V)

Details for this thread were taken from Machinery Handbook 9th Edition (1938) pg 1146.
This thread has been noted on older Harley Davidson Motorcycles and is understood to have
been used on older US Cadillac Automobiles.
Due to the sharp root and crest on this form, it is in theory, prone to stress cracking. The later
UNF/UNC threads should be used where possible, as these have rounded crests and roots,
thus reducing stress concentration. The "V" thread is effectively obsolete. It still remains a
very easy thread to cut using single point tools. It is however NOT interchangeable with
modern 60 degs Imperial threads. UNF/UNC etc. Cutting tools, Taps and Dies etc. are no
longer available.
The sides of the thread form an angle of 60 degs with each other. The top and bottom of the
threads are theoretically sharp, but in practice the crest has a slight flat equal to 1/25th x
Pitch. This is removed after the thread is cut, thus reducing the actual diameter slightly below
nominal. (D) See chart details.
P = Pitch = 1/Number of threads per inch (tpi)
H = Theoretical Depth = 0.866 x P
D = Actual Depth with Crest Relief
A= Width of Flat = P/25 (Not in the Official Standards)
N = Depth of Flat
Notes on British & International Standards
Hard copies of ISO/British Standards are very expensive, typically 30 for a single copy.
Less if you are a BSI member. Most large libraries now have Internet Access & seem to have
an agreement with the ISO/BSI. This means that you can view any standard, but as far as I

am aware, you are not able to make copies. Thread standards are by their very nature
complex documents and unless you are working in a standards room or are a manufacturer of
tooling etc. contain large amounts of data irrelevant to model engineers work. Most of the
older non metric threads have been designated as " non-preferred thread series " for many
years. They should be avoided in new equipment etc.
Notes on the Data Sheets
The data sheets can be downloaded as Zip files into an Excel Spreadsheet. All files are in the
protected mode. Some files have a figure in red over the tapping size. This represents the
%age full thread. This can be altered to give a tapping size to suit the thread you require. eg.
on Aluminum you may wish to tap 100% full thread. You can also use the data to give full
details of non-standard threads such as the Myford Nose etc. By entering the diameter &
pitch all the other details self calculate. No responsibility can be accepted for errors or
omissions by whatever cause.

RECOMMENDED DRILL SIZES


FOR
SELF-TAPPING SCREWS (SHEET METAL)
Self-Tapping Screw
Size
No.

Major Thread
Diameter

Threads O.D. Max.


per Inch

Minor Thread
Diameter

Mean

Min. Max.

Mean

Min.

