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You are on page 1of 6

This is a report of a project that has been done for at least 300 hours

over two semesters, as a partial fulfillment of the course SMES4181 for

the degree of Bachelor of Science (Physics). This report has been

scanned by an anti-plagiarism software and satisfied the requirements

of the Department of Physics.

Physics Department, University of Malaya

Date: (17/6/2013)

Tables of Contents

Declaration

Table of contents

List of figures

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Abstrak

ii

iii

v

vi

vii

viii

Relativity

1.0. Introduction

1.1. Newtonian Framework

1.2. Special Theory of Relativity

1.3. General Theory of Relativity

1.4. Schwarzschild Solution

1.5. Generic Static Spherically Symmetric Spacetime

1.6. Conclusion

2

2

3

6

10

15

16

Chapter 2: Wormhole

2.0.Introduction

2.1. Example Solutions of Einstein Field Equation

2.2. Energy Conditions

2.3.Conclusion

17

18

19

22

23

25

Solution

3.0. Introduction

3.1. Structural Equations

3.2. Einstein Field Equation

3.3. The Stress Energy-momentum Tensors

3.4 .Solving Einstein Field Equations

3.5. Embedding Diagram

3.6. Exotic Matter

3.7. Existence of Negative Energy

3.8 .Violation of Negative energy

3.9. Zero Tidal Force Wormhole Solution

3.10.Conclusion

Chapter4: Discussion and Conclusion

4.1.Discussion

4.2.Conclusion

References

26

27

33

38

40

40

46

48

49

51

52

54

55

56

57

List of Figures

frame of reference S 2

This Figure is adapted from [1].

thought to reside in the singularity inside black hole.

This figure is adapted from [14]

20

adapted from [14] 21

Figure 3.1: Two spherical volume need to be smoothly joined from to a.

Figure is adapted from Lemos et .al [13]

34

Figure 3.3: Full visualization of embedding diagram

43

45

Acknowledgements

For the suggestive idea, support and interesting discussion, we would like to thanks

Prof Wan Ahmad Tajuddin,Dr Bijan Nikouravan and Mr Anuar Alias. Special thanks are

given the Physics Department for provides us the opportunities to carried out this

research.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is to derive traversable Schwarzschild wormhole solution using

proposed spherically static symmetric spacetime metric. The background for this study

are prepared by the brief overview on the special theory of relativity, concept of

spacetime , the doctrine of general relativity and pioneering solutions of Einstein field

equation. In accord of Morris and Thorne framework, we solved the Einstein field

equation and obtained the visualization of geometry of wormhole. The energy condition

of exotic matter which is essential for the wormhole to be traversable is briefly

discussed.

Keywords: Gravity, general relativity, Einstein equation, energy density

Abstrak

lohong-ruang

sfera yang telah diutarakan. Latar belakang untuk kajian ini dimulakan dengan

ringkasan gambaran keseluruhan tentang teori kerelatifan khas, konsep ruangmasa,

teori kerelatifan am dan contoh-contoh penyelesaian bagi persamaan medan Einstein.

Kami memulakan kajian ini dengan kerangka Morris dan Thorne, kami menyelesaikan

persamaan medan Einstein dan memperoleh gambaran tentang lohong-ruang geometri.

Akhir sekali, kami akan membincangkan tentang keadaan tenaga jirim esotik. jirim

Esotik memainkan peranan yang penting untuk membina lohong-ruang yang boleh

dilalui.

Kata-kata kekunci: Graviti, teori kerelatifan am, persamaan Einstein, keadaan tenaga

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