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Chapter-1

2. Basic research is important for generating and building upon the existing knowledge in the areas of interest. It offers the foundation for applied research
by which one can circumvent reinventing the wheel.

4. The manager who knows how to relate to researchers facilitates the problem solving process and benefits the research team as well as the organization.
The one who is not adept at this will frustrate and be frustrated during the research process and thereafter. Being capable of handling the managerresearcher relationship is thus a big advantage and some of the nuances of handling research teams are:
(i) Knowing how much and what information to give to the team;
(ii) Meaningful and purposeful interactions with the team members;
(iii) Stating up front what records of the company will and will not be accessible to the team members and expressing the core values of the system.

6. For the external team, the suggestions could be:


A.to helps non-tech companies to build up sophisticated technology in their environment; (only those with specialized knowledge of technology can help
non-tech companies)
B.to evaluates the successful and deficient operations of the company (to avoid bias of internal team members).

For the internal team, it could be:


A.to figure out how the companies affected by the September 11th disaster can rebuild themselves; (internal team would be more knowledgeable about
the company and could rebuild faster);
B.to solves the problem of consistent losses of a small division of a large company (only a small pocket of a large company is involved and the situation can
be rectified by the internal team).

8. Scenario 2(Reasons for Absenteeism)


A university professor desired to analyze in depth the reasons for absenteeism of employees in organizations. Fortunately, a company within 20 miles of the
campus employed her as a consultant to study this very issue.
The basic research aspiration of the professor has taken the form of applied research in this particular system, where they would apply the findings of her
research to solve the problem. No doubt, the professor would continue her research in a variety of organizations to add to the existing base of knowledge
on absenteeism and continue the topic as a basic research project.

Scenario 3(Effects of Nasal Spray on Flu)


A research scientist surveys 1000 employees in different organizational settings to study the efficacy of several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu
virus. He subsequently publishes his findings in a highly respected medical journal.
This will be a case of basic research, the purpose of which was to study the efficacy of different nasal sprays and add to the body of existing medical
knowledge.

Chapter-2
1. The hallmarks of scientific researcha)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Purposiveness
Rigor
Testability
Replicability
Precision and Confidence
Objectivity
Generalizability
Parsimony

2. The steps in hypothetico-deductive method of researcha.

Observation: the first stage, in which one senses that certain change are occurring, or that some new behaviors, attitudes,
and feelings are surfacing in ones environment.
b. Preliminary information gathering: involves the seeking of information in depth, of what is observed.
c. Theory formulation: an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manner, so that the reason for the problem can be conceptualized and
tested.
d. Hypothesizing: the next logical step can be tested to determine if the statement would be supported.
e. Further scientific data collection: data on every variable in the theoretical framework from which hypotheses are generated should also be collected.
f. Data analysis: the data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.
g. Deduction: process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of the data analysis result.

Example of the application of the hypothetico-deductive method of research; A sales manager might observe that
customers are perhaps not as before.
Observation: He is not certain about that but he has uneasy feelings regarding declining customer satisfaction.
Preliminary information gathering: The next step calls for some preliminary data gathering. The manager might talk casually to few consumers about how
they feel about the product and customer service.
Formulating a theory: He might find that consumers like the product but are upset because many of the items they need are frequently out of stock, and
they perceive the salespersons as not being helpful. He fined that the supply is not on time.
Hyphothesizing: Gathering data formally and informally helped him to determine that a problem dose exists.
Data collection: It helps him also to formulate a conceptual mode or theoretical framework of all factors contributing to the problem.
Data analysis: In this case there is network of connections among the following factors: -delays by the factory in delivering goods; -the notification of later
delivery dates, which may not kept; -the promises of salespersons to the consumers that cannot met.
Deduction: we found from the data analysis that all of which contribute to the customer dissatisfactions.

