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Lecture 1:

Introduction - Equations of

Motion

G. Dimitriadis

Definition

Aerodynamics is the science that analyses

the flow of air around solid bodies

The basis of aerodynamics is fluid

dynamics

Aerodynamics only came of age after the

first aircraft flight by the Wright brothers

The primary driver of aerodynamics

progress is aerospace and more

particularly aeronautics

Applications (1)

Basic phenomena:

Flow around a cylinder

Shock wave

Flow around an airfoil

Applications (2)

Low speed aerodynamics

Trailing vortices

Applications (3)

High speed aerodynamics

condensation

waters surface

Applications (4)

New concepts:

Blended wing body

Micro-air vehicles

Forward-swept wings

Applications (5)

Airship 1

Applications (6)

buildings, birds, insects

Categories of aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is an all-encompassing term

It is usually sub-divided according to the speed

of the flow regime under investigation:

Subsonic aerodynamics: The flow is subsonic over

the entire body

Transonic aerodynamics: The flow is sonic or

supersonic over some parts of the body but

subsonic over other parts

Supersonic aerodynamics: The flow is supersonic

over all of the body

Hypersonic aerodynamics: The flow is faster than

four times the speed of sound over all of the body

Subsonic aerodynamics:

Low speed aircraft, high-speed aircraft flying at

low speeds, wind turbines, environmental flows etc

Transonic aerodynamics:

Aircraft flying at nearly the speed of sound,

helicopter rotor blades, turbine engine blades etc

Supersonic aerodynamics:

Aircraft flying at supersonic speeds, turbine engine

blades etc

Hypersonic aerodynamics:

Atmospheric re-entry vehicles, experimental

hypersonic aircraft, bullets, ballistic missiles,

space launch vehicles etc

This course will address mostly

subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics

Transonic aerodynamics is very difficult

and highly nonlinear

Small perturbation linearized solutions exist

but their accuracy is debatable

scope of this course

Subsonic aerodynamics

Incompressible aerodynamics

Ideal flow

2D flow

3D flow

Viscous flow

Viscous-inviscid matching

Compressibility corrections

Supersonic aerodynamics

2D flow

3D flow

Simplifications

The different categories of aerodynamics exist

because of the different amount of

simplifications that can be applied to particular

flows

Air molecules always obey the same laws,

irrespective of the size or speed of the object

that is passing through them

However, the way we analyze flows changes

with flow regime because we apply

simplifications

Without simplifications very few useful results

can be obtained

The most complete model we have of the

flow of air is the Navier Stokes equations

These equations are nevertheless a

model: they are not the physical truth

They represent three conservation laws:

mass, momentum and energy

They are not the physical truth because

they involve a number of statistical

quantities such as viscosity and density

Aerodynamicists

( u) ( v ) ( w )

+

+

+

=0

t

x

y

z

+

+

+

=

+

+

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

( v ) ( uv ) ( v 2 ) ( vw ) xy yy yz

+

+

+

=

+

+

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

( w ) ( uw ) ( vw ) ( w 2 ) xz yz zz

+

+

+

=

+

+

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

+

+

+

=

+

+

+

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

+

u xx + v xy + w xz +

u xy + v yy + w yz +

u xz + v yz + w zz

x

y

z

Nomenclature

The lengths x, y, z are used to define

position with respect to a global frame of

reference, while time is defined by t.

u, v, w are the local airspeeds. They are

functions of position and time.

p, , are the pressure, density and

viscosity of the fluid and they are

functions of position and time

E is the total energy in the flow.

q is the external heat flux

Consider a small fluid element.

In a general flow, each face of the element

experiences normal stresses and shear stresses

The three normal and six shear stress components

make up the stress tensor

More nomenclature

The components of the stress tensor:

u

v

w

xx = p + 2 , yy = p + 2 , zz = p + 2

x

y

z

v u

w v

u w

xy = yx = + , yz = zy =

+ , = xz =

+

z x

x y

y z zx

E =e+

1 2

u + v2 + w2)

(

2

and depends on the temperature and

volume.

Gas properties

Do not forget that gases are also

governed by the state equation:

p = RT

Where T is the temperature and R is

Blotzmanns constant.

For a calorically perfect gas: e=cvT,

where cv is the specific heat at constant

volume.

Comments on Navier-Stokes

equations

Notice that aerodynamicists always include the

mass and energy equations in the NavierStokes equations

Notice also that compressibility is always

allowed for, unless specifically ignored

This is the most complete form of the airflow

equations, although turbulence has not been

explicitly defined

Explicit definition of turbulence further

complicates the equations by introducing new

unknowns, the Reynolds stresses.

