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Aerodynamics II

Lecture Notes

AERODYNAMICSII

Aerodynamics II

Course Code:

BTA 502

L-T-P (3-1-0)

Credit Units: 04

Course Objective:

The objective of this course is to make the students understand the taransformation

of cirles into aerofoils, Aerodynamic characteristics of thin aerofoil in incompressible

flow. The study of incompressible flow over finite wings and derivation of linearised

velocity potential equation in compressible flow.

Course Contents:

Module I:

Conformal Transformation

Complex potential function, Blasius theorem, principles of conformal transformation,

Kutta - Juokowski transformation of a circle into flat plate, airfoils and ellipses.

Module II:

Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

Glauerts thin airfoil theory, symmetrical airfoil, cambered airfoil, flapped airfoil,

determination of mean camber line shapes for uniform and linear distribution of

circulation. Description of flow about multi-element airfoils.

Module III:

Incompressible Flow over Finite Wings

Downwash and induced drag, Biot-Savarts law and Helmholtzs theorem, Prandtls

classical lifting line theory, fundamental equations. Elliptic lift distribution, general lift

distribution, effect of aspect ratio, Lifting Surface theory, Formation Flying, Ground

effect. Flow field of delta wing. Sample calculation of lift and drag on delta plan

forms.

Module IV:

Compressible Subsonic Flows over Airfoils

The derivation of velocity potential equation. Linearized velocity potential equation.

Prandtl-Glauert compressibility correction. Critical Mach number, Whitcombs area

rule, Super critical airfoil.

Examination Scheme:

Components

CT

S/V/Q

HA

EE

Weightage (%)

10

70

EE: End Semester Examination; A: Attendance

John D. Anderson, Jr., Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 2 nd Ed. McGraw Hill, 1991.

Bertin and Smith, Aerodynamics for Engineers, Prentice Hall, 1989.

Shevel RS, Fundamentals of Flight, Prentice Hall,2 nd ed

Houghton and Brock, Aerodynamics for Engineering students, 2 nd Ed., EdwardArnold UK.

Liepmann and Rosheko, Elements of Gas Dynamics, John Wiley, 1957.

AERODYNAMICSII

Module I

Conformal Transformation

Complex potential function, Blasius theorem, principles of conformal transformation,

Kutta - Juokowaski transformation of a circle into flat plate, airfoils and ellipses.

Flow pattern is plotted in terms of stream function and velocity potential

function . The and lines are mutually perpendicular and express

velocity distribution as

u=

=

y x

and

v=

=

x

y

w as

w ( z )=+i

is a complex variable given by

z=x +iy

where

dw d (+i )

=

Complex velocity is given by

dz d ( x+ iy)

dw

= +i

dz x x

dw

=uiv

dz

dw

= u2 + v 2

Magnitude of complex velocity

dz

1 v

)

and flow direction =tan (

u

Thus, complex velocity potential

| |

i)

w=u ( x+iy )v ( ix y )=u ( x +iy )i v ( x+iy )=(ui v )( x +iy )

For flow with u and v components,

w=( uiv ) z

If flow is parallel to x-axis, then, w=u z

If flow is parallel to y-axis, then, w=v z

ii)

q

r

log e

2

ro

Then,

q

, where q is source strength.

2

q

r

w=+i =

log e +i ,

putting i=log e ei

2

ro

and

q

r

(log e ei ) , putting r e =x+ iy=z

2

ro

q

w=

log e z , when r o=1

2

w=

iii)

By combining above two flows, we get

AERODYNAMICSII

w=

q

log e z+

2

uz

Blasius theorem

to write.

Real plane

z=x +iy

transformation function

o

=+ i .

( z ) is defined. The general transform is of the type:

is

The

B1 B 2

Bn

+ 2 ++ n

z z

z

A o , A 1 , A2 , etc , B 1 , B2 , are constants and/or vectors.

2

( z )= Ao z + A 1 z + A2 z + + A n z +

where, coefficients

The velocity ratio between the corresponding points is the inverse of the length ratio.

The length ratio is given by

|ddz|

( dwd ) /( dwdz )

and ellipses

Kutta-Juokowaski transformation is used for producing airfoil shaped contours. Kutta

used this transformation to study circular arc wing sections, whereas Zhukovsky

extended the procedure to study sections with thickness and camber.

