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Aerodynamics

Lecture 1:
Introduction - Equations of
Motion
G. Dimitriadis

Definition
 Aerodynamics is the science that analyses
the flow of air around solid bodies
 The basis of aerodynamics is fluid
dynamics
 Aerodynamics only came of age after the
first aircraft flight by the Wright brothers
 The primary driver of aerodynamics
progress is aerospace and more
particularly aeronautics

Applications (1)
Basic phenomena:
Flow around a cylinder
Shock wave
Flow around an airfoil

Applications (2)
Low speed aerodynamics

Trailing vortices

High lift devices

Applications (3)
High speed aerodynamics

F14 shock wave causes


condensation

F14 shock wave visualized on


waters surface

Applications (4)
New concepts:
Blended wing body
Micro-air vehicles
Forward-swept wings

Applications (5)

Space: Rockets, spaceplanes, reentry,


Airship 1

Applications (6)

Non-aerospace applications: cars,


buildings, birds, insects

Categories of aerodynamics
 Aerodynamics is an all-encompassing term
 It is usually sub-divided according to the speed
of the flow regime under investigation:
 Subsonic aerodynamics: The flow is subsonic over
the entire body
 Transonic aerodynamics: The flow is sonic or
supersonic over some parts of the body but
subsonic over other parts
 Supersonic aerodynamics: The flow is supersonic
over all of the body
 Hypersonic aerodynamics: The flow is faster than
four times the speed of sound over all of the body

Flow type applications


 Subsonic aerodynamics:
 Low speed aircraft, high-speed aircraft flying at
low speeds, wind turbines, environmental flows etc

 Transonic aerodynamics:
 Aircraft flying at nearly the speed of sound,
helicopter rotor blades, turbine engine blades etc

 Supersonic aerodynamics:
 Aircraft flying at supersonic speeds, turbine engine
blades etc

 Hypersonic aerodynamics:
 Atmospheric re-entry vehicles, experimental
hypersonic aircraft, bullets, ballistic missiles,
space launch vehicles etc

Content of this course (1)


 This course will address mostly
subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics
 Transonic aerodynamics is very difficult
and highly nonlinear
 Small perturbation linearized solutions exist
but their accuracy is debatable

 Hypersonic aerodynamics is beyond the


scope of this course

Content of this course (2)


 Subsonic aerodynamics
 Incompressible aerodynamics
 Ideal flow
 2D flow
 3D flow

 Viscous flow
 Viscous-inviscid matching

 Compressibility corrections

 Supersonic aerodynamics
 2D flow
 3D flow

Simplifications
 The different categories of aerodynamics exist
because of the different amount of
simplifications that can be applied to particular
flows
 Air molecules always obey the same laws,
irrespective of the size or speed of the object
that is passing through them
 However, the way we analyze flows changes
with flow regime because we apply
simplifications
 Without simplifications very few useful results
can be obtained

Full Navier Stokes Equations


 The most complete model we have of the
flow of air is the Navier Stokes equations
 These equations are nevertheless a
model: they are not the physical truth
 They represent three conservation laws:
mass, momentum and energy
 They are not the physical truth because
they involve a number of statistical
quantities such as viscosity and density

Navier Stokes for


Aerodynamicists
  ( u)  ( v )  ( w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

 ( u)  ( u 2 )  ( uv )  ( uw )  xx  xy  xz


+
+
+
=
+
+
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
 ( v )  ( uv )  ( v 2 )  ( vw )  xy  yy  yz
+
+
+
=
+
+
t
x
y
z
x
y
z

 ( w )  ( uw )  ( vw )  ( w 2 )  xz  yz  zz
+
+
+
=
+
+
t
x
y
z
x
y
z

 ( E )  ( uE )  ( vE )  ( wE )  ( q)  ( uq)  ( vq)  ( wq)


+
+
+
=
+
+
+
t
x
y
z
t
x
y
z




+
u xx + v xy + w xz +
u xy + v yy + w yz +
u xz + v yz + w zz 



x
y
z



Nomenclature
 The lengths x, y, z are used to define
position with respect to a global frame of
reference, while time is defined by t.
 u, v, w are the local airspeeds. They are
functions of position and time.
 p, ,  are the pressure, density and
viscosity of the fluid and they are
functions of position and time
 E is the total energy in the flow.
 q is the external heat flux

The stress tensor


 Consider a small fluid element.
 In a general flow, each face of the element
experiences normal stresses and shear stresses
 The three normal and six shear stress components
make up the stress tensor

More nomenclature
 The components of the stress tensor:
u
v
w
 xx =  p + 2 , yy =  p + 2 , zz =  p + 2
x
y
z
 v  u 
 w  v 
 u  w 
 xy =  yx =  +  , yz =  zy = 
+  , =  xz =
+
 z  x
 x  y
 y z zx

 The total energy E is given by:


E =e+

1 2
u + v2 + w2)
(
2

 where e is the internal energy of the flow


and depends on the temperature and
volume.

