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Nonlinearfunctiongenerator

Publicationnumber
Publicationtype
Applicationnumber
Publicationdate
Filingdate
Prioritydate

US4293917A
Grant
US06/097,913
6Oct1981
28Nov1979
28Nov1979

timeintervalbetweentwoeventsandinwhichthedigitaldatahaveanonlinear

Inventors

PhilipD.Wasserman

relationshiptothetimeinterval.Thefunctiongeneratorcomprisesarate

OriginalAssignee

StanfordAssociates,Inc.

multipliercircuithavingaconstantpulsefrequencymultiplicandanda

ExportCitation

BiBTeX,EndNote,RefMan

continuouslyvaryingmultiplierselectedbyamemorycircuitthroughoutthetime

PatentCitations(5),Referencedby(2),Classifications(6)

US4293917A
ABSTRACT
Afunctiongeneratorforproducingdigitaldatawhichrepresentafunctionofthe

interval.Acountercircuithasitsinputconnectedtotheoutputoftherate
multipliercircuitandhasitsoutputconnectedtothememorycircuitto

ExternalLinks:USPTO,USPTOAssignment,Espacenet

continuouslyaddressthememorycircuitforselectingthecontinuouslyvarying
multiplieraseachoutputpulsefromtheratemultipliercircuitiscountedbythecountercircuit.Thedatastoredinthememorycircuitforselectingthemultiplier
representsaseriesofstraightlineapproximationstothedesiredcontinuousnonlinearfunction.Adigitalfeedbackloopisformedbetweentheratemultipliercircuit,
thecountercircuitandthememorycircuittocauseanonlinearfunctiontobegeneratedbytwoeventsdefiningatimeinterval.Atthecompletionofthetimeinterval,
thetotalcountofpulsesappliedtothecountercircuitisregisteredinadatastoragedevicetoprovidedigitaldatawhichrepresentanonlinearfunctionofthetime
intervalbetweentwoevents.

IMAGES (4)

DESCRIPTION

CLAIMS (16)

BACKGROUNDOFTHEINVENTION

Iclaim:

Thepresentinventionrelatesingeneraltofunctiongenerators,andmore

1.Afunctiongeneratorcomprising:

particularlytoafunctiongeneratorforgeneratingdigitaldatawhichrepresenta
functionofthetimeintervalbetweenevents.
Invariousapparatus,itisdesirabletoproduceadigitalreadoutwhichrepresents
afunctionofthetimeintervalbetweentwoevents.Forexample,itmaybe

(a)aratemultipliercircuithavingaconstantpulsefrequencymultiplicand:
(b)amemorycircuitconnectedtosaidratemultipliercircuitandstoringdata
forselectingthemultiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit

desirabletohaveadigitalreadoutrepresentingthefrequencyassociatedwith

(c)acountercircuitconnectedtotheoutputofsaidratemultipliercircuitfor

periodicfunctionsofthehumanbody,suchasheartbeats,respirationandthe

countingtheoutputpulsesthereofandconnectedtosaidmemorycircuitfor

like.Heretofore,digitalreadoutsoffrequencyweredifficulttoobtain,because

continuouslyaddressingsaidmemorycircuitinresponsetotheoutput

conventionaldigitalfrequencymeasurementrequiredtheaccumulationofinput

pulsesofsaidratemultipliercircuittoselectacontinuouslyvarying

eventsinaperiodoftime.Thisperiodmustbelong,inthecaseofheartbeats

multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuitand

andotherlowfrequencysignals,ifadequateresolutionistobeobtained.
Alternatively,periodcanbemeasuredquickly,butithastohaveanonlinear

(d)meansconnectedtotheoutputofsaidcountercircuittoreceivethe

(1/x)relationshiptofrequency.

pulsescountedbysaidcountercircuitforpresentinganonlinearfunction
withrespecttoatimeinterval.

