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1) Types of split air conditioning system known to you

Split
Connects one indoor unit to an outdoor unit.
Installs simply and unobtrusively to buildings with
no need for
ductwork.
Delivers a sophisticated air conditioning solution to
single zone
interior spaces at an affordable price.
Provides a simple solution for one-room additions.
Multi-split
Connects up to five indoor units to a single
outdoor unit.
Installs a complete air conditioning system to
multiple
zone
interior spaces with no need for
ductwork.
Provides individual control of room

temperature settings.
Enables indoor units of different styles and capacities in
one system for customized solutions unique to each
resident setting.

2) types of fire detectors


Fire detectors are designed to respond at an early stage to one more of the four major
characteristics of combustion, heat, smoke, flame or gas.
Detectors should be chosen for the best response to the effects of fires, as well the need
to minimise unwanted false alarm activations.
Detectors should be located where the early stages of fire will be detected, and ensure
they are placed at regular intervals on the ceiling. The issue of unwanted fire alarm
activations from environmental conditions must also be considered
Heat detectors
Heat detectors respond to the temperature rise associated with a fire.
Ionisation Smoke detectors
Ionisation smoke detectors respond to very small smoke particles a wide range of
responses.
Photo-electric smoke detectors
Photo-electric smoke detectors measure the scattered light from smoke
particles.
Linear beam smoke detectors
Linear beam smoke detectors measure the reduction of intensity of a beam of
light due to the
presence of smoke particles.
Aspirated smoke detectors
Aspiring-type systems eg (Vesda Systems) are more effective in detecting smoke
than point type
detectors in many applications
3) importance and location of A.H.U.

Air handling Unit (AHU) is a heat exchanger, where


air is treated to bring it to comfortable conditions.
In addition to thermally treating air, it is also
filtered by passing it through filter banks and
mixed with outside fresh air in AHU mixing
chamber. This provides required ventilation air for
inside environment. Each unit is necessarily
provided with a heat exchanger called cooling coil
and filter bank, in addition to a fan which is
required to move the air through this assembly as
well as associated ducting network. Supply air
either recirculated or fresh, passes through these two components.
As the air passes through coils and filters. it carries with it a range of contaminants,
including dust, micro-organisms and hydrocarbon fumes. These contaminants are
circulated through the system several hundred times a day. The damp cooling coil
surface provides a plentiful supply of both nutrients and water, producing an ideal
environment for micro-organisms to proliferate. They may be mounted on the top of the
roof or in large mechanical rooms located in the building. They often have an economizer
or inlet damper that allows for a small amount of outside air or make-up air to be pulled
in through the air handler.
4) wet riser and wet riser cum down comer
Wet risers are used to supply water within buildings for fire-fighting purposes. The
provision of a built-in water distribution system means that fire fighters do not need to
create their own distribution system in order to fight a fire and avoids the breaching of
fire compartments by running hose lines between them.
Wet risers are permanently charged with water. This is as opposed to dry risers which do
not contain water when they are not being used, but are charged with water by fire
service pumping appliances when necessary.
Wet risers are charged with water from a pressurised supply, often pumped from a
storage tank, with landing valves at specified locations on each floor.
Wet risers should be within fire-fighting shafts, and where necessary in protected escape
stairs. Wet-riser outlets, or 'landing valves' may be within in protected lobbies, stairs or
enclosures where these are available.
Wet risers should be inspected and tested regularly to ensure equipment is functioning
correctly and ready for use. Problems can be very serious in the event of a fire, and are
typically caused by vandalism or theft, blockages or pipework failure or by connection
failure or outlets being open.
wet riser cum down comer
An arrangement for fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains of
not less than 100 mm internal dia with landing valves on each floor/landing connected to
terrace tank for fire fighting purpose, through a terrace pump, gate valve and non-return
valve near the tank and to a fire pump, gate and non-return valves, over the static tank.
5) the advantage of chilled water system over direct expansion of the system

In the direct expansion of central air


conditioning plants the air used for
cooling the room is directly chilled by
the refrigerant in the cooling coil of the
air handling unit. Due to this heat
transfer process is more efficient, since
there is no middle agency involved for
the heat transfer resulting in higher
cooling efficiency.

In case of the chilled water system, the cooling effect


from the refrigerant is first transferred to the chilled
water, which is then used to chill the air used for cooling
the room. There is some loss of the cooling effect when it
is being transferred from the refrigerant to the chilled
water and from there to the air due to which the chilled
water systems have lesser cooling efficiency. The chilled
water acts as the secondary medium for cooling the room
air in air handling unit.

6) sketch and explain fire escapes routes,means and element of planning high
rise building with due
consideration for fire safety
In terms of fire safety, the final exits on an escape route in a public building are known
as fire exits. They may or may not be located on the usual route of traffic when the
premises are operating under normal circumstances. The final exit doors should open
easily, immediately and, wherever practicable, in the direction of escape, i.e. outwards
into a place of safety outside the building. Sliding or revolving doors must not be used
for exits specifically intended as fire exits. The emergency routes and fire exits must be
well lit and indicated by appropriate signs, e.g. Fire Exit Keep Clear. In locations that
require illumination, emergency lighting of adequate intensity must be provided in case
the normal lighting fails, and illuminated signs used. This is because, as noted in the HM
Government publication Fire Safety Risk Assessment: Offices and Shops (May 2006):
The primary purpose of emergency escape lighting is to illuminate escape routes but it
also illuminates other safety equipment.
The Process of Escape
Having considered the factors that will influence escape, and having seen how these can
be related to the risk profile and / or occupancy levels of a specific building, it is
important to look at the stages in the process of escape and the maximum distances
people can be expected to travel.
Escape is generally considered in four distinct Stages as follows
Stage 1 escape from the room or area of fire origin
Stage 2 escape from the compartment of origin via the circulation route to a protected
stairway or an adjoining compartment offering refuge

