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Gramtica

Mireia Bosch Galceran


Miquel Llobera Canaves
Mara Cruz Oliveros Martn-Vars
Maria Dolors Sol Vilanova
P2/0018

Fundaci per a la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya P2/00118

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ndex

1. Adjectives .......................................................................................

1.1. Forma
1.2. Formes del comparatiu i el superlatiu
1.3. Comparatiu digualtat
2. Adverbs ...........................................................................................

2.1. Adverbis de freqncia


2.2. Adverbis de manera
2.3. Adverbis de temps
2.4. Already / yet / still
2.5. Adverbis de lloc
2.6. Adverbis de grau
2.7. Adverbis de moviment
3. A lot of / lots of - many - much - little - few ....................... 11
3.1. A lot of / lots of
3.2. Many / much
3.3. Little / few
3.4. Formes comparatives i superlatives
4. Articles .......................................................................................... 12
4.1. Article indefinit
4.2. Article definit
4.3. Usos
5. Both / neither............................................................................... 13
6. Demonstratives............................................................................. 13
6.1. Demostratius de proximitat
6.2. Demostratius de llunyania
7. Emphatic forms............................................................................ 14
7.1. Auxiliar
7.2. What
7.3. So

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8. If clauses......................................................................................... 14
8.1. Tipus I
8.2. Tipus II
9. Linking words .............................................................................. 15
10. Nouns............................................................................................. 15
10.1. Forma
10.2. Plural
10.3. Comptables i incomptables
10.4. Casos especials
11. Numerals ...................................................................................... 17
11.1. Nombres cardinals
11.2. Nombres ordinals
11.3. Fraccions
12. Possessives .................................................................................... 18
12.1. Forma
12.2. Genitiu sax
13. Prepositions................................................................................. 19
13.1. Preposicions de temps
13.2. Preposicions de lloc
13.3. Preposicions de moviment
13.4. Preposicions darrere de verbs
13.5. Since / for
14. Pronouns ...................................................................................... 21
14.1. Pronoms subjecte i complement
14.2. Combinacions de pronoms
14.3. One
14.4. Pronoms reflexius
14.5. Pronoms relatius
14.6. Pronoms relatius en oracions
15. Question tags .............................................................................. 24
16. Question words........................................................................... 24
17. Reply questions .......................................................................... 25
18. Reported speech ......................................................................... 25
19. Some - any - no ........................................................................... 27
19.1. s
19.2. Compostos

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20. So / neither.................................................................................. 28
21. Too / enough ............................................................................... 29
21.1. Too
21.2. Enough
22. Verbs: gerund / infinitive ....................................................... 30
22.1. Gerundi
22.2. Infinitiu
23. Verbs: irregular verbs ............................................................... 31
24. Verbs: modal verbs .................................................................... 31
24.1. Habilitat
24.2. Necessitat
24.3. Obligaci
24.4. Suposici
24.5. Perms
24.6. Consell
24.7. Peticions
24.8. Suggeriments
24.9. Oferiments
24.10. Estat o hbit en el passat
25. Verbs: past continuous ............................................................ 34
25.1. s
25.2. Forma
26. Verbs: past perfect .................................................................... 35
26.1. s
26.2. Forma
27. Verbs: phrasal verbs .................................................................. 35
28. Verbs: present continuous ...................................................... 35
28.1. s
28.2. Forma
28.3. Ortografia
29. Verbs: present perfect .............................................................. 37
29.1. s
29.2. Forma
30. Verbs: past simple ..................................................................... 38
30.1. s
30.2. Forma
30.3. Ortografia
30.4. Pronunciaci

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31. Verbs: present simple ............................................................... 39


31.1. s
31.2. Forma
31.3. Pronunciaci i ortografia de la 3a persona singular
32. Verbs: the future ........................................................................ 41
32.1. Will + infinitiu
32.2. Present continuous
32.3. Going to
33. Verbs: the imperative ............................................................... 42
34. Verbs: the passive ....................................................................... 42
35. Verbs: there + be......................................................................... 42
36. Verbs: be ....................................................................................... 43
37. Verbs: do ....................................................................................... 43
38. Verbs: have (got) ........................................................................ 44
38.1. Forma
38.2. Auxiliar
38.3. Altres significats
38.4. Causative have
39. Word order .................................................................................. 45
39.1. Frases afirmatives
39.2. Preguntes
39.3. Frases negatives

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1. Adjectives
1.1. Forma
Ladjectiu es colloca davant del substantiu i t la mateixa forma per al singular i plural, mascul i femen.
Ex. a new book

some new books

Quan un substantiu sutilitza com a adjectiu, va sempre en singular.


Ex. a cigarette machines

a five-peseta coins

Alguns substantius es converteixen en adjectius afegint-hi el sufix -ed.


Ex. a blue-eyed girl (= a girl with blue eyes)

Per a les mesures es fa servir lestructura be + mesura + adjectiu.


Ex. Hes 10 years old.

Shes 1.80 m tall.

Its 20 cm long.

Hi ha adjectius relacionats (larrel s la mateixa per la terminaci s -ing


o -ed), com ara boring, que fa referncia a la causa, i bored, que fa referncia a la persona afectada.
Ex. The book was boring.

Mary was bored when she read it.

En aquest cas el catal no fa aquesta distinci amb ladjectiu, sin que fa


servir un verb diferent: ser o estar.
Ex. s avorrit (Hes boring).

Est avorrit (Hes bored).

1.2. Formes del comparatiu i el superlatiu


a) Els adjectius duna sllaba afegeixen -er a la forma positiva per a formar
el comparatiu i -est per a formar el superlatiu.
Ex. tall Bob is taller than Ann.
Jim is the tallest in the class.

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b) Els adjectius de tres sllabes formen el comparatiu amb more i el superlatiu amb most, davant de ladjectiu.
Ex. interesting This book is more interesting than that one.
Its the most interesting book Ive read this year.

c) La majoria dels adjectius de dues sllabes formen el comparatiu i el


superlatiu com els de tres sllabes, excepte els acabats en -y.
Ex. tiring
happy

His job is more tiring than mine.


His job is the most tiring.
Paul is happier than his sister.
Paul is the happiest.

d) La forma comparativa i superlativa dalguns adjectius s irregular.


Ex.

good - better - best

bad - worse - worst

e) Canvis en la grafia
Els adjectius que acaben en -y canvien la y per i abans dagafar el sufix
de comparatiu o superlatiu.
Ex. happy - happier - happiest

Els monosllabs amb una vocal seguida duna consonant doblen la consonant final abans dagafar el sufix de comparatiu o superlatiu.
Ex. big - bigger - biggest

f) Els verbs get i become susen amb les formes comparatives per a expressar la idea de canvi o daugment.
Ex. It will get colder tomorrow.

g) Lestructura del comparatiu s adjectiu comparatiu + than i lestructura del superlatiu s the + adjectiu superlatiu.
Ex. Ann is younger than Jim.