We use transformation

=z+

b2

, to transform a circle in to a straight line or an

z

The transformation is

=f (z )

where

z=x +i y

Therefore,

d

b

=1 2

dz

z

i

z=r e

Substitute,

2

b2

b2

i b

i

(

)

=z+ =r e + e =r cos+i sin + (cosi sin)

z

r

r

2

2

b

b

+i= r+

cos+i r

sin

r

r

2

which gives

( )

b

= r +

cos

r

( ) ( )

b

=(r ) sin

r

2

and

=+ i

AERODYNAMICSII

Substituting, r = a = b , we get

b2

cos=2 a cos

r

( )

= r +

Now,

b2

sin=0

r

( )

= r

d

b2

=1 2 (cos 2 i sin 2)

dz

r

2

d

b

=1 2 ( cos 2 i sin 2 )

dz

r

Velocity

| |

|d /dz|= 1

{(

b2

b2

cos

2

+

sin 2

r2

r2

)(

)}

2

b2

b 4

cos

2

+

r2

r4

Therefore, the velocity ratio in the transformed plane to the in original plane is

dw dw

dz

/

=

d dz

d

|d /dz|= 1

| || | | |

b

b

(1 cos 2 + )

r

r

2

4 1

2

4

AERODYNAMICSII

Module II

Glauerts thin airfoil theory, symmetrical airfoil, cambered airfoil, flapped airfoil,

determination of mean camber line shapes for uniform and linear distribution of

circulation. Description of flow about multi-element airfoils.

Airfoil properties:

The mean camber line is the line formed by the points halfway between the upper

and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The most forward and rearward points of the airfoil

are the leading edge and the trailing edge, respectively. The straight line connecting

the leading and trailing edges is the chord line. The length of the chord line is dened

as the chord c.

The maximum distance between the chord line and the camber line is called the

camber. If the camber is 0, then the airfoil is called symmetric. And nally, the

thickness is the distance between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil.

First we consider 2-dimensional airfoils. We wish to find

unit length. At low angles of attack , the value of

CL

CL

d CL

. If gets too high, this relation

d

doesnt hold, since stall will occur. The maximum value of C L is denoted by C L

slope

max.

ao

ao =

This value determines the minimum velocity of an aircraft. The value of when

L =0 .

To calculate the ow over a very thin airfoil by using a vortex sheet in a free stream

ow, we can put vortices on the camber. But the camber line doesnt differ much

from the chord line, so to keep things simple we place vortices on the chord line.

Since the airfoil is thin, it coincides with the streamline of the ow. So the velocity

perpendicular to the camber line is zero.

Dene z(x) to be the distance between the mean camber line and the chord line,

where x is the distance from the leading edge. The velocity perpendicular to the

camber line, caused by the free stream ow, at position x, can be shown to be

V , n=V

dz

dx

where is in radians. The velocity perpendicular to the mean camber line, due to the

vortices, is approximately equal to the velocity perpendicular to the chord. It can be

shown that this velocity component on a small part d , with distance x from the

airfoil leading edge, is

dw=

( ) d

2 ( x)

Integrating along the chord gives the total velocity perpendicular to the chord at

position x due to the vortex sheet, being

AERODYNAMICSII

c

w ( x )=

1 ( x ) d

2 0 x

We have already derived that the velocity perpendicular to the airfoil is zero.

So, V , n+ w=0 , which results in the fundamental equation of thin airfoil

theory

c

( x ) d

1

dz

=V

2 0 x

dx

Symmetrical Airfoil

Wing section of low speed aircrafts is generally

unsymmetric and larger in area. These are referred

as NACA airfoil numbering series and each of them

have

been

thoroughly

tested

in

NACA

aerodynamics lab at USA, for example: NACA 65218 airfoil. In this nomenclature each digit have

specific meaning such as max thickness, chord

length, max gap between mean camberline and

chord line, max angle of attack, etc. If the upper

cambe line and lower camber line are equally

spaced w.r.t. mean chord line, the airfoil is

symmetric airfoil. Thin symmetric airfoils are used

in high speed aircrafts.