For Heavy
Metals

For Light
Metals

Drill Size

Drill Size

32

.086

.088

.0850

.082

.064

.0620

.060

49

.0730

49

.0730

24

.112

.114

.1110

.108

.086

.0840

.082

41

.0960

41

.0960

20

.125

.130

.1265

.123

.094

.0920

.090

36

.1065

36

.1065

20

.138

.139

.1355

.132

.104

.1015

.099

32

.1160

32

.1160

19

.151

.154

.1505

.147

.115

.1120

.109

30

.1285

30

.1285

18

.164

.166

.1625

.159

.122

.1190

.116

28

.1405

29

.1360

10

16

.190

.189

.1855

.182

.141

.1380

.135

20

.1610

21

.1590

12

14

.216

.215

.2115

.208

.164

.1605

.157

13

.1850

14

.1820

1/4

14

.250

.246

.2415

.237

.192

.1885

.185

.2130

.2090

5/16

12

.313

.315

.3105

.306

.244

.2400

.236

.2720

.2660

3/8

12

.375

.380

.3755

.371

.309

.3040

.299

.3390

.3320

Across Flats Engineering Data


Spanner sizes
Information on the across flats dimensions of nuts and bolts in common use seems quite hard
to find. There are so many thread types still in circulation, and almost without exception, all
use quite independent across flats sizes. Metric threads use whole metric numbers. 17, 19, 20
etc. UNF/UNC go for Imperial fractional sizes. 5/8", 1/2" etc. BA, Whit & BSF seem to use a
decimal size with no easy fractional base. 0.445", 0.710", 1.100" etc. The now obsolete
across flats sizes relate direct to the spanner !! Comparison of across flats dimensions shows
that, for correct practice, there are very few spanners that are truly multi thread. As with all
matters engineering the empirical method is usually the best. If the spanner/socket is a good
fit, use it. No official across flats dimensions are given for ME ( Model Engineer ) threads as
nuts and bolts are not commercially available. Figures given are the editors own based on the
BA formulae. In the BA sizes it is possible to buy nuts etc with a size less across flats. ie:
2BA with 3BA dimensions. This gives a better scale effect, where strength is not important.
The Across Flats zipped file gives Spanner ( & Socket ) sizes in ascending order, very good
to see if your "nearest size" is near enough. If you are considering the manufacture of odd
nuts & bolts, make sure that a suitable hexagon bar is available. Milling flats on dozens of
nuts & bolts is not my idea of a good time ? Go to Across Flats Database.
Note:- At one time Whit & BSF across flats sizes were the same. ie a 5/16"Whit & 5/16 BSF
across flats was the same. As an economy measure during WWII it was decided to reduce the
across flats sizes of Whitworth nute and bolts by one size. Thus a 5/16" Whit across flats was
the same as a 3/8" BSF. Also note that the core diameter for a Whitworth thread is less than
the same size in BSF. (Coarser thread pitch, hence deeper threads)

http://www.maintenanceengineering.in/Fastners.php

FASTENERS
Fasteners are a simplest mechanical device to join two or more elements
without welding e.g. with Nuts & Bolts, Studs & Nuts and Screw etc. There
are internal and matching external threads on the fasteners, which
actually takes the load. These threads play an important role in sharing
the load of application. There are various kind of internal and external
threads designed according to the application/requirements.
UNIFED AND ISO THREAD GEOMETRY

Definitions:
Pitch (p)- The distance between adjacent thread forms measured parallel
to the thread axis.
TPI (n) - The number of Threads per Inch related to the pitch by p = I/n.
Root (minor) Diameter - Smallest diameter of screw - d
Major Diameter - Largest diameter of screw - dc(sometimes designated as
d).
Mean (pitch) Diameter - Average diameter of screw - dm(sometimes
designated as dp).
Lead Angle ( ) - The angle defining the inclination of the thread (See figure
below).
Helix Angle ( ) - The angle between the thread axis and the lead angle
.

A-FULL DIAMETER SHANK:


Equal to major diameter of thread. Produced by cut thread or by roll
thread on extruded blank. Characteristic of machine bolts and cap
screws.
B-UNDERSIZED SHANK:
Equal approximately to pitch diameter of thread. Produced by roll
threading a non-extruded blank. Characteristic of machine screws.
D-PITCH DIAMETER: The simple, effective diameter of screw thread.
Approximately half way between the major and minor diameters.
E-MAJOR DIAMETER: The largest diameter of a screw thread.
F-MINOR DIAMETER: The smallest diameter of a screw thread.
LEAD: The distance a screw thread advances axially in one turn.
CUT THREAD: Threads are cut or chased; the unthreaded portion of
shank will be equal to major diameter of thread.
ROLLED THREAD: Threads are cold formed by squeezing the blank
between reciprocating serrated dies. This acts to increase the major
diameter of the thread over and above the diameter of unthreaded
shank (if any), unless an extruded blank is used.
Classes of thread are distinguished from each other by the amounts of
tolerance and allowance specified. External threads or bolts are
designated with the suffix "A"; internal or nut threads with "B".
THREADS OF A FASTENERS
There are many type of Internal and External threads are in use in
industries, depending upon the requirement. Internal threads may be
made as tapped by high-speed-steel tap set or machined. External
threads may by made by die cut or machined or rolled-in-die under
hydraulic pressure. For threaded dimension of metric threads ANSI/ASME
B18.2.3.5M or B 18.2.3.6M standard are followed and for mechanical
property ASTM F568M, ASTM F486M, ASTM F738M etc. are followed widely.
The type of thread of a screw or bolt or stud depends upon the material of
construction, dynamic load, vibration, torque required etc.
Threads are classified as:
1) coarse thread,
2) Fine thread or
3) extra fine thread for specific uses.
The clearance between a male thread and matching female thread are
covered under class or fit as prescribed by various international standards.
Some widely used threads are given below :-