Ann is the youngest.

h) Per a donar ms mfasi a la forma del superlatiu safegeix in the world


o of all darrere de la forma superlativa de ladjectiu.
Ex. This car is the most expensive in the world.

1.3. Comparatiu digualtat

a) Quan dues coses o persones sn iguals, susa lestructura as + adjectiu + as.


Ex. This house is as big as mine.

b) Per a altres comparacions sutilitzen les estructures same as i different from.


Ex. He has the same colour of eyes as his brother.
This book is totally different from the other one.

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2. Adverbs
2.1. Adverbis de freqncia
a) Els adverbis de freqncia sn always, usually, sometimes, often,
rarely, never, ever.
b) Amb el verb be els adverbis de freqncia es colloquen darrere el verb,
per amb els altres verbs es colloquen davant del verb.
Ex. He is always late.
He always goes there.
I never go to the theatre.

c) Ever susa normalmente en preguntes, per no es pot fer servir en afirmacions en comptes dalways.
Ex. Have you ever been in London?
On Sundays I always go to the cinema. ("On Sundays I ever go to the cinema.")

2.2. Adverbis de manera


Els adverbis de manera es formen quasi tots afegint el sufix -ly a ladjectiu
i sn equivalents als acabats en -ment en catal.
Ex. bad

badly

sad

sadly

Alguns adverbis, per, tenen la mateixa forma que els adjectius.


Ex. She drove fast.
He works hard.

2.3. Adverbis de temps


a) Els adverbis de temps sn now, then, yesterday, already, yet, still, etc.
b) Adverbis com yesterday i tomorrow susen en combinaci amb altres
paraules en expressions de temps:
Ex. tomorrow morning / afternoon / evening / night
yesterday morning / afternoon / evening / (per, en canvi, es diu last night)
the day before yesterday in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening
the day after tomorrow in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening

Referit a avui es diu this morning / this afternoon / this evening, per,
en canvi, es diu tonight.

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2.4. Already / yet / still

a) Already i yet sutilitzen en present perfect en angls britnic i en past


simple en angls americ. Tots dos es poden fer servir en preguntes.
Ex. Have you closed the door already?
Have you closed the door yet?

b) Already susa en frases afirmatives i yet, en frases negatives.


Ex. Ive already seen this film.
I havent seen this film yet.

c) Still fa referncia a una situaci que va comenar en el passat i que


encara continua o que no ha canviat.
Ex. Im still waiting.
I still work here.

d) La distribuci del sentit daquests adverbis s diferent en catal; per


tant, no recorris a traduccions literals del catal.
ja = yet/already
encara (af.) = still
encara no (neg.) = yet

2.5. Adverbis de lloc

Alguns exemples dadverbis de lloc sn here, there, etc.


Ex. She was here at eight oclock.
The ball is over there.

2.6. Adverbis de grau

Alguns exemples dadverbis de grau sn quite, rather, very, etc. Fixat en


la posici daquests adverbis i expressions adverbials en la frase.
Ex. This book is quite interesting. (+ adjectiu)
I quite/rather like this book. (+ verb)
I like this book very much. (No "I like very much this book ")
I dont like this book at all. (Com en el cas de very much, va al final de la frase)

2.7. Adverbis de moviment

Alguns adverbis de moviment sn back, forward, ahead, along, backwards, down, up, etc.
Ex. He went back to the kitchen.

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3. A lot of / lots of - many - much - little - few


3.1. A lot of / lots of
A lot of i lots of susen en frases afirmatives tant amb substantius comptables com no comptables.
Ex. I have a lot of food and drinks. / I have lots of food and drinks.

3.2. Many / much


a) Many sutilitza amb substantius comptables, normalmente en preguntes i frases negatives.
Ex. I dont have many drinks.

b) Much es fa servir amb substantius no comptables, normalmente en preguntes i frases negatives.


Ex. I dont have much food.

c) Tant much com many poden anar precedits de too, so i very.


Ex. There are too many cars.
I like it very much.

There are so many things to do!

3.3. Little / few


a) Little susa amb substantius no comptables en frases afirmatives, generalment acompanyat de very, so, too, etc.
Ex. I have very little time.

b) Few es fa servir amb substantius comptables en frases afirmatives.


Ex. I have very few books.

c) A little / a few impliquen en petita quantitat o en nombre limitat, per


tenen un sentit ms positiu que no pas little i few. Es pot comparar amb
la diferncia que hi ha en catal entre una mica i poc (a little i little) o uns
quants i pocs (a few i few).

3.4. Formes comparatives i superlatives


a) A lot/many/much, more, most
Ex. There are a lot of books on the table.
There are more books on the table than on the shelf.
This table has the most books of all.

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b) Few/little, less, least


Ex. There are few exercises in this unit.
There are less exercises in this unit.
This unit has the least exercises.

Theres little paper in this drawer.


Theres less paper in this drawer.
This drawer has the least paper.

c) Tamb es pot usar lestructura as as.


Ex. Eat as much fruit as you like.

4. Articles
4.1. Article indefinit
a) Davant dun so consonntic susa larticle indefinit a.
Ex. a cat
a hotel
a university (davant de la u es pronuncia el so /j/ com la y de you)

b) Davant dun so voclic susa larticle indefinit an.


Ex. an engineer

c) Davant dun substantiu plural shi posa some o res.


Ex. some books

4.2. Article definit


Larticle definit the t la mateixa forma tant per al singular com per al plural i es pronuncia:
// davant dun so consonntic.
Ex. the school

/i/ davant dun so voclic.


Ex. the exam

4.3. Usos
a) En angls davant del nom duna professi o ofici susa larticle indefinit.
Ex. Shes an architect.

b) Sovint larticle definit somet davant de school, work, church, university, class, home, bed, hospital, etc.
Ex. I was at school.

Quan susa larticle, el significat pot variar.


Ex. Hes in hospital. (= Est malalt)
Hes in the hospital. (= Hi treballa o hi s a veure alg)

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c) Larticle somet:
abans dels dies de la setmana.
Ex. On Tuesday.

abans de next.
Ex. We are leaving next week.

abans dels noms comptables en plural o abans dels no comptables quan


es fan generalitzacions.
Ex. I like old films.

I love tea.

Sha de tenir en compte, per, que larticle no somet en casos com ara
I like the cinema o I like the theatre.)

d) Darrere de verbs com clean, wash, put on, lobjecte (hands, face, coat)
va precedit dun adjectiu possessiu quan en catal farem servir larticle.
Ex. I wash my hands.

5. Both / neither

Both i neither sutilitzen per a referir-se a dues persones o objectes a la vegada.

a) Both susa en frases afirmatives i duu el verb en plural.


Ex. Both are blond.
Both have blond hair.

Both of them are blond.


Both brothers are blond.

b) Neither t un sentit negatiu, per susa en frases amb el verb afirmatiu i en singular.
Ex. Neither is blond.
Neither has got blond hair.

Neither of them is blond.


Neither brother is blond.