4. Deduction is the process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logically generalizing from a known fact. For example, we know that all high
performers are highly proficient in their jobs. If john is a high performer, we then conclude that he is highly proficient in doing his job.
Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions. In other words, in induction we logically establish a
general proposition based on observe facts. For instance, we see that the production processes are the prime features of factories or manufacturing plants.
We therefore conclude the factories exist for production purposes. Both the deductive and the inductive processes are applied in scientific investigations.

5. The manager also realizes that although organizational research cannot offer 100 percent accuracy in results, choices and trade-offs among the various
criteria of scientific investigation can be made to obtain valid results for good decision making.

7. Earlier (in the early to mid-20th century) research with an n of one" (meaning one subject in the test) was common. Then social science got into
numbers and percentages and such, and the case study fell away as not useful enough to learn from. However, especially in the "soft" sciences (psychology,
sociology, anthropology, ethology, etc.) that have to do with people rather than formulas or numbers or the like, case studies can be helpful and important,
especially if they are well-constructed, or longitudinal, or are in depth on their topic.

9.

Chapter-4
2. Unstructured interviews, structured interviews, and library research would help the researcher to define the problem more specifically and involve a
theory, delineating possible variable the problem.

4. Should, interviews are conducted, the next steps for the research is it tabulate the various types of information that have next step been gathered during
the interviews and determine if there are patterns in the responses. For instance it might be observed from the qualitative data. For ex, Mr. X is graduated
from J University, from major in economic. He brings CV and he applied for financial section. We can see his skills it can be as consideration.

6. Literature survey propose help the researcher to include all the relevant variables in the research project, and also facilities the creative integration of
the information gathered from the structured and unstructured interviews with what is found in prevision studies.

8. Managers inputs help researcher to define the board problem area and confirm their own theories about the situational factors impacting on the central
problem. Managers who realize that correct problem definition is critical to ultimate problem solution do not begrudge the time spent in working closely
with researchers.

10. Every company must certainly have many problems, but with the research that there is a problem in the company can overcome and be given a proper
solution.

12.
14.
Mid 2(Question-5). Difference between Bibliography and Reference
A reference list contains only those sources you actually referred to in your assignment while a bibliography, sometimes, is taken to be a list of all those
sources you looked at.
References usually come at the end of a text (essay or research report) and should contain only those works cited within the text while a Bibliography is any
list of references at the end of a text, whether cited or not.
A reference list is a list of all the sources you referred to in the body of your writing, whereas a bibliography might contain additional readings not referred
to in your writing that you think might make for useful reading.

Reference (using APA format): Jeanquart, S., & Peluchette, J. (1997).Diversity in the workforce and management models. Journal of social work
studies, 72-85.

Chapter-5
1. At this juncture, its become easy to follow the progression of research from the first stage of managers sensing the broad problem area. To
preliminary data gathering (including literature survey), to development of theoretical framework based on the literature review and guided by
experience and intuition, to formulation of hypotheses for testing.

3. yes it is, if in starting the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups, terms such positive, negative, more than, and the like
are used, then these hypothesis are directional because the direction of the relationship between the variables (positive/negative) is indicate, or
the nature of the difference between two groups on a variable (more than/less than) is postulated.

5.
7.

Chapter-6
1. Basic research designs can be seen from the issues associated with the decision about the purpose of the study (exploratory, descriptive,
hypothesis testing), where the research will conducted (i. e, study setting), the type of research that should be (kind of investigation), the
extent to which researchers manipulated and control research (researcher interference level), the temporal aspects research (time
horizon), and the rate at which data will be analyzed (if the unit of analysis), is an integral part of the research design.

3. Yes, because relational studies conducted in the organization and called a field study.
Field studies conducted to establish cause and effect relationships associated with the natural environment and with our immediate field of study will be
able to make the question of cause and effect because we know directly from an incident or problem that occurred in the field.

5. Because the unit of analysis refers to the level at which data are aggregated for analysis, and that the time horizon if studies could be one short or
longitudinal. Finally we examined the circumstances in which each design decision would be appropriated.