Gas properties
 Do not forget that gases are also
governed by the state equation:
p = RT
 Where T is the temperature and R is
Blotzmanns constant.
 For a calorically perfect gas: e=cvT,
where cv is the specific heat at constant
volume.

Comments on Navier-Stokes
equations
 Notice that aerodynamicists always include the
mass and energy equations in the NavierStokes equations
 Notice also that compressibility is always
allowed for, unless specifically ignored
 This is the most complete form of the airflow
equations, although turbulence has not been
explicitly defined
 Explicit definition of turbulence further
complicates the equations by introducing new
unknowns, the Reynolds stresses.

Constant viscosity
 Under the assumption that the fluid has
constant viscosity, the momentum
equations can be written as
 ( u)  ( u 2 )  ( uv )  ( uw )
  2 u  2 u  2 u
p
+
+
+
=  +  2 + 2 + 2 
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
 x
 ( v )  ( uv )  ( v 2 )  ( vw )
  2v  2v  2v 
p
+
+
+
=  +  2 + 2 + 2 
t
x
y
z
y
y
z
 x

 ( w )  ( uw )  ( vw )  ( w 2 )
  2w  2w  2w 
p
+
+
+
=  +  2 + 2 + 2 
t
x
y
z
z
y
z
 x

Compact expressions
 There are several compact expressions
for the Navier-Stokes equations:
Tensor notation:
Vector notation:
Matrix notation:

 2 ui
Dui
p

=
+ 2
Dt
x i
x i
 u 1


+ u  u + (  u)  u = p +  2u
 t 2

T
 u


+ T uuT = p +  2 u
 t


Non-dimensional form
 The momentum equations can also be
written in non-dimensional form as
 ( u)  ( u 2 )  ( uv )  ( uw )
p 1   2 u  2 u  2 u 
+
+
+
= +
 2 + 2 + 2
t
x
y
z
x Re  x
y
z
 ( v )  ( uv )  ( v 2 )  ( vw )
p 1   2v  2v  2v 
+
+
+
= +
+
+


t
x
y
z
y Re  x 2 y 2 z 2

 ( w )  ( uw )  ( vw )  ( w 2 )
p 1   2 w  2 w  2 w 
+
+
+
= +
+
+


t
x
y
z
z Re  x 2 y 2 z 2

 where
=

u
v
w
x
y
z
tL
p

, u=
,v=
, w=
, x= , y= , z= , t= , p=
U
U
U
L
L
L
U

U 2

Solvability of the NavierStokes equations


 There exist no solutions of the complete
Navier-Stokes equations
 The equations are:
 Unsteady
 Nonlinear
 Viscous
 Compressible

 The major problem is the nonlinearity

Flow unsteadiness
 Flow unsteadiness in the real world arises from
two possible phenomena:
 The solid body accelerates
 There are areas of separated flows

 This course will only consider solid bodies that


do not accelerate
 Attached flows will generally be considered
 Therefore, unsteady terms will be neglected
 All time derivatives in the Navier-Stokes equations
are equal to zero

Unsteadiness Examples

Flow past a circular cylinder


visualized in a water tunnel. The
airspeed is accelerating. The flow is
always separated and unsteady. It
becomes steadier at high airspeeds

Flow past an airfoil visualized in a


water tunnel. The angle of attack is
increasing. The flow attached and
steady at low angles of attack and
vice versa.

Viscosity
 Viscosity is a property of fluids
 All fluids are viscous to different
degrees
 However, there are some aerodynamic
flow cases where viscosity can be
modeled in a simplified manner
 In those cases, all viscous terms are
neglected.