6. Demonstratives
6.1. Demostratius de proximitat
Tant per al mascul com per al femen, per a referir-se a alg o alguna cosa
que s a prop de qui parla, susa this per al singular i these per al plural.
Singular This /s/ (aquest/a)

Plural These /iz/ (aquests/es)

6.2. Demostratius de llunyania

Tant per al mascul com per al femen, per a referir-se a alg o alguna cosa
que s lluny de qui parla, susa that per al singular i those per al plural.
Singular That / t/ (aquell/a)

Plural Those /z/ (aquells/es)

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7. Emphatic forms

7.1. Auxiliar

Es pot posar mfasi en lacci expressada pel verb collocant lauxiliar


corresponent davant del verb en una frase afirmativa. En aquest cas lauxiliar es pronuncia amb ms fora o ms accentuat.
Ex. I do like it. (S que magrada. / I tant que magrada,)
He did come. (S que va venir. / I tant que va venir.)

7.2. What

En frases amb verbs com like, want o need es pot posar ms mfasi en
lobjecte que agrada, es necessita, etc. amb what + subjecte + verb (like,
want, etc.) + verb be.
Ex. I like a comfortable hotel.
What I like is a comfortable hotel.
Ex. I need a good rest.
What I need is a good rest.

7.3. So

Tamb es pot donar mfasi a ladjectiu collocant-hi so a davant, en cas que


no vagi acompanyat de substantiu. So es pronuncia amb ms fora dins la
frase.
Ex. Hes so kind! (Que ns, damable! / s tan amable!)

8. If clauses

8.1. Tipus I

Les if clauses de tipus I serveixen per a expressar la dependncia duna o


ms accions respecte a una altra de prvia. La forma s If + verb en present
simple + will / can + infinitiu.
Ex. If it rains, well go to the cinema.
If it rains, we can go to the cinema.

Lacci esmentada a la segona part de loraci, que inclou will o can,


depn sempre del fet que es compleixi la condici expressada a la primera part, cosa que el parlant considera probable.

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8.2. Tipus II
Les if clauses de tipus II sempre expressen hiptesis. La forma s If + verb
en passat + would / could + infinitiu
Ex. If I had enough money, I would retire.
If I had enough money, I could retire.

Lacci tamb depn del fet que es compleixi la condici o hiptesi, per
en aquest cas la persona que parla sap que s improbable perqu la realitat
s que no t prou diners.
En estil formal i en lexpressi If I were you ... (jo, de tu...) es fa servir
were en lloc de was.

9. Linking words
Els linking words sn paraules que connecten idees dins un text per
a ajudar a fer ms clar el missatge i la funci. Hi ha linking words per a
diferents funcions:
a) per a afegir: and, also, besides, etc.
b) per a expressar seqncia: first, then, later, next, after that, finally, etc.
c) per a expressar contrast: but, whereas, however, etc.
d) per a expressar causa/ra: because, etc.
e) per a expressar conseqncia: so, therefore, etc.

10. Nouns
10.1. Forma
La majoria de substantius no tenen formes diferenciades per al mascul i
per al femen. No obstant aix, hi ha excepcions.
Ex. actor
waiter

actress
waitress

10.2. Plural
a) El plural es forma afegint una s al singular, per quan la paraula acaba
en ss, sh, ch, x safegeix es.
Ex. book
watch

books
watches

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b) Casos especials:
Ex. knife

tomato
factory

knives

wife

tomatoes

potato

wives
potatoes

factories

c) Plurals irregulars:

woman
tooth

child

Ex. man

men

policeman

women

businesswoman

teeth

foot

policemen
businesswomen
feet

children

10.3. Comptables i incomptables

Els substantius comptables (countable nouns), que tenen singular i plural,


tenen forma de singular i forma de plural.
Ex. book

books

Els substantius no comptables (uncountable nouns) no tenen forma de


plural.
Ex. water

Es pot dir a book, per no es pot dir

"a water ". Sha de dir some

water. Si es vol especificar la quantitat, sha dusar a glass/a drop/a litre


of water.
Ex. A glass of water
A litre of water

Casos que funcionen diferent que en catal:


People, que duu el verb en plural.
Ex. People are happy.

News i advice, que no sn comptables i que, per tant, no tenen forma


de plural i duen el verb en singular. Per a quantificar news o advice es
poden fer servir expressions com a piece of.
Ex. The news is good.

Les paraules que acaben en -ics (politics, etc.) duen el verb en singular.
Ex. Politics has never interested me.

10.4. Casos especials

Els substantius de parells (trousers, glasses, socks, scissors ...) tenen forma
de plural. Per a especificar-ne la quantitat sha de dir a pair of ..., two
pairs of ...
Ex. A pair of socks

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Gramtica

Dos substantius poden anar plegats, de manera que el primer faci funci
dadjectiu.
Ex. bus stop
taxi driver

11. Numerals

11.1. Nombres cardinals

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

twenty-one
twenty-two
twenty-three
twenty-four
twenty-five
twenty-six
twenty-seven
twenty-eight
twenty-nine
thirty

31
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1,000
1,000,000

thirty-one, etc.
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety
a hundred
a thousand
a million

a) La paraula per a designar la xifra 0 s nought (en angls britnic) o


zero (en angls americ). La xifra 0 es diu o pronuncia de maneres diferents segons els casos segents:
zero: en mesures.
Ex. Four degrees below zero

//(com la lletra o): quan es diu el nmero de telfon.


Ex. Three two nine, one o, seven three

nil (BrE) i zero (AmE): en puntuacions / marcadors.


Ex. Cologne four; Milan nil

love: en tennis.
Ex. In tennis, love is a score of zero.

b) Un billion en angls s mil milions. No ho confonguis amb bili, que


en catal equival a un mili de milions.

c) Entre les centenes i la resta del nombre es colloca and.


Ex. 510

five hundred and ten

5,405 five thousand four hundred and five


300,612

three hundred thousand six hundred and twelve

d) Les paraules hundred, thousand i million no duen plural en les xifres


exactes.
Ex. Two hundred people
Forty thousand letters
Ten million inhabitants

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e) Els milers i els milions se separen amb una coma (,) i els decimals, amb
un punt (.).
Ex. 12,456,879
10.50 (ten point fifty)

11.2. Nombres ordinals

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth

eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth
eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth

twenty-first
twenty-second
twenty-third
twenty-fourth
twenty-fifth
twenty-sixth
twenty-seventh
twenty-eighth
twenty-ninth
thirtieth

thirty-first, etc.
fortieth
fiftieth
sixtieth
seventieth
eightieth
ninetieth
hundredth
thousandth
millionth

Lordinal fifth es pronuncia /ff/ i no "/faf/ ".

11.3. Fraccions
En les fraccions es fan servir els nombres ordinals.
Ex. 3/8 (three eighths). (Per per a 1/2 es diu a half i per a 3/4, three quarters)

12. Possessives
12.1. Forma

Singular

Adjectius

Pronoms

my
your
his
her
its

mine
yours
his
hers
its


Plural

your = teu/teva, seu/seva (de vost)


his = seu/seva (dell)
her = seu/seva (della)
Ex. This is my book.
This book is mine.

our
your
their

ours
yours
theirs

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c) Recorda que la durada en angls sexpressa amb:


present perfect (si lacci arriba fins al present o continua).
Ex. Ive worked in this firm for ten years. (I still work here)

past simple (si lacci va acabar o ha acabat en el passat).


