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Formatting Research Papers

for APA Style with MS Word 2010

Formatting Research Papers


for APA Style with MS Word 2010
Table of Contents
I.
II.

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Formatting Pages ..........................................................................................................................................
To set the margins ...................................................................................................................................
To set the type font ..................................................................................................................................
To set the line-spacing ...........................................................................................................................

2
2
3
4

III.

The Title Page ................................................................................................................................................. 5


To create a title page .............................................................................................................................. 5

IV.

Page Breaks ................................................................................................................................................... 10


To insert a page break .......................................................................................................................... 10
To create the header for pages after the title page ....................................................................11

V.

The Abstract .................................................................................................................................................. 14


To format and create an abstract .................................................................................................... 14

VI.

The Body of the Paper ............................................................................................................................... 16


Headings .................................................................................................................................................... 16
Reference Citations in the Text ........................................................................................................ 17
Paraphrasing .................................................................................................................................... 17
Quoting ............................................................................................................................................... 18
Long quotations ............................................................................................................................. 18
Secondary or indirect sources .................................................................................................. 20

VII.

References ...................................................................................................................................................... 20
To create a hanging indent ................................................................................................................. 20
Appendix: Examples of Citations for APA Reference Sources ....................................................22
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Formatting Research Papers

Introduction
When we write research papers, it is important to follow a particular formatting style
throughout the paper. A consistent style enhances readability and helps to give our papers a
professional appearance. The following information is based on the format set out in the
American Psychological Associations Publication Manual (6th edition). APA Style is commonly
used in the social sciences, education, and sociology. This reference guide provides instructions
for formatting research papers with Microsoft Word 2010. This guide is written for users who
are familiar with the basic features of Word 2010.
The information that follows is intended as a general guide and does not address all aspects of
APA style formatting. For more detailed guidelines see the latest edition of the APAs Publication
Manual, or consult Concise Rules of APA Style, the pocket handbook based on the manual.
This reference guide is based on a similar guide provided by the library staff at Marygrove
College in Detroit. We have added MS Word screenshots and tailored the guide to our needs, but
we are indebted to the Marygrove staff for their excellent work and resource.

Formatting Pages
Margins should be one inch in all directions (top, bottom, left, right). Font size can be 11-point
or 12-point; the acceptable typefaces include Times New Roman, Calisto MT or this one, Cambria.
Sans-serif typefaces, such as Arial or Tahoma, are not allowed. Especially avoid MS Words
default typeface, Calibri. All type should be set lush with the left margin, creating an uneven
right margin (not justi ied). The paper should be double-spaced throughout, including the title
page, abstract, and the body of the paper, including references, appendixes, and tables.
To set the margins:
Open a new document in Word 2010 and click the Page Layout tab.

Click the Margins button in the Page Setup group.

Formatting Research Papers

Select Normal to set the margins at 1-inch on all four sides of the page.

To set the type font:


Click on the Home tab.

In the Font group, click the down arrow to the right of the font menu (the default font
type is Calibri).

Select Times New Roman (or whichever serif font you choose, as long as it is not a funky
typeface or a sans-serif face such as the default Calibri, or Arial or Tahoma).

Formatting Research Papers

The default font size in MS Word is 11-point. If you want to change it to 12-point or if your
current font is a size other than 11-point or 12-point, click the down arrow to the right of
the font size menu.

Select 12 (or 11, if you desire) as the font size.

To set the line-spacing:


In the Paragraph group (still on the Home tab), click on the Line-Spacing button.
When the drop-down menu appears, select 2.0 for double-spacing.

Click on the Line-Spacing button again and select Remove Space After Paragraph. (This
will undo the default setting in Word 2010, which adds space after each paragraph.)

Formatting Research Papers

The Title Page


The irst page of your paper is called the title page. This page includes the title of your paper,
your name, the name of your institution, the manuscript page header, and the running head.
To create a title page:
Click on the Insert tab.

Click the Header button in the Header & Footer group, and choose Edit Header from
the drop-down menu.

This will activate a Design tab with tools speci ic to the Header and Footer. Check the box
before Different First Page in the Options group. (This step is necessary because the
words Running head appear only on the title page.)

Formatting Research Papers

Click the Header button a second time. (Look to the far left of the tab.)

Choose the Blank (Three Columns) header.

Click on the middle header column ([Type Text]) and then press the [Delete] key.

To insert the page number, irst click on the right-hand column of the header.

Formatting Research Papers

Click the Page Number button in the Header & Footer group.

From the drop-down menu, click on Current Position and select Plain Number.

Click on the left-hand header column.

Type the words Running head followed by a colon and a space.