Cases where viscosity is


important
Shock wave
Boundary layer

Wake

Euler equations
 Neglecting the viscous terms, we obtain
the unsteady Euler equations:
  ( u)  ( v )  ( w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

 ( u)  ( u 2 )  ( uv )  ( uw )


p
+
+
+
=
t
x
y
z
x
 ( v )  ( uv )  ( v 2 )  ( vw )
p
+
+
+
=
t
x
y
z
y

 ( w )  ( uw )  ( vw )  ( w 2 )
p
+
+
+
=
t
x
y
z
z

 ( E )  ( uE )  ( vE )  ( wE )


 ( up)  (vp)  ( wp)
+
+
+
=


t
x
y
z
x
y
z

Classic form of the Euler


equations
 The Euler equations are usually written
in the form:
 where

U F G  H
+
+
+
=0
t x y  z





u 
v 
w 





 
2 
p
+

u

uv

uw

u






 
2
U =  v , F =  uv , G =  p + v , H =  vw 





 
2 
p
+

uw

uw

w

w






 
 u E + p 
 v E + p 
 w E + p 
)
)
)
 E 
 (
 (
 (

Steady Euler Equations


 Neglecting unsteady terms we obtain
the steady Euler equations:
 ( u)  ( v )  ( w )
+
+
=0
x
y
z
 ( u 2 )
x

 ( uv )  ( uw )
p
+
=
y
z
x

2
 ( uv )  ( v )  ( vw )
p
+
+
=
x
y
z
y

2
 ( uw )  ( vw )  ( w )
p
+
+
=
x
y
z
z

Example 1
 Notice that in the steady Euler
equations, the energy equation has
disappeared.
 Show that neglecting unsteady and
viscous terms turns the energy equation
into an identity if the airs internal
energy is constant in space.

Compressibility
 The compressibility of most liquids is negligible
for the forces encountered in engineering
applications.
 Many fluid dynamicists always write the NavierStokes equations in incompressible form.
 This cannot be done for gases, as they are very
compressible.
 However, for low enough airspeeds, the
compressibility of gases also becomes
negligible.
 In this case, compressibility can be ignored.

Compressibility examples
Hypersonic
flow over
blunt wedge

Transonic flow
over airfoil
Supersonic
flow over
sharp wedge

Incompressible, steady Euler


Equations
 The incompressible, steady Euler
equations become
u v w
+ +
=0
x y z
1 p
u
u
u
u +v +w =
x
y
z
 x
1 p
v
v
v
u +v +w =
x
y
z
 y
w
w
w
1 p
u
+v
+w
=
x
y
z
 z

Comment on the Euler


equations
 The Euler equations are much more
solvable than the Navier-Stokes equations
 They are most commonly solved using
numerical methods, such as finite
differences
 There are very few analytical solutions of
the Euler equations and they are not
particularly useful
 In order to obtain analytical solutions, the
equations must be simplified even further

Flow rotationality
 Rotational flow:
Fluid rotation

Fluid particle,
time t1

Fluid particle,
time t2

Fluid particle,
time t3

 Irrotational flow:
No fluid rotation

Fluid particle,
time t1

Fluid particle,
time t2

Fluid particle,
time t3

Irrotationality (1)
 Some flows can be idealized as
irrotational
 In general, attached, incompressible,
inviscid flows are also irrotational
 Irrotationality requires that the curl of
the local velocity vector vanishes:   u = 0
 where u=ui+vj+wk and



 = i + j+ k
x y
z

Irrotationality (2)
 This leads to the simultaneous
equations:
w v
w u
v u

= 0,

= 0,

=0
y z
x z
x y

 Integrating the momentum equations


using these conditions leads to the wellknown Bernoulli equation
1
( u 2 + v 2 + w 2 ) + P = constant
2

Example 2
 Integrate the incompressible, steady
momentum equations to obtain
Bernoullis equation for irrotational flow
 You can start with the 2D equations

Velocity potential
 Irrotationality allows the definition of the
velocity potential, such that



u=- , v =- , w=x
y
z

 It can be seen that all three irrotationality


conditions are satisfied by this function
 Substituting these definitions in the mass
equation leads to
 2  2  2
+ 2 + 2 =0
2
x
y
z

Laplaces equation
 The irrotational form of the Euler equations is
Laplaces equation.
 This is an equation that has many analytical
solutions.
 It is the basis of most subsonic, attached flow
aerodynamic assumptions.
 The equation is linear, therefore its solutions
can be superimposed
 The complete flow problem has been reduced
to a single, linear partial differential equation
with a single unknown, the velocity potential.