Ex. I worked in this firm for ten years. (Now Im working in another firm)

d) En angls no es pot expressar durada amb el present simple. No facis


traduccions literals del catal com per exemple "I work here since last
year ".
e) Per a identificar un perode del principi al final, usa from to o from
till, per no pas "since to ".
Ex. I have tennis from nine to ten.

14. Pronouns
14.1. Pronoms subjecte i complement

Subjecte

Complement

I
you
he
she
it

me
you
him
her
it

Singular


Plural

we
you
they

us
you
them

En catal els pronoms que fan de subjecte sovint someten, per en angls
sempre precedeixen el verb.
Ex. Its very nice (no "is very nice ").

Els pronoms que fan de complement poden representar el complement


directe, lindirecte i altres. Si hi ha preposicions van darrere.
Ex. Take it.
Give her this book.
Go with them.

14.2. Combinacions de pronoms

Verb

complement directe

to + complement indirecte

Give

it

to her.

Show

them

to us.

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En aquest quadre tens lordre ms normatiu de la combinaci de pronoms.


En la llengua colloquial algunes persones posen el pronom indirecte
davant del directe.
Ex. Give it to me (colloquialment Give me it.).

14.3. One
One substitueix un substantiu amb article indeterminat.
Ex. I need a car. Im going to buy one.
Where can I find a chemists? There is one on the corner.

One es fa servir per a evitar la repetici dun substantiu que aniria darrere:
dun adjectiu.
Ex. Do you want the big sheet?
No, give me the small one.

de which.
Ex. I would like an ice-cream.
Which one do you want?

de larticle the.
Ex. Which pullover do you want?
I want the one on the table.

dun demostratiu.
Ex. What colour do you like?
I like this one.

En cap daquests casos no hi ha un equivalent en catal. Nosaltres direm


el petit, quin, el de damunt la taula, aquest, respectivament.

14.4. Pronoms reflexius

Singular

Plural

myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself

ourselves
yourselves

themselves

Els pronoms reflexius no sn tan freqents en angls com en les llenges


dorigen llat, com ara el catal i el castell.
El verb enjoy va seguit dun pronom reflexiu si no t complement.
Ex. I enjoyed myself a lot.

I enjoyed the film a lot.

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14.5. Pronoms relatius

Persones

Coses

Subjecte

Complement

Possessiu

who
that

whom*
that

whose

which
that

which
that

* Whom s formal, no es fa servir en angls colloquial

Pronoms relatius amb funci de subjecte:


Ex. This is the man who/that came yesterday.
This is the house which/that has central heating.

Pronoms relatius amb funci de complement:


This is the man whom / that / we met at the party.
This is the man to whom she talked.
This is the man that / she talked to.
This is the house which / that / they bought.
(Les corresponen a lomissi del pronom quan representa el complement,
cosa que s molt freqent en angls parlat.)

Who i that no susen darrere preposicions; en aquests casos sha dusar


whom o which.
Ex. This is the man to whom she talked.

Tingues present que s ms usual el pronom relatiu where que no pas el


pronom relatiu compost equivalent in which.
Ex. This is the house where we live.
This is the house in which we live.

14.6. Pronoms relatius en oracions


a) Identifying relative clauses (oracions de relatiu determinatives). La
informaci de loraci de relatiu ens ajuda a identificar la persona o la cosa
a la qual fa referncia el pronom relatiu.
Ex. The man who was at the door told us the restaurant was full.

b) Non-identifying relative clauses (oracions de relatiu explicatives).


La informaci de loraci de relatiu s addicional i no identifica la persona o cosa.
Ex. Peter, who was getting bored, decided to go for a walk.

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Les non-identifying relative clauses sn molt freqents en angls


escrit per poc freqents en angls parlat. Aquest tipus doracions es
colloca entre comes o guionets i noms pot dur els pronoms who i
which.

15. Question tags

Les question tags susen per a demanar confirmaci o acord a linterlocutor.


Ex. Its nice, isnt it?

Yes, very nice.


La tag s un afegit o apndix a una frase, i es forma amb lauxiliar do, en
passat o present, si la frase duu un verb lxic normal (like, go, etc.) o amb el
mateix verb que duu la frase quan tamb pot ser auxiliar (be, have, can ...)
ms el subjecte.

Una frase afirmativa va seguida duna tag negativa.


Ex. He likes it, doesnt he?

I una frase negativa va seguida duna tag afirmativa.


Ex. She isnt here, is she?

16. Question words

Els interrogatius segents sutilitzen per a preguntar sobre:


What: accions o coses

Why: ra

Who: persones

How: mitjans, manera

Which: persones o coses (quan hi ha

How far: distncia

un nombre limitat de respostes)

How long: durada

Where: llocs

How often: freqncia

When: temps

How much / many: quantitat

Whose: pertinena

How + adjectiu / adverbi: grau

a) Lordre de les paraules a la pregunta s el segent:

Interrogatiu

auxiliar

subjecte

verb

complement

Where

does

she

live

When

did

they

go

home?

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b) What i who quan sutilitzen per a fer preguntes sobre el subjecte de


lacci tenen un ordre diferent i no van seguits de lauxiliar:

Interrogatiu

verb

complement

Who

came

yesterday?

What

happened

Compara les preguntes que es fan amb la frase segent:


Ex. James phoned Mary.
Who did James phone? (es pregunta pel complement: Mary)
Who phoned Mary? (es pregunta pel subjecte: James)

c) Les preguntes amb whose poden tenir dues formes:


Ex. Whose book is this?

Whose is this book?

d) How is Marta? vol dir Com est la Marta?. Si vols preguntar Com s
la Marta?, has de dir What is Marta like?.

17. Reply questions


Les reply questions susen per a expressar inters, sorpresa o altres reaccions davant del que diu el nostre interlocutor.
Ex. Im an artist.
Oh, are you?

A diferncia de la question tag, la reply question no la fa la mateixa persona que diu la frase, sin que s la reacci duna altra persona que contesta.
Com la question tag, la reply question es forma amb lauxiliar i el subjecte. Per, si la primera frase s afirmativa, la reply question s afirmativa. I, si la primera frase s negativa, la reply question tamb s negativa.
Ex. I like cars.
Do you?

I dont like cars.


Dont you?

18. Reported speech


Estil indirecte
a) Quan expliquem una cosa que alg acaba de dir, fem una introducci
a la frase que reprodum collocant el verb say en present.
Ex. Tom says (that) hes coming next week.