Cambered Airfoil

Line joining leading edge to trailing

edge is denoted as Chord and its length

is taken as chord length c. Thickness of

the airfoil is distance (perpendicular to

chord) between upper surface and

lower surface of the airfoil. Thickness

varies from leading edge to trailing

edge depending upon the type of airfoil.

Line joining middle points of thicknesses

is called the

Mean Camber line. When mean camber line does not coincide with chord line, this

curvature is called mean camber. Such airfoil sections are called cambered airfoil.

Flapped Airfoil

Airfoils are flapped to increase surface

area,

increase

camber,

increase

downwash,

delay

boundary

layer

separation, etc. The aircraft speed is low

at takeoff and landing because when

taking off it starts from zero speed and

lands to come to zero speed. These low

speeds are unavoidable. In order to get

higher lift, we have to increase surface

area of wing by attaching flaps at leading

AERODYNAMICSII

attack. Lift is proportional to surface area

and angle of attack. Flow velocities are

higher on lower side of wing and through

the gaps of these flaps the air moves to

upper side from lower side, introducing

extra kinetic energy in the upper flow of

the boundary layer. Thus separation of

the boundary layer is delayed due to

flaps.

Geometry of the airflow section is shown in

the figure. Leading edge is circular and trailing

edge is pointed. Thickness of the airfoil is

taken perpendicular to the mean camber line.

When the shape of airfoil is known, then

camber line is drawn as follows: Local

thickness varies from

LE to TE. For any point on camber line, if we draw perpendicular line which meets

upper and lower sides. The surface curvatures at upper and lower sides are different

and these are not to upper or lower surface at that position. Curvature of camber

line is different than upper and lower surfaces.

Since the thickness is drawn perpendicular to the camber line, the position of

camber line is not mean between the points of upper and lower line of profile (called

the back and face of profile). It can be easily drawn as a reverse problem: Given a

camber line, draw airfoil profile. Carefully follow the procedure and check it out for

reversing the drawing.

AERODYNAMICSII

Module III

Downwash and induced drag, Biot-Savarts law and Helmholtzs theorem, Prandtls

classical lifting line theory, fundamental equations. Elliptic lift distribution, general lift

distribution, effect of aspect ratio, Lifting Surface theory, Formation Flying, Ground

effect. Flow field of delta wing. Sample calculation of lift and drag on delta plan

forms.

Downwash

When an airplane flies in horizontal flight, the oncoming free stream of air gets

deflected downward due to curvature of the wing airfoil. This deflection of the

oncoming stream is called downwash of the aircraft. Downwaswh increases lift on

the aircraft.

Induced Drag

When an aircraft flies in air, it experiences a force. Component of this aerodynamic

force in vertical upward direction is called Lift, and other component which is along

the flight direction is called Drag. This drag is due to creation of lift. The drag is zero

if lift is zero. The lift cannot be created without production of drag. This drag is called

Induced Drag. In addition to this, there is skin friction drag, form drag, etc.

Biot-Savarts Law

Line vortex is a line consisting of large number

of vortices on the line. It is defined as vortices

per unit length. Circulation due to the vortex

is called Strength of the vortex. Consider small

length

dl of line vortex. Then, the Induced

velocity

dV at a point P at distance r from

the length element

dl is given by

dl r

dV =

4 r3

Integrate this expression over entire length to

get induced velocity due to entire length of the

line vortex. This law is called Biot-Savarts law.

Helmholtzs Theorem

Vortex tube is a tubular space whose surface

consists of vortices. It is similar to stream tube.

Helmholtzs theorems are vortex theories.

These are four theorems:

First Theorem: Circulation (i.e. strength of a

vortex tube) of a vortex tube is constant at all

cross-sections along the vortex tube.

Second Theorem: Circulation is constant along the length of a vortex tube. It is

also called vortex continuity. The strength of a vortex ( = vorticity area ) cannot

grow or diminish along its axis or length. Thus, a vortex cannot end in a fluid. In

AERODYNAMICSII

reality, vortex must form a closed loop. That is, a vortex cannot change its strength

between two sections, unless vortex filament of equal strength join or leave the

vortex.

Third Theorem: A vortex tube consists of same the same particles of fluid, i.e.,

there is no interchange of fluid in between the vortex tube and the surrounding fluid.

Fourth Theorem: Strength of a vortex remains constant in time.