Constant viscosity

Under the assumption that the fluid has

constant viscosity, the momentum

equations can be written as

( u) ( u 2 ) ( uv ) ( uw )

2 u 2 u 2 u

p

+

+

+

= + 2 + 2 + 2

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

x

( v ) ( uv ) ( v 2 ) ( vw )

2v 2v 2v

p

+

+

+

= + 2 + 2 + 2

t

x

y

z

y

y

z

x

( w ) ( uw ) ( vw ) ( w 2 )

2w 2w 2w

p

+

+

+

= + 2 + 2 + 2

t

x

y

z

z

y

z

x

Compact expressions

There are several compact expressions

for the Navier-Stokes equations:

Tensor notation:

Vector notation:

Matrix notation:

2 ui

Dui

p

=

+ 2

Dt

x i

x i

u 1

+ u u + ( u) u = p + 2u

t 2

T

u

+ T uuT = p + 2 u

t

Non-dimensional form

The momentum equations can also be

written in non-dimensional form as

( u) ( u 2 ) ( uv ) ( uw )

p 1 2 u 2 u 2 u

+

+

+

= +

2 + 2 + 2

t

x

y

z

x Re x

y

z

( v ) ( uv ) ( v 2 ) ( vw )

p 1 2v 2v 2v

+

+

+

= +

+

+

t

x

y

z

y Re x 2 y 2 z 2

( w ) ( uw ) ( vw ) ( w 2 )

p 1 2 w 2 w 2 w

+

+

+

= +

+

+

t

x

y

z

z Re x 2 y 2 z 2

where

=

u

v

w

x

y

z

tL

p

, u=

,v=

, w=

, x= , y= , z= , t= , p=

U

U

U

L

L

L

U

U 2

There exist no solutions of the complete

Navier-Stokes equations

The equations are:

Unsteady

Nonlinear

Viscous

Compressible

Flow unsteadiness

Flow unsteadiness in the real world arises from

two possible phenomena:

The solid body accelerates

There are areas of separated flows

do not accelerate

Attached flows will generally be considered

Therefore, unsteady terms will be neglected

All time derivatives in the Navier-Stokes equations

are equal to zero

Unsteadiness Examples

visualized in a water tunnel. The

airspeed is accelerating. The flow is

always separated and unsteady. It

becomes steadier at high airspeeds

water tunnel. The angle of attack is

increasing. The flow attached and

steady at low angles of attack and

vice versa.

Viscosity

Viscosity is a property of fluids

All fluids are viscous to different

degrees

However, there are some aerodynamic

flow cases where viscosity can be

modeled in a simplified manner

In those cases, all viscous terms are

neglected.

important

Shock wave

Boundary layer

Wake

Euler equations

Neglecting the viscous terms, we obtain

the unsteady Euler equations:

( u) ( v ) ( w )

+

+

+

=0

t

x

y

z

p

+

+

+

=

t

x

y

z

x

( v ) ( uv ) ( v 2 ) ( vw )

p

+

+

+

=

t

x

y

z

y

( w ) ( uw ) ( vw ) ( w 2 )

p

+

+

+

=

t

x

y

z

z

( up) (vp) ( wp)

+

+

+

=

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

equations

The Euler equations are usually written

in the form:

where

U F G H

+

+

+

=0

t x y z

u

v

w

2

p

+

u

uv

uw

u

2

U = v , F = uv , G = p + v , H = vw

2

p

+

uw

uw

w

w

u E + p

v E + p

w E + p

)

)

)

E

(

(

(

Neglecting unsteady terms we obtain

the steady Euler equations:

( u) ( v ) ( w )

+

+

=0

x

y

z

( u 2 )

x

( uv ) ( uw )

p

+

=

y

z

x

2

( uv ) ( v ) ( vw )

p

+

+

=

x

y

z

y

2

( uw ) ( vw ) ( w )

p

+

+

=

x

y

z

z

Example 1

Notice that in the steady Euler

equations, the energy equation has

disappeared.

Show that neglecting unsteady and

viscous terms turns the energy equation

into an identity if the airs internal

energy is constant in space.

Compressibility

The compressibility of most liquids is negligible

for the forces encountered in engineering

applications.

Many fluid dynamicists always write the NavierStokes equations in incompressible form.

This cannot be done for gases, as they are very

compressible.

However, for low enough airspeeds, the

compressibility of gases also becomes

negligible.

In this case, compressibility can be ignored.

Compressibility examples

Hypersonic

flow over

blunt wedge

Transonic flow

over airfoil

Supersonic

flow over

sharp wedge

Equations

The incompressible, steady Euler

equations become

u v w

+ +

=0

x y z

1 p

u

u

u

u +v +w =

x

y

z

x

1 p

v

v

v

u +v +w =

x

y

z

y

w

w

w

1 p

u

+v

+w

=

x

y

z

z

equations

The Euler equations are much more

solvable than the Navier-Stokes equations

They are most commonly solved using

numerical methods, such as finite

differences

There are very few analytical solutions of

the Euler equations and they are not

particularly useful

In order to obtain analytical solutions, the

equations must be simplified even further

Flow rotationality

Rotational flow:

Fluid rotation

Fluid particle,

time t1

Fluid particle,

time t2

Fluid particle,

time t3

Irrotational flow:

No fluid rotation

Fluid particle,

time t1

Fluid particle,

time t2

Fluid particle,

time t3

Irrotationality (1)