Potential flow
 Incompressible, inviscid and irrotational flow is
also called potential flow because it is fully
described by the velocity potential.
 The first part of this course will look at potential
flow solutions:
 First in two dimensions
 Then in three dimensions

 Potential flow solutions have provided us with the


most useful and trustworthy aerodynamic results
we have to date.
 Their limitations must be kept in mind at all times.

Potential flow solutions


 We now have a basis for modelling the
flow over 2D or 3D bodies. All we need
to do is:
 Solve Laplaces equation
 With two boundary conditions (2nd order
problem):
 Impermeability: Flow cannot enter or exit a
solid body
 Far field: The flow far from the body is
undisturbed.

Boundary conditions (1)


Neumann boundary condition
n: unit vector normal to the surface
qn: normal flow velocity component
qt: tangential flow velocity component
Impermeability:
The normal flow
velocity component
must be equal to
zero.


qn =
=0
n surface

qn
n

qt

Boundary conditions (1bis)


Dirichlet boundary condition
An alternative form of
the impermeability
condition states that
the potential inside
the body must be a
constant:
i(x,y,z)=constant

(x,y,z)

i(x,y,z)

Boundary conditions (2)


r2=x2+y2+z2

Far field: Flow far from


the body is undisturbed.
This usually is expressed
as:

r

 *  0, as r  

r

2D Potential Flow
 Two-dimensional flows dont exist in reality
but they are a useful simplification
 Two-dimensionality implies that the body
being investigated:
 Has an infinite span
 Does not vary geometrically with spanwise
position

 As examples, consider an infinitely long


circular cylinder or an infinitely long
rectangular wing

2D Potential equations
 Laplaces equation in two dimensions is
simply
 2  2
x

y

=0

 While the irrotationality condition is


v u
 =0
x y

 We still need to find solutions to this


equation.

Streamlines
 A streamline is a curve that is
instantaneously tangent to the velocity
vector of the flow
x is the position
vector of a point on
a streamline,
u is the velocity
vector at that point
and s is the
distance on the
streamline of the
point from the origin

u
x
s

Streamline definition
 A streamline is defined mathematically
dx
as:
=u
ds

 Where u has components u, v, w and x


has components x, y, z.
 It can be easily seen that the definition
leads to:
dy
dz
dx dy dz
dx
= u,
= v,
= w, and therefore
=
=
ds
ds
u
v
w
ds

The stream function


 The stream function is defined at right
angles to the flow plane, i.e.

u=
 Where u=[u v 0] and =[0 0 ]. It can
be seen that


u=
, v =y
x

 The stream function is only defined for


2D or axisymmetric flows.

Properties of the stream


function
 The stream function automatically
satisfies the continuity equation.
u v          2  2
+
=   +   =

=0
x y x  y y  x xy xy

 The stream is constant on a flow


streamline


d =
dx +
dy = vdx + udy
x
y
dx dy
a streamline u = v

 But, on
 Therefore

d = udy + udy = 0

Elementary solutions
 There are several elementary solutions
of Laplaces equation:
 The free stream: rectilinear motion of the
airflow
 The source: a singularity that creates a
radial velocity field around it
 The sink: the opposite of a source
 The doublet: a combined source and sink
 The vortex: a singularity that creates a
circular velocity field around it.

Historical perspective
 1738: Daniel Bernoulli developed Bernoullis principle, which leads to
Bernoullis equation.
 1740: Jean le Rond d'Alembert studied inviscid, incompressible flow and
formulated his paradox.
 1755: Leonhard Euler derived the Euler equations.
 1743: Alexis Clairaut first suggested the idea of a scalar potential.
 1783: Pierre-Simon Laplace generalized the idea of the scalar potential
and showed that all potential functions satisfy the same equation:
Laplaces equation.
 1822: Louis Marie Henri Navier first derived the Navier-Stokes equations
from a molecular standpoint.
 1828: Augustin Louis Cauchy also derived the Navier-Stokes equations
 1829: Simon Denis Poisson also derived the Navier-Stokes equations
 1843: Adhmar Jean Claude Barr de Saint-Venant derived the NavierStokes equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. He also was the first
to realize the importance of the coefficient of viscosity.
 1845: George Gabriel Stokes published one more derivation of the NavierStokes equations.