Heretofore,digitaloranalogcomputerswereemployedtoenablethegeneration
ofadigitalreadoutfromanonlineartimerelatedsignal.Suchcomputerswereof

2.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim1whereinsaidcounter

considerablecomplexityandcost.

circuitaddressessaidmemorycircuitasitcountseachpulsefromthe
outputofsaidratemultipliercircuitforselectingthemultiplierforsaid

Whenthedigitalreadoutrepresentsafunctionofthetimeintervalbetweentwo

ratemultipliercircuit.

eventsandtherelationshipislinearwithrespecttoatimeinterval,thedesired
functionalrelationshipmaybeexpressedasalinearequation,i.e.,Nout=AT,

3.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim1andcomprisingalogic

wheretheNoutisadigitalreadoutAisacoefficientofproportionalityandTis

circuitconnectedtosaidcountercircuittopresetsaidcountercircuitto

theelapsedtimebetweenevents.Inthisinstance,arelativelysimpletime
intervalcounterwillproducethedigitalreadout.However,inthoseinstancesin
whichthefunctionoftimerepresentedbyF(t)isanonlinearfunctionoftime,

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US4293917

aninitialcountforaddressingsaidmemorycircuittoselectaninitial
multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit,meansconnectedtosaidlogic
circuitforapplyingafirstandasecondeventpulse,saidlogiccircuitin

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i.e.,1/T,T2,N/T,etcetera,theapparatusforproducingadigitalreadouthas

responsetoafirsteventpulseresetstheoperationofsaidrate

beenundulycomplex.

multipliercircuitandinresponsetoasecondeventpulselatchesthe
outputpulsecountofsaidcountercircuittosaidmeansforpresentinga

SUMMARYOFTHEINVENTION

nonlinearfunctionbetweeneventpulses.

Afunctiongeneratorforproducingdigitaldatawhichrepresentanonlinear

4.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim1whereintheconnections

functionofthetimeintervalbetweenevents.Thefunctiongeneratorcomprisesa

betweensaidratemultipliercircuit,saidmemorycircuitandsaid

ratemultipliercircuithavingaconstantpulsefrequencymultiplicandanda

countercircuitdefineadigitalfeedbackloop.

continuouslyvaryingmultiplierselectedbyamemorycircuitthroughoutthetime
interval.Acountercircuitreceivestheoutputoftheratemultipliercircuitand

5.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim1whereinsaidmemory

continuouslyaddressesthememorycircuitforselectingthecontinuouslyvarying

circuitstoresstraightlineapproximationsasdataforselectingthe

multiplieraseachoutputpulsefromtheratemultipliercircuitiscountedbythe

multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit.

countercircuit.Atthecompletionofthetimeinterval,thetotalcountofpulses
appliedtothecountercircuitisappliedtoprovidedigitaldatawhichrepresenta
nonlinearfunctionofthetimeintervalbetweenevents.
Afeatureofthepresentinventionisthatthememorycircuitstoresdata
representingaseriesofstraightlineapproximationstothedesirednonlinear
function.Inthismanner,thequantityofdatastoredinthememorycircuitis
reducedtoenablethememorycircuittobesmallerandtolessenthecomplexity
ofthememorycircuit.

6.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim5whereinsaidcounter
circuitaddressessaidmemorycircuitasitcountseachpulsefromthe
outputofsaidratemultipliercircuitforselectingthemultiplierforsaid
ratemultipliercircuit.
7.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim2andcomprisingalogic
circuitconnectedtosaidcountercircuittopresetsaidcountercircuitto
aninitialcountforaddressingsaidmemorycircuittoselectaninitial
multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit,meansconnectedtosaidlogic

Anotherfeatureofthepresentinventionisthatadigitalfeedbackloopisformed

circuitforapplyingafirstandasecondeventpulse,saidlogiccircuitin

betweenaratemultipliercircuit,acountercircuitandamemorycircuittocause

responsetoafirsteventpulseresetstheoperationofsaidrate

anonlinearfunctiontobegeneratedbyeventsoccurringwithinatimeinterval.

multipliercircuitandinresponsetoasecondeventpulselatchesthe
outputpulsecountofsaidcountercircuittosaidmeansforpresentinga

Anobjectofthepresentinventionistoprovideafunctiongeneratorforproducing

nonlinearfunctionbetweeneventpulses.

digitaldata,whichdatarepresentanonlinearfunctionofthetimeinterval
betweenevents,andwhichfunctiongeneratoriseconomicaltomanufacture.

