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DECLARATION

This is a report of a project that has been done for at least 300 hours
over two semesters, as a partial fulfillment of the course SMES4181 for
the degree of Bachelor of Science (Physics). This report has been
scanned by an anti-plagiarism software and satisfied the requirements
of the Department of Physics.

(Nur Izzati Binti Ishak)


Physics Department, University of Malaya
Date: (17/6/2013)

Tables of Contents

Declaration
Table of contents
List of figures
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Abstrak

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Chapter 1: From Special Relativity to General

Relativity
1.0. Introduction
1.1. Newtonian Framework
1.2. Special Theory of Relativity
1.3. General Theory of Relativity
1.4. Schwarzschild Solution
1.5. Generic Static Spherically Symmetric Spacetime
1.6. Conclusion

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Chapter 2: Wormhole
2.0.Introduction
2.1. Example Solutions of Einstein Field Equation
2.2. Energy Conditions
2.3.Conclusion

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Chapter 3: Traversable Schwarzschild Wormhole

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Solution
3.0. Introduction
3.1. Structural Equations
3.2. Einstein Field Equation
3.3. The Stress Energy-momentum Tensors
3.4 .Solving Einstein Field Equations
3.5. Embedding Diagram
3.6. Exotic Matter
3.7. Existence of Negative Energy
3.8 .Violation of Negative energy
3.9. Zero Tidal Force Wormhole Solution
3.10.Conclusion
Chapter4: Discussion and Conclusion
4.1.Discussion
4.2.Conclusion
References

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List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Frame of references S moves relative


frame of reference S 2

Figure 1.2: The two-dimensional light cone in Einstein-Minkowski spacetime.


This Figure is adapted from [1].

Figure 2.1: Embedding diagram visualizes the quantum foam which is


thought to reside in the singularity inside black hole.
This figure is adapted from [14]

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Figure 2.2: Formation process of Schwarzschild wormhole .This figure is


adapted from [14] 21
Figure 3.1: Two spherical volume need to be smoothly joined from to a.
Figure is adapted from Lemos et .al [13]

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Figure 3.2: 2-Dimensional section of embedding diagram 42


Figure 3.3: Full visualization of embedding diagram

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Figure 3.4: Two difference universe are connected by wormhole...

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Acknowledgements
For the suggestive idea, support and interesting discussion, we would like to thanks
Prof Wan Ahmad Tajuddin,Dr Bijan Nikouravan and Mr Anuar Alias. Special thanks are
given the Physics Department for provides us the opportunities to carried out this
research.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is to derive traversable Schwarzschild wormhole solution using
proposed spherically static symmetric spacetime metric. The background for this study
are prepared by the brief overview on the special theory of relativity, concept of
spacetime , the doctrine of general relativity and pioneering solutions of Einstein field
equation. In accord of Morris and Thorne framework, we solved the Einstein field
equation and obtained the visualization of geometry of wormhole. The energy condition
of exotic matter which is essential for the wormhole to be traversable is briefly
discussed.
Keywords: Gravity, general relativity, Einstein equation, energy density

Abstrak

Tunjuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk menerbitkan penyelesaian

lohong-ruang

Schwarzchild yang boleh dilalui dengan menggunakan matrik ruangmasa bersimetri


sfera yang telah diutarakan. Latar belakang untuk kajian ini dimulakan dengan
ringkasan gambaran keseluruhan tentang teori kerelatifan khas, konsep ruangmasa,
teori kerelatifan am dan contoh-contoh penyelesaian bagi persamaan medan Einstein.
Kami memulakan kajian ini dengan kerangka Morris dan Thorne, kami menyelesaikan
persamaan medan Einstein dan memperoleh gambaran tentang lohong-ruang geometri.
Akhir sekali, kami akan membincangkan tentang keadaan tenaga jirim esotik. jirim
Esotik memainkan peranan yang penting untuk membina lohong-ruang yang boleh
dilalui.
Kata-kata kekunci: Graviti, teori kerelatifan am, persamaan Einstein, keadaan tenaga