Chapter-8

1. Operational definition is mean about necessary to measure abstract concept such as those that usually, fall in to subjective area of
feelings and attitudes. Operationalizing or operationally defining a concept, to render it measurable, is done by looking at the behavioral
dimensions, facets or properties denoted by the concept, because will help to illustrate how this is done.

2. Sexual harassment is both simple and complex; it is simple because it is defined as unwelcome sexual behavior by one person against another person
against another person. It is complex because it can involve behaviors that in other contexts are considered positive and reaffirming.
Diversity-positive environment is about a achievement motivation likely, driven by work, unable to relax, impatience with inerfectiveness, seeks moderate
challenge, seeks feedback.
Career Success means different things to different people. For some, monetary reward is a measure of success. Yet others have multiple definition of
success.

4. An interval scale allows us to perform certain arithmetical operations on the data collected from the respondent. Whereas the nominal scale allows us
only to qualitatively distinguish groups by categorizing them into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive sets, and the ordinal scale to rank-order the
preferences the scale

Chapter-9
2. Because we need to be reasonably sure that the instruments we use in our research do indeed measure the variables they are supposed to, and that
they measure them accurately. First an item analysis of the responses to the questions tapping the variable is done and then the reliability and validity of
the measures are established as described below.

3. HotCold
SweetOriginal
BlackWhite
or
Cheap - - - - - - - - - expensive
Strategic- - - - - - - unstrategic
Confortable - - - - -unconfortable

4. I am agree because is use better instruments will ensure more accurate results, which in turn will enchance the scientific quality of the research.
According to our group agreed because the instrument has been developed recurrent already known and will produce a good answer.

Chapter-10
1.
Direct Interview:
Advantages: the interview used to obtain data directly from the company. Which is a communication from one worker to obtain information in accordance
with the desired and by conducting interviews obtained more complete data.
Disadvantage: time consuming interview techniques and a very large cost for the sample is big enough and spread. Interviewing means of communication
between the interviewer and the interviewee, this tends to generate a difference in interpretation between the two.

Questionnaires
Advantages: the questionnaire is a research method that must be answered respondents to express his views on an issue. The use of questionnaires as data
collection methods have several advantages, among them are questions that will be presented to respondents can be standardized, the respondent can
answer a questionnaire on their leisure time, the question can be thought of in advance so that answers can be trusted compared with a verbal answer, and
questions raised would be more accurate and uniform.
Disadvantage: the respondent cannot give more details because the answer is limited to matters in question.

Observation
Advantages: With the observation that many symptoms can be investigated, the results are more accurate and difficult to argue with. Many objects are only
willing to take only with the observation data, such as too busy and less time to be interviewed or to complete a questionnaire.
Losses: Observations depends on observation and memory skills. Many events and circumstances that are difficult objects observed, especially concerning
the life of a highly confidential approach for cloning.

2. How to improve a performance at the staff / employees is by means of holding a program such as:
Improving Performance: Performance is the desired outcome of behavior. Individual performance is the basis of organizational performance.
Perananpenting in performance appraisal has increased workplace motivation. This performance appraisal (performance appraisal) is basically a key factor
in order to develop an effective and efficient organization. Employees want and need feedback regarding their performance and assessment provides the
opportunity to provide feedback to them if performance is not in accordance with the standards, the assessment provides an opportunity to review the
progress of employees and to develop performance improvement plans. There are 5 (five) factors in performance assessment, namely:
o
o
o
o
o

Quality of work include: acquisition, accuracy, performance and acceptance of output


Quantity of Work include: Volume of output and contribution
Supervision required, include: need advice, direction or repairs
Attendance include: regularity, dapatdipercaya / reliable and timely
Provide motivation

Motivation: Motivation is a state in the person that drives desire individual specific activities to achieve Motivation goal basically is the process that
determines how much effort will be devoted to carrying out the work. Motivation or incentive to work is crucial to the achievement of something
objective, then the man must be able to grow as high work motivation for employees within the company
Improve discipline: Discipline itself interpreted as a willingness to someone that may arise with their own consciousness to follow the rules and regulations
prevailing in the organization.