8.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim2whereintheconnections
betweensaidratemultipliercircuit,saidmemorycircuitandsaid

Anotherobjectofthepresentinventionistoprovideafunctiongeneratorfor

countercircuitdefineadigitalfeedbackloop.

producingdigitaldata,whichdatarepresentanonlinearfunctionofthetime
intervalbetweenevents,andwhichfunctiongeneratorarrivesatthedesired
resultwithfewerandlesscostlypartsandyethasgreaterreliabilityand
portability.
Anotherobjectofthepresentinventionistoprovideafunctiongeneratorfor
producingdigitaldata,whichdatarepresentanonlinearfunctionofthetime
intervalbetweenevents,andwhichfunctiongeneratorisdigitalthroughoutand,
therefore,issuitableforintegratedcircuittechniquesandimplementation.
Anotherobjectofthepresentinventionistoprovideafunctiongeneratorfor
producingdigitaldata,whichdatarepresentanonlinearfunctionofthetime
interval,andinwhichfunctiongeneratorthecomplexityofthememorycircuitis
reducedandthecomponentsofthememorycircuitarereducedinnumber.
DESCRIPTIONOFTHEDRAWINGS
FIG.1isablockdiagramofthefunctiongeneratorembodyingthepresent
invention.

9.Afunctiongeneratorcomprising:
(a)aratemultipliercircuithavingaconstantpulsefrequencymultiplicand
representedbyFo
(b)amemorycircuitconnectedtosaidratemultipliercircuitandstoringdata
forselectingthemultiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit
(c)acountercircuitconnectedtotheoutputofsaidratemultipliercircuitand
connectedtosaidmemorycircuitforcontinuouslyaddressingsaidmemory
circuittoselectacontinuouslyvaryingmultiplierforsaidratemultiplier
circuit,themultipliersselectedbysaidmemorycircuitforsaidratemultiplier
circuitduringatimeintervalTmiisrepresentedbyNmiand
(d)meansconnectedtotheoutputofsaidcountercircuittoreceivethe
pulsescountedbysaidcountercircuitforpresentinganonlinearfunction
withrespecttothetimeintervalTmi=Nmi/Fo.
10.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim9whereinsaidmemory

FIGS.2Aand2B,whenplacesidebysideareaschematicdiagramofthe

circuitstoresstraightlineapproximationsasdataforselectingthe

functiongeneratorshowninFIG.1.

multiplierforsaidmultipliercircuit.

FIG.3isablockdiagramofasensingdeviceandsignalconditioneremployedin

11.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim9andcomprisingalogic

thefunctiongeneratorshowninFIGS.1,2Aand2Bforproducingapulseevent.

circuitconnectedtosaidcountercircuittopresetsaidcountercircuitto
aninitialcountforaddressingsaidmemorycircuittoselectaninitial

FIG.4isagraphicalillustrationofthedigitalreadoutforanonlinearfunction

multiplierforratemultipliercircuitrepresentedbyNm,themultiplierfor

occuringduringanintervaloftimebetweentwoeventstoillustratetheuseofa

saidratemultipliercircuitselectedbysaidmemorycircuitinresponse

seriesofstraightlineapproximationsstoredinthememorycircuitforselecting

tosaidcountercircuitaddressingsaidmemorycircuitaftersaidcounter

themultiplierforaratemultiplyingcircuit,therebyapproximatingthedesirednon

circuithasafirstpulseappliedtheretobysaidratemultipliercircuitis

linearfunction.

representedbyNml,themultiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuitselected

FIG.5isadiagrammaticillustrationofpulsesequenceswithrespecttotime.
DESCRIPTIONOFTHEPREFERREDEMBODIMENT

bysaidmemorycircuitinresponsetosaidcountercircuitaddressing
saidmemorycircuitaftersaidcountercircuitreceivingkpulsesfrom
saidratemultipliercircuitisrepresentedbyNmK,thetimeintervalTk
forsaidcountercircuittoaccumulatekpulsesisequalto##EQU2##

IllustratedinFIGS.1,2Aand2Bisanonlinearfunctiongenerator10embodying
thepresentinvention,whichcomprisesasuitablestableoscillatororclockpulse

12.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim10whereinsaidmemory

generator11.Theoscillator11isawellknowncrystalcontrolledoscillatorand,in

circuitstoresstraightlineapproximationsasdataforselectingthe

theexemplaryembodiment,producespulsesataconstantfrequency(Fo)of

multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit.

32.768KHZ.
Asuitableratemultiplier15isconnectedtotheoutputoftheoscillator11.Inthe

13.Afunctiongeneratorcomprising:
(a)aratemultipliercircuithavingaconstantmultiplicand

exemplaryembodiment,thewellknownratemultipliercircuit15includescounter

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circuits21and22andNANDgates2326.Thecountercircuitsmaybeofthe

(b)amemorycircuitconnectedtosaidratemultipliercircuitforselectingthe

typemanufacturedbyRCAasCD4516Bcounters.Themultiplicandoftherate

multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit

multipliercircuit15istheoutputoftheoscillator11.

