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The Parthenon

At the approximate position where the Parthenon was built later, the
Athenians began the construction of a building that was burned by the Persians
while it was still under construction in 480 BCE. It was presumably dedicated to
Athena, and after its destruction much of its ruins were utilized in the building
of the fortifications at the north end of the Acropolis.
Not much is known about this temple, and whether or not it was still
under construction when it was destroyed has been disputed. Its massive
foundations were made of limestone, and the columns were made of Pentelic
marble, a material that was utilized for the first time.
The classicalParthenon was constructed between 447-432 BCE to be the
focus of the Acropolis building complex. The architects were Iktinos and
Kallikrates (Vitruvius also names Karpion as an architect) and it was dedicated
to the goddess Athena Pallas or Parthenos (virgin). The temples main function
was to shelter the monumental statue of Athena that was made by Pheidias out
of gold and ivory. The temple and the chryselephantine statue were dedicated in
438, although work on the sculptures of its pediment continued until completion
in 432 BCE.

Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum,


also
known
as
the Flavian
Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum
Flavium;
Italian: Anfiteatro
Flavio orColosseo) is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city
of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone it is the largestamphitheatre in the
world, and is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and
engineering.
The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000
spectators, and was used for gladiatorial contests andpublic spectacles such
as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles,
and dramas based onClassical mythology. The building ceased to be used for
entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as
housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a
Christian shrine.

The Pyramids

Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful
civilizations in the world, the pyramidsespecially the Great Pyramids of Giza
are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their
massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in
ancient Egyptian society. Though pyramids were built from the beginning of the
Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century A.D.,
the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and continued
until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian
pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the
countrys rich and glorious past.
The pyramids were built by egypsian kings like Keops, Kephren and
Mykerinos and are considered to be one of the seven wonders of the world.

Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone,


brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-towest line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese
states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups
of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th
century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now
collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the wall built
220206 BC by Qin Shihuang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall
remains. Since then, the Great Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained, and
enhanced; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty.

Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La


Libert clairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculptureon Liberty
Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The statue,
designed by Frdric Auguste Bartholdi, a French sculptor and dedicated on
October 28, 1886, was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The
statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess,
who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is
inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A
broken chain lies at her feet. Its 71 m. high and it weighs 300 tonnes.

The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming


signal to immigrants arriving from abroad.

Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (French: La tour Eiffel),


is an iron lattice
tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It was named after the
engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the
tower. Erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair, it was
initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its
design, but has become both a global cultural icon of France and one of the
most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in
Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.98 million people
ascended it in 2011. The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010.

The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall,[2] about the same height as an 81storey building. Its base is square, 125 metres (410 ft) on a side. During its
construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to assume
the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41
years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Because
of the addition of the aerial atop the Eiffel Tower in 1957, it is now taller than
the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Not including broadcast aerials, it is
the second-tallest structure in France, after the Millau Viaduct.

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