UNC - Unified National Coarse


UNF - Unified National Fine
UNEF - Unified National Extra Fine
USN - Unified National Special
UNR - Unified National Round (round root)
ISO - Internatinal Standards Organization (metric)
BSW - British Standard Whiteworth
BSF - British Standard Fine
BSP - British Standard Pipe
NPT - National pipe thread
For stud and bolt and their matching counter parts, normally BSW, UNC,
UNF or BSF threads are commonly used depending upon the application,
however for piping systems BSP or NPT threads are used internationally.
NPT system is used in more countries than BSP system.
UNF threads are very fine pitch threads (more threads per inch) than UNC
or UNR or BSW. These threads are used where higher torque values are to
be used or the system is working in high vibration mode. E.g. in high
pressure reciprocating compressors.
The basic difference between piping thread system BSP and NPT is that
the later is tapered. NPT threads are generally used in high pressure
instrumentation fitting e.g. pressure gauge pressure tapping etc. BSP
generally used in low-pressure services.
UNR threads are just like UNC thread but the crest are rounded off and can
take more compressive and tensile load then UNC and fatigue strength are
also high. These threads are used on Puller rods. These are only external
threads. The UNR external threads are rolled UN threads in all respects
except that the root radius must be rounded.

UNF :- UNF Thread has large minor diameters than UNC thread which
gives UNF fastener slightly higher load carrying capacity and better torque
locking than UNC. The fine threads have tighter tolerance than UNC
thread.
Quality of threads is important for the load bearing capacity of the bolting
system. Domestic quality threads can not be used in critical industrial
service. Thread quality is defined as thread class which specifies the
allowable tolerance and clearance between the mail and female threads
known as installation fit.
THREAD CLASS :- There are three classes for external threads
designated as 1A. 2A & 3A and similarly for internal threads class are
designated as 1B, 2B & 3B. Generally same category of class for both type
of threads are selected for a particular service.
CLASS 1A AND 1B :- These are the loosest fit bolting systems and have
largest amount of play between the male and female parts of the
assembly. This class is used only in domestic use bolting system and in
structural assemblies.
CLASSES 2A AND 2B :- This class is specified for the typical fit where
reasonable quality and fit predictability is required and most widely used
in industrial fasteners.
CLASS 3A AND 3B :- This class is specified for high quality precession
application of fasteners e.g. in measuring / calibration instruments etc.
Threaded stud specification :- It is always important to give correct
specifications for getting the threaded studs exactly as per requirement.
Specifications shall cover the thread size, length of stud, type of threads,
class of threads, material class & grade Material class & grade of nut etc.
Examples:
i) SWN 1/4X95, 20 UNC 2A, A193 B7/A194 2H Which read as stud with
nuts, size 1/4, length 95mm, threads as per 20 TPI in UNC in thread class
2A, material as per ASTM A193 Grade B7 and Nuts as per ASTM A194
Grade 2H.
ii) BWN 5/8X110, UNC 2A, A193 B16/A194 4H Which read as Bolt with
nut, size 5/8, length 110mm, threads as per UNC in thread class 2A,
material as per ASTM A193 Grade B16 and Nuts as per ASTM A194 Grade
4H.

EQUIVALENT IMPERIAL THREAD TOLERENCE & CLASSSES :- There


are certain equivalent tolerance and fits in Imperial internal/external
thread and ISO thread tolerance class. E.g. Imperial fit tolerance class
2B/2A is equivalent to 6H/6g of ISO thread tolerance class. Class fit 3B/3A
is approximately equivalent of ISO class fit 4H5H/4h6h In ISO thread
classes details are covered in ISO 965-1 Sec 2.7 & 12.
FAILURE OF FASTENER :- Any fastener joint failure on a machine or on a
process piping or on a stationery equipment can have potentially
disastrous consequences. Therefore it is very important to select and use
appropriate fastener of proper material, proper thread type and thread
classes as well as torque applied for tightening. Failure of a threaded
fastener generally occurs in three modes.
i) Failure by tensile fracture through the shank or threaded section.
ii) Shear failure through the threaded (thread stripping) of external thread.
iii) Shear failure through the thread profile of the internal threaded
portion.
Thread stripping is a shear failure of an internal or external thread that
results when the strength of the threaded material exceeded by the
applied force acting on the threads. Thread stripping tends to be gradual
in nature and it may go unnoticed at the time of assembly. Improper
fitment, abnormally small length of nut also leads to thread stripping.
Selection of Material For Fastners
Temperature Range
Material Bolt/ Nut
100C - 200C
A320B8/Gr .8
46C - 100C
A320L7/Gr .4
A320L7/Gr .4
0C - 45C
SNB7/S45C
0C - 300C
A307 SS400
300C - 400C
A193B7/Gr .2H
B7/2H