Formatting Research Papers

Type the running head (two or three key words taken directly from the title of your paper)
in ALL CAPS.

After you changed the typeface and set the font size according to your preferences when
you set up the document, the typeface and font size in the header may have defaulted to
Calibri and 11-point. To ix this to maintain consistency throughout the paper, hold down
the [Control] key and press A to select all text in the header. Return to the Home tab and
set the typeface and font size in the header so that they match your earlier preferences.

Click on the Design tab.

Click on the red Close Header and Footer button located at the top right of the tool bar.

Formatting Research Papers

Press the [Enter] key 10 times.


Click on the Home tab and then click the Center button in the Paragraph group.

Type the following on separate lines: the full title of the paper, your name, and the name of
your institution (in this case, Southern Utah University).

Save the ile by clicking on the Of ice button and using the Save As command.
If youre working on an APA Style paper that requires running heads, go to the next page and
insert a page break. Then follow the directions for inserting running heads on subsequent
pages. If your paper requires an abstract, continue to that section, Otherwise, procede to
instructions for the body of the paper.

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Formatting Research Papers

Page Breaks
In a research paper formatted in APA style, you must start a new page for each of the sections
listed below and arrange them in the following order: Title page, Abstract (if required), Body,
References. And, as stated above, all pages after the title page have a header with only the short title
and page. With the Page Break feature of Word, you can easily divide your paper into sections.
To insert a page break:
Place the cursor after the last text character you typed in a section.

Click on the Insert tab.

Click the Page Break button in the Pages group.

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Clicking on the Page Break button will instruct MS Word to conclude the page and begin
a new page. The cursor will appear at the top of the new page, and its alignment will be
congruent with the alignment at the end of the previous page (in this case, centered).

To create the header for pages after the title page:


Click on the Insert tab; then click the Header button in the Header & Footer group.

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Formatting Research Papers

Choose the Blank (Three Columns) header.

Click on the middle header column and hit the [Delete] key.

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Click on the right-hand header column, and click the Page Number button in the Header
& Footer group. Then, from the drop-down menu, click on Current Position and select
Plain Number.

Click on the left-hand header column and type the running head in ALL CAPS. Make sure it
matches the running head you typed on the title page.

Select all the text in the header and set the typeface and font size to the preferences you
selected when you set up the document. (You may need to return to the Home tab.)

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Formatting Research Papers

Click on the red Close Header and Footer button located at the top right of the tool bar.

The Abstract
The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of
the paper. The abstract begins on a new page and should not exceed 120 words. All numbers in
the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words.
To format and create an abstract:
Click on the Home tab; then click the Center button in the Paragraph group.

Type the word Abstract on the irst line.

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Press [Enter] to go to the next line of the page; then click the Align Left button in the
Paragraph group. Note that the cursor will move to the lush-left position.

Type the text of your abstract. Do not indent the irst line. Then press [Enter].

Click on the Insert tab, and click the Page Break button in the Pages group.

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Formatting Research Papers

The Body of the Paper


The body of the paper begins on a new page. Subsections of the body of the paper do not
begin on new pages (until you reach the References section). The irst line of each paragraph is
indented one-half inch from the left margin.
Headings
Headings are used to organize the document and re lect the relative importance of sections.
Like other main ( irst-level) headings, the introduction uses boldface centered uppercase
and lowercase letters, but it does not use the word introduction. Instead, it uses the entire
title of the paper.

All other main headings (such as Literature Review, Rationale, Research Questions,
Method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References and Appendix) use boldface centered
uppercase and lowercase letters.

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Subheadings (second-level headings) are lush left and boldface. They use uppercase and
lowercase letters. Subheadings are commonly used in the literature review (below) and in
the Method section, where information about Participants, Design, and Procedure appears.

Reference Citations in the Text


Following APA Style, source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing
the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The principle here is that ideas and words of others
must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of
references that follows the body of the paper.
Paraphrasing Paraphrased or summarized material is documented like this:
If the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the
year of publication appears in parentheses following the identi ication of the authors:
Smith and Jones (2004) found Einsteins theory flawed.

If the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the
authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons:
Subsequent research supports these results (Brown & Greene, 2006;
Hamilton, 2008).

The same general rules regarding author(s) and date(s) apply to electronic sources cited
within your paper. For a source without an identi ied author, use the irst few words of the
title to document the source within the text, followed by the date of publication, if given:
His status as a pop culture icon grew in the last generation
(Einstein Online, n.d.).

Note: The ampersand symbol (&) is used when multiple authors are identi ied in
parenthetical material, but the word and is used when multiple authors are identi ied as
part of the formal structure of the sentence.