Stage 3 escape from the floor of origin to the ground level


Stage 4 escape at ground level away from the building.
It is important that each floor plan of a building indicates the shortest route(s) to a place
of comparative or ultimate safety should an emergency evacuation be triggered, e.g. by
the sounding of the fire alarm. The width of final exit doors and the escape routes
leading to them will dictate the maximum number of people who can safely occupy that
floor or a specific area within it under normal conditions of operation.
buildings are built taller and taller, new fire escape ideas have been gaining popularity.
Elevators, though traditionally not used as fire escapes, are now being thought of as a
possible evacuation for high-rises and skyscrapers.[5] Other alternate high-rise fire
escape solutions include parachutes, external collapsible elevators, slides,[6] and
controlled descent systems such as SkySaver.[7]
7) types of fan and filter used in mechanical ventilation
Cross flow fan
crosssflow fans, often referred to as tangential or
blower wheel fans, will generate a wide, even
flow of air parallel to the unit being cooled,
insuring greater efficiencies and lower noise
ratios per cfm when compared with axial fans.

Air filter

8)
reverberation time and sabines method
of achieving the same.
Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is the persistence of sound after a
sound is produced.[1] A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound or signal is
reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound
is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space which could include furniture and
people, and air
The time it takes for a signal to drop by 60dB is the reverberation time.

The
total absorption in sabins (and hence reverberation
time) generally changes depending on frequency (which is defined by the acoustic
properties of the space). The equation does not take into account room shape or losses
from the sound travelling through the air (important in larger spaces). Most rooms
absorb less sound energy in the lower frequency ranges resulting in longer reverb times
at lower frequencies.
Sabine concluded that the reverberation time depends upon the reflectivity of sound
from various surfaces available inside the hall. If the reflection is coherent, the
reverberation time of the hall will be longer; the sound will take more time to die out.
9) hot water supply and building heating system
a source of hot water for residences and public and industrial enterprises to satisfy
domestic and production needs; also, the complex of equipment and structures that
provide it. Hot water supply systems consist of heat sources, water treatment apparatus,

water heaters, pipelines to transport the water, and devices to regulate and control the
waters temperature.
The water provided by hot water supplies in residential and public buildings and in
industrial enterprises for their operational and daily needs must be potable and must
satisfy the requirements of the All-Union State Standards. The quality of water intended
for technical use is determined by the type of production service it will fulfill. Hot water
supplies may be either centralized or local (decentralized). In centralized systems, the
heat is generated by heat and electric power plants; and the so-called waste heat of
industrial enterprises, underground sources, and other sources is also used. The heat is
transmitted to consumers through heating system pipelines. The treatment of hot water
is carried out at the heat sources themselves and at central heating points or right in the
home. In local systems, the source of heat for warming the water is located at the place
where the water is used. A centralized hot water supply may be a closed system in which
the water is warmed by a heat-transfer medium (water or steam) from heating networks
in water heaters that have been installed at central heating points or directly within the
home. In hot water supplies built as open systems, the consumer obtains hot water
directly from a heating network. This does away with the need to install water heaters in
homes or at centralized heating points and lessens the possibility of corrosion in local
pipelines. However, the maintenance of a demand level in such systems requires large
volumes of water that have undergone preliminary treatment to prevent scaling and
corrosion in the pipelines and the heat-transfer equipment. The maximum water
temperature in hot water supplies is 75 C and the minimum (at water faucets) is 60 C.
To prevent cooling of the water in hot water supply delivery pipelines, a constant
circulation is maintained during low-demand periods with the help of so-called circulation
pipelines. In baths and showers there are heaters connected to the circulating system;
with these the rooms are warmed and the towels are dried.
In order to even out the high- and low-demand loads and to cut the costs of heat
sources, heat exchangers, heating networks, and water treatment, hot water
accumulator tanks are used in centralized systems to store the hot water during lowdemand periods, for its distribution during high-demand periods. All new residences and
public buildings being constructed in the cities and industrial settlements of the USSR, as
a rule, are provided with centralized hot water supplies. This also applies to all industrial
enterprises.
In a local hot water supply system, the water heaters are installed right at the locations
where the hot water will be used (baths, showers, washing machines, production
equipment) and are heated by the burning of fuel (gaseous, liquid, or solid) or electric
power. These devices usually require considerable expenditures of time and labor for
servicing and, as a rule, do not operate continuously.
10) Building Heating system
Introduction
Heating in buildings may be necessary to:

Create comfortable conditions for occupants.

To prevent condensation.

For activities such as drying and cooking.

For industrial processes.


In commercial buildings, heating for comfort might be provided alongside other building
servicesin heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
Heat sources
Examples of fuels and heat sources include:

Solid fuel timber, coal, peat, biomass.

Liquid oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG).

Gas - natural gas, biogas.

Electricity - grid, wind turbines, hydroelectricity, photovoltaics.