SNB7/S45C
400C - 550C
A193B16/Gr .4
A193B8/Gr .8
550C - 650C
A193B8M/Gr .8M
A453Gr.660,
650C
A453Gr.660/Gr 8C
750C
Hastalloy B & C
High Temperature High Tension Alloy Bolt Material Chemical &
Mechanical Requirements
ASTM A193 B7 ( Cr- Mo AISI 4140,4142,4145 )
This material is considered as the most suitable for bolts to be used at
temperature below 450 . C, with a minimum effect on its structural
strength during application at a high temperature.
The material has the following chemical properties and physical
Characteristics
ASTM A1193 B7M ( Cr- Mo AISI 4140,4142,4145 )
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

0.37-0.49 0.65-1.10 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15-0.35 0.75-1.20 0.15-0.25

Dia

Minimum
Yield
Tensile
Elongatio Reduction
Tempering
Strength.
Strength
n in
of
Hardness
Temperatur
min,
min, ksi
2"
Area
max
e
0.2%
MPa
min %
min %
F (C)
offset, Ksi

21/2" and
1150
under
(620 C )

100(690)

80(550)

18

235HB,
99HRB

50

ASTM A193 B16 (Cr- Mo -V )


This material is considered as the most suitable for bolts to be used at
temperature below 450 . C,even at a high temperature range, the material
has superior physical characterestics compared to ASTM A193 B7 previously
mentioned.
The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows
C

Mn

0.360.45-0.70
0.47

Dia

0.035
Max

0.04
Max

Si

Cr

0.15-0.35 0.80-1.15

Yield
Strength
Minimum Tensile
Elongatio Reductio
. min,
Temperatur Strength
n in
n of
0.2%
e
min, ksi
4D
Area
offset,
F (C)
( MPa)
min %
min %
Ksi
( MPa)

21/2" 1200(650) 125(860 105(725

18

50

Mo

Al

0.50- 0.015Ma 0.250.65


x
0.35

Hardness
max

321HB

and
unde
r

or 35 HRC

over
110(760
21/2" 1200(650)
95(655)
)
to 4"

17

45

302HB
or 33 HRC

over
100(690
4" to 1200(650 )
85(586)
)
7"

16

45

227HB
or 29 HRC

ASTM A193 B5 (5% Cr AISI 501)


C

Mn

0.10 max

1.00 max

0.040
max

Dia

Si

Cr

Mo

0.030 Max 1.0 Max 4.00 - 6.00 0.40 -0.65

Yield
Minimum
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Tempering
Strength
min,
n in
of
Hardness
Temperatur
min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
max
e
(MPa)
offset, Ksi min %
min %
F (C)
(MPa)

up to 4"
1.100 (593 ) 100(690)
incl

80(550)