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Formatting Research Papers

Quoting When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page
number as part of the citation. Give the page number immediately after the quotation, even
in midsentence.
The key is to remember that all 3 elements of the citation author, year, page number
must be given, whether in parentheses or as part of the sentence. For example:
In their 2007 article, Duncan and Sebastian claimed the results of
the university study were inconclusive due to the unscientific method
of data collection (p. 121).

Herea another example:


Duncan and Sebastian criticized the universitys unscientific
method of data collection (2007, p. 121) that led to the studys
inconclusive results.

And another example:


Numerous members of the scientific community were critical of the
unscientific method of data collection (Duncan & Sebastian, 2007,
p. 21) that led to the results of the study.

Note: For a quotation from an electronic source such as an online article or Web page, give
the paragraph number if no page number is available. Use the abbreviation para.
Long quotations A quotation of more than 40 words should be set off (without
quotations marks) from the surrounding text. A long quotation is a double-spaced block
of text, indented inch from the left margin. Place the parenthetical reference two spaces
after the end punctuation of the last sentence.
To format a long quotation:
Begin the quotation on a new line; type the quotation, and then select the text.

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If necessary, click on the Home tab.

Click the dialog-box launcher (lower-right corner) in the Paragraph group.

In the Paragraph dialog box, under the Indents and Spacing tab, increase the left
indent to 0.5. Then click [OK].

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Formatting Research Papers

Second or indirect sources Give the secondary source in the reference list; in the text,
name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
For example, if Grodins work is cited in Jones and you did not read Grodins work, list the
Jones work in the reference list. The citation in the text would look like this:
Jones concluded that librarians are one of the more trusted
professions in the United States (as cited in Grodin, 2004).

References
All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper. The
References section begins on a new page with the heading References centered on the irst
line below the manuscript page header. The references are formatted with a hanging indent (see
below) and begin on the line following the References heading.
Entries are organized by last names of irst authors. Most Reference entries have three
components:
Author(s) Multiple authors are listed in the same order as speci ied in the source,
using last names and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more
authors, list the irst six and then use et al. to represent the remaining authors. If no
author is identi ied, the title of the document begins the reference.
Year of Publication Place the year in parentheses following the author(s), with a
period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identi ied, use n.d. in
parentheses following the author(s).
Source Reference For a journal article, this includes the article title, journal title, volume
(and sometimes issue) number, and page number(s); for a book, it includes the title, city
of publication, and publisher. In general, the source reference for Web documents includes
author and date (if known) as well as title, date of retrieval, and URL (Web address). Italicize
titles of journals, books, and web pages, and periodical volume numbers.
To create a hanging indent:
Select (highlight) all references on the References page.

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If necessary, click on the Home tab. Then click the dialog-box launcher (lower-right corner)
in the Paragraph group.

In the Paragraph dialog box, under the Indents and Spacing tab, go to the menu for
Special indentation, and select Hanging. The click on [OK].

MS Word will then create the hanging indent for your references.
After using the Paragraph dialog box for indenting long quotes or creating a hanging
indent, you may ind that the new formats apply to text you type after the long quote or the
references (for example, for information you include in an appendix). It may be necessary
to return to the Paragraph dialog box and restore the previous format.
At this point, we have concluded format instructions using MS Word. The next several
pages include helpful hints for bibliographic information required in the reference section
of APA Style documents. It serves as a supplement to, but not a substitute for, the APA
Publication Manual.

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Formatting Research Papers

Appendix:
Examples of Citations for APA Reference Sources
In communication research and in the social sciences in general, the most common style is
the style of the American Psychological Association APA Style. The entire set of APA Style
rules is found in the APAs Publication Manual, but bookstores charge so much for it that we
have instead asked you to buy the pocket style guide, Concise Rules of APA Style. Please become
familiar with it as you will need to use it for items not covered in this section. Meanwhile, we
offer some examples here of commonly used references in APA style.
General Reference Form for Articles in Periodicals
This basic form is taken from page 215 of Concise Rules of APA Style:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of
article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxx

Note that only the authors last names and initials are used; no irst names.
If there is more than one author, insert a comma after the irst authors initials. Then
insert either the next authors name, or an ampersand (&) for an article with only two
authors.
Do not insert another comma after the last authors initials.
Next comes the year in parentheses, followed by a period.
Next comes the title of the article. Only the irst word and proper nouns should be
capitalized in titles of articles. Do not italicize titles or use quote marks. Conclude the title
with a period.
Next comes the title of the periodical. It is italicized, but do not use quote marks. All key
words in the publication title should be capitalized. After the title of the article, insert a
comma.
The next item is the volume number of the publication. It is also italicized and followed
by a comma, unless each issue of the journal begins on page 1, in which case the volume
number is also accompanied by the issue number.
If the volume number is accompanied by the issue number, switch from italics to normal
case without skipping a space, and insert the issue number in parentheses, followed by a
comma.
Insert the page numbers where the article is found in the periodical, followed by a period.
If available, conclude with the digital object identi ier (DOI). To do so, insert the letters
doi followed by a colon after the page numbers. Then provide the DOI registration
number. Do not insert a period after the DOI number.
The DOI is an alphanumeric string assigned by the International DOI foundation to
identify content and provide a reliable link to its location on the Internet. It is a fairly new
innovation. APA Style recommends including them at the end of all periodical references
when they are available. It will make it easier both for you and for future scholars to ind
articles.

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Periodicals
This section examples of citations for periodicals, including academic journals, magazines,
newsletters and newspapers. The basic form is:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Title of
periodical, Volume and/or Number, page(s).

Article in an academic journal with volume and issue number:


x.Shagoury, R. (2009). Language to language: Nurturing writing
development in multilingual classrooms. YC Young Children, 64(2),
52-57.

Article in a monthly or bimonthly periodical:


Quirk, M. (2007, December). Bright lights, big cities: Slums are
burgeoning worldwideand thats a good thing. The Atlantic Monthly,
32-33.

Article from a weekly or biweekly magazine or newspaper:


Samuels, A. (2009, May 18). Michelle hits her stride: The first
ladys diverse approach to diversity. Newsweek, 40.

Article from a daily newspaper:


Beckmann, F. (2008, December 5). Skeptical scientists caution
Obama on climate change fixes. The Detroit News, p. 19A.

Books and Other Non-Periodicals


This section examples of citations for books and other sources, such as reports, pamphlets,
brochures, and manuals. The basic form is:
Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of book. Place of
publication: Publisher.

One author:
Chang, J. (2005). Cant stop, wont stop: A history of the hiphop generation. New York, NY: St. Martins Press.

Two authors:
Huetinck, L. & Munshin, S. N. (2008). Teaching mathematics for
the 21st century: Methods and activities for grades 6-12. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

Three to seven authors (list all authors):


Hood, R.W., Hill, P.C., & Williamson, W.P. (2005). The psychology
of religious fundamentalism. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Eight or more authors Ilist the irst six authors, insert ellipses, and add the last
authors name:
Hunt, T. C., Joseph, E. A., Nuzzi, R. J., Williams, R. B.,
Traviss, M. P., Shimabukuro, G., . . . Hewson, P. D. (2001).
Handbook of research on Catholic education. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press.

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Group author:
National Center on Education and the Economy. (2007). Tough
choices for tough times: The report of the New Commission on the
Skills of the American Workforce. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley &
Sons.

Multiple books or other works by the same author (arrange by year of publication,
oldest irst):
Gurian, M. (1999). The good son: Shaping the moral development of
our boys and young men. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Gurian, M. (2003). What could he be thinking? How a mans mind
really works. New York, NY: St. Martins Press.

Edited book:
Graham, M. (Ed.). (2004). Cambridge companion to the African
American novel. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Encyclopedia or dictionary:
Beaulieu, E. A. (Ed.). (2003). The Toni Morrison encyclopedia.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Part of a Non-Periodical
Book chapter, essay or article from an edited work:
Vogel, D. (2007). How green is Judaism? Exploring Jewish
environmental ethics. In T. OBrien & S. Paeth (Eds.), Religious
perspectives on business ethics: An anthology (pp. 259-276).
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Book chapter, essay or article from an edited work (no author given):
A period of commercial crisis: 1900-1903. (1990). In C. Harpole
(Ed.), History of the American cinema (Vol. 1, pp. 297-336). New
York, NY: Charles Scribners Sons.

Electronic Sources
Electronic book (eBook):
Chidester, D., Dexter, P., & James, W. (2003). What holds us
together: Social cohesion in South Africa. Retrieved from http://
books.google.com
Thomas, R.W. (1992). Life for us is what we make it: Building
black community in Detroit, 1915-1954. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
University Press. Retrieved from NetLibrary.