(c)firstmeansconnectedtotheoutputofsaidratemultipliercircuitandto

Connectedtotheoutputoftheratemultipliercircuit15isasuitablecounter

saidmemorycircuitforaddressingsaidmemorycircuitinresponsetothe

circuit30.Thecountercircuit30comprisessuitablecounters3133.The

outputofsaidratemultipliercircuittoselectamultiplierforsaidrate

countersmaybeofthetypemanufacturedbyMotorolaCompanyas14510B

multipliercircuitand

counters.Asuitablereadonly(ROM)memorycircuit40isconnectedtothe
outputofthecountercircuit30.Inturn,thecountercircuit30continuously
addressesthememorycircuit40inresponsetoeachpulsecountedbythe

(d)secondmeansresponsivetotheoutputofsaidfirstmeansforpresenting
anonlinearfunctionwithrespecttoatimeinterval.

countercircuit30.
Storedinthememorycircuit40aredatarepresentingaseriesofstraightline
approximationstothedesirednonlinearfunction(FIG.4).Thecountercircuit30

14.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim13whereinsaidmemory
circuitstoresstraightlineapproximationsasdataforselectingthe
multiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit.

addressesthememorycircuit40asitcountseachpulsefromtheoutputofthe

15.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim14whereinsaidfirstmeans

ratemultipliercircuit15.Thememorycircuit40,inturn,selectsthemultiplierfor

continuouslyaddressessaidmemorycircuittoselectacontinuously

theratemultipliercircuit15fromdatarepresentingaseriesofstraightline

varyingmultiplierforsaidratemultipliercircuit.

approximationsstoredtherein.Therefore,asthecountercircuit30countseach
pulsefromtheoutputoftheratemultipliercircuit15,thememorycircuitselectsa

16.Afunctiongeneratorasclaimedinclaim15whereintheconnections

multiplierfortheratemultipliercircuit15.Thus,themultiplierfortherate

betweensaidratemultipliercircuit,saidmemorycircuitandsaidfirst

multipliercircuit15changesasthecountercircuit30countseachpulsefromthe

meansdefineadigitalfeedbackloop.