Water solar thermal, geothermal, ground source, water source.
Air source.
Heat recovery.
Passive solar gain, thermal mass.
Internal heat loads - heat generated by people and equipment.
Heat generators
Heat sources and fuels can be used to generate heat by:
Boilers.
Solid fuel burners.
Combined heat and power (CHP) plant.
Electrical heaters.
Gas heaters.
Heat pumps.
Heat distribution

Heat generators can be local to the demand for heat, or can be centralised and
distributed, either within a single building or on a wider basis as part of a district
heating network. Heat distribution can be by:

Air blown through ducts, plenums or occupied spaces.

Water pumped through pipework.

Steam distributed through pipework.

Passive air movement.

Passive diffusion of heat through thermal mass.


Controls
The amount of heat delivered to a space can be controlled:

Locally by manual or automated thermostats, switches or dampers.

Centrally by manual or automated thermostats, switches or dampers.

Building management systems.


Heating control systems often require re-evaluation once buildings are completed and
occupied. Systems may require fine-tuning as internal heat loads and occupant
behaviour do not always conform with design expectations. Occupant training can be
helpful to optimise the performance of heating systems, and occupants can be
appreciative of a degree of local control.
Optimum temperatures
The human thermal environment is not straight forward and cannot be expressed in
degrees. Nor can it be satisfactorily defined by acceptable temperature ranges. It is a
personal experience dependent on a great number of criteria and can be different from
one person to another within the same space.
Environmental factors:

Air temperature.

Air velocity.

Radiant temperature.

Relative humidity.
Personal factors:

Clothing.

Metabolic heat.

Wellbeing.
For more information see thermal comfort.
11) air handling unit

An air handler, or air handling unit (often


abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to regulate
and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating,
and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.[1] An air
handler is usually a large metal box containing a
blower, heating or cooling elements, filter racks or
chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers.[2] Air
handlers usually connect to a ductwork ventilation
system that distributes the conditioned air through
the building and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes
AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air
directly to and from the space served without
ductwork.
Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, and may only include an air
filter, coil, and blower; these simple terminal units are called blower coils or fan coil
units. A larger air handler that conditions 100% outside air, and no recirculated air, is
known as a makeup air unit (MAU). An air handler designed for outdoor use, typically on
roofs, is known as a packaged unit (PU) or rooftop unit (RTU).
11) different types of installation of package unit for air conditioning
An HVAC designer will recommend different types of air conditioning systems for
different applications. The most commonly used are described in this article.
The choice of which air conditioner system to use depends upon a number of factors
including how large the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside the enclosed
area, etc. An HVAC designer would consider all the related parameters and suggest the
system most suitable for your space.
Window Air Conditioner
Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for single rooms. In
this air conditioner all the components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion
valve or coil, evaporator and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box. This unit is fitted
in a slot made in the wall of the room, or more commonly a window sill.

Split Air Conditioner


The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The
outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor,
condenser and expansion valve. The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil
and the cooling fan. For this unit you dont have to make any slot in the wall of the room.
Further, present day split units have aesthetic appeal and do not take up as much space
as a window unit. A split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms.
Packaged Air Conditioner
An HVAC designer will suggest this type of air conditioner if you want to cool more than
two rooms or a larger space at your home or office. There are two possible arrangements
with the package unit. In the first one, all the components, namely the compressor,
condenser (which can be air cooled or water cooled), expansion valve and evaporator
are housed in a single box. The cooled air is thrown by the high capacity blower, and it
flows through the ducts laid through various rooms. In the second arrangement, the
compressor and condenser are housed in one casing. The compressed gas passes

through individual units, comprised of the expansion valve and cooling coil, located in
various rooms.
Central Air Conditioning System
Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings, houses, offices, entire hotels,
gyms, movie theaters, factories etc. If the whole building is to be air conditioned, HVAC
engineers find that putting individual units in each of the rooms is very expensive
making this a better option. A central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge
compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons of air conditioning.
Cooling big halls, malls, huge spaces, galleries etc is usually only feasible with central
conditioning units.
12) prevention of noise transfer through a.c.ducts
13) static tank
STATIC WATER TANKS
Static water tanks are very
useful sources of water
supplies for major fire
fighting. They can be
provided to supplement the
first hydrant system or
independently where
provision of fire hydrants is
not feasible economically or
due to various other reasons.
Static water system has many
advantages over the hydrant
system. This system is much
more economical, more
reliable, less prone to damage
or defects and helps to build huge reserve to meet any eventualities. While planning any
water supply system for fire fighting in towns, cities and industries, suitable provision of
static water tanks shall always be kept in view. For civil defence towns/cities and all type
of industrial establishment, at least 50 percent of the total water supply requirements for
fire fighting shall always be in the form of static water tanks.
Static water tanks for fire fighting should be underground with water at ground level.
They can be of any shape and dimensions, but the depth shall normally not exceed 25
m. For multi-storey buildings terrace tank may be provided.
NOTEIn case of deeper tanks, submersible pumps be provided.
For towns/cities and other locations where they are accessible to public, the static tank
should be completely covered and provided with suitable manholes for lowering of the
suction hoses.
Inside industrial establishments the static water tanks can be of open type having small
parapet walls of height not exceeding 50 cm above ground level. Such tanks may, as far
as possible, conform to Fig. 1. Where extra
All static water tanks for fire fighting shall normally be located within 100 m of the risk to
be protected.