Article in an Internet-only journal:


Cotton, S. M. & Crewther, S. G. (2009). The relationship between
reading and intelligence in primary school aged children. The Open
Education Journal, 2. Retrieved from http://www.bentham.org/open/
toeduj/openaccess2.htm

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Web page with a larger Web site:


x.Smith, R. C. (2000, June 1). Imari Obadele: The father of the
modern reparations movement. Retrieved from http://www.hartfordhwp.com/archives/45a/312.html

Web page within a larger Web site (no author, no date):


Talking with kids about HIV and AIDS (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.talkingwithkids.org/aids.html

Multipage Web site created by a private organization (no date):


The International Re-evaluation Counseling Communities. (n.d.).
Re-evaluation counseling. Retrieved from http://www.rc.org

Blog post:
Watson, Angela (2009, May 5). Whos in control in your classroom?
[Web log message]. Retrieved from http://thecornerstoneforteachers.
blogspot.com/

Papers Presented at Academic Conferences or Meetings


One author:
Husselbee, L.P. (2008, March). Diffusion of news and the death
of LDS church president Gordon B. Hinckley. Paper presented at the
annual meeting of the Utah Communication Association, Cedar City,
UT.

Two authors:
Husselbee, L.P., & Stein, K.A. (2010, August). In the rough:
Tiger Woods apology and journalistic antapologia. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in
Journalism & Mass Communication, Denver, CO.

Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses


For an unpublished dissertation or thesis:
Nunamaker, N.A. (1977). The National News Council: A study
of its concept and development, 1972-77. (Unpublished doctoral
dissertation). Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

For a doctoral dissertation listed in Dissertation Abstracts International:


McLaughlin, K.M. (1990). Legitimating fictions: Journalism and the
aesthetics of autonomy in the nineteenth century European novel.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and
Social Sciences, 50(09), 2889A.

No Publication Date
When no date of publication is given, insert n.d. where you would insert the date:
Freedom Forum Media Studies Center. (n.d.). When no news is good
news. Retrieved from http://www.freedomforum.org

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Audiovisual Media
For motion pictures, the basic form is:
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date
of publication). Title of motion picture (Motion picture). Country
of origin: Studio or distributor.

Motion picture:
Speilberg, S., Molen, G. R., Kennedy, K., & Lustig, B.
(Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Schindlers list
(Motion picture). United States: Universal Studios.
A&E Television Networks (Producer). (2001). Forensic firsts: The
criminal mind/Under the microscope (Motion picture). United States:
A&E Television Networks.
Gardner, R. (Producer & Director). (1998). Warnings from the ice
(Motion picture). United States: WGBH Boston.

Episode of a television show:


Sorkin, A. (Writer), & Boyle, D. (Director) (2000). Take out the
trash day [Television series episode]. In A. Sorkin, & T. Schlamme
(Executive producers), The west wing. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros.
Television.

Audio recording, individual song:


Berryman, G., Buckland, J., Champion, W., & Martin, C. (2008),
Viva la vida [Recorded by Coldplay]. On Viva la vida or death and
all his friends [CD]. United Kingdom: Capitol Records.

Audio recording, entire recording:


Corporon, E. (Conductor). (2003). Teaching music through
performing marches [CD]. Chicago: GIA Publications.
Osborne, H. (Interviewer). (2005). Adult learners in healthcare
[CD]. Natick, MA: Health Literacy Consulting.

Audio podcast:
Shapiro, J. (2009, May 19). Report: Discipline methods endanger
disabled kids. Morning Edition [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
http://www.npr.org

Video podcast:
de la Cruz, B. (Director). (2008). Growing up bi-racial [Video
podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com

Online video iles:


C-SPAN. (2009, January 20). President Barack Obama 2009
inauguration and address [Video file]. Video posted to http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=VjnygQ02aW4

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Notes about Audiovisual Media


Give the name and function of primary contributors (producer, conductor, interviewer).
Specify the medium in brackets after the title.
Give the location and name of the distributor.
Notes about URLs (Web addresses)
Punctuation Do not place a period after a citation that ends with a URL.
Long URLs Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; instead break
the URL by inserting a space after punctuation such as a period (dot) or slash ( / ).
Hyperlinks After you type or paste a URL into your paper and press the [Enter] key
(or the spacebar), MS Word may automatically hyperlink the URL, and it will become blue
underlined text that will link to the Web page with that URL when you click on it. To remove
the hyperlink, right-click on the URL and select Remove Hyperlink.
Interviews and Personal Communications
During the course of your research, you will at times exchange letters, memos, or
e-mail messages with sources. You may even talk to them on the phone. These sources
do not provide recoverable data; therefore, they are not cited in the reference list.
However, you still need to cite them in the text of your paper. Use this format:
(P. Breinholt, personal communication, November 23, 2008)

Note that the citation is parenthetical. It follows the quoted material in the text.
It begins with the irst initial and last name of the source, followed by the words
personal communication, and concludes with the date of the communication or
conversation.