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Quan en Tom ha parlat, ha dit Im coming next week. Per a repetir el


que ha dit, safegeix Tom says (el that no s obligatori) i es canvia Im per
hes. De la mateixa manera, els adjectius possessius relacionats amb les
persones esmentades tamb varien. Si en Tom hagus dit My car is red,
direm Tom says (that) his car is red.
b) Quan expliquem una cosa que ens han dit fa un cert temps, fem servir
el passat del verb say o el passat del verb tell + un pronom.
Ex. Tom said (that) he was coming soon.
Tom told me (that) he was coming soon.

Fixat que en aquest cas no solament canvia la persona del pronom (I passa a he), sin que tamb canvia el temps del verb de la frase que repetim.
Les variacions que tenen lloc en els temps verbals sn les segents:

Frase original

Frase en estil indirecte

Present simple
Present continuous
Past simple

Past simple
Past continuous
Past perfect (o past simple quan es
repeteixen fets que continuen essent
certs. Ex. She said she was tall i no pas
"She said she had been tall. ")
Past perfect
would
had to (o must)
could

Present perfect
Will
Must
Can

Els altres modals no varien. Les paraules que sovint canvien quan parlem
en estil indirecte sn:
This

that

now

then

here

there

tomorrow

the next day

c) Quan el que reprodum o transmetem sn instruccions, lestructura s


diferent. Si en Tom diu Come here, please a la Jane, i ella no ho sent,
es pot transmetre la petici dient a la Jane Tom wants you to come, o es
pot explicar a una altra persona.
Ex. Tom wants Jane to come.

Tom wants her to come.

s a dir, per a relatar o transmetre instruccions (fixat que el verb s en


imperatiu) es fa servir lestructura want + nom o object pronoun + to +
infinitiu.
d) Fixat qu pot passar quan ens demanen que passem un missatge:
Ex. Tell Jane that I cant come. Tell her to call me.

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La primera part del missatge s una afirmaci. La segona s una petici que
facis alguna cosa. Fixat que lestructura gramatical s diferent en cada cas.
Tell + X + that + afirmaci
Tell + X + to + infinitiu

Quan es transmeti el missatge a la Jane, la formulaci ser la segent:


Ex. Tom says that he cant come. He wants you to call him.

Lestructura per a cada cas s:


Say + that + afirmaci
Want + objecte + to + infinitiu

Preguntes
Quan volem repetir una pregunta que alg ha fet, fem servir verbs com ask,
want to know, wonder ... per a comenar i desprs repetim la pregunta,
per en forma de frase normal (sense fer la inversi prpia de les preguntes)
i fent tots els canvis de paraules i de temps verbals que has vist abans.

Interrogatiu

auxiliar

subjecte

infinitiu

complement

What time

do

you

begin

your class?

interrogatiu

subjecte

verb

complement

what time

began

my class.

He asked me

Quan la pregunta que es repeteix no t interrogatiu, sintrodueix amb if o


whether.
Ex. She wanted to know if the post office was near here.
She wanted to know whether the post office was near here.

19. Some - any - no


19.1. s
a) Some i any sn determinants que acompanyen substantius comptables en plural (some books) i substantius no comptables (some water).
Some sutilitza en frases afirmatives.
Ex. Ive got some books.

Any sutilitza en frases negatives i preguntes.


Ex. I havent got any books.

Have you got any books?

Tots dos determinants es poden usar sense cap substantiu.


Ex. Id like some.

Have you got any?

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b) Some susa en oferiments i peticions perqu pensem que la resposta


pot ser afirmativa.
Ex. Do you want some water?
Can you give me some water?

c) No t un sentit negatiu, per susa en frases amb un verb afirmatiu perqu en angls les frases no poden dur dues negacions.
Ex. Ive got no time.

19.2. Compostos
a) Els compostos de some, any i no sn els segents:

Some

Any

No

Persones

someone
somebody

anyone
anybody

no-one
nobody

Coses

something

anything

nothing

Llocs

somewhere

anywhere

nowhere

b) Els compostos de some, any i no segueixen les mateixes regles.


Ex. Someone has opened the door.
Is anyone here?
I can see nothing

20. So / neither
a) So i neither sutilitzen per a evitar repeticions en expressar acord
amb el que diuen altres persones. Tots dos van seguits de lauxiliar i del
subjecte.
Ex. I like cats.
So do I.
I dont like cats.
Neither do I.

Compara els exemples anteriors amb els segents, en els quals els interlocutors no estan dacord i, per tant, no susen ni so ni neither.
Ex. I like cats.
I dont.
I dont like cats.
I do.

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Lauxiliar depn del temps del verb de la frase del primer interlocutor.
Ex. I can swim.
So can I.
Im a student.
So am I.
I went to Paris.
So did I.
I have cleaned it.
So have I.

b) So sutilitza per a evitar repeticions en una frase nova. Lestructura s so +


aux. + subjecte.
Ex. He is tall and so is his sister.

Si no es fes servir so, shauria de dir:


Ex. He is tall and his sister is tall too.

c) So susa darrere dalguns verbs per a evitar repeticions de frases senceres.


Ex. Is the book good?
Yes, I think so. (= I think its good.)
No, I dont think so. (= I dont think its good.)

21. Too / enough


21.1. Too
Too + adjectiu indica excs.
Ex. This car is too expensive (for me to buy).

21.2. Enough
Un adjectiu + enough indica suficincia.
Ex. She is good enough (to play in the team).

Enough tamb susa amb substantius comptables i no comptables.


Ex. There are enough tables.
I dont have enough wine.

Enough normalment vol dir prou en catal. No ho confonguis amb fora /


bastant(s), que en angls s quite.
Ex. This book is quite good. (Aquest llibre s fora bo.)

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22. Verbs: gerund / infinitive


22.1. Gerundi
La forma de gerundi (acabada en -ing) susa en els casos segents:
a) En angls britnic, darrere verbs com like, love, enjoy, hate, start,
stop.
Ex. I like driving fast.
We enjoy going to the cinema.
She loves playing tennis.

El significat de like en lexemple anterior s semblant al denjoy, per


quan el significat de like no s equivalent a enjoy o quan va acompanyat de would, susa linfinitiu.
Ex. I like to keep my promises.
Id like to go to the cinema.

b) Com a subjecte o complement de la frase. (En catal susa linfinitiu.)


Ex. Travelling by plane is faster.

c) Darrere de preposicions.
Ex. Before going to school I do some sport.
Hes good at swimming.
Its for opening tins.
This can be solved by planting new trees.
Instead of crying, do something.

d) Darrere de go i do en expressions idiomtiques com go shopping /


swimming (coses que fem durant el nostre temps lliure) i do the washingup / cleaning, etc. (feina).
Ex. He goes shopping on Monday.

22.2. Infinitiu
a) Linfinitiu amb to susa darrere want, plan, intend, hope i would
like.
Ex. I want to go to the park.
She hopes to go to the university next year.
Id like to go to the cinema.

b) Linfinitiu sense to susa darrere de can i must.


Ex. I can go.
I must go.