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The static water tanks shall be easily approachable by all types of the appliances held at
the fire station(s) providing fire cover in the area. All weather approach road of adequate
size shall be provided. Provision of suitable number of manholes shall be made available
for inspection, repairs and inspection of static tanks, etc.
Cement concrete platforms (hard standings) shall be provided at suitable locations
around the static water tanks for prolonged operations by the fire pumps.
Each static water tank should be provided with sump(s) to allow the use of the total
quantity of water for fire lighting and also to facilitate maintenance and repair of tanks.
The sump(s) may be of the size 1 m 1 m 45 cm (depth). The sumps should be
located on the side(s) from where the fire pumps are to come into operation.
U-shaped steel bar steps or any other suitable arrangement shall be provided for men to
enter the static water tanks as and when required.
All static water tanks shall be provided with suitable filling arrangements to make up the
evaporation losses, refilling after cleaning/repairs and for replenishing water supplies
during fire fighting operations. The filling arrangements shall be of the maximum
capacity possible and the tanks shall be connected by the biggest size of mains available
in their vicinity at the rate of not less than 1 000 l/minute.
Suitable indicating plates shall be fixed to the nearest wall or a suitable posts erected for
the purpose near each static water tank. The indicating plates can be made of vitreous
enamelled mild steel, cast iron, aluminium alloy or plastic. The plates shall be yellow in
colour with letter SWT and the capacity in litres marked in black.
14)sprinklers
A fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire
sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a
fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined
temperature has been exceeded. Fire sprinklers are
extensively used worldwide, with over 40 million sprinkler
heads fitted each year. In buildings protected by fire
sprinklers, over 99% of fires were controlled by fire
sprinklers alone.[1][2][3]
Each closed-head sprinkler is held closed by either a heat-sensitive glass bulb (see
below) or a two-part metal link held together with fusible alloy such as Wood's metal[10]
and other alloys with similar compositions.[11] The glass bulb or link applies pressure to
a pipe cap which acts as a plug which prevents water from flowing until the ambient
temperature around the sprinkler reaches the design activation temperature of the
individual sprinkler. Because each sprinkler activates independently when the
predetermined heat level is reached, the number of sprinklers that operate is limited to
only those near the fire, thereby maximizing the available water pressure over the point
of fire origin.
The bulb breaks as a result of the thermal expansion of the liquid inside the bulb.[12]
The time it takes before a bulb breaks is dependent on the temperature. Below the
design temperature, it does not break, and above the design temperature it breaks,
taking less time to break as temperature increases above the design threshold.
15)fire hydrants

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A fire hydrant is an active fire protection measure, and a


connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water
supply.
The user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant, then opens a
valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water, on
the order of 350 kPa (50 lbf/in) (this pressure varies
according to region and depends on various factors including
the size and location of the attached water main). This user
can attach this hose to a fire engine, which can use a
powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split
it into multiple streams. One may connect the hose with a threaded connection,
instantaneous "quick connector". A user should take care not to open or close a fire
hydrant too quickly, as this can create a water hammer which can damage nearby pipes
and equipment. The water inside a charged hoseline causes it to be very heavy and high
water pressure causes it to be stiff and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized.
When a fire hydrant is unobstructed, this is not a problem, as there is enough room to
adequately position the hose.
When a firefighter is operating a hydrant, he or she typically wears appropriate personal
protective equipment, such as gloves and a helmet with face shield worn. High-pressure
water coursing through a potentially aging and corroding hydrant could cause a failure,
injuring the firefighter operating the hydrant or bystanders.
In most jurisdictions it is illegal to park a car within a certain distance of a fire hydrant.
the distances are commonly 3 to 5 m or 10 to 15 ft, often indicated by yellow or red
paint on the curb. The rationale behind these laws is that hydrants need to be visible
and accessible in an emergency.
16)central water heating system
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion
of a building) from one point to multiple rooms. When combined with other systems in
order to control the building climate, the whole system may be an HVAC (heating,
ventilation and air conditioning) system.
The term central heating covers hydronic heating systems with a central boiler or
furnace either inside the building being heated or in the immediate vicinity.
The term central heating covers hydronic heating systems with a central boiler or
furnace either inside the building being heated or in the immediate vicinity.
Heat is generated in the boiler. Pipes carry the heated water to the buildings heat
sources (radiators) and return the cooled water to the boiler again.
Originally, many central heating systems were designed to be self-circulating. Now a
circulator is always used to pump heat through the system.
A central heating system is a closed system with either an expansion tank or open
expansion vessel. A buffer tank can also be installed in the system.
A wide range of fuel types are used in central heating. Coal, coke, wood, oil, gas, wood
chips and wood pellets have all proven adequate fuel sources in central heating boilers.