Bound vortex:

location in a flow. Such vortex is called bound vortex. This bound vortex experiences

Lift force L= V (from Kutta-Joukowski theorem).

Prandtl assumed vortex theory to explain lift on the

aircraft. He replaced the aircraft wing by a bound

vortex in the form of a horse shoe. This vortex

configuration is called horse shoe vortex. We see that

the bound vortex which is parallel to the wing does not

induce any velocity along its length. However, the

other trailing vortices on left and right sides cause

induced velocity (by Biot-Savarts law) which causes

Lift on the aircraft.

The value of this lift force is

Lift: L= V , which is based on vortex theory.

Fundamental Equations

1

The geometric angle of attack = effective angle of attack + induced angle of

attack.

2

Lift distribution (by Kutta-Juokowski theorem) V .

3

Total lift is obtained by integration of above equation.

4

Induced drag = Lift sin , where is angle of attack.

Non-dimensional lift, i.e., Lift Coefficient:

C L=

Lift

1

V2 A

2

In lifting line theory of Prandtl, the circulation varies elliptically with distance along

the span, hence this distribution of circulation is called Elliptical Circulation

Distribution. This gives an Elliptical Lift Distribution, given by

b /2

L= V

b/2

()

1

( y) 2

dy , where b is wing span and y axis is along span,

b 2

2

10

L2

y2

+

=1

.

( V )2 b 2

2

()

AERODYNAMICSII

Let b is wing span. The y-axis is along span. Any general value of coordinate y in

b

y= cos , with varying in the range

2

y 2 , where is

( y )= o . 1

o

b /2

circulation at origin y=0. Thus at any becomes: ( )= o . sin . This expression

0 . The circulation for any value of y is

( )

can be generalized as

N

An

(n = 1, , N) are

determine the Lift in terms of lift coefficient as

C L=

b /2

1

S

V

2

N

( y ) dy

b/ 2

n

b2

A n sin n sin d

S /2

1

0

A1

b2

S

, Now all A2 = A3= .AN = 0 except A1, and substituting Aspect Ratio AR =

b2/S :

C L =A 1 AR

And the drag coefficient can be written as

CD=

C L2

(1+ )

AR

An 2

= n( ) 0

A1

2

N

Where

e=

1

1+

C L2

CD=

e AR

Thus the drag is associated with lift, and that is why it is called as induced drag.

That means, lift cannot be created without drag.

C L2

. Thus induced drag coefficient for finite wing (b = constant )

e AR

with general lift distribution C L =A 1 AR

is inversely proportional to the aspect

We know:

CD=

ratio AR.

The C D is affected much stronger by AR than

to 22 for standard subsonic aircraft. The variation in

is about 10% over practical

ranges of taper ratio for tapered wings. Induced drag can be minimized by adopting

lift distribution as close to elliptical and also by increasing the aspect ratio AR.

11

AERODYNAMICSII

results for straight wings at moderate to high

Aspect Ratio and is not applicable for low

aspect ratio straight wings, swept wings and

delta wings.

A simple lifting line (with associated trailing

vortices) is taken along the wing and it

swepts downward in lifting line theory. The

circulation (vortex strength) varies with

coordinate y along the lifting line. In lifting

surface theory, we replace lifting line by

Vortex Sheet consisting of large number of

lifting lines all parallel to the y-axis which is

along wing span b (closely placed vortices

forming closely placed parallel lines). Each

lifting line has a system of trailing vortices.

We apply Biot-Savart law to entire vortex

sheet to evaluate induced velocity in entire

space and hence get the induced lift due to

vortex sheet. Here, the circulation is

integrated both in x and y directions.

Formation Flying

When aircraft flies, its wings shed trailing vortices. The direction of circulation is

upward on outer side of trailing vortex line and it is downward on inner side of the

trailing vortex line. When another aircraft flies behind first aircraft, it experiences

upward force if it flies in the outer region of the trailing vortices. So, the second

aircraft has to use lesser fuel to keep itself flying. Thus, if aircrafts fly in fashion: first

row One aircraft, second row: two aircrafts, third row: four aircrafts, fourth row:

eight aircrafts, and so on. This kind of flying pattern is called formation flight.