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Gramtica

23. Verbs: irregular verbs

Infinitiu
be (am, is, are)
beat
become
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do (does / /)
draw
dream /i/
drink
drive
eat /i/
fall
feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go (goes)
grow
hang
have (has)
hear //
hide
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
learn
leave

Passat
was, were
beat
became
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
burned
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drew
dreamed /i/
dreamt /e/
drank
drove
ate /et/
/et/ (AmE)
fell
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hanged
hung
had
heard //
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
learnt
learned
left

Participi
been
beaten
become
begun
bitten
blown
broken
brought
built
burned
burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drawn
dreamed /i/
dreamt /e/
drunk
driven
eaten /i/
fallen
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got
given
gone
grown
hanged*
hung
had
heard //
hidden, hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
learnt
learned
left

Infinitiu
lend
let
lie
lose
make
mean /i/
meet
pay
put
read /i/
ride
ring
rise
run
say /e/
(says /ez/)
see
sell
send
set
shine
show
shut
sing
sink
sit
sleep
smell
speak
spell
spend
stand
steal
stick
stink
swell
swim
take
teach
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write

Passat
lent
let
lay
lost
made
meant /e/
met
paid
put
read /e/
rode
rang
rose
ran
said /e/

lent
let
lain
lost
made
meant /e/
met
paid
put
read /e/
ridden
rung
risen
run
said /e/

saw
sold
sent
set
shone
showed
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
smelt
smelled
spoke
spelt
spelled
spent
stood
stole
stuck
stank
swelled

seen
sold
sent
set
shone
shown/showed
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
smelt
smelled
spoken
spelt
spelled
spent
stood
stolen
stuck
stunk
swelled
swollen
swum
taken
taught
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
waked
worn
won
written

swam
took
taught
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
waked
wore
won
wrote

*Noms per a referir-se a la pena de mort.

24. Verbs: modal verbs

En angls hi ha uns quants verbs auxiliars que es fan servir per a expressar
idees com les que apareixen a continuaci.

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24.1. Habilitat
El verb per a expressar que se sap o que es pot fer alguna cosa s can.
Ex. She can speak English.

El futur de can s be able (no can) amb lauxiliar will, que indica futur.
Ex. Shell be able to speak English. (no pas "will can ")

Per al passat susa could o be able en passat (was able).


Ex. She could speak English. (Ho podia fer.)
She was able to speak English. (Ho podia fer i ho va fer.)

24.2. Necessitat
Per a expressar una necessitat susa have to i es conjuga com un verb normal, amb lauxiliar do.
Ex. We have to study.
Do you have to go now?
She doesnt have to work on Sundays.

24.3. Obligaci
Per a expressar obligaci en el present susa must.
Ex. We must finish.
I must leave at six today.
You mustnt park here.

Per al futur i el passat susa have to.


Ex. He will have to stop.
I had to leave.

24.4. Suposici
En deduccions
En afirmacions susa must.
Ex. He must be at least 70.
It must be cheap.

La negaci es fa amb cant i no pas amb mustnt. (mira lapartat 24.3)


Ex. He cant be that old!
This cant be true.

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24.5. Perms
Per a sollicitar i atorgar o denegar perms susa can, may (formal), be
allowed.
Ex. Can I smoke?
May I smoke?
You can park here.
You are not allowed to park here.

24.6. Consell
Per a donar consells hi ha diversos auxiliars que equivalen al catal hauria(es) de: should, ought to, had better.
Ex. You should to eat less.
You ought to eat less.
You had better to eat less.

24.7. Peticions
Per a formular peticions sutilitzen els verbs can i could.
Ex. Can you finish this by tomorrow?
Ex. Could you finish this by tomorrow?

24.8. Suggeriments
Per a fer suggeriments susa lauxiliar shall, seguit del pronom plural.
Ex. Shall we go to the cinema?

24.9. Oferiments
Per a fer oferiments susa shall, per seguit del pronom en primera persona singular.
Ex. Shall I bring you anything?

24.10. Estat o hbit en el passat


Per a expresar lestat o habit en el passat sutilitza lauxiliar used to.
Ex. When I was a child I used to play football.
Did you use to study much?
I didnt use to study much.

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Mira lapartat 39 (word order) per a les preguntes i negacions. Vigila perqu used to noms es pot fer servir referit al passat. Per a parlar dhbits en
el present sutilitza el present simple i un adverbi de freqncia.
Ex. I usually play tennis at weekends.
He usually goes to the cinema.

25. Verbs: past continuous


25.1. s
a) El past continuous sutilitza per a referir-se a una acci que havia
comenat i encara no havia acabat en el moment en qu va passar una
altra cosa.
Ex. I was filling the bath when the phone rang.
He was watching TV when she arrived.

b) El past continuous tamb sutilitza per a referir-se a dues accions


paralleles que es van prolongar durant un cert temps.
Ex. I was reading while Tom was watching TV.
I was listening to the radio while my husband was cleaning the house.

25.2. Forma
El past continuous es forma amb el passat del verb be + la forma -ing del
verb principal.

Afirmaci

Negaci

Interrogaci

I was working

I wasnt working

Was I working?

You were working

You werent working

Were you working?

He was working

He wasnt working

Was he working?

She was working

She wasnt working

Was she working?

It was working

It wasnt working

Was it working?

We were working

We werent working

Were we working?

You were working

You werent working

Were you working?

They were working

They werent working Were they working?

Per a saber quins verbs no accepten la forma contnua, consulta lapartat 28.

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26. Verbs: past perfect


26.1. s
El past perfect es fa servir per a referir-se a una acci o un esdeveniment
passat que va succeir abans dun altre, tamb passat.
Ex. Yesterday I gave John the book that he had lent me the week before.

26.2. Forma

Afirmaci

Negaci

Interrogaci

had worked

hadnt worked

had worked?

El past continuous es forma amb el passat de have + el participi del verb


principal.

27. Verbs: phrasal verbs


Els phrasal verbs es formen amb un verb i un adverbi. El verb canvia o
modifica parcialment el significat en afegir-hi ladverbi.
Ex. turn on / turn off

write down

take off

come back

put on

pick up

get on / get off

A vegades el verb porta un complement. Si el complement s un substantiu, ladverbi es pot collocar darrere del complement o davant.
Ex. Turn the light on.

Turn on the light.

Si el complement per, s un pronom, ladverbi va darrere del pronom.


Ex. Turn it on.

28. Verbs: present continuous


28.1. s
a) El present continuous sutilitza per a referir-se al que passa en aquest
moment.
Ex. What are you doing?

Im reading this book.

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En catal, en aquest cas, direm Llegeixo i en algun context seria possible Estic llegint, per en angls I read (present simple) noms sutilitza
per a referir-nos a un hbit o activitat regular, sovint acompanyat de frases
com on Sundays, every night, etc.

b) El past continuous susa per a referir-se a un estat temporal de coses,


amb una durada limitada.
Ex. Shes living in London now, but not for long.

c) El past continuous tamb sutilitza per a referir-se a plans futurs ja


acordats.
Ex. Im having lunch with Mary tomorrow.