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17) radiator
Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to
another for the purpose of cooling and heating. The majority of radiators are constructed
to function in automobiles, buildings, and electronics. The radiator is always a source of
heat to its environment, although this may be for either the purpose of heating this
environment, or for cooling the fluid or coolant supplied to it, as for engine cooling.
Despite the name, radiators generally transfer the bulk of their heat via convection, not
by thermal radiation, though the term "convector" is used more narrowly; see radiation
and convection, below.
18)fire resistant door
A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating (sometimes
referred to as a fire protection rating for closures) used as
part of a passive fire protection system to reduce the spread
of fire or smoke between compartments and to enable safe
egress from a building or structure or ship. In North American
building codes, it, along with fire dampers, is often referred to
as a closure, which can be derated compared against the fire
separation that contains it, provided that this barrier is not a
firewall or an occupancy separation.
Wire mesh glass - usually Georgian wired
Liquid sodium silicate fills between two window panes
Ceramic glasses
Borosilicate glass
1. No open holes or breaks exist in surfaces of either the door or frame.
2. Glazing, vision light frames & glazing beads are intact and securely fastened in
place, if so equipped.
3. The door, frame, hinges, hardware, and noncombustible threshold are secured,
aligned, and in working order with no visible signs of damage.
4. No parts are missing or broken.
5. Door clearances at the door edge of the door frame (Wood Door), on the pull side
of the door, do not exceed clearances listed in 4.8.4 (the clearance under the
bottom of the door shall be a maximum of 3/4") and 6.3.1 (top & edges 1/8") Metal
door (top & edges up to 3/16")
6. The self-closing device is operational; that is, the active door completely closes
when operated from the full open position.
7. If a coordinator is installed, the inactive leaf closes before the active leaf.
8. Latching hardware operates and secure the door when it is in the closed position.
9. Auxiliary hardware items that interfere or prohibit operation are not installed on
the door or frame.

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10.
No field modifications to the door assembly have been performed that void
the label.
11.
Gasketing and edge seals, where required, are inspected to verify their
presence and integrity.
19) Fire dampers
Fire dampers are passive fire protection products used in
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts to
prevent the spread of fire inside the ductwork through fireresistance rated walls and floors. Fire/smoke dampers are similar
to fire dampers in fire resistance rating, and also prevent the
spread of smoke inside the ducts. When a rise in temperature
occurs, the fire damper closes, usually activated by a thermal
element which melts at temperatures higher than ambient but
low enough to indicate the presence of a fire, allowing springs to
close the damper blades. Fire dampers can also close following receipt of an electrical
signal from a fire alarm system utilising detectors remote from the damper, indicating
the sensing of heat or smoke in the building occupied spaces or in the HVAC duct
system.
20)cooling tower
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which
rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the
cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of
water to remove process heat and cool the working
fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the
case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on
air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air
temperature.
Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to
very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200
metres (660 ft) tall and 100 metres (330 ft) in diameter, or rectangular structures that
can be over 40 metres (130 ft) tall and 80 metres (260 ft) long. The hyperboloid cooling
towers are often associated with nuclear power plants,[1] although they are also used to
some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large
towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller,
including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air
conditioning.
21) Prevention of echos
Well designed Auditoriums will consist of non-parallel surfaces that will serve to break up
standing soundwaves, scattering the acoustics and preventing "dead" spots in the room.
If your room is more gymnasium shaped, there will be more repetition in the path of the
reflecting sounds. This will increase the potential for "live" or "dead" spots, and
therefore increase your need for diffusion panels. Remember that absorption panels
reduce background noise, while diffusion panels are designed to scatter sound
reflections into multiple directions for greater acoustic balance in the room
For fan shaped auditoriums with inclined floors, use a ratio of 10:1 when determining
quantities of diffusion panels over absorption panels.

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Thicker material will collapse more low bass reverberation in the room. Go with 2" thick
Fabric Panels over the 1" thickness. Our goal is to absorb enough background noise in
the room to produce excellent speech clarity, but leave enough reverb in the room to
blend the musical tones together.
Large auditoriums need sound absorption materials to reduce reverberation (echo)
within the room. Sound absorption materials are critical to the design of auditoriums and
theaters as built or as a retrofit application. Auditoriums and theaters often have hard
reflective walls and floors requiring sound reduction. Acoustical wall panels, curtains and
baffles reduce ambient noise levels.
When building a custom home theater room, you have two different acoustic problems
to deal with. One is reducing sound transmission levels from your home theater room to
adjoining rooms, basically allowing the home theater to be enjoyed at higher volume
levels without disturbing neighbors or houseguests in other rooms. You can add
soundproofing to your home theater room by using sound barriers and isolation clips
underneath the drywall on the walls and ceilings. The other area to be concerned with
when building your custom home theater is improving the sound quality within the home
theater room itself, generally this involves the use of sound absorption products. When
building a custom home theater room, you must keep in mind the interior finish of the
room. wrapped wall panels , which are designed to be acoustically effective and
aesthically pleasing. These acoustical wall panels add a plush feel to your home theater
interior.
22)sound focus
Any time the surfaces of a room focus the sound which is
reflected from them, they create spots of high intensity and
other spots with low intensity. This is generally undesirable in
an auditorium since you want a uniform, evenly dispersed
sound to all listeners.
Even large flat reflective surfaces are to be avoided because
of the prominant reflection which will be produced. Parallel
flat walls can produce a pattern of reflections known as a
"flutter echo" as the sound waves travel back and forth
between the surfaces. Such flutter echoes are often encountered in high school
gymnasiums where there are parallel side walls and also a reflective floor and ceiling.
Even dispersion is such an important contributer to good acoustics that it is sometimes
desirable to use anti-focusing surfaces in a music making area. Older architecture often
had columns, decorative sculpture and woodwork, and other dispersing surfaces. In
modern architecture with its flat expanses, it is necessary to design in some antifocusing properties.
23)Sound shadow