4. Principle of the words usually refer to factors such as conformance content questions, how questions and level
of language used, the type and form of questions asked, order of questions, personal data sought from
respondents.
Content and purpose Questions: Variable facts will determine the types of questions will be asked. If these variables are subjective variables such as
satisfaction, and engagement in which the respondents believe measuring perceptions and attitudes of the dimensions and the elements. The purpose of
each question should be carefully considered so that the variable is in the measure.
Language and Words on Questionnaire: Language questionnaire to be seen from the respondents level of understanding. The choice of words will depend
on the level of education, the use of terms and idioms in the culture and framework of the respondents. For example, when English is the official language
spoken by the two cultures, particular words may be foreign to a culture.

5. This technique is useful in providing an opportunity to express their attitudes of respondents without a personal embarrassment. These techniques help
the respondent to project their own attitudes and feelings on the subject aware of being studied. So projective technique plays an important role in
motivation research or attitude surveys.

8. In the data collection is sometimes we find a mismatch. Therefore we must look carefully and closely to the data, so we know whether the data is
feasible or not to be used as data in a study.

9. Advances in technology can help us to collect data by providing easy to collect the data we need in the research, such as collecting detailed data
products have been sold through the tracking of optical scanners and bar code, data searches on the Internet that provide convenience, data recording
using tools such as video camera recorders and others. In some processing using electronic data processing which also provides error-free.

10. Data from the information we were with a variety of processing tools such as statistical analysis with SPSS and other analysis tools for testing and our
test results we will use it to take a scientific conclusion.

Chapter-11
3. a.

Precision and confidence are important issues in sampling because when we use sample data to draw inference about the population.

3. b. In essence, confidence reflects the level of certainty with which we can state that our estimates of the population parameters..
5. There is a point, because for what use the sample or samples when the truth is not much better than the sample labia little. Better use of samples
provided that some truth can be guaranteed.

9. Probably due to double sampling easier and more convenient to use in research.
10. This design provides added information at minimal additional expenditure.

Chapter-13
1.
3. The executive summary is a brief account of the research study that provides an overview, and highlights the following important information related to
the study: the problem statement, the sampling design, the data collection methods used, results of data analysis, the findings, and the recommendations,
with suggestions for their implementation.

4. The similarities and the difference of basic and applied research reports is an executive summary in the case of applied original research and a synopsis
in the case of basic research.

6. Necessary to specify the limitations of the study in the research report is very important because make use for the results of data analysis and the
written report.

Module
2.Chi-square test: A chi-squared test, also referred to as test (or chi-square test), is any statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of
the test statistic is a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true.
This module will continue the discussion of hypothesis testing, where a specific statement or hypothesis is generated about a population parameter, and
sample statistics are used to assess the likelihood that the hypothesis is true. The hypothesis is based on available information and the investigator's belief
about the population parameters. The specific tests considered here are called chi-square tests and are appropriate when the outcome is discrete
(dichotomous, ordinal or categorical). For example, in some clinical trials the outcome is a classification such as hypertensive, pre-hypertensive or
normotensive. We could use the same classification in an observational study such as the Framingham Heart Study to compare mean and women in terms
of their blood pressure status - again using the classification of hypertensive, pre-hypertensive or normotensive status.
The technique to analyze a discrete outcome uses what is called a chi-square test. Specifically, the test statistic follows a chi-square probability distribution.
We will consider chi-square tests here with one, two and more than two independent comparison groups.

4. Multiple regression analysis is a powerful technique used for predicting the unknown value of a variable from the known value of two or more variablesalso called the predictors.