28.2. Forma

Afirmaci*

Negaci*

Interrogaci

Im working

Im not working

Am I working?

Youre working

You arent working

Are you working?

Hes working

He isnt working

Is he working?

Shes working

She isnt working

Is she working?

Its working

It isnt working

Is it working?

Were working

We arent working

Are we working?

Youre working

You arent working

Are you working?

Theyre working

They arent working Are they working?

* En angls parlat les formes redudes sn molt ms freqents (mira lapartat 36, verb be)

La forma del present continuous s el verb be conjugat + participi present


del verb principal.

Les respostes curtes es formen amb lauxiliar.


Ex. Yes, I am.
No, Im not.

28.3. Ortografia

Normalment safegeix -ing al verb.


Ex. study
take

studying
taking

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Els monosllabs amb una vocal doblen la consonant final abans dagafar -ing.
Ex. swim

swimming

Alguns verbs normalment no sutilitzen en la forma del present continuous; per exemple: see, hear, smell, notice, like, love, hate, want, think,
agree, know, mean, understand, etc.

29. Verbs: present perfect


29.1. s
El present perfect sutilitza per a:
a) referir-se a una acci passada que t un resultat en el present.
Ex. Ive bought a new car.

b) referir-se, amb just, a un esdeveniment que fa molt poc que ha succet.


Ex. Hes just arrived.

c) referir-se a esdeveniments o accions que han tingut lloc en un perode


de temps que arriba fins al present.
Ex. Ive already seen this film.

Quan sesmenta el temps exacte en qu una cosa ha succet, susa el past


simple.
Ex. Ive seen this film. (present perfect)
I saw this film last week. (past simple )

29.2. Forma
a) Per a formar el past continuous sutilitza lauxiliar have + el participi de
passat del verb que es conjuga (consulta els verbs irregulars a lapartat 23).

Afirmaci*

Negaci*

Interrogaci

Ive worked

I havent worked

Have I worked?

Youve worked

You havent worked

Have you worked?

Hes worked

He hasnt worked

Has he worked?

Shes worked

She hasnt worked

Has she worked?

* En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).

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Afirmaci*

Negaci*

Interrogaci

Its worked

It hasnt worked

Has it worked?

Weve worked

We havent worked

Have we worked?

Youve worked

You havent worked

Have you worked?

Theyve worked

They havent worked

Have they worked?

* En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).

b) Les respostes curtes es formen amb lauxiliar.


Ex. Yes, I have. / No I havent.

Mira tamb lapartat 13 (preposicions) i lapartat 2 (adverbis yet, already,


ever, never).

30. Verbs: past simple


30.1. s
El past simple sutilitza per a parlar desdeveniments en el passat que ja
shan acabat, especialment quan sesmenten el temps i el lloc.
Ex. I went to Africa five years ago.
I saw this film last week.
I came this morning.

30.2. Forma

Afirmaci

Negaci*

Interrogaci

worked

didnt work

did ... work?

came

didnt come

did ... come?

* En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).

Tots els verbs regulars afegeixen -ed a larrel en totes les persones per a formar el past simple. Per als verbs irregulars mira lapartat 23.
Fixat que lauxiliar que sutilitza s did i que desprs de lauxiliar el verb
va en infinitiu, no pas en passat.
Les respostes curtes es formen amb lauxiliar.
Ex. Yes, I did.
No I didnt.

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30.3. Ortografia
a) Els verbs acabats en y la canvien per i abans dagafar el sufix -ed de passat.
Ex. study

studied

Si la y va precedida de vocal es mant.


Ex. play

played

b) Els verbs que acaben en vocal accentuada + consonant doblen la consonant final abans dagafar -ed.
Ex. stop
admit

stopped
admitted

c) Els verbs acabats en l doblen aquesta consonant.


Ex. travel

travelled

30.4. Pronunciaci
Lacabament de passat -ed es pronuncia de tres maneres diferents segons el
so que el precedeix:
/t/ darrere de consonants sordes.
Ex. stopped

/d/ darrere de vocals i consonants sonores.


Ex. played

/d/ darrere de d o t.
Ex. waited

31. Verbs: present simple


Aquest apartat es refereix al present dels verbs lxics normals, no pas al dels
auxiliars o modals.

31.1. s
El present simple sutilitza per a referir-se a:
esdeveniments habituals o quotidians.
Ex. I work in a shop.

hbits.
Ex. I get up early.

sentiments o actituds.
Ex. I love it.

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El present simple no sutilitza per a referir-se al que succeeix en el moment


de parlar (mira lapartat 28, present continuous).

31.2. Forma

Afirmaci

Negaci*

Interrogaci

I work

I dont work

Do I work?

You work

You dont work

Do you work?

He works

He doesnt work

Does he work?

She works

She doesnt work

Does she work?

It works

It doesnt work

Does it work?

We work

We dont work

Do we work?

You work

You dont work

Do you work?

They work

They dont work

Do they work?

* En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).

Fixat que desprs del do auxiliar el verb va en infinitiu.


En les respostes curtes susa lauxiliar.
Ex. Yes, I do. / No, I dont.
Yes, she does. / No, she doesnt.

31.3. Pronunciaci i ortografia de la 3a persona singular


La tercera persona singular del present simple sescriu afegint -s al verb,
tret que ja acabi en s, x, z, ch o sh, cas en qu safegeix -es. Tant si sescriu
duna manera com de laltra, es pronuncia:
/s/ desprs de consonants sordes.
Ex. drinks
waits

/z/ desprs de consonants sonores o vocals.


Ex. feels
means

/z/ desprs de s, z, sh, ch i x.


Ex. kisses
washes
watches

Does es pronuncia /dz/ i says, /sez/.

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32. Verbs: the future


Hi ha maneres diferents de referir-se al futur en angls.

32.1. Will + infinitiu


Susa lestructura will + infinitiu per a:
a) fer prediccions o parlar de coses que no podem controlar.
Ex. It will rain soon.

b) fer promeses.
Ex. Im sorry I forgot. Ill bring it tomorrow.

c) referir-se a una possibilitat, amb perhaps.


Ex. Perhaps Ill take a holiday.

d) expressar decisions en el moment de prendre-les.


Ex. The phone is ringing. Ill get it.

La forma s la mateixa per a totes les persones.

Afirmaci

Negaci

Interrogaci

will work

will not work

will work?

En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).
Ex. Ill work.
I wont work.
Hell work.
He wont work.

En les respostes curtes susa lauxiliar.


Ex. Yes, I will. / No, I wont.

32.2. Present continuous


Sutilitza el present continuous amb sentit de futur per a parlar de coses
que ja hem concertat o hem decidit fer.
Ex. Im sorry I cant go out with you tomorrow:
Im going to the cinema with a friend.

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32.3. Going to
Es fa servir going to per a parlar dintencions fermes.
Ex. Next summer Im going to take a holiday.

Lestructura s el present continuous del verb go + to + infinitiu.


Ex. Hes going to get a new job.

Theyre not going to come again.