15

A phenomenon caused by the ABSORPTION or


obstruction of a SOUND WAVE by an object in its
path. The effect produced is perceived as a
reduction in LOUDNESS depending on the
observer's position with respect to the sound
source and obstructing object and is greatest
when the three are aligned.
High frequencies are more easily absorbed than lower ones, and are less susceptible to
DIFFRACTION, that is, they move less easily around objects because of their short
WAVELENGTHs. Therefore, the ATTENUATION of high frequencies is noted in a sound
shadow. As well, more reflected sound from the environment is likely to be received than
direct sound. See: SOUND PROPAGATION, section 2.
Since the head will absorb high frequencies more easily than low ones, it will create a
sound shadow for the ear farthest away from the sound source, and therefore the
phenomenon plays a role in sound localization. The effect, however, seems less
important than time differences for BINAURAL HEARING except in the upper frequency
region (see PINNA). Blind people use the sound shadow effect for orientation, as well as
reflected sound and other cues. See: ECHOLOCATION.
24)calorifier for hot water supply
A Calorifier is an industry term for a storage
vessel that has the capacity to generate heat
within a mass of stored water.
How does a Calorifier work?
Generation of heat is commonly provided by an
indirect heat source via a heat transfer coil or
heat tube battery. Historically, Calorifiers have
tended to be designed around the capacity of
daily water demand, with a low heat input coil
that would re-generate the hot water supply during non- peak usage periods. However,
recent manufacturing techniques and material quality mean the coil output is able to
recover quickly to re-generate much larger quantities of hot water. Heat exchange takes
place at the primary coil and is usually supplied via a primary hot water flow through a
controlling zone valve from a main central heating boiler, dedicated hot water boiler, or
in some cases a renewable energy source
Calorifiersclose
Where can Calorifiers be used?
Calorifiers may be installed onto an open vented system, with cold water supplied from a
storage tank which provides the head pressure for the hot water system. Or, more
commonly in commercial applications, an unvented system with cold water supplied
directly from mains pressure. And in some cases through a pressure booster set. Many
Calorifiers are now available with the option of an additional heat output coil that is
heated from a renewable energy source such as solar thermal
25)fire rating materials
Rock wool
Gypsum boards
Asbestos cement
Perlite boards
Proplex Sheets

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Calcium silicate boards


Treated lumber plywood
Treated vegetable fiber (e.g. Cotton, Jute, Kenaf, Hemp, Flax, etc..)
Fire-retardant treated wood
Brick
Concrete
Cement render
Intumescent paint
Glass
Glass wool
26) ac ducts and dampers
Ducts are used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove
air. The needed airflows include, for example, supply air, return air, and exhaust air.
[1]Ducts commonly also deliver ventilation air as part of the supply air. As such, air ducts
are one method of ensuring acceptable indoor air quality as well as thermal comfort.
A duct system is also called ductwork. Planning (laying out), sizing, optimizing, detailing,
and finding the pressure losses through a duct system is called duct design.[2]
dampers
A damper is a valve or plate that stops or regulates the flow of air inside a duct,
chimney, VAV box, air handler, or other air handling equipment. A damper may be used
to cut off central air conditioning (heating or cooling) to an unused room, or to regulate it
for room-by-room temperature and climate control. Its operation can be manual or
automatic. Manual dampers are turned by a handle on the outside of a duct. Automatic
dampers are used to regulate airflow constantly and are operated by electric or
pneumatic motors, in turn controlled by a thermostat or building automation system.
Automatic or motorized dampers may also be controlled by a solenoid, and the degree of
air-flow calibrated, perhaps according to signals from the thermostat going to the
actuator of the damper in order to modulate the flow of air-conditioned air in order to
effect climate control.[1]
In a chimney flue, a damper closes off the flue to keep the weather (and birds and other
animals) out and warm or cool air in. This is usually done in the summer, but also
sometimes in the winter between uses. In some cases, the damper may also be partly
closed to help control the rate of combustion. The damper may be accessible only by
reaching up into the fireplace by hand or with a woodpoker, or sometimes by a lever or
knob that sticks down or out. On a wood-burning stove or similar device, it is usually a
handle on the vent duct as in an air conditioning system. Forgetting to open a damper
before beginning a fire can cause serious smoke damage to the interior of a home, if not
a house fire.
28)Dead spots and live spots in auditorium
Poorly designed auditoriums can have dead spots. Dead spots are places where
destructive interference occurs from the interaction of two or more sound waves. For
example, a soloist on stage sends sound waves into the audience. Some of the waves hit
the walls of the auditorium, while other waves travel directly to the listeners. In some
situations, a direct wave can destructively interfere with a reflected wave so they cancel
each other out at that particular location. As a result, the listeners seated in those
particular seats would hear nothing from that soloist. Someone sitting a few seats over
from the dead spot, however, might not experience the destructive interference and