outputoftheratemultipliercircuit15.
Fromtheforegoing,itistobeobservedthatadigitalfeedbackloopisformed
betweentheratemultipliercircuit15,thecountercircuit30andthememorycircuit40.Thedigitalfeedbackloopisoverthe
followingpath:ratemultipliercircuit15,conductor41,countercircuit30,conductors42,conductors43,memorycircuit40,
conductors44andbacktotheratemultipliercircuit15.
Eachevent,suchasatatimet1andt2,issensedbyasensingdevice50(FIG.3)toproduceapulsesignal.Thepulse
signalisamplifiedandconditionedbyasignalconditionercircuit51.Includedinthesignalconditionercircuit51isasuitable
voltageamplifier52,whichisconnectedtotheoutputofthesensingdevice50.Thesensingdevice50maybeanOPB710
sensormanufacturedbyOptronCorporationandthevoltageamplifier52maybea308amplifiermanufacturedbyRCAwith
suitablepassiveelements.Connectedtotheoutputofthevoltageamplifier52isasuitableactivefilter53,employingtheTL
082OPAMPmanufacturedbyTexasInstrumentsalongwithsuitablepassiveelements.Theoutputoftheactivefilter53is
appliedtoaSchmittTriggercircuit55.
TheoutputoftheSchmittTriggercircuit55isappliedtoalogiccircuit70overaconductor56.Eachevent,suchasata
timet1andt2,causestheSchmittTriggercircuit55toproduceanoutputpulse.EachtimetheSchmittTriggercircuit55
producesanoutputpulse,aneventpulse,suchasatatimet1andt2,isconductedovertheconductor56tobeappliedto
thelogiccircuit70.Thelogiccircuit70isaloadandpresetcircuit.Thelogiccircuit70uponreceiptofaneventpulseover
theconductor56firstcausesthecountercircuit30tobeloadedintothelatchdecoderdrivercircuit90.Then,thelogic
circuit70servestopresetthecounter30andtoresettheratemultipliercircuit15.Intheexemplaryembodiment,thelogic
circuit70includesflipflopcircuits7578ofthetypemanufacturedbyMotorolaas14175Bflipflops.Theeventpulse
conductedovertheconductor56isappliedtotheflipflopcircuits7578ofthelogiccircuit70,whichformsa4bitshift
register.Theoutputcircuitsoftheflipflopcircuits7578areconnectedtoNANDgates79and80.TheoutputoftheNAND
gate79isconnectedtoaninvertercircuit81andtheoutputoftheNANDgate80isconnectedtoaninvertercircuit82.
Uponreceiptofaneventpulseoverconductor56,a"one"stateissequentiallyshiftedthroughtheregisters7578ofthe
logiccircuit70bytheclockpulseOSCovertheconductor73.WhentheoutputoftheANDgateformedbytheNANDgate
80andtheinvertercircuit82istrue,aloadpulseisappliedtoalatchcircuit90.Thiscausesthedatainthecounter30tobe
storedinthedatalatchcircuit90.Twopulseslater,anANDgatecomposedoftheNANDgate79andtheinvertercircuit81
isina"one"stateand,apresetpulsefromthelogiccircuit70isappliedtothecountercircuit30overaconductor83anda
resetpulseisappliedtotheratemultipliercircuit15fromthelogiccircuit70overaconductor84.Thesequenceofthe
pulsesatvariouseventsisshowndiagrammaticallyinFIG.5.Thus,oneclockpulseaftereachevent,thetotalcountof
pulsesappliedtothecountercircuit30duringtheintervalbetweeneventsisregisteredinadatastoragedevice,suchasthe
latchdecoderdrivercircuit90.
Threeclockpulsesaftereachevent,thecounter30andtheratemultipliercircuit15arepreset.Whileasequenceofpulses
ishereindescribed,theclockperiodisselectedtobelowrelativetothetimebetweenevents.Hence,thelatchpreset
operationmaybeconsideredasoccurringatatimecoincidentwiththepulseevent.Intheexemplaryembodiment,thelatch
decoderdrivercircuit90comprisessuitablelatchdecoderdrivercircuits9193,whicharemanufacturedbyMotorola
CorporationastheMC14543B.Thelogiccircuit70throughtheNANDgate80andtheinvertercircuit82appliesalatch
signaltoapplythedatastoredinthelatchcircuit90toasuitabledigitaldisplay95.Thedigitaldisplay95displaysadigital
readoutwhichrepresentsanonlinearfunctionofthetimeintervalbetweentwoevents,t1t2.
Intheoperationofthenonlinearfunctiongenerator10,thelogiccircuit70presetsthecountercircuit30threeclockpulses
afteraneventpulse.Insodoing,thecountercircuit30hasaninitialstartingcountrepresentedbythestartingnumberNo.
Thecountercircuit30addressesthememorycircuit40withtheinitialstartingnumberNostoselectamultiplierNmforthe
ratemultipliercircuit15.Themultiplicandfortheratemultipliercircuit15isaconstantfrequencyFoproducedbythe
oscillator11.Tm,theelapsedtimebetweentheeventpulseandthetimethefirstpulseisappliedtothecountercircuit30
overtheconductor41bytheratemultipliercircuit15mayberepresentedasTm=Nm/Fo.Whenthecountercircuit30
registersthefirstpulsefromtheratemultipliercircuit15,itaddressesthememorycircuit40withanewnumberNol.Asa

