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Zoology 120 Animal Physiology

Score:

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONATROPIN


Exercise # 4

Equivalent:
ABSTRACT

Endocrine System together with the nervous system is the main regulator of processes in the body of organism. Human Chorionic Gonatropin or
HCG is an essential hormone for pregnancy since it maintains the corpus luteum and promotes the secretion of progesterone. It is important to
understand how it can affect the female reproductive organs. In order to study its effect, a sexually immature female albino rat was injected with
HCG from a woman in the first trimester of pregnancy. The test subject was compared with an uninjected female albino rat. It was observed that
the uterus of the injected rat was enlarged and reddish in appearance and its ovaries are more distinguishable in comparison with the control.
INTRODUCTION
Hormones are substances that are secreted by the organs of the
endocrine system which serve as messenger that transmit commands. In
addition to homeostasis, hormones govern regulated changes involved in the
growth processes and control most aspects of the reproductive
system.(Sherwood et al., 2005). Hormones travel throughout the body, either
in the blood stream or in the extracellular fluid, looking for target cells. Once
they found their target cells, they bind with specific protein receptors inside
or in the surface of the cell and alter the cells activities. The protein
receptors read the message and carry the information by influencing
changes in the genes or cellular protein activity. These responses are slower
than that of the neurotransmitters but they have longer effects (Tulane
University, 2014).
The placenta is an endocrine gland present only during pregnancy
and it serves as the connection between the mother and fetus during fetal
development. It serves as a connection by allowing the transfer of oxygen and
carbon dioxide, as well as other nutrients and wastes between the mother
and fetus. The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is the first detectable hormone
of pregnancy naturally produced by the placenta. The HCG can be detected in
the blood and urine, and thus is the basis of pregnancy tests( Gillapsy,
2003).It has many roles including the promotion of corpus luteal
progesterone production, angiogenesis of uterine vasculature and growth of
uterine in line with fetal growth. This hormone also functions for the
stimulation of the onset of fetal gonadal steroidogenesis (Hill, 2014).
In relation, this exercise aims to observe the effects of the human
chorionic gonadotropin by comparing the appearances of the sex organs of
two sexually immature female mice--one injected with HCG, and one is not.
Also, the process by which it induces ovulation in the mouse will also be
determined.
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
For this experiment, 3 mL urine sample was obtained from a
pregnant woman who is in her first trimester. To purify the sample, the same
volume of diethyl ether was added. One-half mL of the urine sample was
injected subcutaneously to a sexually immature female mouse. The injection
process was done for twice a day for three days. On the fourth day, the
mouse was allowed to rest. And on the fifth day, the urine-injected mouse and
another sexually immature mouse, who was kept at the same time to serve as
the control, were dissected. The appearance of their uteri and ovaries were
observed and compared.

cannot induce ovulation by itself, another hormone known as Pregnant Mare


Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) is required to be secreted at the same time for
ovulation to occur. Some studies showed that the presence of only one of the
two will inhibit ovulation. Nonetheless, the HCG is taken into consideration
because it has much greater amount than the PMSG in the induction of
ovulation. (Fischer and Fisher)
For the enlargement of the uterus that was observed in the
experimental specimen, a factor to be considered is the ovulation caused by
HCG. As ovulation occurs, the endometrial lining of the uterus also change in
form in preparation for the embryo that will be implanted if ever an egg will
be fertilized. The uterus was reddish in appearance since capillaries
increased in number to provide nourishment to the uterine wall. In humans,
the estrogen is responsible for the stimulation of the growth of the
endometrium and another hormone secreted by the ovaries, the
progesterone, is responsible for the changes in the endometrial lining after
the occurrence of ovulation. In mouse, on the other hand, the expression of a
molecule called Spatiotemporal Tenascin is the one that stimulates the
change in the uterine lining of the mouse. (Kida, et al)
Upon the introduction of the urine to the mouse, the enlargement
of the uterus, as well as its reddish appearance and the enlargement of
ovaries that occurred can justify the effects of the human chorionic
gonatropin hormone to the sexually immature rat.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. What is the function of HCG?
Answer: HCG promotes the estrogen and progesterone secretion of the
corpus luteum (Guyton & Hall, 2006), the persistence of these hormones
causes the thickening of the endometrial tissue, corpus luteum, preventing its
degeneration (Sherwood, Klandorf, & Yancey, 2013).
2. How does HCG induce ovulation in mice?
Answer: HCG is chemically and functionally similar to LH, Luteinizing
Hormone (Sherwood, Klandorf, & Yancey, 2013). It is also a follicle stimulating
hormone produced by the chorionic villi and placenta when a woman is
pregnant. The hCG induces ovulation by developing one or more follicles when
injected in the mouse (Advance fertility Center of Chicago).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 1. Comparison of the Uterus and Ovaries of the Mice
Uterus
Ovaries
Enlarged; reddish in
Enlarged
color
Thin and small; pale in
Control female mouse
Small
color
The table above showed that upon the injection of the urine of a
pregnant woman in her first trimester, enlarged ovary and uterus of mouse
were observed. For the reason that the urine is composed of high amount of
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), the ovaries were observed to be bigger
relative to the control mouse because this hormone is capable of inducing the
mouses ovulation. Superovulation is the term used to describe the severe
ovulation occurs upon induction. The HCG has similar chemical structure and
composition with the Luteinizing Hormone which triggers ovulation, the only
difference is that HCG circulates longer than the LH. However, this HCG
Mouse injected with
HCG

Abdon, Alvarez, Bautista, Marquez, Montalla

Midyear Term AY 2014-15

Zoology 120 Animal Physiology

Score:

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONATROPIN


Exercise # 4

Equivalent:

REFERENCES
Advance Fertility Center of Chicago. Ovulation Problems and Infertility. Data
Retrieved from www.advancedfertility.com/inducovu.html. 08 July
2015.
Fischer, Theodore and Fisher, Lowell Don. Effect on Gonadotropins on
Ovulation and Ovarian Histology in the Immature Mongolian Gerbil.
Data
retrieved
from
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/49672
/1001420308_ftp.pdf?sequence=1. 08 July 2015.
Gillapsy, R. (2003). Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesteone and
HCG. Retrieved July 8, 2015
from
study.com/academy/lesson/hormones-of-the-placentaestrogen-progesterone-hcg.html
Guyton, A. C., & Hall, J. E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology.
Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.
Hill, M. (2014). Human Chorionic gonadotropin. Retrieved July 8, 2015 from
embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Human_Cho
rionic_Gonadotropin/
Hirokatsu, Kide et al. the Change in Tenascin Expression in Mouse During Early
Pregnancy.
Data
retrieved
from
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/14195994_The_change_
in_tenascin_expression_in_mouse_uterus_during_early_
pregnancy. 08 July 2015.
Sherwood, L., Klandorf, H., and Yancey, P. (2005). Animal Physiology: From
Genes to Organisms. USA:
Thomson Brooks/Cole
Tulane University. (2014). Endocrine System: Type of Hormones. Retrieved
July 8, 2015 from e.hormone.tulane.edu/learbing/types-ofhormones.html
Injectable
Infertility
Medication.
Data
Retrieved
from
http://dukefertilitycenter.org/treatments/ovulationinduction/injectables/. 08 July 2015.
APPENDIX

Uterus

Figure 1. Female Albino rat injected with


HCG.

Abdon, Alvarez, Bautista, Marquez, Montalla

Figure 1. Female Albino rat that was not


injected with HCG.

Midyear Term AY 2014-15