17

would hear the soloist just fine. (Refer to the chapter on Sound for handy answers
dealing with acoustical engineering
29)fire alarm system
A fire alarm system is number of devices
working together to detect and alert
people through visual and audio
appliances when smoke/fire is present.
These alarms may be activated from
smoke detectors, and heat detectors. They
may also be activated via Manual fire
alarm activation devices such as manual
call points or pull stations.
Fire alarm control panel (FACP) AKA fire
alarm control unit (FACU); This component,
the hub of the system, monitors inputs
and system integrity, controls outputs and
relays information.
Primary power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240 volt alternating current
source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch
circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. "Dedicated branch
circuits" should not be confused with "Individual branch circuits" which supply energy to
a single appliance.
Secondary (backup) power supplies: This component, commonly consisting of sealed
lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to
supply energy in the event of a primary power failure.
Initiating devices: This component acts as an input to the fire alarm control unit and are
either manually or automatically activated. Examples would be devices pull stations,
heat detectors, or smoke detectors. Heat and smoke detectors have different categories
of both kinds. Some categories are beam, photoelectrical, aspiration, and duct.
Notification appliances: This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm system
or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need to take
action, usually to evacuate. This is done by means of a flashing light, strobe light,
electromechanical horn, "beeper horn", chime, bell, speaker, or a combination of these
devices. The System Sensor Spectralert Advance Horn makes a beeping sound and
electromechanical sound together. Strobes are either made of a xenon tube (most
common), or now LED lights.
Building safety interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects
of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire, and to control the spread of
smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting, process control, human
transport and exit.
30) smoke detector

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A smoke detector is a device


that senses smoke, typically
as an indicator of fire.
Commercial and residential
security devices issue a signal
to a fire alarm control panel as
part of a fire alarm system,
while household detectors,
known as smoke alarms,
generally issue a local audible
or visual alarm from the
detector itself.
Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure about 150
millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick, but the shape can vary by
manufacturer or product line. Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection
(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection
methods to increase sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and
thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned. Smoke detectors in large commercial,
industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system,
which is powered by the building power with a battery backup. However, in many singlefamily detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered
only by a single disposable battery.
31)open window units in acoustics
a unit of the absorption of the energy of a diffuse sound field for a surface. A sabin is the
absorption by 1 square foot of a surface that reflects none of the energy incident on it
that is, of a surface whose absorption coefficient is unity. The unit was named after the
American acoustics specialist W. Sabine (18681919).
A simple example of a surface that reflects no sound is provided by an open window. If
boundary effects are neglected, all the sound energy incident on the surface passes
through it. For this reason, the sabin is sometimes called the open window unit, or OW
unit. Other names used for the sabin are absorption unit and square-foot unit of
absorption.
The absorption of a surface in sabins is determined by taking the sum of the products of
the areas, in square feet, of homogeneous sections of the surface and the absorption
coefficients of the sections.
The sabin is used in American and British works on architectural acoustics. In the USSR,
the metric sabin is used. It represents the absorption by an open-window surface that is
1 square meter in area.
32)advantage and disadvantage various shape in design of a auditorium
33)cause and cure of echo
34) wind catcher

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A windcatcher is a traditional Persian


architectural element to create natural
ventilation in buildings.[3] Windcatchers
come in various designs: uni-directional, bidirectional, and multi-directional.
Windcatchers remain present in many
countries and can be found in traditional
Persian-influenced architecture throughout
the Middle East, including in the small Arab
states of the Persian Gulf (mostly Bahrain
and Dubai[4]), Pakistan and Afghanistan.[5]
Windcatchers tend to have one, four, or eight openings. In the city of Yazd, all
windcatchers are four- or eight-sided. The construction of a windcatcher depends on the
direction of airflow at that specific location: if the wind tends to blow from only one side,
it is built with only one downwind opening. This is the style most commonly seen in
Meybod, 50 kilometers from Yazd: the windcatchers are short and have a single opening.
To keep buildings free of dust and sand blown in from the desert, windcatchers were built
facing away from the wind
The windcatcher approach has recently been utilized in Western architecture, such as in
the visitor center at Zion National Park, Utah,[12] where it functions without the addition
of mechanical devices in order to regulate temperature.[13]
Using aluminum for the windcatcher provides a more efficient capturing system, allowing
for wind capture from multiple directions. The Kensington Oval cricket ground in
Barbados and the Saint-tienne Mtropoles Zenith both use this method
35) cross ventelation
Ventilation is necessary in buildings to remove stale air and replace it with fresh air:
Helping to moderate internal temperatures.
Reducing the accumulation of moisture, odours and other gases that can build up during
occupied periods.
Creating air movement which improves the comfort of occupants.
Very broadly, ventilation in buildings can be classified as natural or mechanical.
Mechanical (or forced) ventilation tends to be driven by fans.
Natural ventilation is driven by natural pressure differences from one part of the
building to another.
Natural ventilation can be wind-driven (or wind-induced), or it can be buoyancy-driven
stack ventilation. For more information about buoyancy-driven stack ventilation, see
Stack effect.
Cross ventilation occurs where there are pressure differences between one side of a
building and the other. Typically this is a wind-driven effect in which air is drawn into the
building on the high pressure windward side and is drawn out of the building on the low
pressure leeward side. Wind can also drive single-sided ventilation and vertical
ventilation.
Whereas cross ventilation is generally more straight-forward to provide than stack
ventilation, it has the disadvantage that it tends to be least effective on hot, still days,
when it is needed most. In addition, it is generally only suitable for narrow buildings.
If there are windows on both sides, then cross ventilation might be suitable for buildings
where the width is up to five times the floor to ceiling height. Where there are only
openings on one side, wind-driven ventilation might be suitable for buildings where the
width is up to 2.5 times the floor to ceiling height.