Ground Effect

When aircraft fly close to the ground, the trailing vortices get rebounded from the

ground. These rebounded vortices interferes with the shedding trailing vortices of

the aircraft wing. This causes fall in the lift and the aircraft can crash on to the

ground if it is too close to the ground. This phenomenon is called ground effect.

Supersonic flow and subsonic flow are totally different from

each other. Therefore, the high speed and supersonic aircrafts

have swept wings which form delta (capital delta ) shape, and

are called Delta wings. The delta wing is a common planform

for supersonic aircraft. Supersonic aircrafts initially flies at

subsonic speeds and later it comes to supersonic speeds. This

happens in landing as well. In subsonic range, the flow on the

delta wing gives rise to two vortex patterns which are vortex

cones rolling outside to inside on top of the wings. Surface

pressure on the top surface of the delta wing is reduced near

the leading edge and is higher and constant over the middle of

the wing. The suction effect of the leading edge vortices

12

AERODYNAMICSII

Sample calculation of lift and drag on delta plan forms:

Module IV

The derivation of velocity potential equation. Linearized velocity potential equation. PrandtlGlauert compressibility correction. Critical Mach number, Whitcombs area rule, Super critical

airfoil.

Compressibility effects starts above Mach number: M 0.3. Consider 2-dimensional (x, y),

steady (u, v), inviscid ( = 0), irrotational ( = 0), isentrtropic, subsonic compressible flow ( 0.3

< M < 1).

Unknown quantities are five : velocity components u, v, density , temperature T and pressure p.

Five unknowns cannot be determined from these 4 equations. We convert these equations in terms

of single unknown variable velocity potential , which for such flow can be defined as

=

,

u=

i^

+j

and v =

,

(in vector form: V

,

x

y

x y

V =i^ u+ ^j v .

The governing equations are:

p=RT

Gas law:

(u)

x

Continuity equation :

.. (1)

( v)

=0

y

u v

+

+v

or

=0

x y ) + u

x

y

u

u 1 p

u

+v

=

Momentum eq. (Euler eq.)

x

y x

dp=V dV

or

1

dp= d V 2

or

2

1

2

2

dp=

d ( u +v )

or

2

dp=

or

Sound speed a :

[( ) ( ) ]

or

1

2

d

+

2

x

y

a=

.. (2)

.. (3)

.. (4)

dp=a d

2 2

+

+ 2 +

= 0 .. (5)

2

x x y y

x y

Clubbing these equations in terms of single variable , we get the nonlinear equation for the

velocity potential :

Continuity eq becomes:

[ ( )] [ ( )]

1

1

a2 x

2

1

+ 1 2

2

x

a y

2 2

2

.

.

.

=0

y 2 a2 x y x y

( )( )

13

AERODYNAMICSII

This equation is in single variable and can be solved but with difficulty. Then

working backward, will lead to values of u, v, , p, T. This need to be further

linearised for simplicity.

Complex equations of flow are transformed to simple form by making certain

approximations in the equations. Various terms are compared to each other and

terms of lesser values are ignored as compared to other terms which are dominant.

Velocity potential equation :

[ ( )] [ ( )]

1

1

2

a x

1

+ 1 2

2

x

a y

2.

.

.

=0

2

y a x y x y

u=V + u^ and v =^v (velocity in y-direction = 0)

( )( )

where u^ (u cap)and v^ (v cap) are velocity fluctuations (called perturbations) in

x and y directions. We define velocity potential as =+ ^ where ^ ( cap) is

perturbation in . We write pressure p= p+ ^p and density = + ^ .

As above, we derive velocity potential equation for velocity potential =+ ^ .

Separate out terms with and terms with ^ .

Substitute

[ ( )] [ ( )]

1

1 2

a x

1

. 2 + 1 2

x

a y

. 2 2.

.

.

=0 , that is,

y a x y x y

( )( )

put left hand side terms equal to zero in the derived new equation. Then we will be

left with terms containing only ^

(all terms containing will vanish).

We get perturbation velocity potential ^ equation (which is still non-linear) as

[ (

)]

[ ( )]

2 ^

1 ^

2 ^ 2

^

^

2 ^

+

1

.

.

V

+

.

.