16

50

ASTM A193 B8 (AISI 304) B8A Chemical Requirements


C

Mn

Si

0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max

Cr

Ni

18.00 20.00

8.00 -10.50

ASTM A193 B8C (AISI 347) B8CA


C

0.08
Max

Mn

2.00 Max

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

Si

Cr

17.00 1.00 Max


19.00

Ni

Columbiu
m+
Tantalum

9.00
-13.00

10 x
Carbon
content,
min

ASTM A193 B8N (AISI 304N) B8NA


C

Mn

0.08 Max 2.00 Max

Si

Cr

Ni

Nitrogen

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

1.00 Max

18.00 20.00

8.00
-10.50

0.10 0.16

ASTM A193 B8MN (AISI 316N) B8MNA

Mn

Si

Cr

0.08
Max

2.00
Max

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

1.00
Max

Ni

16.00 - 10.00
18.00 -14.00

Mo

Nitrogen

2.00 3.00

0.10 0.16

ASTM A193 B8P (AISI 305) B8PA


C

Mn

Si

0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max

Cr

Ni

17.00 19.00

10.50
-13.00

ASTM A193 B8T (AISI 321) B8TA


C

Mn

0.08 Max 2.00 Max

Si

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

Cr

17.00 1.00 Max


19.00

Ni

Titanium

9.00
-12.00

5x
Carbon
content,
min

ASTM A193 B8R B8RA


C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

Nitroge
n

Columbiu
m
V
+ Tanalum

20.50
0.10
11.50 1.50 - 0.20 0.10 - 0.30 -13.50 3.00
0.40
23.50
0.30

0.06 4.00 - 0.040 0.030 1.00


Max 6.00 Max Max Max
ASTM A193 B8S B8SA
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Nitrogen

0.10 Max

7.00 9.00

0.040
Max

0.030
Max

3.50 4.50

16.00 18.00

8.00 9.00

0.08 0.18

Ni

Mo

Nitrogen

0.10 0.16

Mo

Nitrogen

2.00 3.00

0.10 0.16

ASTM A193 B8LN, B8LNA


C

Mn

Si

0.030
Max

2.00

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

1.00

Cr

18.00 - 8.00 20.00 10.50

B8MLN, B8MLNA
C

Mn

Si

0.030
Max

2.00

0.045
Max

0.030
Max

1.00

Cr

Ni

16.00 - 10.00 18.00 14.00

CLASS I: B8, B8C, B8M, B8P, B8T, B8LN, B8MLN Mechanical


Requirements
Tensile

Yield
Strength. Elongatio Reduction

All
diameter
s

Carbide
Solution
Treated

75(515)

30(205)

30

50

223 HB or
96HRB
(3/4" in &
smaller,
241HB or
100 HRB)

CLASS IA: B8A, B8CA, B8MA, B8PA, B8TA, B8LNA, B8MLNA, B8NA,
B8MN4

Dia

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

Carbide
All
Solution
diameter Treated in 75(515)
s
the finished
conditions

30(205)

30

50

Hardness
max

192 HB
or 90HRB

CLASS IB: B8N, B8MN

Dia

All
diameter
s

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)
Carbide
Solution
Treated

80(550)

35(240)

30

40

Hardness
max

223 HB or
96HRB
(3/4" in &
smaller,
241HB or
100 HRB)

CLASS IC: B8R

Dia

All
diameter
s

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)
Carbide
Solution
Treated

100(690) 55(380)

35

55

Hardness
max

271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8RA

Dia

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

Carbide
All
Solution
diameter Treated in 100(690) 55(380)
s
the finished
condition

35

55

Hardness
max

271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8S

Dia

All
diameter
s

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)
Carbide
Solution
Treated

95(655)

50(345)

35

55

Hardness
max

271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8SA

Dia

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

Carbide
All
Solution
diameter Treated in 95(655)
s
the finished
condition

50(345)

35

55

Hardness
max

271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS 2: B8, B8C, B8P, B8T, B8N

Dia

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

Hardness
max

3/4" &
under

125(860) 100(690)

Carbide 115(795
80(550)
Solution
)
Treated and
over 1" &
105(725
strain
65(450)
11/4" incl Hardened
)
11/4" to
100(690
50(345)
11/2" incl
)
over 3/4"
& 1" incl

12

35

15

35

20

35

28

45

321 HB
or 35 HRC

CLASS 2: B8MN / B8M

Dia

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

3/4" &
under

110(760) 95(655)

Carbide 100(690
80(550)
Solution
)
Treatedand
over 1" &
strain
95(655) 65(450)
11/4" incl Hardened
11/4" to
95(655) 75(515)
11/2" incl
over 3/4"
& 1" incl

15

45

20

45

25

45

25

40

Hardness
max

321 HB
or 35 HRC

CLASS 2B: B8M2

Dia

2" & under

Yield
Tensile Strength. Elongatio Reduction
Heat
Strength
min,
n in
of
Hardnessma
Treatement min, ksi
0.2%
2"
Area
x
(MPa) offset, Ksi min %
min %
(MPa)

Carbide 95(655)
over 2" & Solution
90(620)
21/2" incl Treatedand
strain
over 21/2"
80(550)
Hardened
to 3" incl

75(515)

25

40

65(450)

30

40

55(380)

30

40

321 HB
or 35 HRC