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consequencethereof,thememorycircuit40selectsamultiplicandNmlfortheratemultipliercircuit15.Theelapsedtime
betweenthefirstandsecondpulseoutputsoftheratemultipliercircuitisnowrepresentedbyTml=Nml/Fo.Thus,the
generalexpressionfortheithtimeintervalbetweenpulseeventsisrepresentedbyTmi=Nmi/Fo.ThetimeTkforthecounter
circuit30toaccumulatekpulsesis:##EQU1##
Atthetimethesecondeventpulseisreceivedbythelogiccircuit70overtheconductor56fromthesensingdevice50and
thesignalconditioner51,thecountercircuit30registerskpulses.Hence,Nout=N+k,inwhichNrepresentstheinitialor
presetstartingnumberforthecountercircuit30andNoutrepresentsthenumberregisteredbythecountercircuit30atthe
timeofthesecondeventpulse.Thenumberregisteredbythecountercircuit30atthetimeofthesecondeventpulseis
latchedinthedatalatchcircuit90tobeappliedtothedigitaldisplay95forgivingadigitalreadoutofnonlinearfunctionof
thetimeintervalbetweenpulseevents.Thecountercircuit30ispresetasaconsequenceofeacheventpulseconducted
overtheconductor56fromthesensingdevice50andthesignalconditioner51.Theratemultipliercircuit15isresetasa
consequenceofeacheventpulse.
TheaccuracywithwhichNoutrepresentsthedesiredF(t)dependsuponthecorrectselectionofthecoefficientNmiandthe
numberofbitscomprisingthisnumber.Ifdesired,byusingonlyhighorderbitsofthecountercircuit30toaddressthe
memorycircuit40,thesizeofthememorycircuit40canbegreatlyreduced.Inthepresentinvention,theoutputnumber
Nmofthecountercircuit30addressingthememorycircuit40causesthememorycircuit40toselectasamultiplierfor
theratemultipliercircuit15aseriesofstraightlineapproximationstothedesiredF(t)(FIG.4).
Bypresettingthecountercircuit30toN,functionsmaybeproducedwhicharenotequaltozeroatT=0.Countercircuit30
canbeselectedtocounteitherupordownfromNbyimplementingeitherincreasingordecreasingfunctionsofthetime
intervalbetweenevents.Ifthecountercircuit30werecomposedoftwocounters,oneofwhichcountseitherupordownas
commandedbytheoutputofthememory40anddrivesthedisplay95,andasecondcounterwhichcountsonlyupand
drivestheaddressinputsofthememory40,thecounter30couldbeemployedtoallowthegenerationoffunctionswhichare
doublevaluedintheindependentvariableT,whichisthetimebetweenevents.
Theoutputofthedatalatchcircuit90isappliedtothedigitaldisplay95fordisplayingtheresultsofthesignalprocessingof
pulseeventsbythefunctiongenerator10.Intheexemplaryembodiment,thedisplay95maybealiquidcrystaldisplay,
suchasMLC210liquidcrystaldisplaymanufacturedbyMotorola.Othersuitableandwellknowndigitaldisplaysmaybe
employedequallyaswell.Theoutputofthedatalatchcircuit90mayalsobeintheformofbinaryorbinarycodedsignalsfor
furtherprocessingbydigitaldatahandlingsystems.Ifdesired,thedatalatchesmaybedeletedanddigitaldatataken
directlyfromthecounter30.Thiswouldrequireacceptingthedatawithinoneclockpulseaftertheloadpulseorinthe
alternativerequireaddingcircuitrytostopthecountingprocessasdataisbeingread.
Afrequencydividercircuit120receivestheoutputsignaloftheoscillator120,whichis32.768KHzintheexemplary
embodiment,andproducesinitsoutputa128Hzsignal.Thefrequencydividercircuit120includescountercircuits121and
122,whichisofthetypemanufacturedbytheMotorolaCompanyasCD4516B.The128Hzsignalisemployedtodrivethe
backplaneoftheliquidcrystaldisplay95andisoptionalwithrespecttoothertypesofdisplays.
TheNANDgates25and26oftheratemultipliercircuit15formasetresetflipflopcircuit,whichissetbytheoutputOSC
oftheoscillator11.TheOSCoutputpulsesareconductedovertheconductor73.Apresetpulseisappliedfromthelogic
circuit70throughtheNANDgate23andNANDgate24tothecountercircuits21and22oftheratemultipliercircuit15to
presetthecountercircuits21and22tothenumberNmocomingfromthememorycircuit40.Thecountercircuits21and22
thencountdownfromNmountilacountofzeroisreached.Atthattime,theflipflopcircuitformedbytheNANDgates25
and26isreset.TheoutputoftheNANDgate26isthenappliedthroughtheNANDgate24toonceagainpresetthe
counters21and22tothenumberNml.Thus,eachtimethecounters21and22counttozero,counters3133ofthecounter
circuit30areadvancedonecountwhichchangestheaddresstothememory40andanewnumberNmiispresetintothe
countercircuit30.Thetimerequiredforthecounters21and22oftheratemultipliercircuit15tocounttozeroistherefore
Nmi/Fo,thedesiredfunction.
Shoulditbedesiredtoaverageoutthetimefunction,aconventionalsignaldividercircuitandaclockdividercircuitcanbe
addedinaconventionalandwellknownmanner.Whenitispreferredtodelaytheoperationofthefunctiongenerator10until
aregularsignalisreceived,aconventionalandwellknownstartupcircuitcanbeprovidedinawellknownmanner.Should
itbedesiredtoprovideadisplaypulseindicator,aconventionalpulseindicatordisplaycanbeprovided.

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http://www.google.co.in/patents/US4293917

4/5

7/22/2015
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CLASSIFICATIONS
U.S.Classification

708/101,708/270,62/307

InternationalClassification

G06F1/03

CooperativeClassification

G06F1/03

EuropeanClassification

G06F1/03

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