20

Beyond this, providing sufficient fresh air creates draughts close to openings, and
additional design elements such as internal courtyards are necessary, or the inclusion of
elements such as atrium that combine cross ventilation and stack effects, or
mechanically assisted ventilation.
Cross ventilation is most suited for buildings that are:
Narrow.On exposed sites.Perpendicular to the prevailing wind.Free from internal barriers
to air flow.
Provided with a regular distribution of openings.It is less suitable where: The building is
too deep to ventilate from the perimeter.Local air quality is poor, for example if a
building is next to a busy road.Local noise levels mean that windows cannot be
opened.The local urban structure is very dense and shelters the building from the
wind.Privacy or security requirements prevent windows being opened.Internal partitions
block air paths.
Some of these issues can be avoided or mitigated by careful siting and design of
buildings. For example, louvres can be used where ventilation is required, but a window
is not, and ducts or openings can be provided in internal partitions, although these will
only be effective if there is sufficient open area, and there may be problems with
acoustic separation.Cross ventilation can be problematic during the winter when
windows may be closed, particularly in modern buildings which tend to be highly sealed.
Trickle ventilation, or crack settings on windows can be provided to ensure there is
adequate background ventilation. Trickle ventilators can be self-balancing, with the size
of the open area depending on the air pressure difference across it.
In straight-forward buildings, cross ventilation can often be designed by following rules
of thumb for the openable area required for a given floor area, depending on the nature
of the space and occupancy. The situation becomes more complicated when cross
ventilation is combined with the stack effect or mechanical systems, and thermal mass
and solar gain are taken into consideration. Modelling this behaviour can become
extremely complicated, sometimes requiring the use of local weather data, software
such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) programs and even wind tunnel
testing.Ventilation in buildings is regulated by Part F of the building regulations.
37) Stack effect
Stack effect is the movement of air into and out of
buildings, chimneys, flue gas stacks, or other containers,
resulting from air buoyancy. Buoyancy occurs due to a
difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density resulting from
temperature and moisture differences. The result is either
a positive or negative buoyancy force. The greater the
thermal difference and the height of the structure, the
greater the buoyancy force, and thus the stack effect.
The stack effect is also referred to as the "chimney
effect", and it helps drive natural ventilation, infiltration,
and fires (see Kaprun disaster and King's Cross fire).
Since buildings are not totally sealed (at the very
minimum, there is always a ground level entrance), the
stack effect will cause air infiltration. During the heating
season, the warmer indoor air rises up through the building and escapes at the top
either through open windows, ventilation openings, or unintentional holes in ceilings, like
ceiling fans and recessed lights. The rising warm air reduces the pressure in the base of
the building, drawing cold air in through either open doors, windows, or other openings
and leakage. During the cooling season, the stack effect is reversed, but is typically
weaker due to lower temperature differences.

21

In a modern high-rise building with a well-sealed envelope, the stack effect can create
significant pressure differences that must be given design consideration and may need
to be addressed with mechanical ventilation. Stairwells, shafts, elevators, and the like,
tend to contribute to the stack effect, whereas interior partitions, floors, and fire
separations can mitigate it. Especially in case of fire, the stack effect needs to be
controlled to prevent the spread of smoke and fire, and to maintain tenable conditions
for victims and firefighters.[1]
38) wind pressure test
Air pressure testing is a method of measuring and quantifying the air leakage of a
building. The test consists of putting a fan contained in a temporary screen into an
outside door rebate and pressurising or depressurising the building whilst recording the
air leakage rates. The external air pressure, wind speed and temperature are measured
at the same time, since they have a bearing on the results of the test. Part 1LA of the
Building Regulations 2006 makes it a legal requirement that new domestic dwellings
pass a mandatory air tightness test before being occupied.
What is air leakage in buildings?
Air leakage (also known as air permeability or air infiltration) is the air lost from a
dwelling through uncontrolled means such as cracks and gaps in the building envelope.
Any ventilation system installed in a building is seen as a source of controlled air flow
and is therefore not considered as air leakage. At a very basic level, air leakage may be
seen as unwanted draughts.
Why do I need to test the air tightness of a building?
Air pressure testing of a proportion of all new domestic housing is a legal requirement in
accordance with the guidance given in Approved Document Part L1A - Conservation of
Fuel and Power in New Dwellings of the Building Regulations. Testing the air tightness of
existing dwellings can highlight problematic areas which can then be treated costeffectively to improve the energy efficiency of the dwelling as a whole.
39) dry riser
A dry riser is a main vertical pipe intended to
distribute water to multiple levels of a building
or structure as a component of the fire
suppression systems.
The pipe is maintained empty of water. The dry
riser is the opposite of a "wet riser" or "wet
standpipe" system where the pipes are kept full
of water for manual or automatic fire fighting
operations. Dry risers have to allow access to a
fire engine within 18 m of the dry riser inlet box.
Dry risers in occupied buildings have to be
within a fire resistant shaft, usually one of a
building's fire escape staircase enclosures.
Depending on regional nomenclature, the term
"dry riser" may refer to a standpipe, intended to
provide water to fire hose connections, or a
vertical main pipe in an automatic dry pipe fire
sprinkler system. A dry standpipe comprises a
fire department connection, e.g. Storz, which is
an external access point at ground level through
which water can be pumped from the fire
department's fire engine pump to firefighters' fire hose attachments on each floor,

22

whereas a dry pipe fire sprinkler system is a network of pipes connected to fixed
sprinklers inside a building, which are full of air until one of the sprinklers is triggered.