33. Verbs: the imperative


La forma de limperatiu s la mateixa que la de linfinitiu per a totes les
persones.
Ex. Go straight on.

Come here, please.

La negaci de limperatiu es forma amb dont abans de linfinitiu.


Ex. Dont go!

Limperatiu del verb let + el pronom us sutilitza per a fer suggeriments.


Normalment el pronom es redueix en lets.
Ex. Lets go to a concert.

34. Verbs: the passive


La passiva susa sovint, especialment en angls escrit, quan es vol posar
ms mfasi en lobjecte de lacci que no pas en la persona que la duu a terme. La forma s la segent:

Subjecte passiu

verb be

participi passat

Computers

are used

in many places.

The printing press

was invented

in 1450.

Per a indicar lagent sutilitza la preposici by (per).


Ex. The printing press was invented by Gutenberg.

35. Verbs: there + be


There + be es fa servir com lestructura haver-hi en catal. La seva forma
verbal varia en singular i en plural. Per a fer la negaci cal afegir-hi not
com en altres verbs.

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Afirmaci*

Negaci*

Singular

There is a book

There isnt a book

Plural

There are some books

There arent many books

* En angls parlat normalment sutilitzen les formes redudes (mira lapartat 38).

El temps del verb pot variar.


Ex. There were some cars in the street. There will be some new visitors.

Lestructura there + be sol anar acompanyada de some i any, a lot of, etc.
Mira els apartats 3 i 19.

36. Verbs: be

Forma
afirmativa

Reducci

Forma
negativa

Reducci

Forma
interrogativa

I am

Im

I am not

Im not

Am I?

You are

Youre

You are not

You arent

Are you?

He is

Hes

He is not

He isnt

Is he?

She is

Shes

She is not

She isnt

Is she?

It is

Its

It is not

It isnt

Is it?

We are

Were

We are not

We arent

Are we?

You are

Youre

You are not

You arent

Are you?

They are

Theyre

They are not

They arent

Are they?

Les formes redudes del verb be no susen en escrits formals ni en frases


afirmatives curtes (com a resposta a alguna pregunta).
Ex. Yes, I am. (no pas "Yes, Im. ")

El verb be es tradueix a vegades per ser i a vegades per estar.


El verb be susa com a verb principal o com a auxiliar en temps compostos.
Ex. She is a student.

She is writing.

37. Verbs: do
a) Lauxiliar do susa per a fer la negaci i la interrogaci del present simple i el past simple en la majoria dels verbs.
Ex. Do you like it?

Yes, I do, but Mary doesnt.

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Gramtica

b) Tingues present que lauxiliar do tamb es fa servir per fer la negaci i


la interrogaci del present simple i el past simple del verb do.
Ex. What do you do? Im a student.
What did you do on Sunday? I didnt do anything.

38. Verbs: have (got)


38.1. Forma
La forma have got, quan sutilitza amb el significat de tenir, s ms corrent
en angls britnic que no pas en angls americ. En angls britnic, have
es conjuga com un auxiliar (amb inversi verb / subjecte) i en angls americ, com un verb lxic normal, amb lauxiliar do.

Afirmaci
I have
You have
He has
She has
It has
We have
You have
They have

Negaci (BrE)
I have not
You have not
He has not
She has not
got
It has not
We have not
You have not
They have not

got

Contracci
I havent
You havent
He hasnt
She hasnt
It hasnt
We havent
You havent
They havent

got

Interrogaci (BrE)
Have I
Have you
Has he
Has she
Has it
Have we
Have you
Have they

got?

Reducci
Ive
Youve
Hes
Shes
Its
Weve
Youve
Theyve

got

Negaci (AmE)
I do not have
You do not have
He does not have
She does not have
It does not have
We do not have
You do not have
They do not have

Reducci
I dont have
You dont have
He doesnt have
She doesnt have
It doesnt have
We dont have
You dont have
They dont have

Interrogaci (AmE)
Do I have?
Do you have?
Does he have?
Does she have?
Does it have?
Do we have?
Do you have?
Do they have?

38.2. Auxiliar
El verb have tamb susa com a auxiliar en temps compostos.
Ex. They have finished the report.

She had been in Berlin before.

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38.3. Altres significats


Have es pot usar com un verb lxic, amb els significats de menjar, prendre,
experimentar, etc. En aquests casos el verb have duu lauxiliar do en les
formes interrogatives i negatives.
Ex. I have a holiday next week.
Did you have coffee?
He doesnt have lunch at home.

38.4. Causative have


a) Have amb valor causatiu es construeix de la manera segent: have
(en el temps corresponent) + complement + participi dun altre verb.

Have

complement

participi

Im going to have

my car

repaired.

I want to have

my hair

cut.

b) Have susa per a referir-se a accions que alg fa per tu. s lequivalent a
la construcci catalana fer fer alguna cosa: Em far reparar el cotxe, Em
far tallar els cabells.

39. Word order


39.1. Frases afirmatives

Subjecte

verb

complement

adverbi

like

this place

very much.

He

went

to the cinema

yesterday.

She

finished

the book

quickly.

Fixat que lobjecte o complement va immediatamente darrere del verb.

39.2. Preguntes
a) Per a fer una pregunta duna frase afirmativa amb el verb be, sinverteix
lordre normal de la frase i es posa el verb abans del subjecte.

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Subjecte

verb

complement

verb

subjecte

complement

You

are

a student.

Are

you

a student?

b) Per a fer una pregunta duna frase afirmativa amb un verb auxiliar (o
amb un verb modal), es mant lordre normal de la frase, tret de lauxiliar
o modal que es desplaa i es posa abans del subjecte.

Subjecte auxiliar

verb

complement

# Auxiliar subjecte

verb

complement

You

can

spell

it.

Can

you

spell

it?

He

is

working

Is

he

working

You

have

seen

this film.

Have

you

seen

this film?

c) Per a fer una pregunta duna frase afirmativa en qu no hi ha auxiliar, es


mant lordre normal de la frase i es posa lauxiliar do/does (en present) o
did (en passat) abans del subjecte.

Subjecte

verb

complement

Auxiliar

subjecte

verb

complement

You

like

it.

Do

you

like

it?

She

came

to school.

Did

she

come

to school?

Fixat que en aquest cas el verb principal de la pregunta va en infinitiu.

39.3. Frases negatives


a) Per a fer la negaci del verb be, es posa not darrere del verb.
Ex. They are students.

They are not students. / They arent students.

b) Per a fer la negaci dels verbs modals i auxiliars, es posa not entre lauxiliar o modal i el verb.
Ex. You can spell it.
You can not spell it. / You cant spell it.
He is working.
He is not working. / He isnt working.
I have seen this film. I have not seen this film. / I havent seen this film.

c) Per a fer la negaci dun verb sense auxiliar, es posa lauxiliar do/does +
not (en present) o did + not (en passat) entre el subjecte i el verb.
Ex. You like it.
I came to school.

You do not like it. / You dont like it.


I did not come to school / I didnt come to school.