Some flows can be idealized as

irrotational

In general, attached, incompressible,

inviscid flows are also irrotational

Irrotationality requires that the curl of

the local velocity vector vanishes: u = 0

where u=ui+vj+wk and

= i + j+ k

x y

z

Irrotationality (2)

This leads to the simultaneous

equations:

w v

w u

v u

= 0,

= 0,

=0

y z

x z

x y

using these conditions leads to the wellknown Bernoulli equation

1

( u 2 + v 2 + w 2 ) + P = constant

2

Example 2

Integrate the incompressible, steady

momentum equations to obtain

Bernoullis equation for irrotational flow

You can start with the 2D equations

Velocity potential

Irrotationality allows the definition of the

velocity potential, such that

u=- , v =- , w=x

y

z

conditions are satisfied by this function

Substituting these definitions in the mass

equation leads to

2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 =0

2

x

y

z

Laplaces equation

The irrotational form of the Euler equations is

Laplaces equation.

This is an equation that has many analytical

solutions.

It is the basis of most subsonic, attached flow

aerodynamic assumptions.

The equation is linear, therefore its solutions

can be superimposed

The complete flow problem has been reduced

to a single, linear partial differential equation

with a single unknown, the velocity potential.

Potential flow

Incompressible, inviscid and irrotational flow is

also called potential flow because it is fully

described by the velocity potential.

The first part of this course will look at potential

flow solutions:

First in two dimensions

Then in three dimensions

most useful and trustworthy aerodynamic results

we have to date.

Their limitations must be kept in mind at all times.

We now have a basis for modelling the

flow over 2D or 3D bodies. All we need

to do is:

Solve Laplaces equation

With two boundary conditions (2nd order

problem):

Impermeability: Flow cannot enter or exit a

solid body

Far field: The flow far from the body is

undisturbed.

Neumann boundary condition

n: unit vector normal to the surface

qn: normal flow velocity component

qt: tangential flow velocity component

Impermeability:

The normal flow

velocity component

must be equal to

zero.

qn =

=0

n surface

qn

n

qt

Dirichlet boundary condition

An alternative form of

the impermeability

condition states that

the potential inside

the body must be a

constant:

i(x,y,z)=constant

(x,y,z)

i(x,y,z)

r2=x2+y2+z2

the body is undisturbed.

This usually is expressed

as:

r

* 0, as r

r

2D Potential Flow

Two-dimensional flows dont exist in reality

but they are a useful simplification

Two-dimensionality implies that the body

being investigated:

Has an infinite span

Does not vary geometrically with spanwise

position

circular cylinder or an infinitely long

rectangular wing

2D Potential equations

Laplaces equation in two dimensions is

simply

2 2

x

y

=0

v u

=0

x y

equation.

Streamlines

A streamline is a curve that is

instantaneously tangent to the velocity

vector of the flow

x is the position

vector of a point on

a streamline,

u is the velocity

vector at that point

and s is the

distance on the

streamline of the

point from the origin

u

x

s

Streamline definition

A streamline is defined mathematically

dx

as:

=u

ds

has components x, y, z.

It can be easily seen that the definition

leads to:

dy

dz

dx dy dz

dx

= u,

= v,

= w, and therefore

=

=

ds

ds

u

v

w

ds

The stream function is defined at right

angles to the flow plane, i.e.

u=

Where u=[u v 0] and =[0 0 ]. It can

be seen that

u=

, v =y

x

2D or axisymmetric flows.

function

The stream function automatically

satisfies the continuity equation.

u v 2 2

+

= + =

=0

x y x y y x xy xy

streamline

d =

dx +

dy = vdx + udy

x

y

dx dy

a streamline u = v

But, on

Therefore

d = udy + udy = 0

Elementary solutions

There are several elementary solutions

of Laplaces equation:

The free stream: rectilinear motion of the

airflow

The source: a singularity that creates a

radial velocity field around it

The sink: the opposite of a source

The doublet: a combined source and sink

The vortex: a singularity that creates a

circular velocity field around it.

Historical perspective

1738: Daniel Bernoulli developed Bernoullis principle, which leads to

Bernoullis equation.

1740: Jean le Rond d'Alembert studied inviscid, incompressible flow and

formulated his paradox.

1755: Leonhard Euler derived the Euler equations.

1743: Alexis Clairaut first suggested the idea of a scalar potential.

1783: Pierre-Simon Laplace generalized the idea of the scalar potential

and showed that all potential functions satisfy the same equation:

Laplaces equation.

1822: Louis Marie Henri Navier first derived the Navier-Stokes equations

from a molecular standpoint.

1828: Augustin Louis Cauchy also derived the Navier-Stokes equations

1829: Simon Denis Poisson also derived the Navier-Stokes equations

1843: Adhmar Jean Claude Barr de Saint-Venant derived the NavierStokes equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. He also was the first

to realize the importance of the coefficient of viscosity.

1845: George Gabriel Stokes published one more derivation of the NavierStokes equations.

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