=0

x y x y

x2

a2 y

y2 a2

^

^

Introducing:

and v^ = ,

u^ =

x

y

2

2

a

1

a

1

Energy equation:

+ V 2 =

+ [ ( V + u^ )2 + v^ 2 ]

1 2

1 2

1

^

V +

2

x

a

)( )

u^

V

Mach number

v^

V

M =

1

V

a

2

^v 2

u^

,

1

V

V

( )( )

, therefore,

2^

2^

(1M 2) 2 + 2 =0

x y

C ^p =

p^ p

1

2

V

2

C ^p =

which becomes

2

^p

2 u^

1 =

2

p

V

M

14

AERODYNAMICSII

Consider a thin airfoil placed in high sped air stream. Let M is the free stream Mach

number. Compressibility factor is defined as = 1M 2 . Instantaneous velocity

is expressed as u=u + u' , where u is mean velocity (laminar velocity) and u '

is perturbation velocity ( fluctuations in u velocity).

Pressure coefficient

Cp

Cp=

is defined as

p p

1

p V 2

2

This can be linearised for supersonic flow. Taking approximations, the linearised

pressure coefficient for supersonic flow can be written as

Cp=

2 u '

compressible flow, the pressure coefficient with compressibility factor becomes

Cp=

C po

1 2 u'

=

V

1 M 2

( )

Therefore, coefficient of lift is modified as to get Lift Coefficient for compressible flow

C L=

C Lo

M 2

As an airfoil moves through a free stream of air, the flow expands around the top

surface of the airfoil, which causes increase in the flow velocity and reduction in the

pressure at that point. If the free stream velocity is gradually increased, then a stage

comes when local Mach number on some point of the airfoil reaches M = 1. The

corresponding velocity of free stream is called Critical Mach Number Mcr which is

lesser than 1.

By definition, the Critical Mach Number is the Mach number of that free stream at

which sonic flow (M = 1) is first observed on the airfoil.

Free stream Mach number at which sonic flow (M = 1) is first obtained on a body

(any part of the aircraft) is called critical mach number (Mcr). In other words, the

transonic regime begins when the critical Mach number is reached. For same free

stream velocity, the Mach number is different on various points on the body.

For example, the Critical Mach number for

Flow over circular cylinder Mcr = 0.404

Flow over sphere

Mcr = 0.570

i.e., transonic conditions are reached first on circular cylinder than on the sphere.

The air craft could be designed to fly at transonic speeds (M = 1) with the help of the

Area Rule and Supercritical Airfoil given by Richard Whitcomb while performing

15

AERODYNAMICSII

centre (USA) 1960s.

Both these methods: the area rule and the supercritical airfoil reduce the drag on the

aircraft in the transonic regime (flight speeds close to M = 1).

Supercritical Airfoil:

Whitcomb conducted series of experiments on various airfoils in transonic wind

tunnel to suggest changes in the shape of the airfoil so that Mach number on the

surface of the airfoil was reduced to generate relatively weak shock on the airfoil. In

other words, aircraft is flying at supersonic speed (M >> 1) whereas the Mach

number on the aircraft wing is subsonic (M < 1) or low supersonic (1 < M < 1.2). This

reduces the drag of the wing of the aircraft. Such airfoil is called supercritical airfoil.

Area Rule:

The cross-sectional area of the body (aircraft) should have a smooth variation with

longitudinal distance along the body. That is, there should not be no rapid or

discontinuous changes in the cross-sectional area distribution.

So, when wings are attached to the body (fuselage), the cross-sectional area

suddenly increases there. To avoid this, the area rule suggests that the area of crosssection of the body (fuselage) at that location should reduce accordingly so that

cross-sectional area of the wing-body combination junction changes gradually (not

rapidly). This causes wasp-like shape (as of Coke bottle) of the fuselage at that

position. This reduces local Mach number and hence local shock wave becomes

weak, thereby reducing the drag when M reaches 1.

Aircraft cannot fly at supersonic speeds if the transonic drag is very high as it is

unable to achieve high speed due to very large consumption of fuel to cover up high

transonic drag. Area rule suggests that variation in cross sectional area distribution

should be much smoother, so that aircraft passes the transonic regime (M ~ 1) and

crosses over to supersonic speeds (M > 1).

16

AERODYNAMICSII

END

17

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